Balboa Park History 1911

Exposition Organization, January 1911

Director-General D. C. Collier

Secretary L. G. Monroe

Auditor C. A. Richardson

Director of Publicity Winfield Hogaboom

January 1911, “Park Commissioners and Landscape Architect Tell Floral Association of Park and Exposition Plans,” California Garden, pp. 4-6.

January, 1911, “Why New York and Boston? A subscriber wants to know if eastern gardeners are good authority on what should be planted in Southern California,” California Garden, pp. 6-7.

San Diego Union, January 2, 1911, 2:2, 3, 4. Diagram maps showing commercial relation of San Diego harbor to Latin American countries.

San Diego Union, January 2, 1911, 1:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. Artist’s drawing of ground plan of Exposition; John Olmsted outlines plans for grounds.

San Diego Union, January 2, 1911, 3:7, 5:1. Winfield Hogaboom, Director of Publicity, tells country of plans; declares city will profit, cites past experiences; much advertisement for city already obtained from varied sources

San Diego Union, January 2, 1911. San Diego Exposition will educate farmers according to Professor E. J. Wickson, head of the Department of Agriculture in the State University at Berkeley.

San Diego Union, January 2, 1911, 3:6. Latin Americans favor Exposition; Guatemala first country to signify intention of making exhibit.

San Diego Union, January 2, 1911, Exposition Section, 1:1-2, 6:1-3. Exposition Assured of Splendid Success.

San Diego Union, January 2, 1911, Exposition Section, 2:1. Director General confident fair will be big success.

San Diego Union, January 2, 1911, Exposition Section, 4:1-5. Spectacular Panama-California Exposition, San Diego, 1915.

San Diego Union, January 2, 1911, Exposition Section, 3:2-3. Commercial Field of Exposition.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, January 6, 1911, 10:1. F. P. Allen, Jr., director of works, comes to city well recommended; within 3 months will begin work on buildings.

San Diego Sun, January 6, 1911, 8:5. Allen to boost work on Exposition buildings.

San Diego Union, January 6, 1911, 1:1. Frank P. Allen, Jr. hired as Director of Works on January 5. . . Olmsteds had prepared plans for world’s fair in Chicago, the Lewis and Clark Exposition in Portland, and the Alaska-Yukon Pacific Exposition in Seattle. Allen was Director of Works for the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition. Under his leadership, the Exposition was completed and ready on opening day.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, January 9, 1911, 5:5. To be Balboa Park or not to be Balboa Park?, that is the question; City legal department gives intimation that legislative enactment is necessary to legally change name.

January 10, 1911, Board of Park Commissioners: Contract of Olmsted Brothers for services as landscape architects for duration of San Diego Exposition accepted.

January 13, 1911, Board of Park Commissioners: Agreement of Panama-California Exposition offered and accepted; president of Board authorized to execute agreement with Exposition in relation to expenditures with the Division of Works..

January 17, 1911, Board of Park Commissioners: Olmsted and Dawson present; advised engagement of James Cummings as landscape gardener for park; to be paid $150 per month beginning January 15, 1911.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, January 19, 1911, 2:3. California not to ask for help for Exposition; resolution introduced at Sacramento will be rushed through and wired to Congress.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, January 20, 1911, 1. House Committee Favors Fair at New Orleans; Collier says action does not effect San Diego project.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, January 21, 1911, 7:1. Bertram G. Goodhue comes to study form and motif of architecture.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, January 21, 1911, 7:2. Will try to bring the Turn Verein to San Diego in 1915.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, January 21, 1911, 7:4. Exposition postcards being printed by the million.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, January 23, 1911, 5:4. Seek information relative to 1915 Fair and bond issue; Dillon, Thomson & Clay inadvertently led to believe both are too closely connected.

San Diego Union, January 23, 1911, 6:1. City could better lose Scripps than Spreckels.

San Diego Union, January 24, 1911, 7. Bertram Goodhue, noted designer, visitor in city.

San Diego Sun, January 25, 1911, 8:1. Big aviary is planned; many birds in park.

San Diego Sun, January 28, 1911, 8:1. Engage Goodhue to design Exposition buildings here.

San Diego Union, January 28, 1911, 10:3-4. George W. Marston interview: Bertram Goodhue hired as project architect in an advisory capacity January 27; to give general designs for the buildings and the composite for the whole group. He will have the deciding voice in all questions of design and artistic effect. He will give the complete plans and specifications for the most important buildings. Irving Gill will assist in amplifying plans and making drawings for Exposition buildings; Frederick L. Olmsted, architectural engineer, lauds Goodhue.

January 29, 1911. Mexicali captured by Magonista Liberal Party insurgents.

January 30, 1911. Memorandum of Agreement made and entered into this 30th January 1911 by Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, Architect of the City of New York, party of the first part, and the Panama-California Exposition, a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of California:

Goodhue to design either an Auditorium or Art Building; Gill to design one of the above; Other

buildings to be designed by Goodhue, Gill or “the division of works” of the Panama-California

Exposition Corporation.

(Panama-California Exposition Papers, San Diego Public Library)

San Diego Union, January 30, 1911, 7:1. Bill introduced in state legislature by Senator Wright and in assembly by Hinkle to give city authority to use any portion of Balboa Park to hold an Exposition in 1915; question of naming pleasure grounds settled by measure introduced in state legislature.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, January 31, 1911, 1. San Francisco wins in House over New Orleans.

San Diego Union, February 1, 1911, 1:1. Exposition coming to Pacific coast; San Francisco wins recognition from U.S. Government; vote is taken in House January 31; final ballot is 259 to 43; result greeted with wild enthusiasm.

San Diego Union, February 1, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: San Francisco’s Success . . . Meanwhile no part of the state will rejoice more heartily over San Francisco’s preliminary victory than San Diego. This city’s purpose to hold an Exposition in 1915 is closely associated with San Francisco’s plans. The latter’s success will insure an enormous attendance at the San Diego Exposition. At present the prospects of the success are very bright.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, February 2, 1911, 9:6-7. Frank P. Allen, Jr. says, “San Diego Exposition will surpass them all.”

San Diego Union, February 2, 1911, 2:4. Directors of Fair to meet boosters; Secretary Monroe of Exposition approves citizens’ plan for big carnival in connection with groundbreaking ceremonies of Panama- California Exposition.

San Diego Union, February 3, 1911, II, 9:3. Frank P. Allen, Jr., who as a deserter fought in the Spanish-American war, made a unique record.

San Diego Union, February 3, 1911, 16:3. State bill provides for school in park; institution to be used by Exposition and afterward as college.; Assemblyman Hinke putting bill through state legislature.

San Diego Union, February 4, 1911, 4:3. Some notable World’s Fairs, by Frederic J. Haskin..

San Diego Union, February 4, 1911, II, 9:2-5, 16:3-4. Great celebration is assured by support of Fair directors; groundbreaking program promises to rival New Orleans famous Mardi Gras; promoters heartily cheered; executive committee to meet early next week and perfect details in connection with preparations.

San Diego Union, February 4, 1911, 2:1-7. War waged over question of site of Panama Canal celebration; field cleared for New Orleans and San Francisco, by Charles N. Lurie.

San Diego Union, February 5, 1911, 18:1. Legislators here to inspect site for proposed state building; 40-acre tract to be donated for agricultural college is viewed by visitors; Normal School also is inspected; information obtained will be embodied in report to state assembly.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, February 7, 1911, 5:3. Organized bodies working to make groundbreaking celebration an epoch event; Dick Ferris to stage big carnival and pageantry.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, February 9, 1911, 7:2. Bishop Conaty invited to participate in Exposition groundbreaking event; letter sent by Secretary H. C. Freeman includes all Catholics under prelate’s spiritual direction.

San Diego Union, February 9, 1911, II, 11:1. Count de Lesseps to name date for Exposition ceremonies; dedication on July 11.

At a conference yesterday afternoon between representatives from the San Diego celebration committee of the Panama-California Exposition with a view to determining a date on which groundbreaking ceremonies would be held in Balboa Park, it was determined that the question should rest entirely with Count de Lesseps to whom an invitation has been extended by Director-General Collier to turn the first shovel of dirt, the date to be determined by the noted Frenchman to suit his convenience.

A letter has already been sent to Count de Lesseps urging him to name this date specifically in order that all arrangements in connection with the services, including the carnival and pageantry celebration may be completed in ample time.

Count de Lesseps, in accepting the honor extended to him some months ago, stated he would officiate something in the early spring, but beyond that he has not indicated what date he would be here. In is expected that he had already answered the query regarding a more definite date propounded to him by E. Foucher, who first suggested Count de Lesseps’ name, and that his answer will be received within the next few dates, when the date will be publicly announced.

The exposition directors also decided yesterday afternoon to hold their dedicatory ceremonies on July 11, which date will mark the beginning of actual construction on the exposition buildings.

San Diego Union, February 9, 1911, II, 11:2. Suggest that Park Board be ousted; citizens complain to Council; want tourist accommodations in Plaza.

San Diego Union, February 10, 1911, II, 9:1. Collier’s auto rolls down bank and burns; Exposition director and three guests narrowly escape death.

San Diego Union, February 12, 1911, 1:3-4. Short franchise made Point Loma road fail, by D. C. Collier.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, February 13, 1911, 5:2. 75,000 will attend ground-breaking ceremonies if transportation can be arranged, declares Dick Ferris; urges people to prepare for crowds; suggests that private homes be opened if it is found hotels and boarding houses are inadequate.

San Diego Union, February 13, 1911, II, 9:1. Dick Ferris will manage carnival celebration; well-known promoter has been engaged to take charge of program; is enthused by project.

San Diego Union, February 13, 1911, 9:2. Week’s attendance at San Diego Land Auto Electrical and Industrial Fair on D Street up to 15th more than 30,000; Paid admittance according to official figures exceeded 25,000.

San Diego Union, February 13, 1911, 9:2. General Vega ready for decisive battle; federal forces strengthened by outlaws and Indians.

San Diego Sun, February 16, 1911, 7:1. Colonel Collier says we must work together to boost for city; reads from letter by John P. Harrington, of the School of American Archaeology, Santa Fe, New Mexico.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, February 17, 1911, II. Floral Association questions justice of eastern importations; would much prefer to have seen California man plants trees and flowers in park for Exposition beautification; a committee was appointed to arrange for the ceremony of planting the memorial grove in the city park to the late George Cooke.

San Diego Union, February 17, 1911, 5:1. Exposition starts wide publicity campaign; systematic advertising will extend to all parts of South America.

San Diego Union, February 17, 1911, 18:1. Bishop Conaty to assist in Fair celebration; offers services freely.

San Diego Union, February 17, 1911, II, 9:2. La Mesa residents prepare to improve park; tract given by Collier will be planted with trees and palms.

San Diego Union, February 17, 1911, III, 13:3. Exposition book has big demand; first lot of 25,000 will be exhausted; more will be ordered printed.

San Diego and the Panama-California Exposition are both to receive more wide publications, the result of the distribution over the United States of one hundred thousand booklets just issued in San Diego by the publicity department of the exposition.

Twenty-five thousand of these descriptive booklets are to be circulated by the various railroads that enter California, but it became apparent yesterday that the twenty-five thousand now coming from the press will be entirely exhausted in filling the calls for the booklet that are coming in to the publicity department of the exposition headquarters from local residents.

The great interest taken by the people of San Diego in the big project is highly gratifying to Director General D. C. Collier and the other directors. In the preparation of the booklet, Director of Publicity, H. Hagaboom and his assistants purposely worked to the end that San Diego should get a big boost out of it, and the exposition officers are pleased to know that the San Diego business men and others are appreciative of their efforts.

“We are somewhat proud of the fact that such a piece of work can be entirely produced in San Diego,” said Colonel Collier before he left for the north. “We do not have to go to Los Angeles or San Francisco, or any other city for this class of work. We can get what we want in San Diego, and keep the money here.”

San Diego Union, February 18, 1911, 7:3. Former Michiganders propose permanent Exposition building filled with exhibits of the wealth and beauty of the state of Michigan.

San Diego Union, February 18, 1911, 18:3. Large demand for Exposition leaflets; merchants and citizens take kindly to scheme for advertisement of city.

San Diego Union, February 18, 1911, III, 13:3. George W. Marston writes open letter to Colonel Collier.

San Diego Union, February 19, 1911, II, 9:1-3, 10:1-5. San Diego’s Mission City destined to be standard of California architecture; Designing and grouping of structures of Panama-California Exposition to tell the story of California’s earliest history and to preserve best form of Spanish-Colonial art as basis of distinctive American product; diagram of that part of Balboa Park to be occupied by Panama-California Exposition buildings and grounds.

San Diego Union, February 19, 1911. William Clayton and C. F. Willard reply to statements on recall movement.

February 21, 1911, Board of Park Commissioners: Plans were presented for the planting of the boundary of Balboa Park by the Olmsted Brothers from Maple Street on the east side to 10th Street on the north side, the same was approved and the planting ordered done. . . . Planting ceremony in memory of George Cooke on March 1; trees to be planted at 26th Street entrance to Park; Board to be present.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, February 21, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Time for Civic Improvement.

San Diego Sun, February 22, 1911, 6:5. Park Board accept the plans of the Olmstead [sic] brothers for the improvement of Balboa Park.

San Diego Union, February 22, 1911, 5:1. King and Queen of carnival to be elected; Committee wants candidates to fill important positions; beauty and gallantry essential requirements.

San Diego Union, February 22, 1911, II, 10:1-4. George W. Marston writes letter to William Clayton, who replies.

San Diego Union, February 22, 1911, 16:2. Commissioners accept Olmsted Brothers’ plans for improvement of Balboa Park.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, February 23, 1911, 3:1. Model nursery is thriving in park; vines, flowers and trees in tiny stage of development; William Donald, from the East, in charge of beds containing the plants to be used during 1915.

San Diego Sun, February 23, 1911. Work on park and carnival being rushed; Olmsted calls for teams for plowing; candidates for parade.

San Diego Union, February 23, 1911, 5:5. Spring work in park underway; many plants still needed to put Balboa Park in front rank of show places; nearly 100 men are at work.

San Diego Union, February 23, 1911, 8:5. Five candidates named for Queen Ramona and King Cabrillo.

San Diego Union, February 23, 1911, II, 9:1. 70 organizations to participate in groundbreaking


(San Diego) Evening Tribune, February 25, 1911, 1:2. San Francisco celebrates victory; members of delegation that won fight in Congress for endorsement of coast city for Fair welcomed home.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, February 25, 1911, 1:4. Louis J. Wilde for mayor; nominating petition being circulated by A. Edward Roberts of Roberts-Yordi Investment Co.

San Diego Union, February 26, 1911, III, 17:2-4. Richard S. Requa’s design of brick store and hotel building being erected by Charles Eigebretson on north side of D Street between 2nd and 3rd; front to be surfaced with pressed brick of harmonizing shades.

San Diego Union, February 26, 1911, III, 24:1. L. J. Wilde may be candidate for mayor; friends circulating nominating petition.

March, 1911, California Garden, pp. 10-11. Large Park Force At Work . . . Nearly 100 men are at work in Balboa Park clearing brush, planting trees and vines, building lath houses, finishing plantation beds, replanting trees and doing general park improvement work both at the nursery and at the north end of the park says the Union.

Part of this work, that of clearing and tree planting is permanent and will be finished only when the trees are twenty feet in height. These will form a border on the north and east side of the park, where Superintendent Cummings is clearing off the undergrowth, sparing the young oaks and all the hard wood bushes and native flowering plants.

Once clear and the brush burned, it will be plowed, trees will be planted and the whole tract will then be subjected to dry farming methods, raising trees and shrubs.

The idea in this work is to furnish a boundary screen for that portion of the park. The trees are being planted down the slopes to the south and west far enough so that when they are grown they will not be high enough to shut off the view of the mountains, yet will effectually screen the houses and bare hills behind them in that district, at the same time forming a pleasant grove that will be filled with walks and shrubbery in the future. The tract will be planted with trees of thick growth. The oaks and hardwoods now growing will be encouraged. If possible, a certain amount of irrigation will be used to further the rapid growth until the whole sloping hillside is covered with green.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, March 1, 1911, 3:2. Tree planting at Balboa Park is being rushed; lath house 200 feet square erected and 2500 palms are now in place under shaded roof; large tract is now fully plowed up; Olmstead [sic] makes arrangements for modern and complete nursery for the Exposition work.

San Diego Union, March 1, 1911, 5:1. Acting of advice of his physician, L. J. Wilde refuses to be candidate for mayor; buys 600-acre ranch about six miles from Ramona.

San Diego Union, March 1, 1911, 7:1. Union article on Fair brings flood of replies; story about Exposition leaflets arouses interest in all parts of country; writers want literature.

February 15 the San Diego Union published an item at the request of the publicity department of the Panama-California exposition, describing the leaflet just issued by the department entitled “Fore-glance at the Panama-California Exposition,.” and stated that requests for the leaflet would be gladly received.

The response from San Diego and San Diego county was prompt and voluminous. The publicity department had ordered 10,000 for the first run and telephone calls during the next two days completely exhausted this edition. The presses were running, however, and the demand was supplied for several days when the supply again ran out. Since that time the press has been running almost continuously. No less than 35,000 have been printed and sent out immediately upon delivery.

Come from All Sections

During this time mail requests began to come in. They were from nearby places for a week. Then they began to come from the mountain states. Now they are coming from the middle west and the east and nearly every letter refers to the San Diego Union as the source of information about the leaflets.

All the writers say they are San Diego boosters. Dr. Thomas Roberts, St. Paul, Minn., says: ” I wish you would send to my address some of your leaflets on San Diego and the coming Panama-California exposition. I have several friends that are talking of San Diego as a future home and want to let them known about it. 426 Roberts Street, St. Paul, Minn.””

  1. W. Stillings, Broomfield, West Virginia, says that his wife is in San Diego for the winter, that he saw a mention of the leaflets in the Unionand wants some of them. He also writes that he wants “what you known and all you know about San Diego and surrounding country.”

San Diego Union, March 1, 1911, 7: 2-3. Surprises Promised in Carnival Contest; New features planned are expected to stimulate interest in competition. . . . Many new features are promised in the popular voting contest for Ramona and Cabrillo within the next few days. . . . These plans are being kept secret, but it is reasonable to believe that the winner of either of these contests, and especially of the Ramona class, will be more materially benefited than in the mere achievement of winning the honor of presiding over the four days of carnival and the handsome costumes that will be specially made for the king and the queen.

San Diego Union, March 2, 1911, 5:1. San Diego asks Santa Fe for more direct line East; railway urged to rebuild Temecula-Fallbrook gap; new station also is wanted.

San Diego Union, March 6, 1911, 8:1. Ferris talks with local carnival committee; cost will reach $30,000; promoters declare concessions can be made to pay entire expense.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, March 1, 1911, 4:5. Plant trees in memorial in park tomorrow; Floral Association to hold exercises in commemoration of the late George Cooke.

San Diego Union, March 7, 1911, 6:5. Frank P. Allen returns to direct Fair work; consults with engineers; completed plans will be ready about the first of June; seventy men in park propagating and planting..

San Diego Union, March 7, 1911, II, 9:3. Will plant trees in memory of George Cooke.

San Diego Union, March 8, 1911, 16:3. Officials’ report lauds Exposition chiefs; congratulates stockholders on having secured competent department heads; no quorum present; report read by General Secretary Monroe..

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, March 10, 1911, 1:7-8. Harbor municipal control bill is assured of passage; now on third reading file in House; be redrafted to suit Governor; Exposition measure safe; Collier and Hinkle wire reassuring news from San Francisco and Sacramento; Los Angeles has helped out cause; Mayor Conard leaves for home today.

March 12, 1911. Magonista rebels capture Tecate.

San Diego Union, March 12, 1911, II, 9:1. State granted San Diego $250,000 appropriation for permanent building in Balboa Park; also control of San Diego harbor; $50,000 to be made available July 1, 1912 for plans and specifications; commission of three men will have charge of the construction of the building and the nature of the state exhibit.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, March 14, 1911, 8:2. Collier returns from triumphs at capitol; Chamber of Commerce arranging luncheon in his honor at Grant Hotel.

March 15,1911, Board of Park Commissioners: Permission given to Harold Blossom to get samples of flowering plants in Balboa Park.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, March 15, 1911, 5:3. Views of beautified and equipped playgrounds of many cities to be reproduced by stereopticons; Playground Association’s annual meeting tomorrow evening in 12th Street school building to consist of attractive program.

San Diego Union, March 15, 1911, II, 9:2. D. C. Collier brings optimistic report; Chamber of Commerce plans public testimonial for services rendered.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, March 16, 1911, 8:4. John Galen Howard, California architect, congratulates Building and Grounds Committee on their selection of Bertram Goodhue to be advisory and consulting architect for the exposition.

San Diego Union, March 16, 1911, II, 9:1. Citizens praise Collier as chief of boosters; luncheon given by Chamber of Commerce..

San Diego Union, March 17, 1911, 8:1-2. Secretary reports work of Playground Association.

San Diego Sun, March 18, 1911, 1:6. Promise to tell about Exposition work: Charges that the park commission has been employing out of town labor in preference to home workmen, and that the men have been engaged through an employment agency where they have been forced to pay from $1 to $2 for their jobs will be denied before the Wide Awake Club Wednesday night by Commissioners O’Hallaran and Luce, and, it is said, Col. D. C. Collier for the exposition company.

San Diego Union, March 22, 1911, II, 9:1. Theodore Roosevelt praises San Diego for exposition project; unable to visit here.

San Diego Sun, March 23, 1911, 2:2. Wide Awake Club hears both sides on “Exposition.” . . . After hearing the Colonel Collier, the club appointed a committee to probe every charge and every rumor to the bottom.

San Diego Union, March 23, 1911, II, 9:1. James Cummings, overseer of Fair work accused of “freezing out” home labor; former timekeeper says outside help hired through employment agency.

San Diego Union, March 23, 1911, II, 9:2-3. Catholic Bishop Conaty endorses pageantry plans; assures committee that his people will aid monster celebration.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, March 24, 1911, 5:3. Pursell denies rumor he will stop building; declares he has but two miles of grading to finish between La Mesa and San Diego and will have trains running this summer.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, March 25, 1911, 10:1. March issue of “Scenic America” magazine has article on “The Men Who Will Make the Panama-California Exposition.”

San Diego Union, March 27, 1911, II, 9:3. Open bids today for $1,000,000 Fair bonds.

San Diego Sun, March 28, 1911, 12:4. Exposition directors named; officers submit reports.

San Diego Union, March 28,1911, 8:1. Local band bids for $250,000 of park bonds.

San Diego Union, March 28, 1911, 10:1-2. Fair stockholders elect 21 members of the Exposition Co. as a Board of Directors for coming year; plan discussed to raise additional $500,000 for Exposition purposes.

San Diego Union, March 30, 1911, 8:1. Cummings resigns job with Fair company; accused by Frank Householder, ,former employee of favoring non-resident workmen; had been in charge of work in Balboa Park for the Olmsted Brothers; Frank P. Allen’s department will do landscaping work..

San Diego Union, March 30, 1911, 10:1. Mayor Grant Conard opens fight for office; Sehon machine out of order.

San Diego Union, March 30, 1911, 18:2. Governor will sign San Diego Fair bill with ostrich quill pen.

San Diego Union, March 31, 1911, 13:1. Governor Johnson to sign $250,000 appropriation bill today.

April, 1911, The California Garden, pp. 8-11. MAGIC MISSION CITY

One of the largest nursery organizations in Southern California has been established by the San Diego Park Commission in Balboa Park, where are being propagated thousands of plants, vines and trees for the decoration of the park in connection with a comprehensive plan for the beautification of the grounds of the Panama-California Exposition.

The plans for the park improvement were prepared by John Clark [sic] Olmsted, who was brought her to lay out the landscape features of the exposition and to prepare the general plans for the improvement of the park. The work at the nursery and in the park is under the direction of Olmsted’s assistant, Blossom, and a complete working force has been organized since the work started this spring.

On the hill opposite Golden Hill and directly above the Russ High School have been built the administration building, a hot house and a lath house, 200 feet square. In the hot house, the nurserymen carry on the work of budding and rooting the thousands of cuttings that have been taken during the last three months. The lath house contains the young trees and plants and this house is to be enlarged as needed until it will cover four or five acres.

Further up the ridge from these houses are the gardens, containing thousands of plants, cacti and other plants that are sturdy enough to stand the outdoors. Acres have been plowed and planted for this purpose and many acres more will be utilized for this branch of the work.

Early in the progress of the work Olmsted declared that he must have huge quantities of each of several varieties of flowering plants and vines. The people of San Diego were asked to allow cuttings to be taken from their rose trees, vines and other plants, and they responded nobly. The nurserymen found that they had all the cuttings they could handle for several weeks and were kept busy making these cuttings, transplanting and caring for them as fast as they came in. The hot house was filled quickly with cuttings and has been kept filled ever since. As fast as these attain the necessary strength, they are transplanted either to the lath house or to specially prepared beds in the gardens.

One especially interesting experiment was that with Romneya Coulteri, or Matilija Poppy. It was found that sufficient quantities of this beautiful flower could not be obtained even in the four years between now and the opening date of the exposition except by propagation and the work was started at once. Florists of the city were asked as to methods and hundreds of root cuttings were made and planted in a glass case, which in turn was set on a bed of seasoned manure. The heat above and below soon caused the cuttings to sprout forth and now the plants are progressing in a most satisfactory manner. One florist advised an expedition to the hills and valleys around Riverside and Redlands for the purpose of getting the native plants in such quantities that the 50,000 plants asked for could be gathered in a comparatively short time.

Another experiment of interest was the propagation of a large number of the Acacia melanoxlon, or black acacia. William Donald, a seeds man of reputation in this country and Europe, took this seed and kept it in water of 100 degrees heat for nearly three days. The seed expanded wonderfully and it was but a short time after planting in the hot house until the tiny plants began to appear above the clean moist sand in which they were bedded. The plant is of slow growth and is being most tenderly cared for. The comparative efficiency of the seed was not as great as was hoped for, but the nursery will have nearly 3,000 plants from this experiment and will probably try it again.

Other plants in quantity, which the park nurserymen found they were unable to get from commercial nurseries this spring are 20,000 leptospermum laevigatium; 3,000 prunus intrigifolia, or Catalina cherry; 3,000 prunus ilicifolia, or holly-leafed cherry; 10,000 poinsettias; and the 50,000 Matilija poppies. All these are under cultivation and it is believed that the entire amount will soon be available.

It is planned to present to visitors to the exposition masses of flowers, acres in extent. For this purpose different colorings will be used, of course, and of each color and plant not only thousands, but millions will be used. The work at the park, it can readily be seen, is only in its infancy.

In a recent number of The California Garden, the editors asked the flower lovers of San Diego to pay special attention to the propagation of roses, to the end that the city as well as the exposition grounds may in 1915 present a spectacle that has never been equaled in the world. This is a fine idea and one that the exposition officials hope will be carried out. With the money available the exposition nursery cannot hope to do more than beautify the huge hills and slopes of Balboa Park and it will be up to the citizens of San Diego to make their yards and lawns a veritable bower of beauty, a work that will be easy if taken in time and carried forward with a definite object in view.

Touching on the question of the expediency of establishing the nursery in the park, when there are so many fine commercial nurseries in the city, it may be said that the park nursery was an absolute necessity on account of the huge quantities desired. The commercial nurseries have a large trade and are working to capacity. There will be a large savings of park and exposition funds in the operation of the park nursery, and the savings will affect not only the nurserymen themselves in a pecuniary way, but will be a direct saving to every taxpayer in San Diego and to the subscribers to the exposition as well.

Those in charge of the park nursery are anxious to meet interested persons and to consult with nurserymen or others who maybe able to give them practical and valuable advice about the work in hand. Several nurserymen and horticulturists of the city already have been asked to consult with the men in charge in the park and have kindly and most unselfishly proffered and given assistance in several instances.

To the layman, one not conversant with the nurserymen’s methods, the work at the park is a revelation and the place is well worthy a visit by any person in San Diego. The result of that work can be seen from now forth in the gradual improvement of the park itself, a work that will make of Balboa Park one of the most famous horticultural features of the world.

April, 1911, The California Garden, pp. 10-11. THE PANAMA-CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION AND THE MEN BEHIND IT

San Diego is to have an exposition in 1915. In magnitude it may not be quite the equal of the main show under the big tent at the Golden Gate, but already one can catch a glimpse through his mind’s eye of a twelve-month of scenes in a “Magic Mission City” which will no more need to suffer by comparison with our big brother to the north, than the sweet-breathed carnation now need bow its head to the queenly rose.

Upon, perhaps, 300 acres of our big 1,400-acre park, located almost in the heart of the city, will be erected fifty or more buildings, all of the mission style of architecture, having the general outlines and characteristics of the quaint and imposing structures by the old Padres on these very shores more than two hundred years ago.

The organization of an efficient working force has now been practically completed with Colonel D. C. Collier at the head as director-general. Those who know Colonel Collier best, believe he has the necessary positive qualities which go to make the ideal man for the position. Chief among these qualities looms up an enthusiasm which is limitless. He has practically laid aside everything else to give himself unsparingly to the work of the Panama-California Exposition without remuneration.

The very responsible post of secretary is filled by L. G. Monroe of Spokane, through whose hands passes nearly all the correspondence, already assuming vast proportions, pertaining to concessions, exhibits, building contracts, etc. His experience in exposition work has enabled him to perfect a very efficient and systematic organization for the handling of the correspondence and business affairs.

John C. Olmsted, of Boston, who is laying out the grounds, has gained a more than national reputation through his connection with the Chicago’s world’s fair, and the Portland and Seattle expositions. Mr. Olmsted says he has found a combination of climate, water, soil and beautiful contour, which presents to him the best opportunity of his career.

Bertram G. Goodhue will design the buildings for the “Magic Mission City.” He has made a study of this style of architecture in the two Americas, Spain, Africa and Asia, and the result of his investigations has been written into the Baxter history of architecture, universally accepted as a high authority on the art of designing buildings. A number of great buildings stand as monuments to his ability.

To carry out the designs of Goodhue and in harmony with the plans of Olmsted, Frank P. Allen, Jr., of Seattle, was placed at the head of the construction department. This is the man who built the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific exposition at Seattle in nineteen months and had it ready on time.

The publicity department, the last to be named, ranks well up with the others in importance and needs a man who can combine the characteristics of a diplomat, an editor, a publisher, an artist, and all the other qualities which go to make a successful man of the world. Winfield Hogaboom scored on all points mentioned, and is already busily engaged in linking together in the minds of the nations of the world the words already familiar to us, “Panama-California Exposition, San Diego, 1915.”

These are the men who are to convert Balboa Park into one of the beauty spots of the world. They cannot rest upon the victories of the past; the possibilities are so truly great that the tasks are not easy of accomplishment. The best wishes and hearty cooperation of every person in San Diego should be with them until the work is ended and the play begins on January 1, 1915.

San Diego Union, April 1, 1911, 5:1. Grant reelected president of Exposition; new Board of Directors hold meeting and perfect organization; Collier given thanks; resolution passed to engage expert accountant to examine books.

The new board of directors of the Panama-California exposition held their first official meeting yesterday afternoon and after the routine of organization elected new officers for the coming year. U. S. Grant, Jr. was re-elected president and the only changes made were the advancement of some of the vice presidents and the election of George Burnham as fourth vice president. Resolutions commending the efficient work of Director General D. C. Collier and thanking him for his efforts in behalf of the exposition were passed.

The new offices of the exposition as elected are U. S. Grant, Jr., president; J. D. Spreckels, first vice president; G. Aubrey Davidson, advanced from fourth to second vice president; L. S. McLure, third vice president; George Burnham, fourth vice president; L. G. Monroe, secretary; F. W. Jackson, treasurer; C. A. Richardson, auditor; and D. C. Collier, director general. All of these officers were re-elected excepting George Burnham who serves for the first time.

The members of the new executive committee are G. A. Davidson, George Burnham, H.H. Jones, L. S. McLure and Fred Jewell. Mr. Jewell was elected tentatively, until the return of J. W. Sefton, Jr.

There was a discussion of the work of the exposition up to this time and much pleasure was expressed at the showing that has been made and at the prospects for the future. During the meeting President Grant told the members that he would in a day or two reappoint all the old members of the finance, publicity and legal advisory committees for the coming year. It was at this time that the directors commended the work done during the last year by Director General D. C. Collier. Its value to the exposition and to the directors was told informally, and a vote of thanks was passed by the board, thanking him for his splendid efforts.

One of the most important questions discussed was the naming of a committee to begin and to carry on the work of exhibits and privileges for the exposition. Many inquiries already have been made along these lines and it was decided to begin work at once.

The appointment of the committee was placed in the hands of President Grant. He named as a nucleus for the committee V. F. W. Voght, chairman; Director of Works Frank P. Allen, Jr.; L. A. Blochman; and F. A. Schneider. The other five members will be appointed later.

Before adjournment the board passed a resolution for the hiring of an expert accountant to audit the books of the exposition and to report on the business methods now being pursued in carrying on the work under the supervision of a committee consisting of D. F. Garretson, C. L. Williams and Colonel Fred Jewell.

The directors attending the meeting were Lucius R. Barrow, L. A. Blochman, George Burnham, D. C. Collier, G. A. Davidson, John F. Forward, Jr., D. F. Garretson, U. S. Grant, Jr., F. W. Jackson, W. F. Ludington, Arthur H. Marston, Colonel L. S. McLure, H. H. Jones, W. A. Sloane, B. W. McKenzie and C. L. Williams. Those not attending were William Clayton, Fred Jewell, John D. Spreckels and Julius Wangenheim.

San Diego Union, April 1, 1911, II, 9:2. Exposition heads plan conference April 21 with Bertram Goodhue; planting of seventy or eighty acres of acacia and eucalyptus on north border and in the northeast corner of Exposition grounds has been completed.

San Diego Union, April 1, 1911, II, 10:1. Collier, Hogaboom, Choate, etc. leave for East; will not ask for federal appropriations; want official sanction of Congress and President.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, April 3, 1911, 12:1. Governor Johnson to name three building commissioners; Secretary O’Hallaran says San Diego men will have charge of expenditure of money for state structure for Panama-California Exposition.

San Diego Union, April 4, 1911, 16:2. O’Hallaran brings back pen used by Governor to sign $250,000 appropriation bill; $50,000 for preliminary construction.

San Diego Union, April 4, 1911, II, 10:1. Exposition party leaves for East; will urge Congress and President to officially recognize San Diego Fair.

San Diego Union, April 5, 1911, 1:7. Wadham is elected mayor; Adams and Fay for council; Niven measure defeated.

San Diego Union, April 7, 1911, 5:2-4. Greatest parade ever seen on continent is planned; feature of groundbreaking pageant will be its Mission section.

San Diego Union, April 7, 1911, 8:1. 94,000 cuttings planted in park; 70 teams and 80 workmen employed in laying Exposition’s foundations; representative from John C. Olmsted asked people of San Diego to donate fronds and ferns; 70 acres already improved in north end of park along east side. . . . The greasewood and sagebrush have been removed and the ground all plowed and planted as needed with trees and bushes. As a picture is framed, so is the park being enclosed with border plantations. Will flowers and trees preserved so far as possible. Little canyon on the east side will not be touched. Park is the only municipal game preserve in the world with many jackrabbits, coyotes and quail.

San Diego Sun, April 8, 1911, 9:1. John Clark [sic] Olmsted leaves for Sacramento; expects to return in time for the first conference of the experts who are building the exposition.

San Diego Union, April 8, 1911, 8:2. 23 associations will enter floats in Fair groundbreaking.

San Diego Union, April 8, 1911, 16:1. Clean-up order readily obeyed by Chinatown residents.

San Diego Union, April 9, 1911, 23:1,2. Pictures of building experts who will construct Exposition; Frank P. Allen, Jr., director of works; Bertram Goodhue, advisory architect; John C. Olmsted, landscape architect; Irving Gill, consulting architect. . . . Olmsted goes north in quest of plants and shrubs. . . . Propagation of vines and cuttings at nursery under charge of William Donald. He has just planted about 2,000 cuttings and rare roses, some of them contributed by local persons.

San Diego Union, April 11, 1911, 5:1. Committee outlines plan for four-day celebration; new kind of groundbreaking of Exposition; Dick Ferris, general manager of carnival; to include laying of cornerstone of Administrative Building..

San Diego Union, April 11, 1911, 5:2-4. Plants in Exposition nursery fed with spoon like babies.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, April 12, 1911, 8:2. Perfecting plans for the groundbreaking ceremonies.

San Diego Union, April 12, 1911, 10:1. Definite date set for groundbreaking; ground for first building will be broken on July 19.

San Diego Union, April 12, 1911, 10:1. San Diego Floral Association plans for floral show to take place at Mission Cliff pavilion April 20-23; L. A. Blochman endorsed for place on Park Board.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, April 13, 1911. “Field House” or new athletic field to be first building to go up in park; Buildings Committee of the Panama-California Exposition instructs Frank P. Allen to prepare plans calling for a $5,000 outlay.

San Diego Sun, April 13, 1911, 4. Poundmaster Davis allows that he would like the city council to move him out of the park before the park commissioners throw him out.

San Diego Union, April 13, 1911, 7:1. Collier to donate five corner lots for park.

San Diego Union, April 13, 1911, II, 9:2. Exposition boosters in Washington, DC, to establish headquarters and begin campaign for government support.

San Diego Union, April 13, 1911, 16:1. President Taft’s ambassador and governor to attend Fair ceremonies; new features outlined.

San Diego Union, April 14,1911, 9:2. 300,000 postal cards to advertise pageant; contest for King and Queen for carnival revived by committee.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, April 15, 1911, 12:1. Two thousand school children to take part.

San Diego Sun, April 15, 1911, 9:3. Exposition exhibits committee receiving applications.

San Diego Sun, April 15, 1911, 9:5. School children to be feature of Exposition ceremony; two thousand to take part.

San Diego Union, April 15, 1911, 10:1. Play, pyrotechnic reception for King Cabrillo; water pageant feature.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, April 17, 1911, 8:1. Publicity work for Exposition reaches around the world; thousands of newspapers, periodicals and Chambers of Commerce supplied with articles on San Diego and its 1915 Fair.

April 18, 1911, Board of Park Commissioners: John C. Olmsted disapproves of location of Cricket Grounds; read and adopted.

San Diego Union, April 18, 1911, II, 9:1. 17,000 teachers to come to San Diego for Exposition groundbreaking ceremonies.

San Diego Sun, April 19, 1911, 1:5. Two members of Park Board will resign is rumor; Fearing ax, O’Hallaran and Luce said to have prepared resignations; Senator Wright’s term runs out the first of May.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, April 20, 1911, 10:3. Architect Goodhue will confer with officials at Fair; first of series of conferences arranged; will arrive in San Diego tomorrow.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, April 20, 1911, 10:2. Supervising architect of Government buildings will open bids in his office in Washington, DC, for the construction of the proposed federal building in San Diego.

San Diego Union, April 20, 1911, 1:1. Secretary of State Knox approves federal aid for Fair; U.S. Government to exhibit.

San Diego Union, April 21, 1911, 18:2. Bertram Goodhue visits San Diego; comes from Colon on Isthmus of Panama; brings with him designs for Exposition buildings; conference arranged..

San Diego Union, April 22, 1911, 17:1. Irving Gill denies importation of Exposition engineers; answers protests of San Diego Society of Civil Engineers and Surveyors; Frank P. Allen, Jr. the only outsider.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, April 24, 1922, 10:2. Conferences to decide on character of 1915 buildings are begun; some radical changes are being considered; tentative designs will be changed to meet the conditions which the conference will decide upon.

April 25, 1911, Board of Park Commissioners: Luce and O’Hallaran preset; memorandum of agreement with Panama-California Exposition passed; resolution authorizing president of Board to revoke permit granted to G. W. Pursell; passed.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, April 26, 1911, 3:3. Great water carnival planned by committee.

San Diego Union, April 26, 1911, 3:5. Promoters of Fair given valuable aid; assurances received from members of Congress of loyal support

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, April 27, 1911, 1. Retiring Mayor Conard, in message to Council, urges cutting of all estimates; wants Charter brought up to date.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, April 27, 1911, 1. Pursell loses franchise for line in park; Park Board decides he cannot complete road and have it in operation by May 1.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, April 27, 1911, 7:1. Railroads sent out circulars on carnival.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, April 27, 1911, 7:2. Collier secures big feature for Fair; Government aid from officials of the Smithsonian Institution will be extended to make Indian congress most comprehensive ever assembled.

San Diego Sun, April 27, 1911, 3:1. Indian exhibit at Exposition to be featured; Colonel Collier gets help from Smithsonian Institution.

San Diego Union, April 27, 1911, II, 9:2. Collier arranges for loan of exhibits by National Museum; Indian Village first planned will be extended into an aboriginal show.

San Diego Union, April 27, 1911, II, 9:5. Pursell franchise extended two years; railroad builder convinces Council of his intention to finish line.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, April 28, 1911, 3:1. “Isthmus” will outdo famous Midway; Forty-niner urges Dick Ferris t let him open old-time California gambling hall and play with real money.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, April 28, 1911, 7:1. Collier secures aid of Fairs in south.

San Diego Union, April 28, 1911, 8:1. Park Commission revokes Pursell franchise through City Park; railroad cuts and embankments leave permanent scars; failure to comply with terms of grant.

San Diego Union, April 28, 1911, 10:1. Southern support sought for Fair; Collier proposes plan.

San Diego Sun, April 29, 1911, 4. Sunbeams: “City Park is getting to be a great hang-out for bums and tramps,” said a Date street woman yesterday.

San Diego Union, April 29, 1911, 6:2-4. G. W. Pursell charges Park Commissioners with “Star Chamber” methods; says O’Hallaran and Luce revoked franchise without warrant.

San Diego Union, April 29, 1911, 9:1. San Diego artists, David Swartz and Athol Ewing, win prize for Exposition poster; groundbreaking ceremonies.

San Diego Union, April 30, 1911, 15:1. Colonel Fletcher says Park Board made a mistake; thinks it should not have revoked Pursell Railway franchise.

San Diego Union, April 30, 1911, 15:3. Miss Eleanor Lee leads in contest to be Queen Ramona.

May – June, 1911. Bertram Goodhue wants site of Exposition changed.

May, 1911, The California Garden, pp. 8-9: Millions of Plants to Adorn Balboa Park; San Diego Citizens Aid With Cuttings; Thirty Acres of Park Used for Nursery; Greenhouses Have Now 150,000 cuttings. . . . With the completion of the water system now almost at hand the gigantic task of preparing Balboa Park for the great Panama-California Exposition of 1915 may be said to have notably advanced. In that it has assured the success of the plans for the permanent adornment of the park with more than five million plants, vines, bushes and trees. The scope of this project alone, in connection with the Exposition, is beginning to impress itself, not only on visitors to the park and others interested in plant and tree culture, but on observers of the nature features at other expositions, and especially is this true as to the variety of plants being propagated at the Balboa Park nursery. A mere partial list is amazing and, as an indication of the total, is astounding, though the plans, as stated, have been from the beginning to have more than five million specimens of trees and plants already in place on the Exposition grounds when the time for the Exposition arrives. The partial list includes the following:

5,000 Arundo donax

1,000 Bougainvillea

3,000 Bignonia

7,000 Buddleia Madagascariensis

8,000 Caprissa grandiflora

4,000 Coprosma Baueriana

3,000 Campsidium

13,000 Cistus albidus (Rock Rose)

200 Datura

5,000 Ficus repens (Climbing Fig)

1,500 Grevillea Thelemanniana

1,500 Geranium

10,000 Hedera helix (English Ivy)

3,500 Hibiscus

400 Ipomea Mortimi

4,000 Jasmimum (Jasmine)

150 Lantana

600 Lotus peliorhynohus

8,000 Leptospermum laevigatum

1,000`Malalenea leveadendron

4,000 Marguerite

1,000 Nerium Oleander (Oleander)

100 Passiflora (Passion Flower)

700 Polygala floribunda

1,300 Poinsettia pulcherrima (Poinsettia)

2,000 Pittosporum tobina

1,000 Pittosporum undulatum

400 Roses (Seven Sisters)

1,000 Roses (Cherokee)

100 Roses (Reve d’or)

300 Roses (Robert S. Lee)

200 Roses (La Marque)

100 Roses (Banchen)

400 Streptosolen Jamesonii

1,500 Solanum Wendlandii

500 Solanum Jaminoides

400 Tamarix

1,500 Tecoma (Trumpet Vine)

A million ferns and palms to be used in the park will be mostly gifts from citizens, but there is to be no limit to the number of such gifts — the nurserymen in charge of the work want as many more such donations as they can get. Then there is to be, in addition to the above list, thousands of other plants, five thousand and more palms, from seedlings up to ten feet high, 10,000 various acacias from seeds, Rapheolepsis, Pittosporum, Pepper trees, Asparagus, Plumosa, Myrthle, Leptospermum, Eucaylptus, and scores of other varieties in profusion.

The greenhouse, established for propagating the plants and containing now more than 150,000 cuttings in many stages of growth, is 100x22 feet in size; there are 2,000 feet of cold frames and a lath house, 100x24 feet and eight feet high, to be enlarged as becomes necessary. Thirty acres of park land are used in the nursery, and the work is being managed by William Donald with a staff of expert nurserymen and a large number of laborers.

Already about 50,000 trees and shrubs have been planted permanently, mainly along the northern border of the park, 70 acres of land having been used for the purpose; 30,000 of these either have been raised in San Diego or some other section of Southern California.

San Diego Union, May 1, 1911, 14:1. Senator Perkins discusses the Fair at dinner; “Among other things Collier is developing the idea of a permanent commercial exhibit as a legacy of the exposition.”

San Diego Sun, May 2, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Keep It Out of the Park . . . the Pursell railroad.

San Diego Union, May 2, 1911, 16:3. Rest rooms provided for groundbreaking.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 3, 1911, 8:7. Mayor Wadham this morning appointed Clark Braly to succeed Senator L. A. Wright on Park Board.

San Diego Union, May 3, 1911, 14:1. Collier is enthusing New Orleans boosters.

San Diego Union, May 3, 1911, 5:1. Artist Henry Kabierska in charge of designing and building floats used in historical parade at groundbreaking ceremonies.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 4, 1911, 12:1. Colonel Collier says Brazil will exhibit here; Dr. Dahne, Brazil’s official representative to the United States, will visit San Diego May 25.

San Diego Union, May 4, 1911, 8:2-4. D Street to be Mission-land for groundbreaking, Balboa Park a lighted jungle.

San Diego Union, May 4, 1911, II, 9:1. Dispatch says Brazil will erect Fair building.

San Diego Union, May 4, 1911, II. 16:2. Braly appointed to Park Board.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 3, 1911, 5:3. Collier strikes popular chord in South.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 3, 1911, 5:3. San Diego workmen to make pageant features; historical and industrial pageant organization of Chicago will establish shops here to fulfill contract.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 3, 1911, 8:4. Women’s Board of Directors for 1915 Exposition may be formed.

San Diego Union, May 4, 1911, II, 9:1. Dr. Dahne, special commissioner from Brazil, stops at New Orleans on his way to San Diego; confers with Collier; announces that Brazil will erect buildings at both San Francisco and San Diego.

San Diego Union, May 4, 1911, II, 9:2. Senator John Works expects Senate support of San Diego Fair.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 5, 1911, 3:1. Sefton reaches New York today.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 5, 1911, 3:1. Women to take charge of part of parade.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 5, 1911, 3:3. Southern California counties plan join exhibit at Fair.

San Diego Union, May 5, 1911, 4:2. EDITORIAL: Exposition’s Prospects Brightening . . . The announcement that Brazil will erect a fine building and make a grand display is one of the most cheering of the several encouraging reports recently received.

San Diego Union, May 5, 1911, II, 9:1. Collier promised aid of south in diverting travel to San Diego.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 6, 1911, 1:2. Chicago Commission Grain Merchants put seal of Exposition on business letters and bills of lading.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 6, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: San Diegans should aid committeemen in the preparation of the program for the groundbreaking ceremonies next July.

San Diego Union, May 6, 1911, II, 9:2. Collier’s work in capitol effective.

May 8, 1911. Attack on Tijuana.

San Diego Union, May 8, 1911, 14:2. Senator Perkins believes Collier will win resolution recognizing Exposition.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 10, 1911, 1:2. Americans take part in looting at Tijuana.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 10, 1911, 5:3. Designs for “The Future of San Diego” and “The First Civilization in America” floats accepted.

San Diego Sun, May 10, 1911, 1:7. Capps may direct park engineering; plan to save thousands of dollars of Exposition money; city engineer says work is simple and that he can do it with help of assistants employed by $20,000 engineer; Park Board expected to act soon; the mayor isn’t saying anything.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 12, 1911, 6:1. Henry Kabierske, float designer, in city to begin work.

San Diego Union, May 13, 1911, 7:3. J. A. Filcher, state official, proposes that counties of state take four years to build up exhibits.

San Diego Union, May 13, 1911, 7:4. Collier in Washington begins campaign for Congressional support.

San Diego Union, May 13, 1911, 9:2. Sefton returns from world tour; yeoman work done in foreign countries for benefit of San Diego Exposition.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 15, 1911, 3:1-2. Carnival ceremonies practically arranged; outline is complete.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 15, 1911, 12:1. Tijuana is wide open town; rebels encourage gambling and derive percentage from games now being conducted by Americans.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 15, 1911, 12:2-3. Pursell charges unfair treatment by Park Board; declares road through park completed and paid for five months ago; wants extension of time; Mayor Wadham this morning would say nothing regarding the matter.

San Diego Union, May 15, 1911, II, 9:2. Mission characters, including Indians, at San Luis Rey and San Juan Capistrano engaged by Ferris for groundbreaking celebration..

San Diego Union, May 15, 1911, II, 9:3. Collier had endorsement bill in side pocket for introduction this week.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 16, 1911, 8:1. Patrick Martin may be made president of Park Board.

May 16, 1911, Board of Park Commissioners: Clark Braly, M. A. Luce, Patrick Martin; Braly elected president of Board; Martin elected secretary.

San Diego Union, May 16, 1911, II, 9:1. Exposition measure introduced in Senate; Secretary of State Knox gives endorsement.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 17, 1911, 3:1. Bids for arches rejected by committee; work on floats begun.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 17, 1911, 3:1. Exposition will offer gold cup to yacht winning three times in succession.

San Diego Union, May 17, 1911, II, 9:3. Ferris says women are right in boosting for Floral Parade.

San Diego Union, May 17, 1911, II, 16:1. Congressman Raker introduces bill in House for city’s Exposition.

San Diego Union, May 17, 1911, II, 16:2. Braly, head of Park Commissioners, agrees to allow use of shotguns in the event permission to hunt rabbits is extended to other than park employees; plan presented to extend Upas Street from 6th to 10th.

San Diego Union, May 18, 1911, 11:4-5. Ambassador Irving B. Dudley, San Diegan who landed the Brazil exhibit for Exposition here is a “pioneer ambassador.”

San Diego Union, May 21, 1911, II, 9:2. Collier remains on job for Exposition; refuses to leave capitol until San Diego resolution is passed.

May 22, 1911. Appearance of Colonel Collier before the Committee of Industrial Arts and Expositions, House of Representatives, on Joint Resolution No. 99; wants Congress to pass a resolution authorizing the President of the United States to invite Republic of Mexico and other republics of Central and South America to exhibit at the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego in 1915; “Under no circumstances will the San Diego Exposition ask the Government for any appropriation in aid of this exposition.”

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 23, 1911, 1:1. Mayor Wadham favors sale of 500 acres out of center of park; declines to discuss the matter at length just now.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 23, 1911, 1:1. Something doing at Park Board session; policy of economy in Exposition work will be adhered to.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 23, 1911, 3:1. Park Board to discuss Exposition contracts; members will inquire into advancement of funds for Fair; employment of Olmstead [sic] and other matters.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 23,1911, 5:4. Park Board may grand Pursell franchise; petition comes before Board this afternoon.

San Diego Union, May 23, 1911, 9:1. House committee agrees to report Exposition bill favorably; decision reached after public hearing granted to San Diego supporters.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 24, 1911, 1:3. George R. Harrison is appointed on Park Board; to take place made vacant by resignation of Patrick Martin, who gave “business interests” as reason.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 24, 1911, 5:3. Thomas O’Hallaran for state building committee on Exposition structure.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 24, 1911, 5:4. Mayor Wadham thinks city should have several parks as it grows into order to accommodate different districts; declares city council must initiate move to sell part of big park, people must vote on it, and state legislature must approve.

San Diego Union, May 24, 1911, 5:5-6. Patrick Martin quits Park Board; contract with Exposition company to be examined; monthly report to be published of all expenditures of Park Commission; Mayor Wadham said to be in favor of selling 500 acres from center of park; permit for target practice for naval militia withdrawn; bullets glance off stones and fly at random all over park.

May 25,1911, Board of Park Commissioners: George R. Harrison appointed to Board to replace Patrick Martin who has resigned.

San Diego Union, May 25, 1911, II, 9:5. Harrison appointed Park Commissioner; City Council approves selection.

San Diego Union, May 26, 1911, 5:3. Report Democratic caucus in Washington, DC, agree on Exposition.

San Diego Union, May 26, 1911, 8:1-3. Braly grills Luce on Exposition work; City Attorney declares contract creating Director of Works is not binding; Mayor Wadham considering the appointment of City Engineer E. M. Capps as a successor to Frank P. Allen; also thinks buildings should be placed back on mesa. . . . Braly: “Why is Olmsted planting trees in northeast corner?” Luce: “We have been over to Mr. Scripps’ place and he claims trees will grow in the park without much care.” Braly: “Eucalyptus will.”

“How can Frank P. Allen save the city hundreds of thousands of dollars over any other man, if there are not hundreds of thousands of dollars to spend?”

Clark Braly, president of the new park commission, was standing at the end of the table when he addressed this question to Judge M. A. Luce. Before him lay a pile of unpaid bills which amounted to nearly $26,000 debts incurred since the first of the year. To one side lay a contract in which the park commissioners had delegated the power to erect all buildings, make all improvements and prepare all architectural and engineering plans of every description to a bureau termed the division of works. With the contract was an opinion from the city attorney that it was not legally binding and in a certain respect unlawful.

Judge Luce had been cross-questioned throughout the meeting. Mr. Braly wanted to know about this bill or that bill. He wanted to know about salaries. He want to know about the work which had been done.

It was a different meeting from the ones Judge Luce attended before the commission was dissolved. Then Judge Luce sat the head of the table. Thomas O’Hallaran presented the bills. Judge Luce approved them. A question might be decided about the location of a tree or asked about the condition of certain shrubbery and the commission would adjourn.

Luce Defends Old Policy

Yesterday, however, Judge Luce had been aroused to action. He was defending the policy of the old commission. He was defending the policy of employing the best talent obtainable to lay out the park and erect the exposition building.

“Why this man Allen can save us hundreds of thousands of dollars,” he exclaimed feverishly.

“How can Frank P. Allen save the city hundreds of thousands of dollars over any other man, if there are no dollars to spend?” asked Mr. Braly, who was questioning Judge Luce.

The judge had been explaining that Mr. Allen was the general manager in preparing park and buildings for the exposition; he was also the engineer and supervising architect.

Too Much For Commission

“We couldn’t undertake this thing ourselves,” said Judge Luce in conducting his defense. “We wouldn’t take the responsibility for $10,000 a year; so we employed the best possible men we could get for the work.”

“How does the park board get out of the responsibility?” asked Mr. Braly.

“Hire a foreman,” answered Judge Luce.

“Would that get you out of the responsibility?” insisted Mr. Braly.

“It would to that extent” answered Judge Luce.

“What would you do if you had t manage a big farm?” asked Mr. Braly. “Hire a foreman?”

“What in heaven’s name do we know about it?” exclaimed Judge Luce. “Here is the best man we can get for the money. Mr. Olmsted is the best landscape architect in the country. A million dollars is to be spent for permanent improvements in the park. I believe in having the very best men to do the work. Mr. Olmsted was employed after consultation with the building committee. Mr. Marston is the president. He has the good and the beauty of the city at heart. He has made a study of these things. Mr. Marston’s advice has a good deal of influence with me. We investigated Mr. Allen carefully before we employed him.”

“Did you investigate what was paid Mr. Allen in Seattle before you agreed to pay him $20,000 a year here?” asked Mr. Braly.

“I believe we did, but he didn’t have quite as much to do there as he has here,” was the reply. “The first agreement was to get him here half the time. Next we wanted him here all the time to take charge of the entire work. We wanted a man who could save the city a lot of money.”

“Did he have that power at Seattle?” asked Mr. Braly.

“I don’t think he held all that power up there,” answered Judge Luce. “I think it very unfair that you take this affair up without the building committee.”

Harrison Made Secretary

“This man has just take his oath of office between 11 and 12 o’clock. We are hardly yet acquainted,” replied Mr. Braly, pointing to George R. Harrison, who had been appointed the day before to succeed Patrick Martin. Mr. Harrison was elected secretary of the new commission.

“If we wanted to put a building in the city park we would have to do it under Mr. Allen’s management,” continued Mr. Braly. He picked up the contract which by agreement between the park commission and the Panama-California exposition conferred the power to erect buildings and to lay out the park on the division of works.

“Why, yes,” replied Judge Sloane [sic], “I could ask this or that question, but I wouldn’t find out much about it. Therefore, my idea is to get a man in whom we have confidence.”

Mayor Wadham had entered the room during the discussion. He seated himself to one side and read the opinion of the city attorney which he had brought with him that the division of works contract was not binding. He arose at this part of the discussion and addressing the chair said:

“The city attorney has rendered an opinion which questions the reasonableness of this contract, which creates an independent board known as the division of works.

“The consensus of opinion is that the entering into this contract by the park commission and the exposition company is extravagant and the exposition company is extravagant, and I do hope in such a case you will not undertake to do anything under it.

“One of your hardest duties will be to stand between the people and this million dollars. On the other hand the people feel that they have to spend the money. They prefer that local talent be employed wherever possible. That, however, is a matter left to you.”

The opinion was handed to Judge Luce for perusal. He studied it carefully and pronounced it “all right.” He said that he could find no objection to Judge Andrews’ ruling.

“As far as you are concerned, Judge Luce, I believe that you thought the contract was perfectly proper or you would not have entered into it,” said the mayor, addressing the judge.

It developed that the appointment of City Engineer E. M. Capps is under consideration by the mayor as a successor to Frank P. Allen. In this connection, it is possible that the exposition building will be placed farther back on the mesa to obviate exceedingly technical, difficult and expensive engineering work. The buildings when placed farther back would be removed from unsightly stands which are expected to fringe Balboa Park during the exposition.

“We have not a man in San Diego who could do the work as thoroughly and save the city as much money as either Allen or Mr. Olmsted,” remarked Judge Luce.

Mayor Questions Luce

“What is there about this work that Capps can’t do?” asked the mayor.

“He can do common engineering, general engineering,” replied Judge Luce. “But an exposition is entirely different. The location of buildings must be considered. Money matters, expenses must be considered. Mr. Allen saves us money.”

“If the buildings were placed back on the mesa, there would not be so much engineering and expense,” suggested the mayor.

“That’s the reason you should see the exposition board,” replied Judge Luce.

“Don’t this contract let Mr. Olmsted turn loose on the park and we can’t stop him?” asked Mr. Braly. “He is working in the northeast corner of the park now. What is he doing there?”

“The trees must be planted now so that they will get their growth in time for the exposition,” answered Mr. Luce. “The people over there never had anything.”

“Don’t you know that we will have to fall back on one thing — the maintenance of the park? Couldn’t shrubbery be planted as well, instead of trees?” asked Mr. Braly.

“We have been over to Mr. Scripps’ place and he claims trees will grow in the park without much care,” replied Judge Luce.

“Eucalyptus trees will,” suggested Mr. Braly.

“Yes, eucalyptus trees,” assented Judge Luce.

“We have reached a point where the people have become greatly dissatisfied, remarked Mr. Braly, changing the subject.

“See Mr. Marston,” suggested Judge Luce. “If we don’t harmonize, we won’t have any exposition.”

“Who constitutes the division of works?” interposed Mayor Wadham.

“Why, Allen,” answered Judge Luce. “Allen is chief. He and the men who work under him form the division of works.”

“How many buildings do you figure he will have?” asked Mr. Braly.

“For the exposition? Why, I don’t know, was the judge’s reply.

“We want to get to a point where we can decided whether we can go on with this contract,” said Mr. Braly. “The money is not being paid in by subscribers to exposition stock. We want to bring affairs to that state that the people will feel confidence in the management of the exposition and will be satisfied to pay up the rest of the subscriptions. Now, Mr. Luce, what do you recommend?”

“More publicity,” replied Judge Luce. “A monthly account should be published of expenditures and income.”

Salaries Take Breath Away

“Understand me, judge,” continued Mr. Braly. “I don’t want to be an obstructionist. I want this exposition to be a success. But the salaries are big enough to take one’s breath away. If businessmen had been able to figure them before the bond election, you wouldn’t have gotten a decent vote on it.

“I lived in Portland. It is a rich city, and could afford to pay Mr. Allen $400,000 a year; where we can’t afford to pay him $20,000 a year.

“Don’t compare this exposition with the one at Portland,” broke in Judge Luce with earnestness. “Our exposition must be altogether different. We are here in a southern climate with the exposition running winter and summer. We must attract people because it is different than other expositions. They must be drawn here by the beauty of the landscape. We have a wonderful park with a view of the sea and the mountains. We can grow all kinds of tree and flowers and plants there.”

“Under this contract,” said Mr. Braly, changing the subject, “the division of works goes ahead with buildings and plans. The money will be gone before they are finished. The division of works had the reins. We have no check.”

“Well, we pass the bills,” replied Mr. Luce. “We have set aside $500,000, for instance, for permanent buildings.”

“In other words we give Mr. Allen half a million and say go ahead and spend it,” interrupted Mr. Braly.

“As along as he does it well, it’s all right,” replied Judge Luce. “We know what he is doing. The bills come to us. If he doesn’t do it well, we can stop him.”

“Five hundred thousand dollars has been set aside for permanent buildings. Now, what is the rest for?” asked Mr. Braly.

“The first thing to do is to make the park presentable as a whole,” answered Judge Luce. “Boulevards are to be laid out. Trees must be planted and walks adorned. That is to be decided by the park board.”

“I don’t think you can decide that under the contract,” remarked the mayor. “You have turned the thing over to the division of works and you say that is Mr. Allen.

“As far as my personal opinion is concerned, I don’t believe we ought to pay those bills, if they mean a ratification of that contract.”

No Legal Money for Claims

The bills include items for expenses incurred in the Brooklyn [sic] offices of the Olmsted Brothers and for certain traveling expenses and for sustenance. They also contain certain claims incurred last December and October when the money was not legally at hand to pay them. The money for [sic] the bond sale has been legally on hand since the first of the year only.

Wadham Asks Opinion

Mayor Wadham asked the opinion of the city attorney on three points relating to the contract which creates the division of works:

First: Has the board of park commissioners the power to delegate its powers?

Second: Has the board power which should continue for four years?

Third: Is the contract binding on the new board?

The city attorney’s opinion is: “Ordinarily a public board has not the authority to delegate the powers which have been entrusted to it.”

In another paragraph, the city attorney declares: “I cannot concede that any man or body of men outside of the park commissioners have the right to determine finally what kind of buildings shall be erected, what material shall be used, or what their designs shall be. The division of works would not be responsible. This I believe is the only provision that the agreement provides shall be absolutely out of the hands of the park commissioners. So far as the construction of the buildings, structures and improvements are concerned, the board of park commissioners may or may not let the matter rest with the division of works; but, I repeat, so far as the architectural and engineering plans are concerned, the park commissioners appear to be bound by this unofficial body, and in this respect and to that extent, I conclude this contract is unlawful. However, it is not intended to intimate that the board of park commissioners have not the right to make a contract for the services of architects and engineers in carrying on the work which the charter entrusts to their hands.”

The opinion cites a ruling to show that courts look with disfavor upon contracts by municipalities involving the payment of money which extends over a long period of time because they may involve an undue restraint upon the powers of the successors of the board and because such contracts in their nature tend to create a monopoly.

Concluding, the opinion declares that: “if you feel that the contract is not advantageous to the city, that it would be easy to notify the exposition people of your attitude, and that the park commissioners would not any further be bound to the agreement.”

McHorney is Clerk of Park Commission

That the new park commission expects to dive into a mass of work was shown yesterday by the appointment of Nathaniel J. McHorney as clerk of the board. The appointment was strongly recommended by Judge M. A. Luce, who stated that the duties of the board were becoming so arduous that a clerk was a necessity.

Mr. McHorney will serve as a general utility man. His duties will require him to serve not only as clerk but will take him into Balboa Park as a representative of the commission.

The appointee, whose salary has been fixed at $125 a month, is considered well qualified for the place. He has served years as an auditor and accountant for corporations and was employed in that capacity in their Wall street offices. He is expected particularly to look after the disbursements of money and to keep the books of the park commission.


“I don’t want to break the exposition,” said Clark Braly after the meeting yesterday. “It is my determination to make it. I am living in San Diego. I love the place. I am educating my children here. With the other members of the commission, Mayor Wadham has intrusted me with a great work. If this exposition is not a success, I won’t be able to live in this city. I would have to move. But I don’t want to move; therefore, I am going to do all I can to inspire the people with confidence in the exposition management and make it a success. First, however, we will have to get at all the facts. This I am determined to do. Then we can go ahead and go ahead right.”

Mr. Braly expects to see personally every contractor or other person who has a bill against the commission. His purpose is to get all interested parties together for the sake of harmony and cooperation.

The meeting of the park commission was adjourned yesterday until Monday morning at 10 o’clock.

San Diego Union, May 26, 1911, 16:1. Representative from Brazil to reach here soon.

May 27, 1911. Box w, Board of Park Commissioners, Correspondence, San Diego Public Library: File, Board of Park Commissioners, 1911. . . . Letter, Building Trade Council to Mayor of the City of San Diego protesting against the employment of Frank P. Allen as supervising architect and engineer for the California-Panama Exposition [sic] of San Diego because of exorbitant compensation; because he will not employ contractors and laboring men of the city, and because local workers were overlooked in the construction of Fair buildings in Portland and Seattle.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, May 27, 1911, 10:2. State Senator Weight defends Pursell Permit for City Park Line; Park Board to be acquainted with situation at meeting Monday; does not like to offend esthetic sense of Moses A. Luce and Thomas O’Hallaran.

That the new park board will be made fully acquainted with the position of the Interurban Investment Company regarding a franchise for a line through the city park was made evident this morning by State Senator Leroy A. Wright, attorney for the company and for G. W. Pursell. In reference to the statement printed this morning from M. A. Luce, former member of the park board, Senator Wright said:

“We would like to see the whole world a rose garden like Mr. Luce, but if it was people would starve to death. We have to have some of the more material things in life if it does offend the esthetic sense of Moses A. Luce and Thomas O’Hallaran.

The matter will come up Monday before the board of park commissioners at which time a full statement of the attitude of the Interurban Investment company , which has succeeded to all the interests of G. W. Pursell, will be made. This company will carry out to the letter the terms of the permit granted by the old park board with the exception that it will be impossible to complete the road in the time specified in the old permit, which is June 1 of this year.

“All the Interurban Investment company now asks is the extension of that permit on the same terms granted by the council on the 17th of this month. The old permit provided that shrubbery should be planted on the right of way for 100 feet either side of the center line, the plantations to be designated in writing by the park commission. This designation never was made by Commissioners Luce and O’Hallaran, who attempted to cancel the franchise without giving Mr. Pursell any hearing whatever.

“When the attempt was made the company had forty-head of mules at work on the line. It is not the purpose of the Interurban Investment company to mar the park, but to add to its attractiveness. A park is something more than a thing of beauty. It must be a place for recreation where all classes of people can resort. At present there is no means of access to Balboa park except by autos and the park, consequently, is beyond the reach of any except the rich and well-to-do.

“One condition of the permit to Mr. Pursell was that an attractive station be maintained near a picnic ground in the park, which has already been planted to trees in the canyon near the east boundary line. The Pursell line is intended to give service to this picnic ground.

“Inasmuch as considerably over $50,000 has been spent and the work is being prosecuted more vigorously than ever, it would seem the height of injustice, not only from the standpoint of those interested financially, but to the public which wants better communication with La Mesa, El Cajon and Escondido, to block all chance of its success by refusing to extend the time in which to complete the line.

“The company does not propose to have a controversy through the newspapers or elsewhere about the matter. A full statement will be made to the park board Monday.

“I wish, however, to add that a few days before Mr. Luce and Mr. O’Hallaran made the order canceling the permit, Mr. Pursell made a contract with Mr. Luce for the purchase of rights-of-way through property two miles east of the city limits.”

San Diego Union, May 27, 1911, 18:1. Luce quits Park Board with rap at Pursell; protests against granting of franchise for railway in pleasure ground; Sefton in conferences; calls on mayor, also on commissioners; all refuse to be interviewed.

Judge M. A. Luce, the hold-over member of the park commission, has resigned and Mayor Wadham is looking for a man to fill the vacancy.

Mr. Luce declared at Thursday’s meeting of the commission that he was willing to remain at the post as long as desirable in order to give his newly-appointed colleagues every opportunity to acquaint themselves with their new duties and to direct them into harmonious relations with the exposition officials.

As his resignation has been requested by Mayor Wadham, it is concluded that the judge gave the two new members of the commission all the information necessary to guide them to a policy for the future.

Sefton Has Busy Day

Joseph Sefton, acting director general of the Panama-California exposition, held several conferences with the mayor. He called at the office in the city hall and later again was closeted with him and Commissioners Clark Braly and George R. Harrison. All parties to the conference refused to reveal the nature of their discussions except to say they were arranging for harmonious cooperation.

The dismissal of Frank P. Allen, who with his subordinates constitutes the division of works, is suspected to be the principal point of contention. The mayor and the two commissioners question the value of his services. The exposition chiefs, however, regard him as a valuable man.

Protests Against Franchise

Judge Luce, in announcing his resignation, states:

“As my resignation from the park board has been requested by Mayor Wadham, and I have complied with it by resigning, I will be unable to be present with the board of park commissioners at the time at which, I see by the newspapers, Senator Wright will apply for a renewal of the franchise of the Pursell railway through the park. Nevertheless, I am still a citizen of the city of San Diego and interested in the park, and I hereby ask you to publish my protest as a citizen.”

This franchise was announced in an evening paper to come up for discussion Monday when the commissioners propose to continue the investigation of the duties performed and bills paid by the former body. It can, therefore, be taken that Judge Luce does not expect to be present.

Explains His Objections

I protest against granting a franchise for this railway through the park for the following reasons:

  1. On general principles I do not believe in granting a franchise for any railway through the park.
  2. Granting, however, that great advantages might accrue to the city of San Diego by the granting of this particular franchise, I protest against this particular one because the applicant has not shown to this board that it has the financial ability to construct this proposed railway.
  3. That Mr. Pursell, to whom this franchise was formerly granted and who represents the present applicant, has not fulfilled in good faith the obligations and conditions of the former franchise. And there is nothing to show that he will any more certainly fulfill the requirements and conditions of this one.
  4. That he stated before, at two different times, that he had his proposition financed, but in both cases he has proved to have been mistaken.
  5. I do not believe in granting any franchise whatever, in the city of San Diego, much more in the public park, to promoters and speculators who use the franchise or permit as assets for the purpose of making money out of these valuable franchises.
  6. I believe in conserving all the assets belonging to the people of the city of San Diego for the purpose of benefiting the people at large, and not for the purpose of benefiting some speculator or promoter.
  7. I also protest against the renewal of this permit because Mr. Pursell so recklessly disregarded the rights of the city and the public in constructing his embankment through the valley to the park by cutting down the sides of the hills and scarifying its slopes and hauling away the soil from portions of the park over which he had no control or permit. I have no faith in him or his company fulfilling any of the conditions or obligations of the present proposed permit.
  8. Luce

San Diego Union, May 28, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Sehon’s Unfortunate Letter . . . It is Capt. Sehon and not the press that is responsible for any mistakes in the police department. . . . It is sufficient to remark that Capt. Sehon’s conduct throughout the affair is merely another proof of the generally recognized fact that he is temperamentally and otherwise unfit for the position he holds.

San Diego Union, May 28, 1911, 5:1. F. William Vogt appointed to succeed Luce, the appointee a Republican has been a resident of San Diego for 23 years.

San Diego Union, May 28, 1911, 5:2-3. Woman’s Floral Pageant to typify youth, mirth, jollity.

May 29, 1911, Board of Park Commissioners: F. William Vogt appointed to Board to replace M. A. Luce who has resigned.

San Diego Sun, May 29, 1911, 2:1-2. Sefton demands payment of bills for park work; says he must have answer of Commissioners by tonight; work in the park temporarily stopped; refuses to discuss contract until bills are allowed and declares that he stands ready to put entire proposition in the hands of the stockholders.

San Diego Sun, May 29, 1911, 5:2. Women offer Exposition $100,000 building. A permanent clubhouse for the women of San Diego to be the most beautiful and costly of all the chapter houses of the American Women’s League, costing approximately $100,000 is offered the Panama-California exposition in a proposition made by E. G. Lewis of St. Louis and University City, Mo. The proposition is to be considered today by the building and grounds committee and it is expected it will be accepted.

San Diego Sun, May 30, 1911, 8:7-8. Up to Park Board now, says Sefton after Star Chamber session closes; Commissioners are said to have decided that Allen must go; will honor old debts, but are going to authorize their own Exposition contracts hereafter.

In “star chamber” session yesterday afternoon, a meeting behind close doors, from which both public and press were barred, the board of park commissioners first allowed the $29,000 due for work already done in the big City Park and then proceeded to repudiate the contract made by the old park board with the exposition directors.

Joseph W. Sefton of the exposition company, who had appeared before the commissioners yesterday and demanded the settlement of the bills, had won one point and lost another. He left the meeting declaring the he had done his best and that it was up to the park commissioners to make the next move.

When the door to the park commissioners’ chamber in the mayor’s private office in the Granger building was at last opened last evening, this typewritten statement was given out for publication.

First: That we ascertain what we are paying for.

Second: Honor so far as possible the debts created by the old park board.

Third: That we positively refuse to be bound by or recognize or be in any way affected by the contract dated January, 1911, between the park board and the exposition.

Fourth: The park board will pay no bills in future not directly authorized and contracted for by the board.

Sefton Talks

To a Sun reporter last night Mr. Sefton announced that work would not be resumed in the park by the exposition company.

“It would never do to have two separate companies or organizations operating there,” he said. “I shall do nothing. It is up to them to make the next move. They have practically demanded the discharge of Mr. Allen. There is a penalty clause to that contract which cannot be overlooked. It will not be so easy a matter to get rid of Allen as they may think, and may cost us $25,000.

Asked if it seemed to be the intention of the board to place City Engineer Capps in charge of the work,

Sefton answered that it seemed to him that was their plan.

Auditor C. A. Richards was present at the meeting yesterday afternoon and vouchers for all the bills were produced which were carefully gone over by the park commissioners.

The commission will see that the watering of trees and shrubbery in the park is kept up until work is resumed.

San Diego Union, May 29, 1911, 9:1. American Women’s League offers to erect a $100,000 building if the City will give a 5-acre site in Balboa Park; will employ George Julian Zolnay as director of sculpture for exposition, and will held League secure 1,000 members in San Diego; offer made May 28.

San Diego Union, May 29, 1911, 18:1. Michigan Society plans to build arch at Exposition.

San Diego Sun, May 30, 1911. Public Meeting for Exposition Project . . . E. G. Lewis has requested that a meeting be called for Friday evening of this week to secure the necessary assurance of hearty support by San Diegans of his proposition on behalf of the American Woman’s League to erect a $100,000 building at the Panama-California exposition.

San Diego Sun, May 30, 1911, “The Isthmus,” or amusement street of the ground-breaking celebration, to have some shows.

San Diego Union, May 30, 1911. President’s flag to be unfurled at San Diego celebration; Executive himself may spread emblem by touching an electric button; soldiers, sailors and marines to take part in groundbreaking ceremony.

San Diego Union, May 30, 1911, II, 9:2-3. Sefton demands payment of $29,000 due Exposition; Park Board members are reluctant, fearing such action will ratify contract; agree to most of claim.

May 31, 1911, Board of Park Commissioners: Interurban Investment Co. given extension of one year to complete Pursell road.

San Diego Sun, May 31, 1911, 1:1. Park Board going ahead on Exposition job.

Five representatives of the San Diego Builders’ exchange this morning called upon the board of park commissioners at a special session held in the regular chambers of the city hall. They called to suggest that San Diego contractors be allowed to bid upon the construction of the exposition buildings in the city park, and that local men, who are able to furnish the materials for the buildings and grounds, be given a chance to bid as well as outside concerns.

San Diego Sun, May 31, 1911, 1:7. Park Franchise is given to Pursell.

San Diego Sun, May 31, 1911, 8. Braly for real zoo; gets owl; menagerie in park will be enlarged by new park commissioners.

San Diego Sun, May 31, 1911, 8. Councilman Adams says sell park lands; declares that 1400-acre resort is much too big.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 1, 1911, 10:1. Lawyers to advise on 1915 Fair tangle; legal advisory committee to consider questions bearing on issue with Park Board; asked by Sefton; charter provisions and state law are involved; City Attorney W. R. Andrews and E. H. Lamme, of the Committee, will have conference tomorrow on legal points.

San Diego Sun, June 1, 1911, 1:5, 8:7. All Exposition Work for Council? Maybe the Park Board has no real power to spend that million. Mayor has doubts. Legal committee of the Exposition company will look into the big question.

San Diego Union, June 1, 1911, 7:1. San Diegans ask chance to bid on Fair work; builders say Park Board to retain control of bond money.

San Diego Union, June 1, 1911, 16:1. Pursell franchise extended for one year.

San Diego Union, June 2, 1911, 5:1. Santa Fe Railway big booster for Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 3, 1911, II, 9:1-2. Benjamin H. Vreeland, public accountant and auditor, reports on Exposition accounts; shows amounts received and disbursed since inception of Fair project; figures are made public. . . . “I am pleased to report that the books have been reasonably well kept and are in the main correct, there being several unimportant differences, however, to which the attention of your auditor has been called, but which occasioned no financial loss to the exposition.”

San Diego Sun, June 4, 1911, 8:5. Auditor Vreeland reports Exposition books are okay; praises Collier and Allen.

San Diego Union, June 4, 1911, 17:1. The ordinance which City Attorney Andrews presented yesterday to make the Park Commission the agent for the Common Council and to place the city engineer in charge of improving Balboa Park for the Park Board came as a surprise to the Commissioners and the councilmen.

June 5, 1911, Board of Park Commissioners: Louis Witzer given permit to use a shot gun to kill rabbits in the park.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 5, 1911, 5:2. Electric 1915 sign may be erected on highest point in park.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 5, 1911, 5:3. Financial condition of the 1915 Fair is revealed by accountant; report, taking six weeks to complete, shows all receipts and expenses; Collier pays own expenses.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 5, 1911, 8:2. Council defers action on park work plan to make the Park Commissioners the City Council’s agents in the park..

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 5, 1911, 12:1. Park Board is urged to help playgrounds; meeting will be held with improvement clubs in near future.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 5, 1911, 12:2. Park ordinance delegating Council’s authority to the Board of Park Commissioners will come up Wednesday; Council refers proposed measure to the Committee of the Whole.

San Diego Sun, June 5, 1911, 3:1. Mission parade will have many float captains; over 580 officers and men organize for celebration.

San Diego Sun, June 5, 1911, 8:2-3. Council defers action on park work plan: Mr. Capps, city engineer, willing to take job of overseeing work for the Exposition if called upon.

San Diego Union, June 5, 1911, 8:1. San Diego and San Francisco fight for federal aid; San Diego plans details of Exposition.

June 6, 1911.


Brookline, Mass.

6th June, 1911


Bank of Commerce & Trust Company, San Diego, Cal.

Col. Collier asked me here yesterday to agree to Goodhue’s exposition site middle Balboa Park. Replied that as a park designer impossible to do so. Believe it would be gross violation of duty for Park Commission to ruin park by putting exposition in middle of it. Exposition would be somewhat more grandiose there but that gain would not justify ruining park, would cost more there because of bridge, would not take in nearly as much there for gate money and concessions, especially in evening, would not advertise city and harbor as well as by close and full view, and would leave permanent buildings in remote and unsuitable place, especially for evening entertainments. Any desired area for foreign governments, Indian villages, aeroplane field and such will be made accessible from southern site by Midland Drive and drive on dam placed further down canyon than first planned. Site cannot be prudently changed in middle of park until after detailed estimates have been made both for exposition and electric railway to it. My guess is latter will cost over one hundred fifty thousand dollars if properly sunken to avoid unwarrantable injury to park. Park Commissioners not justifiable if they change site to middle of park hastily without estimates and against urgent recommendation of their professional advisor. Recommend Breaking Ground Ceremonies take place of spur thirteen hundred feet north of High School with grant stand facing view.


(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 6, 1911, 1:1. School Board and Park Commissioners plan to rush stadium in park to completion.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 6, 1911, 6:4. Unique plan for lighting streets for carnival is arranged.

San Diego Sun, June 6, 1911, 1:8. Stadium in park to be rushed to completion.

San Diego Sun, June 6, 1911, 5:3. Plans submitted for Polytechnic School; nine bid; $200,000 in bonds recently voted.

San Diego Union, June 6, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Control of the Exposition . . . The newly prepared ordinance under which the common council makes the park commission its agent for superintending the expenditure of the proceeds of the so-called exposition bonds, will be considered by the legislative body tomorrow afternoon and doubtless there will be ample opportunity for all to be heard who so desire. In the meantime it is hoped that there will be an earnest effort to reach an amicable understanding among all citizens who, in one capacity or another, have to do the work of arranging for the exposition of 1915. Without such understanding, there appears to be reason to fear that the project, in whose success all San Diego is so deeply concerned, may sustain a serious setback.

The situation is delicate and calls for broad comity on the part of all who are charged with the exposition work. Legally, the $1,000,000 of bonds authorized by the people last summer were voted for park improvements. Practically, however, the issue was ordered primarily for exposition purposes. It is true that the contemplated park improvements will be a bona fide, permanent betterment of the park. It is equally true, probably, that the $1,000,000 in bonds would not have been voted, had it not been for the general understanding that the improvements would serve as a substantial basis for the exposition. It appears, however, from the ordinance under which the bonds were voted, that the proceeds, as in the case of an ordinary issue of municipal bonds, may be expended under the control of the common council, and this is the view expressed by the city attorney.

Then arises a peculiar condition of affairs. San Diego, for the preliminary financing of the exposition, has provided a fund of $2,000,000 — one half by popular subscription and the other half by a bond issue. The exposition officials have charge of the expenditure of the $1,000,000 subscribed — nobody challengers their right in that matter. Now it is proposed that the common council, or the park commission acting as its agent, shall direct the expenditure of the $1,000,000 raised by bond issue. Such an arrangement will be an anomaly. It will mean two totally distinct government bodies, each independent of the other and each “bossing” one half of a great undertaking that can properly be carried to success only by dealing with it as a whole. And while there will be two sets of bosses, there will be nobody in charge of the entire work, and responsible for its due performance. A little reflection will probably convince most persons that such an arrangement holds out feeble promises. It certainly is not the method usually followed in carrying large and complex enterprises to entire success.

It will be noted, too, that under the pending plan for the control of the expenditure of the $1,000,000 raised by bonding, leading citizens who have been tireless in promoting the exposition, who have borne the brunt of the struggle at home and abroad to place the undertaking on a substantial basis, will be without voice in determining matters that may be of vital importance to the success of the great enterprise.

However, if all who have to do with the exposition will make an earnest effort to work in harmony, there is no reason why the difficulties that have now arise may not be overcome. Perhaps it is well here to receive a hint from the expedient of which advantage was taken when it was desired to bond the city for the exposition. Legally it could not have been done directly. But bonds for park improvement could be issued legally. So there was a sort of “gentlemen’s agreement” that while there should be compliance with the law, the bond issue should serve almost the same purpose that it would, had it been voted expressly for the exposition. There is no reason why there should not now be another tacit understanding or “gentlemen’s agreement” under which the law may be observed and, at the same time, the dangerous anomaly of a great undertaking controlled in sections, and without any responsible head, may be avoided.

It is possible and wholly practicable to have a satisfactory working agreement between the common council, or its agent, the park commission, and the exposition authorities. But if there is to be such an arrangement, it will be the result of a spirit of comity, and of a general desire to promote the interests of San Diego by making the exposition a success.

People will hope that the subject will be approached in a spirit of tolerance and good will by all who are charged with the exposition work. It need not be suggested that the exposition is the last thing on earth with which to attempt to play politics, or by which to seek to punish enemies or reward friends. San Diego has too much at stake. To fail now to carry out this great undertaking, after the time, labor, money and publicity that have been given to it, would be little less than a disaster to this city.


(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 7, 1911, 1:5. U. S. Grant, Jr. to turn first sod on Fair site; five other noted men to use shovel

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 7, 1911, 6:1. Park ordinance before city council; committee of the whole discussing measure and will probably strike out provision regarding city engineer.

San Diego Sun, June 7, 1911, 1:3-4. Collier coming to tackle Exposition tangle.

San Diego Sun, June 7, 1911, 4. EDITORIAL . . . supports Park Board in controversy. . . . “If things go wrong, the people can lay their hands on the men at fault, and demand that the mayor shake things up.”

San Diego Union, June 7, 1911, 16:1. Fair directors and Park Board hold harmony conference.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 8, 1911, 10:5. Mayor, engineer and Park Board meet; whether matter of selection of engineer for Park Commission will come up is not stated by officials.

San Diego Sun, June 8, 1911, 10:2. Collier arrived in Chicago, then went back East; Council considers city engineer overworked as it is.

San Diego Union, June 8, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: For A City Beautiful.

San Diego Union, June 8, 1911, 8:1-3. Council instructs Park Board to select engineer of park work; contract with Frank P. Allen now becomes center of attack; Exposition directors insist that present system is essential to success.

San Diego Union, June 8, 1911, 8:2-3. Report criticizes Fair management; Wide Awake Club listens to statement by John Urguhart, chairman of the committee appointed to investigate charges made by Frank Householder that the exposition management has been extravagant in its expenditure of funds. . . . Out of fourteen men employed as laborers on the exposition work in the park, only four were voters in San Diego . . . Frank P. Allen did not arrive here until March 6, yet drew his $1,666.66 salary for the month of February.

June 9, 1911, Board of Park Commissioners: Board invited soldiers located at Roseville to use the park on a temporary basis.

San Diego Union, June 11, 1911, 5:1. President Taft tells Collier he will press button for July groundbreaking; intimates he will sign Congressional resolution when it is presented to him.

San Diego Union, June 11, 1911, 10 (whole page) Fair directors make reports to public; declare their faith in Director of Works; compare use of Director of Works with a dual-contract system.

June 12, 1911, Board of Park Commissioners: Ordinance No. 4452 passed by Common Council on June 9, 1911 appointed Board of Park Commissioners as agent for improving the park; approved by Mayor Wadham on June 10; rifle range to be removed from the park.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 12, 1911, 9:1. Park Board to act on Playgrounds.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 12, 1911, 9:2. Park engineer to be named soon; members of Board of Park Commissioners have man in mind.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 12, 1911, 10:1. Fair directors convinced Allen will save $250,000.

San Diego Union, June 12, 1911, 6:2-5. Fair directors convinced Allen will save $250,000; declare no other engineer has kept an exposition within the estimated cost; text of contract given out.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 13, 1911, 1:5. Measure ordering park bills paid is drafted; act destined to remove an doubt as to legality of contract by old board before funds are available.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 13, 1911, 7:1. H. M. Kutchin scores Park Commissioners; mayor also taken to task for attitude toward Panama-California Exposition Company.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 13, 1911, 7:4. Thomas O’Hallaran, George W. Marston and Louis J. Wilde named State building commissioners.

San Diego Union, June 13, 1911, 9:1-4. Exposition directors indorse employment by committee of Olmsteds, Goodhue and Allen; report outlines agreement with Park Commissioners.

June 14, 1911, George W. Marston Papers, Collection 219, Box 2, File No. 25, Panama-California Exposition – Buildings and Grounds Committee; Letter, June 14, 1911, G. W. Marston to J. C. Olmsted.

My dear Mr. Olmstead:

Your letter of June 3rd has been unanswered for too long but outside work has kept me away so much from my office that it has been almost impossible to keep up with the daily demands. In respect to the sub-division of my land across the canyon, it does not matter very much yet, but I hope that in this coming season, that is, in the winter time, your firm can take up the business and complete it.

Mr. Allen has promised me to accede to your ideas about the location of the exposition and not to agitate further the change. His agreement is not an absolute one, but he acceded to my representations that this divided choice was very harmful and said he would be very glad to be governed by my wishes.

However, all these things are in abeyance pending the settlement of the more important matter. That is, whether the present Park Commissioners carry on their work independently or come into the plan and program of the exposition and its contracts with the Park Board and its contracts with Allen, Goodhue and yourself. I am sending you herewith the newspaper publications of the week. Allen wrote me for the description of the Division of Works. My own written report for the Buildings and Grounds Committee appeared yesterday morning. We shall continue to present reports and letters through the week and expect to arouse public sentiment for our side of the case. It seems as if nothing would move Mr. Clark Braly and if the combined force of the Chamber of Commerce, Merchants’ Association, Exposition, improvement clubs, and other supporting elements do not have the effect of making him come in, there will be nothing else to do but to secure his removal. It is a serious condition and threatens the life of the exposition.

Mayor Wadham has been away for several days and I do not know whether he had modified his views or not. We are still uncertain how this will come out but I have hopes that the people will soon see that there is only ruin for the whole enterprise if the Wadham-Braly plans are allowed to be carried out.

I have advised Colonel Collier by telegram that I think he ought to come home. Have not yet heard from him in replay. I will keep you posted by sending you newspapers and will also write again.

I am very glad to have in writing the views you expressed in your letter concerning the location of the exposition and the reasons for opposing the central site and the granting of railroad facilities through the center of the park.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 14, 1911, 10:2. Choate says retention of Olmstead [sic], Allen and Goodhue is essential.

San Diego Union, June 14, 1911, 5:2-4. Architects chosen for skill as shown by achievements; Park Board sought to give San Diego a pleasure ground to compare favorably with any; acted after investigation.

San Diego Union, June 14, 1911, 7:2. City Attorney prepares ordinance to pay back $23,560.17 to Exposition company.

San Diego Sun, June 15, 1911, 1:1-2. Ferris arrested; U.S. Marshall takes promoter of a federal warrant accusing him of being a filibuster.

San Diego Sun, June 15, 1911, 1:3. Envoy from Brazil shown about park.

San Diego Sun, June 15, 1911, 7:7-8. Attempt to recall may follow Exposition trouble; rumors of a plan to oust Mayor and Park Board if they do not “show hand.” Wadham is in San Francisco and Braly refuses to talk. Sefton demands charges be substantiated.

San Diego Union, June 15, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Exposition Controversy . . . The people of San Diego will do well to pay more attention than they have been giving recently to the exposition, and especially to the situation that has developed since the change in the personnel of the park board. For many months past, while there has been no apathy in regard to the great enterprise, the average citizen has seen no reason why he should actively concern himself about the project. The million dollar fund had been subscribed, the bonds had been voted, and the management of the exposition company was one to inspire implicit confidence that the undertaking would be carried to success. In these conditions there appeared no reason why the people should trouble themselves about the affair. The situation that is now presented, however, is very different. It calls for the thoughtful consideration of every public-spirited man and woman in the community.

The truth is unpleasant, but it must be faced. Unless the present controversy can be eliminated, and some sort of a working agreement reached by the park board and the exposition directors, San Diego’s plans for 1915 may have to be abandoned. To carry them out under present conditions would be apparently impossible. As matters now are, one set of officials has charge of spending one half of the total fund of $2,000,000 upon improvements designed to form what might, perhaps, be styled the basis and setting of the exposition. The directors of the latter have charge of spending the other million upon what might be called the superstructure, using the term in a very broad sense. Such an arrangement will involve two sets of employees for work that could be better performed by one set. It will involve, too, other objectionable features that will readily suggest themselves to persons who give thought to the subject. But the worst of those features is the lack of any central authority to direct the undertaking. A more unscientific and impracticable plan of carrying out a great enterprise could hardly be conceived. No great undertaking of like nature was ever brought to success by such methods, and probably none ever will be.

It is not the purpose here to criticize the park board, but it would be interesting to know how the members of that body suppose that a great exposition can be created by the methods contemplated. The board can proceed along the technical lines of the terms of the bond issue, laying out roads, erecting permanent structures, etc. But unless this task is performed in collaboration with the men who have planned the exposition as a whole, the results will be a series of misfits that are likely to be as absurd as deplorable. And unfortunately the attitude of members of the board is not one that encourages the idea that they purpose to act otherwise than in entire independence of the exposition directors who have devoted months to planning every detail of the undertaking — a project in which, by the way, not one of the park commissioners has heretofore displayed any notable interest.

In a previous article in this paper it was suggested that there ought to be a way in which the directors and park commissioners could get together and arrange to act in harmony. The Union sees no reason to change the opinion there expressed. The agreement last January between the exposition company and the former park board appears to have been an admirable agreement for enabling the parties to it to work in perfect unison. While it was in operating, the exposition plans were being carried out in much the same manner as if their execution had been directed by a single body of by even an individual. It would be fortunate if that agreement could be again put in force, and there appears to be no valid reason why it should not be. But whether than plan is adopted again or not, there should be no difficulty in reaching some basis of a satisfactory agreement.

Of course the law should be observed. But there should be no sticking for rigid technicalities. In all save a strict legal sense the bonds voted last year are exposition bonds. The primary object of voting them was to add another $1,000,000 to the exposition fund, and while that money can be legally applied to park improvement only, it was the success of the exposition, and not the improvement of the park, desirable though it be, that was in the minds of the voters when they ordered the issue. In these conditions it certainly appears that good faith to the people who voted those bonds for the exposition demands that in the expenditure of the money by the park board there should be regard for the wishes of the men whose labor, courage and self-sacrifice made the exposition possible. And this can be done, legally done, provided there is a genuine desire among all persons concerned, to sink all differences and personal feeling and to work in harmony for the success of the enterprise which promises so much for San Diego.

It is for these reasons that the people of the city should be giving attention to the exposition situation. Their will is very likely to prevail, if they give expression to it. But there is no time to waste. The situation is daily becoming more acute. The people of San Diego will do well to recognize at once the painful truth that the exposition itself, and not merely its success, is menaced by the lack of harmony. They should realize, too, that it is in their power to avert the menace. If they demand that the present controversy be ended, a way will be found to end it in short notice.

The people of this city have done their part to promote the success of the exposition. They have given freely and gone into debt to give more. They have a right to insist that they shall not be deprived of the fruits of their public spirit because of jealousy, animosity, politics or technicalities.

And if it shall come to pass that the grand undertaking which has made San Diego known the length and breadth of this land, shall end in failure and humiliation, the people of this city will place the blame where it belongs.

June 15, 1911, George W. Marston Papers, Collection 219, Box 2, File 25, San Diego Historical Society Research Archives.

Letter, June 15, 1911, George W. Marston to William Clayton . . . Having just heard of the resignations which you and Mr. Spreckels have presented to the Exposition directorate, I infer that you consider it absolutely impossible to continue the effort for an Exposition unless the Park authorities will cooperate with the Exposition directorate, and accept the foundations already laid in their contracts and agreements. I do not think that any compromise is possible. The organization that has been built up and the engagements made with Allen, Goodhue and Olmstead [sic] are so absolute and the work has got on so far that to make any change now would be just about as insane as for Mr. Spreckels to discharge Mr. Albright and Mr. Engstron and then tell the Federated Trades to finish the job. I shall resign myself from the Buildings and Grounds Committee if the City does not sustain the present plans.

I think that the editorial in this morning’s Union was not only timely but also sensible and convincing. What has surprised me greatly is the general public indifference to this matter which effects [sic] so vitally the Exposition and also the permanent improvements in the Park. Personally, I think that if expenditures of one million dollars is to be put into the hands of Clark Braly and men of his caliber that the Park will be damaged more than it will be improved.

After giving seven years work to the development of the city park, I have felt exceedingly depressed in thinking of the possible mutilation that ignorance and misdirection may bring upon us.

I hope that the action that you and others have taken and the vigorous steps that the directorate proposes to take at once will be of some avail in brining us out of this difficulty. I was never much in favor of an Exposition, but now that the city is committed to it, I feel we must rally around Collier and keep it up.

San Diego Union, June 15, 1911, 5:1-4. Sefton calls on Mayor Wadham to substantiate charges. Acting Director General defends Publicity Bureau. Total expense $32,375.

San Diego Union, June 15, 1911, 5:4. Rufus Choate, secretary of the San Diego Chamber of Commerce, wires protest against Exposition change.

San Diego Union, June 15, 1911. Director-General John Barrett of the Pan-American Union has invited Pan-American republics to take part in San Diego exposition; Eugenio Dahne, commissioner of the Brazilian government representing the departments of agriculture, commerce and industry, is in San Diego to decide the scope and extent of the Brazilian exhibit.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 16, 1911, 3:1. Ferris to go to Los Angeles Saturday; says his attorneys have informed him there will be little difficulty in proving his innocence.

San Diego Sun, June 16, 1911, 1:5. EDITORIAL: Stop the Fighting . . . Stop the fussing until a calm above-board discussion can be had.

San Diego Sun, June 16, 1911, 1:7-8. President Braly says Park Board will answer charges; he will speak as soon as the other side stops.

San Diego Union, June 16, 1911, 7:3. Plan big 1915 sign for park; Board of Park Commissioners receives suggestions on proposed advertisement; Braly suggested big electric 1915 sign should be erected at highest point in Balboa Park and illuminated at night.

San Diego Union, June 16, 1911, 8:1. Fair directors urge Mayor Wadham to return from San Francisco.

San Diego Union, June 16, 1911, 8:1. At a meeting of the San Diego Floral Association, June 15, Kate Sessions endorsed work done by John C. Olmsted in the park.

San Diego Union, June 16, 1911, 8:2-3. Jack Dodge succeeds Dick Ferris as manager of groundbreaking carnival.

San Diego Union, June 16, 1911, 9:1. Dick Ferris arrested for violating neutrality laws; connection with rebel affairs at Tijuana is basis of accusation.

San Diego Union, June 16, 1911, 10:2. Acting Director General Sefton renders accounts for various departments; specifies work done in park

Board of Directors, Panama-California Exposition

Gentlemen: Following is a report of the work done in the park by the division of works up to and including the month of May, 1911.

Up to June 1, 1911, the division of works expended the following amounts:

Nursery 10,968.99

Nursery 24,050.66

Park Work 23,566.07

Total 58,585.72

Works Office

The amount of $10,968.99 charged is the net cost of the works office to date and includes $ ? of preliminary expenses incurred before the organization of the division of works as well as the cost of topographical surveys of the exposition site.


A complete nursery has been installed and equipped. Approximately twenty-five acres have been fenced, piped for water and put under cultivation, and the following buildings have been erected and equipped.

Glass green house 22x100 feet

Lath green house 22x 96 feet

High lath house 96x 96 feet

Low lath house 96x 64 feet (?)

Office, tool house, cutting house, cottage and 1,300 linear feet of hot and cold frames.

To stock the nursery the Normal Heights and Coronado nurseries were bought outright and large quantities of planting materials were purchased from other dealers and nurseries. Material not obtained locally has been secured in other parts of the United States and ordered from abroad. In addition to stock purchased, large quantities of planting materials have been propagated.

At this time the nursery contains more than 225,000 plants of all sorts and of all sizes, up to twenty feet in height. The nursery contains 6,300 palms of different species.

Park Work

The work done for the park board is as follows:

Preliminary surveys 1,346.84

Topographical surveys 713.40

Border plantations 13,343.50

Irrigating systems 6,167.95

Improvement of 18th Street Entrance 513.16

Miscellaneous park improvements 366.30

Maintenance of completed work 1,114.92

Total 23,566.07

The preliminary surveys were made for the use of Mr. Olmsted in laying out the park improvements. These surveys were made before the division of works was organized, and they are so inaccurate that they are useless. This work was done over by the division of works.

The item for topographical surveys includes the cost of all surveys for the design and location of all park work done to date, and also includes surveys for a much greater amount of future work.

The border plantations are seventy acres in area and extend along the north border of the park and for 3,000 feet along the east border. All plantations were cleared, grubbed, spread with slaked lime at the rate of 1,500 pounds per acre, and with manure at the rate of fifteen cords per acre. After this the ground was plowed twice, thus breaking up the soil to an average depth of fourteen inches. A large part of the plantations are on the sides of the canyons where it is impossible to plow. These places were “pot-holed,” most of the “pot-holes” being blasted out of the hardpan. After the ground was prepared, 28,000 trees and shrubs (twenty nine varieties) were set out. The charge for border plantations also includes the work done on the border roads, grading for which was well under way when work was stopped.

The irrigating system was put in to water the plantations and consists of 20,000 feet of iron pipe (principally four-inch, three-inch and two-inch), together will all necessary fittings, valves and stand pipes.

The improvements of the Eighteenth street entrance consisting of cutting down some unsightly banks, filling a low area, and planting trees.

The item of miscellaneous park improvement consists of small jobs in various parts of the park and includes the transplanting of a number of large palms which were secured in various parts of the city and moved to the park.

The item of maintenance includes the labor of upkeep and irrigating of plantations from the time they were set out until work was stopped. This item also included the cost of all tools, hose, etc. needed for this park work.

J.W. Sefton, Jr.

Acting Director General

San Diego Union, June 16, 1911, 10:1-3. Sefton tells Park Board explain, recede or resign; declares present situation is intolerable; says people of San Diego are “absolutely impatient over delay,” demands prompt action.

An Open Statement to the City Park Board

It is a well recognized fact that the persons who subscribed with enthusiasm to the capital stock of the exposition are the very same persons who voted in favor of the million dollar bond issue, and that this money was voted with the express understanding that it is to be used in the park for exposition purposes. It was this understanding that led to the formation of the agreement between the park board and the exposition, and the formation by the exposition later of a director of works, under which the above detailed work has been done. This agreement is in exact accord with the law of the city, county and state, and there is no question of its legality, except in the minds of some person who finds the provisions of the agreement inimical to his own interests. The work above detailed is simply preliminary.

It will be necessary, in order to carry out the expressed intentions of the people of San Diego, to create in the park a miniature city. For this purpose a main street system with lines of tributary communication will be necessary.

Such streets necessarily will contain curbs, gutters, pavements and all drainage facilities, such as sewers and open drains, water mains, bridges, buildings, ordinances, rules, regulations and many others.

How does the park board propose to carry out this work?

Does the park board think that two engineers, two architects, two heads, two conceptions, two ideas emanating from two sets of men, who are not working in harmony toward one end, can do it?

The preliminary work of tree, shrub and vine planting has begun. Even should the park board cause the abandonment of the exposition, it must of necessity proceed with the ornamentation of the park by plantation, by construction of rest houses, by creation of places of amusement, stadiums, lawns, lakes and other ordinary park improvements.

Has the park board any plans, or even a general idea of the extent of the work of this character it intends to carry out?

The miniature city will require a water system, both for domestic and fire supply. If this city should not be built, such a system will be required for ordinary park work.

Has the park board any plans by which this water system may be installed in either event?

The miniature city will also require illumination and a certain amount of illumination will be required for ordinary park improvement.

What, if any, plans has the park board for the protection of this miniature city from fire?

Does the park board intend to pursue the expensive general contractor system in park improvement and purchase materials in the open market, or has it some definite plan for the establishment of grading camps by which a large overhead expense will be cut off, and by which a great savings will be effected by the purchase of materials?

What, if any, plans have been made or are in contemplation for the simple maintenance of the park and to continue the propagation of the plans necessary for park improvement?

Is the park board going to abandon the plain intention of the people to hold an exposition?

Has the park board any adequate plan whatever for the creation of the exposition in the park in compliance with the will of the people?

Has the park board any man in its membership who is qualified to create the plans for the exposition and for park improvement?

Does the park board intend to cause the loss of all the funds which have been expended so far in the park?

Has the park board anything better to offer the taxpayers of San Diego than the plans adopted by the board of directors of the exposition and the old park board?

Has the park board any plan by which it can save the city any more money in the improvement of the park than has been shown can be saved through the operation of the division of works under the agreement between the old park board and the exposition?

The board of directors of the exposition and the members of the old park board and the members of the buildings and grounds committee of the exposition have put themselves on record before the people of San Diego and have detailed the plan under which it is proposed to create the exposition and improve the park in accordance with the will of the people expressed by their voluntary subscription to the exposition fund and their adoption of the million dollar bond ordinance.

It is now up to the park board to make the same explanation, to show wherein their procedure will result in greater benefit to the city and to show wherein their method will reduce the estimate of expense for the work.

The people in San Diego are absolutely impatient at the delay in settlement of this controversy. The board of directors of the exposition have done everything in their power to enlighten the people as to their plans.

The park board has done absolutely nothing.

The park board has been placed in such a position that it must either explain to the people what its plans are and how much greater a saving to the city these plans will make, or recede from its position, or resign.

The present situation is intolerable and cannot continue.

The members of the board of directors, which includes such men as U. S. Grant, Jr., William Clayton, G. A. Davidson, C. L. Williams, Fred W. Jackson, Jr., D. F. Garretson, George Burnham, L. A. Blochman, John D. Spreckels, John F. Forward, Jr., W. A. Sloane, Fred Jewell, W. H. Ludington, Colonel McLure, Lucious R. Barrow, D. C. Collier, Arthur Marston, Julius Wangenheim, H. H. Jones and B. V. McKenzie, have given their time and attention to the details of the immense plan for the exposition in the park and it is impossible to select a more representative body of men for any project whatever in San Diego, men in whom the people have more confidence and in whose probity they can trust more absolutely.

Arrayed in opposition to these are Mayor Wadham, Clark Braly, president of the city park commission, and one or two others.

It is for the people to determine whether the exposition shall be carried through by the two dozen gentlemen above named, or abandoned because of the obstinate, obstructive tactic of the city officials mentioned.

( Signed) J. W. Sefton, Jr.

Acting Director General

San Diego Union, June 16, 1911, 10:3. Scripps’ editor condemns Fair; R. F. Paine in letter to Union declares Exposition plans should be dropped.

San Diego, Calif., June 15, 1911

Editor, San Diego Union

Will you kindly permit one who has but recently become a permanent taxpayer in this glorious community to express an opinion based on your editorial: “The Exposition Controversy.”

The truth, you will say, is unpleasant, but it must be faced. Until the present controversy can be minimized and some sort of working agreement reached by the park board and the exposition directors, San Diego’s plans for 1915 may have to be abandoned.

I am certain that if the whole truth and nothing but the truth were shown, public sentiment already favors abandonment of the exposition plans.

Having had some little experience with expositions, I am of strong conviction that they result in very little of permanent benefit to any place. They are like stuffing the poor with bad turkey to the point of gastric paralysis on Thanksgiving day, and letting them eat grass the rest of the year. And the movement for a San Diego exposition was an unwise thing from its adoption under the circumstances.

We proposes to spend millions upon what the country looks upon as a mere side-show. With the first stake undriven, we are fighting as to who shall have the authority, who shall spend the money. You truthfully say in your editorial that for many months the average citizen has seen no reason why he should actively concern himself with the project.

If you dig into the soul of the average citizen, particularly the merchants who have been bled time and time again for this, that and the other “worthy project,” you’ll find that a surprising number agree with me that the exposition should be sensibly and courageously abandoned NOW.

Please don’t put me down as a knocker. I’m really a live-wire booster for San Diego. What real estate I’ve got, I’m holding at prices that would make the most optimistic, nervy and courageous real-estate agent in this dear little burg turn chrome yellow in envy at my talent and gall as a booster. I am writing everybody I know back east the truth, the whole truth, and more, too, about the superlative advantages of San Diego. But with all this, I sincerely believe that a great mistake has been made and as one bound to pay his part of interest on those millions of bonds, I vote to knock that exposition on the head NOW, when it can be most decently and economically done.

Very respectfully,

  1. Paine

2352 Fifth St.

(Mr. Paine is an editorial writer for the Scripps’ newspapers of the Pacific coast, including the San Diego SunLos Angeles Record, and papers in Sacramento, Fresno, Berkeley, San Francisco, Portland, Tacoma, Seattle and Spokane. He said last night that his letter to the Union simply expressed his view as a citizen and taxpayer of San Diego.)

San Diego Sun, June 17, 1911, 1:3. Mass meeting Tuesday night for Exposition; resignations of the entire board of the exposition directors have been prepared and they will not wait much longer for the mayor.

San Diego Sun, June 17, 1911, 7:6. Dr. Dahne forced to tell Brazil to delay on Exposition; nothing can be done until Exposition tangle ends.

San Diego Sun, June 17, 1911, 7:7. Representatives of various improvement clubs say it’s up to Park Board to get off job; Harry Vincent makes threat of a recall; meeting at U. S. Grant Hotel.

San Diego Union, June 17, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Exposition Experts . . . Some of the hostile criticism at the exposition authorities because of their employment of experts at expert’s salaries is undoubtedly inspired by envy or malice, or both. It is charitable, however, to believe that most of the strictures are the result of thoughtlessness on the part of those who criticize. This view will be strengthened by the fact that must of the criticism hardly rises above the level of ordinary, street-corner gossip, and very little of it appears to be the mature judgment of fair-minded men who have studied the subject in its varied aspects.

The complaint that is made is twofold — the employment of outsiders instead of “home talent,” and the large salaries paid to them. Especially strong is the protest because of the hiring of a director of works at $20,000 a year. This act of the exposition authorities has been made the target of not a little scolding and of some downright abuse. There is also a loud outcry because of the employment of eminent landscape architects at salaries which the services of such men readily command. The effort of the critics is to create the impression that it was not necessary to go outside San Diego to fill all these positions properly and much more cheaply.

To argue with the persons who are actuated by envy or spite in seeking thus to inflame the public mind against the exposition management, would be a waste of time. It is more to the purpose to address people who many have never given thought to the subject and may, therefore, be misled by the man who are conducting a campaign of “knocking” the exposition. To whose who are thus deceived, it may be suggested that cheap men are plentiful, and that when employed upon such tasks as designing and creating a great exposition or other large undertaking, they are likely to prove more costly in the end than experts whose recognized ability enables them to earn larger salaries. In hiring the $20,000 director of works, the exposition authorities believed that his experience would enable them to cut expenses where an inexperienced man would increase them. That belief has been strengthened to a certainty since the director entered upon his task. And in hiring him at what may appear an unduly large salary, the exposition only took the course that his followed by men of large affairs everywhere. It is cheaper to buy efficiency even at a large price than to accept free inefficiency.

The reasons why the engagement of Frank P. Allen, Jr. was a wise step from the standpoint of economy apply with equal force to the employment of the landscape architects, the Olmsted Brothers and B. G. Goodhue. These man are experts of national reputation. The need of experts was very clearly explained by Mr. Marston in the report which he submitted as chairman of the buildings and grounds committee last week. To quote

“It must be borne in mind that this exposition is not in the hands of an established business corporation, with its staff of experienced trained men. It has to be handled by public committees, composed of men immersed in their private business, men who are willing to give a moderate share of their time, without salary to public causes, but cannot do much more than to give their names, judgment and decisions to the important features of such work. . . . Hence it is plain that businessmen . . . represented on the exposition committee will not lend their time and service to the city unless they can have the details of affairs of such magnitude as the park and exposition business put upon men of established reputation for great work.”

But then comes the old complaint — fat positions given to outsiders. It is no disparagement to San Diego to say that it was necessary to go abroad for experts because those of the kind needed were not here. It was essential that the director of works should have had large experience in exposition problems. If there be any San Diego man who meets that requirement, he appears not to have made the fact known. As to the other experts, the landscape architects, it should be remembered that men who have attained eminence in their profession go where the money is — to the larger cities. They might all like to come to San Diego to live after they have retired, but while they are in active business, their signs are not seen on the streets of small cities.

Nor did the exposition create the first occasion when it was deemed necessary to go abroad for eminent professional men. Several years ago, when the movement for the systematic improvement of the park was begun, Mr. Parsons and the late Mr. Cooke were brought here to plan the work, and it went forward subsequently along lines laid down by them. Again, when the Civic Improvement Committee sought to cause the growth of the city to be directed along lines of artistic harmony and good taste, John Nolen, a recognized authority in such matters, was “imported” from Massachusetts, and while it may never be practicable to follow his views in their entirety, there is little doubt that the greater San Diego of the future will be a more beautiful city because of Mr. Nolen’s effort. In any event, there is no lack of precedents for the action of the exposition in hiring outside experts.

The exposition authorities may have made mistakes. It would be marvelous if there were none. But the employment of the director of works and the landscape architects was not a mistake. On the contrary, it was one of the wisest steps taken. As it is, the preliminary work of the exposition has been well performed and the entire undertaking will go forward — unless it is “knocked” to death — according to plans that promise success. But had not these experts, abut whom there is now so much unthinking clamor, been engaged, the exposition work would be in a chaotic condition today, and it would be necessary to take now the very step for taking which in due season the directors are the objects of shallow criticism.

San Diego Union, June 17, 1911, 5:1-4. Fate of Exposition depends on action of Park Board; Sefton closes financial report.

San Diego Union, June 17, 1911, 17:1. Brazil’s exposition exhibit to cost $1,500,000; Eugenio Dahne, special envoy, pleased with advertising prospects.

San Diego Union, June 17, 1911, 11:1. Citizens vote confidence in Fair Board; Park Board should cooperate or resign; meeting of representatives of improvement clubs of San Diego in U. S. Grant Hotel.

San Diego Union, June 18, 1911, 5:1-3. Exposition directors prepare resignations; Park Commission still objects to contract.

San Diego Union, June 18, 1911, 17:1. Three thousand sailors are guests of City at barbecue in park at 6th Street from Ivy to Juniper.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 19, 1911, 12:2. Amicable settlement of Fair row in sight; Mayor and Exposition officials will confer; stockholders of the Exposition company will meet tomorrow night; Building Trades Council to take action.

San Diego Sun, June 19, 1911, 1:8, 2:3-6. Conference to end dispute over Exposition; mayor returns; Park Board will meet directors.

San Diego Sun, June 19, 1911, 7:3-4. Judge Thomas J. Hayes says stop Exposition fight.

San Diego Union, June 19, 1911, 9:1. Judge Bledsoe suggests arbitration to end Fair dispute.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 20, 1911, 2:2. New agreement on 1915 Fair adopted; Exposition directors and Park Commissioners ratify measure this afternoon.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 20, 1911, 8:1. Jack Dodge changes location of “Isthmus.”

San Diego Sun, June 20, 1911, 1:1-2. Exposition dispute ends; contract to be signed; everybody’s happy and meeting tonight promises to be big love feast; Colonel Collier is expected to speak.

San Diego Sun, June 20, 1911, 9:7-8. Crowds cheer Collier at rally for Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1911, 1:1. Dispute over Fair ended; factions agree; Collier arrives today; contract to be put in legal form.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 21, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Nothing to Interfere With Plans for Exposition.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 21, 1911, 9. Crowds cheer Collier at rally for Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 21, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Controversy Ended . . . The Exposition controversy is ended — for all time, it will be hoped. The adjustment of the dispute was generally expected, but is not on that account any less gratifying. There is no occasion to discuss here the terms of the new agreement between the city authorities and the exposition directors. It is sufficient to say that a satisfactory working arrangement has been effected under which the plan for the great enterprise will go forward rapidly and virtually along the lines originally proposed by the directors, the new agreement being essentially the one formerly in force. All doubt as to the success of the project is now dispelled.

The controversy had been a deplorable one, and should be forgotten. Nevertheless, it may have served a useful purpose. It has emphasized anew the fact that to succeed in any public undertaking people must work together. Lack of harmony means failure. Of course, it is not to be supposed that all citizens will have identical views as to the manner in which the exposition plans should be carried out. But differences of opinion need not lead to hostile criticism. The latter, persistently expressed, is a menace to the success of any project.

There has been altogether too much criticism of the exposition plans and the men who framed them and have sought to carry them to success. Some of the criticism was inspired by malice — from the outset the exposition had been the target of a little bank of trouble makers, commonly called “knockers” who are never so active as when the public-spirited majority is trying to achieve results for San Diego. Other attacks upon the exposition came from well-meaning persons who gave heed to the professional “knockers.” And the outcome of the joint effort was to make the fate of the entire project very doubtful for a time.

And now that the dispute is ended, it seems timely to suggest that future controversy can be easily avoided by all who desire than San Diego shall have a canal exposition in 1915 and that it shall be both creditable and beneficial to the city. Those who cherish that wish and hope will do well to bear in mind that the affair is not in the hands of visionary promoters, exploiting the city for what they may gain. From the outset the exposition plan has been in the control of men whom the community would select to manage any great undertaking in whose success the people are deeply concerned. In fact, had not these men taken up the project and given it their names as well as their time and labor, the exposition would never have been undertaken. Mistakes can be made, of course, by every man of body of men. Infallibility is not claimed for the exposition authorities. But in view of the personnel of the board of directors, its judgment is entitled to weight. And that judgment should not be discredited because of the criticism of the street-corner “knocker.” It is well to remember, too, that no great public undertaking ever was, or even will be, carried out to the entire satisfaction of everybody as to every detail. No man and no set of men could arrange for the San Diego exposition without going counter to the ideas of some persons as to some matters connected with it. In a work, the exposition is in the strongest and most capable hands, and they should have unqualified support.

Let the recent dispute be forgotten, and let any animosities caused by it be ended. San Diego is now looking to the future, not to the past. It sees the last obstacle removed from the path of a more ambitious project than was ever undertaken by another city of like size. It is a time for congratulations and for a strengthened purpose to work together in harmony for the success of the exposition of 1915.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1911, 5:1. Council sanctions plans for groundbreaking on “Isthmus” from D to F on Union Street and from Front to State Streets on E.

San Diego Union, June 21, 1911, 5:1-4. Collier tells of encouraging outlook in Washington, DC,

San Diego Union, June 21, 1911, 5:3-4. New agreement with Park Board.

June 22, 1911. Magonistas defeated by Federalists at Tijuana.

June 22, 1911. April, 1980, San Diego Herald, 1. Balboa Park Land-Use Proposals Face Stiff Opposition; Collier Confounds Kickers; shows results; gains applause; Exposition is now assured.

San Diego Union, June 22, 1911, 5:1. Exposition directors ratify new contract.

San Diego Union, June 22, 1911, 5:2-3. Noted men endorse San Diego Exposition.

June 23, 1911.

Night Letter

Received at Seattle, Washn June 23 — 11

Clark Braley,

Pres-Board of Park Commission,

San Diego

As yet I have not had the honor of your acquaintance But am appealing to you to use your influence in keeping the exposition as the south end of the Park you undoubtedly realize that a park is created for recreation and rest and happiness of the public who are unable to get such elsewhere it is not the purpose of a park to place buildings in it other than for Park purposes and placing exposition with its permanent buildings in the middle of the park the wonderful beauties and the purpose of the park is for all times destroyed it seems unlikely that you as a member of the park board will permit the purposes of your park to be sacrificed by allowing the exposition to be placed other than at the south end . I beg of you to make every effort in this serious matter

James F. Dawson

Olmsted Bros


328 am

San Diego Sun, June 23, 1911, 1:6. Spreckels takes out permit for an additional $325,000 to build theater.

San Diego Union, June 23, 1911, 13:1. Collier and Choate leave to resume work at capitol; Collier says resolution in Congress means $5,000,000 to Exposition here; Brazilian appropriation alone would amount to $1,500,000.

June 24, 1911, Board of Park Commissioners: Agreement between Board and Exposition Committee, June 20,1911, confirmed.

June 24, 1911, Marston File, Correspondence on location of Exposition, 1910-1914, San Diego History Center Research Library. . . . Letter, Marston to Olmsted: Allen and Olmsted differ on Exposition site.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 24, 1911, 1:1. Members of Park Board Will Resign Office; action taken by Fair Buildings and Grounds Committee the cause; statement being prepared this afternoon explaining position of commissioners; Mayor Wadham refuses to discuss resignation; conference is held.

San Diego Sun, June 24, 1911, 7:8. Frank P. Allen to spend city park bonds on Exposition work; Buildings and Grounds Committee instructs director of works to proceed in the park “as called for by the plans prepared by Olmsted Brothers.”

San Diego Union, June 24, 1911, 20:1. Director of Works given charge of park bond million; Buildings and Grounds Committee also directs him to improve park according to plans prepared by the Olmsted Brothers; two big contracts let: Unions to furnish music and Kabierske to build arches for groundbreaking; Bishop Conaty pleased with mission floats. . . .

Director of Works instructed to proceed with the improvement of the park border as called for by the Olmsted Brothers and to proceed with surveying required by the Olmsted Brothers. . . . Louis J. Wilde, member of Buildings and Grounds Committee, refused to vote.

San Diego Union, June 25, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Resignation of Park Board.

San Diego Union, June 25, 1911, 14:1-3. Clark Braly, George R. Harrison and William Vogt of Park Board resign; blame Fair committee.

San Diego Sun, June 26, 1911, 1:1-2, 3:5-8. Mayor Wadham disgusted; is preparing to quit job; deserted by Park Board; may resign Wednesday; Park Commissioners say they will stand pat; Wadham away again.

San Diego Union, June 26, 1911, 9:1. Mayor Wadham considering resignation to show faith in Park Board; left for Los Angeles last night on legal business to be gone until Wednesday.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 27, 1911, 5:2. Dahne applauds San Diego’s pluck; writes letter expressing satisfaction over progress on Fair here.

San Diego Sun, June 27, 1911, 7:1. Sefton replies to Park Board in long letter; use Exposition bond money for Exposition.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 28, 1911, 1:3-6. Mayor Wadham denies he will resign office.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 28, 1911, 1:3-6. Park Board to be named soon; Mayor Wadham says members will be chosen from officials of Exposition company.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, June 28, 1911, 10:2. Program for carnival practically completed by 1915 Fair officials.

San Diego Sun, June 28, 1911, 1:1-2. Mayor Wadham stays with ship; to appoint new Park Board; Exposition directors will be made members.

San Diego Union, June 28, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: End the Wretched Controversy . . . It is almost with a feeling of dismay that friends of San Diego must regard the revival of the recent controversy over the expenditure of the $1,000,000 exposition bond issue. Only a few days ago the dispute as supposed to have been adjusted in a manner that was satisfactory and honorable to all. Then came a hitch. The park commissioners objected to certain action taken by the exposition directors, and tendered their resignations. But even them it seemed improbable that there would be a renewal of the deadlock. It was the common belief that new commissioners who would be in harmony with the exposition officials would be named at once, and that the great project would go forward without further friction. But those who took that hopeful view are keenly disappointed. The events of the past few days have caused the controversy again to become acute and the deadlock is renewed.

It appears needless now to repeat what was said in these columns very recently, about the necessity of sinking differences and working together. Nor should there be any occasion for again pointing out the tremendous stake which San Diego has in this affair. Every person who has given even hasty thought to the subject must recognize the fact that to abandon the exposition now would be a disaster without parallel in this city. It is a prospect that nobody who has San Diego’s interests at heart can face without consternation. Nevertheless, it must be apparent to all that unless the present dispute can be adjusted and harmony restored, the exposition is not likely to be held, and in that event San Diego will present to the rest of the country the humiliating spectacle of a community making a fiasco of a great enterprise, and that, too, when success was easily obtainable — the spectacle of a city deliberately stultifying itself and becoming a laughing stock, merely because some of the people had to quarrel over questions of ways and means. Such an outcome could be averted, and there ought to be enough common sense and enough public spirit in San Diego to spare this city as terrible a humiliation.

As when the first controversy arose, the Union believes now that an honorable adjustment of the trouble is practicable and not difficult. The first step is to sink personal differences — to realize that, come what may, they must not be permitted to bring upon San Diego a disaster from which it would not recover for years.

But the settlement, compromise, or whatever it may be termed, should bring harmony. San Diego’s friends must work together, if they expect to carry out this exposition project. For this reason, one must regret the talk about making an issue before the people at the polls. Such procedure would be deplorable. It would intensify the present bitterness. It would divide the city into two hostile camps. Whichever side won, harmonious action in future would be out of the question. Years ago San Diego had a bitter controversy over the question of water supply. It gave this city a setback from which it made a very slow recovery. The enmities then engendered survived for years and retarded the city’s progress. It would be still more unfortunate should San Diego’s plan for 1915, already financed and carried far forward toward success, serve to give to this city, not a great exposition, but a factional controversy.

In a recent issue this paper offered the suggestion that the entire dispute could be quickly and satisfactorily ended by the appointment of park commissioners who are exposition directors. Perhaps some better plan can be devised. But the all important point now is to discover some way by which the dispute may be ended before it does further damage. And it may be bluntly remarked that talk about “standing pat” and forcing the other side to “back down” and “going before the people,” is the worst possible way of reaching an honorable adjustment. What is required now is not an issue that will leave a legacy of long controversy, but a settlement that will prevent this wretched dispute from going further.

There are people in the world who can endure adversity and brave hardships, but go to pieces when they gain success. If San Diego permits a squabble over these exposition bonds to defeat its great project for 1915, the verdict of the outside world will be that the people of this city could not stand success. And against that verdict there will be no appeal.

San Diego Union, June 28, 1911, 7:2. Dr. Dahne sends pleasing letter; Brazilian commissioner sure of success of Panama-California Exposition.

(San Diego Union) Evening Tribune, June 29, 1911, 1:5. Council confirms Park Board named by Mayor; Wadham says he has made complete surrender to Exposition committee.

San Diego Sun, June 29, 1911, 1:3-4. Mayor Wadham praises work of Braly, Harrison and Vogt; says they were sincere.

San Diego Sun, June 29, 1911, 1:9. Mayor may get out own recall papers.

San Diego Sun, June 29, 1911, 2:2-3. Wangenheim, Jones and Forward new Park Board dads.

San Diego Union, June 29, 1911, 9:1. Harmony is assured by new Park Board; Mayor appoints J. F. Forward, Jr., Julius Wangenheim and H. H. Jones; Olmsted’s plans endorsed.

June 30, 1911, Marston File, Correspondence on location of Exposition, 1910-1914, San Diego History Center Research Archives: Letter ________ to Marston: Collier to talk to Olmsted about change of location.

San Diego Union, June 30, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Mayor Wadham’s Public-Spirited Course.

San Diego Union, June 30, 1911, 5:1. Plans for street decorations adopted; beautiful designs by artist Kabierske of Pageant Corporation.

San Diego Union, June 30, 1911, 11:1. Wangenheim is to be head of new Park Board; retiring members thank mayor for support of their policy.

San Diego Union, July 2, 1911, III, 25:1. Playgrounds are open for summer.

July 3, 1911, Board of Park Commissioners: Julius Wangeheim and John F. Forward, Jr., who were appointed by Mayor Wadham, June 28, and confirmed by Common Council, June 29, present; Wangenheim appointed president and Forward secretary.

San Diego Union, July 4, 1911, II, 9:1. H. H. Jones, general manager of San Diego Consolidated Gas & Electric, third member of new Park Board, wants legal opinion; undecided whether he is eligible for office.

San Diego Union, July 4, 1911, II, 16:3. Park Board elected Wangenheim president yesterday afternoon.

July 5 and July 6, 1911, Marston File, Correspondence on Location of Exposition, 1910-1914 . . . Night Letters, Olmsted stressing disagreement with Collier regarding location of Exposition in city park.

San Diego Union, July 6, 1911, 10:1. Labor leaders want man on Park Board; C. W. Holmquist, painter and decorator, suggested if H. H. Jones declines to serve.

July 7, 1911, Marston File, Correspondence on location of Exposition, 1910-1914, San Diego History Center Research Archives: Letter Olmsted to Marston: more people live on south and southeast of park than west and north of it; southern site would bring in more receipts by gate admissions and concessions; Collier wants more space because he thinks Brazil and Latin American republics will build; Olmsted’s plan does not cross the Spanish Canyon; Frank P. Allen says grading on the south side is too expensive; Olmsted’s plan No. 3 leaves out all bridges; choice of middle site means City will have to vote another bond issue for the bridge and other expensive features; question of groundbreaking — southern site or middle site?

I explained to him [Collier] that Mr. Goodhue’s plan for the middle site was to a great extent such a plan as the students at the Ecole des Beaux Arts are accustomed to make on paper, with little or no reference to a rolling picturesque site. That sort of plan is largely the result of working on the drawing board, and while it has advantages from the aesthetic point-of-view, it is not acknowledged to be by all artists the most desirable way of working. Very much more interesting and picturesque results are often attained by working in careful adaptation to a rough, irregular site. I pointed this out to Colonel Collier and explained to him how very much more picturesque from many points of view and from among the buildings the group would be on the southern site.

I also pointed out that the middle site has great advantages in the way of beautiful surroundings, but that it is most assuredly far inferior to the southern site as regards a near and imposing view of the City and harbor. . . . I think no candid person could go to the spur south of the Spanish Canyon and about 1300 feet north of the High School and study the views from there without being impressed by the superiority of this site from the standpoint of advertising San Diego.

The Auditorium: Olmsted thinks it should be a large convention hall, not designed as “a great architectural monument.”

Olmsted plans to eliminate expensive masonry, retaining walls, basins, stairways, terraces, balustrades, pergolas, etc. in Spanish Canyon and treat it with ordinary walls (walks?) and planting.

There are, of course, many arguments to be discussed bearing upon the question of site, but it should always be kept in mind that the weighty and conclusive argument against the middle site is solely that it would be the practical ruination of the park and that whatever advantage it may have, it would be in the nature of a breach of trust for the Park Commission to adopt such a site contrary to the carefully informed and absolutely settled opinion of their landscape advisor, and in the face of the fact that a plan has been worked out and carefully estimated for a site in the borders of the park which would result in an entirely successful exposition and one which would have more individuality and picturesque qualities, owing to the configuration of the ground, than is possible on the flat ground in the middle of the park.

San Diego Union, July 7, 1911, 7:1. Plan for large exposition in San Diego; members of new Park Commission met with Buildings and Grounds Committee of the Panama-California Exposition, July 6; J. F. Dawson, member of firm of Olmsted Brothers was present; Acting Director General Sefton said: “It looks as though we are going to have at least a ten million dollar exposition in San Diego.”

July 8, 1911, Board of Park Commissioners: On motion duly carried, the president and secretary were authorized to enter into an agreement between the Park Board and the Exposition Co. for the selection of a site for the Exposition and that all previous acts be rescinded; permits for shooting rabbits rescinded; bills from Panama-California Exposition Co., amounting to $1,691.60, approved.

San Diego Union, July 8, 1911, 5:1. Famous band from Mexico coming here; 8th Battalion Musicians to take part in Exposition celebration; Governor Vega to speak; Lower California executive gives Exposition officials cordial reception.

San Diego Union, July 8, 1911, 8:1. Santa Fe promises train every hour; all railroads report prospects of enormous crowds coming here, July 19-22.

San Diego Union, July 9, 1911, 23:1. City enthusing as celebration draws near; arches are nearly completed; street decorating to begin this week..

San Diego Sun, July 10, 1911, 11:7-8. Facts support plan to sell part of park; report compiled by the Park Commission of City of Berkeley shows San Diego is burdened with park acres; sale of 400 acres of City Park would reduce taxes, purchase Southern California Water System, improve park.

San Diego Sun, July 10, 1911, 12:3-4. Many shows to hold forth on “Isthmus”; Wild West Show, Days of ’49, Plantation Show, Oriental Dancers, Snake Show, “Insurrecto Village.”

San Diego Union, July 10, 1911, 9:3. Plan making of City Beautiful; meeting called for tonight to discuss provisions for growth of San Diego.

San Diego Union, July 11, 1911, II, 9:1-3. Official count is thrown out and Miss Helene Richards made queen; vote was six to five; Slayton chose king by nine to two.

San Diego Union, July 11, 1911, II,10:1. San Diego Civic Association organized July 10; A. D. Robinson, president.

San Diego Union, July 11, 1911, II, 16:4. South half of park chosen as official site of Exposition; Buildings and Grounds Committee choose practically former location.

San Diego Sun, July 12, 1911, 1:6. Carnival queen mix up to get worse each day; Miss Georgia Eleanor Lee, defeated army and navy candidate.

San Diego Union, July 12, 1911, II, 9:2. President Taft sends Barrett to groundbreaking celebration here; Pan-American Union director is President’s personal representative.

San Diego Union, July 12, 1911, 16:1. Program for queen of celebration arranged; Miss Lee’s lawyer absent; Miss Helene Richards’ women friends proceed; committee will off losing girl position of chief maid-of-honor.

San Diego Sun, July 13, 1911, 1:5-7, 2:4. Thousands coming for carnival; plan to take good care of them; headquarters information booth will be at Santa Fe Depot; reception committee of 100 men and a large committee of the Women’s Auxiliary; eight restrooms among the streets for the women and children; 100 policemen trained in handling crowds; accommodations to be had in dwellings, rooming houses and hotels; physicians on duty; field hospitals in two automobiles; barrels of ice water along streets; estimate of 40,000 plus people to attend.

San Diego Sun, July 13, 1911, 7:1. No decision in fight over carnival queen; factions unable to agree on compromise.

San Diego Union, July 13, 1911, 12:1. Miss Lee’s lawyer gets into fight over choice of queen; says it will be settled today or bitter lawsuit will follow.

San Diego Sun, July 14, 1911, 1:2. Wangenheim not anxious to talk of Exposition plans; new commission will not give preference to the stadium.

San Diego Sun, July 14, 1911, 1:8. Aviators to fly at North Island during carnival; Aero Club directors plan meet; northern men to appear.

San Diego Sun, July 14, 1911, 2:4-5. Injunction to make Miss Lee the queen; slander suits talked about.

San Diego Sun, July 14, 1911, 11:1-2. Was Russ school fire the work of an incendiary?

San Diego Union, July 14, 1911, 8:1. Panama-Pacific Exposition directors will attend local celebration.

July 15, 1911, Board of Park Commissioners: Superintendent Christopher estimated average monthly expense of maintaining park during the next six months as $1,596.00.

San Diego Union, July 15, 1911, II, 11:1. Strollers witness robbery in park close to 7th street boulevard that extends through park; spooners flee in fright; 59 lovemaking pairs routed by police in search of highwayman

San Diego Union, July 15, 1911, 18:1. Origin of school fire is a mystery; Chief Almgren has not yet announced result of inquiry; insurance to amount to $6,500 was carried on old building.

San Diego Union, July 16, 1911, 5:1-2. Rushing work of preparation for carnival; grandstand in front of new Spreckels theater.

San Diego Union, July 16, 1911, II, 9:5. President Taft arranges to open celebration; will press button installed in East Room of White House.

San Diego Union, July 16, 1911, III, 17:1. Miss Lee ill; has abandoned suit for queen of carnival; fire in Balboa Park causes auxiliary to choose new scene of coronation; site of throne scorched.

San Diego Sun, July 17, 1911, 1:1-2. San Diego ready for her guests.

San Diego Union, July 17, 1911, 16:1-2. Catholics prepare for impressive ceremony at celebration.

San Diego Sun, July 18, 1911, 1:6-8. Southland’s great carnival to open in a blaze of glory.

San Diego Union, July 18, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Exposition Groundbreaking.

San Diego Union, July 18, 1911, 5:1-2. Ringing of Mission bells will open Exposition carnival.

San Diego Union, July 18, 1911, 6:1. Coronation of queen to be held at court house.

San Diego Sun, July 19, 1911, 1:1. Pontifical mass brilliant spectacle; thousands see big carnival parade; Bishop Conaty’s eloquent words heard by crowd; appeals to Californians to unite old missions with fine road; Barrett is guest; thousands gathered on sides of hills, see ceremony in park.

San Diego Sun, July 19, 1911, 1:2-5. Lighter side of big show.

San Diego Sun, July 19, 1911, 1:8. Big parade to be feature of afternoon; President Taft to start groundbreaking.

San Diego Sun, July 19, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Welcome . . . “Do your level best to send every visitor home wishing he was a San Diegan.”

San Diego Union, July 19, 1911, 1:6-7, 5:1-5, 7:2-3. John Barrett, President’s envoy here; praises San Diego, its celebration and great Exposition project.

San Diego Union, July 19, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Exposition Guests.

San Diego Sun, July 20, 1911, 1:1-2. Floral parade best of entire carnival.

San Diego Sun, July 20, 1911, 9:1-2. King Cabrillo rules over all.

San Diego Sun, July 20, 1911, 11:2. Barrett breaks ground for great Exposition.

San Diego Union, July 20, 1911, 1:1-7, 3:2-4, 5:3, 8:1-6. Exposition ground broken amid pomp; many notables from other cities participate in impressive ceremonies.

San Diego Union, July 20, 1911, 3:2-3. Full text of address made by John Barrett at groundbreaking.

San Diego Union, July 20, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Groundbreaking and Carnival.

San Diego Union, July 20, 1911, 5:2-3. Exposition groundbreaking, July 19; Bishop Conaty conducts ceremonies before groundbreaking; Cabrillo’s caravel lands; full description of day’s exercises and ceremonies.

San Diego Union, July 20, 1911, 8:6. Mass concelebrated by four Franciscan priests from Santa Barbara and Los Angeles and 50 acolytes; Bishop Thomas James Conaty of the Diocese of Monterey and Los Angeles.

Bishop Conaty’s Prayer

God, we pray Thee, by these missions and the sacrifices of these padres, bless our beloved California, which as pioneers and missionaries they sanctified by their lives and make us worthy of our inheritance. Bless out state and bless our nation. Bless this city, the first-born of our cities to Christianity and civilization. Bless its people and all within its walls during these days of feast that all may bless Thee, O God, for all Thou hast done for our state and nation, that we may be true to the noble traditions of the Golden State.

California, beloved of us all, we reverently salute thee. Thy soil has been made sacred by these holy men and the monuments built by them are sacred. The purple haze of thy mother mountains, the gorgeous sunsets in thy sun-kissed sea, the golden harvests of thy fertile fields, the wealth of thy rich orchards, the beauty and fragrance of thy shrubs and flowers, the life-elixir of thy thousand springs — thou art indeed blessed of God. The people happy and prosperous gladly acclaim thee the Golden State, and pray that God may always bless thee with a manhood and a womanhood worthy of thy gifts.

Around thee, like well-beloved children, the twenty-one missions gather today. They are indeed the precious jewels in thy golden crown. San Diego, the first-born, the child of struggle and pain, has the place of honor. We salute her as decked in her glorious array she welcomes all the nations for her Festal Day. Clothed in her mission robes, she rejoices with her mission daughters who proudly proclaim her queen mother of all the missions. May God bless her unto the fullness of success and prosperity. To her we may say with the royal Psalmist, “With thy comeliness and beauty, prosperously proceed and reign.”

San Diego Union, July 20, 1911, II, 9:1-7, 10:1-4. Thousands of revelers crowd streets; extreme gaiety succeeds dignified ceremonies of Exposition groundbreaking.

San Diego Union, July 20, 1911, II, 9:1-8. Description of water carnival; Morley Slayton was King Cabrillo; Helene Richards was Queen Ramona. . . . Queen was officially crowned in front of the courthouse by John Barrett, who, “in the name of the President of the United States and the officials of the exposition,” placed the diadem upon the brow of the kneeling queen. . . . The presentation of King Cabrillo was the final event of the ceremony. Cabrillo disembarked at the Custom House Wharf; escorted queen and her retinue to Isthmus.

San Diego Union, July 20, 1911, 11:1. Henry T. Scott, director of Panama-Pacific Exposition, says great future is assured for San Diego.

San Diego Sun, July 21, 1911, 1:1-2. Thousands cheer as industrial pageant passes through streets.

San Diego Sun, July 21, 1911, 2:1-2. Historical pageant is credit to celebration; success of night parade due to Kabierske.

San Diego Union, July 21, 1911, 1:1-8. Floral and historical parades; gorgeous pageants; streets last night seething mass of merry revelers.

San Diego Union, July 21, 1911, 1:2-3, 5:3-4. Historical pageant beautiful spectacle; long line of floats picture history of city from founding down to present time.

Glitteringly beautiful and interest beyond expectation was the first night street pageant of the seven parades on San Diego’s celebration program . . . the historical parade which emblematically portrayed a period of centuries from the days of the Aztecs to the present time.

Also, in the smallest detail, the pageant was historically correct and was another triumph for the designer of the floats, Henry Kabierske of Philadelphia, whose efforts have provided San Diego and her thousands of visitors with wonderful spectacles and will have its climax in the most notable work of his career when the Mission pageant is seen Saturday morning.

The history of California and San Diego passed slowly in review through the streets as the historical parade, with its more modern features of brass bands and fife, wended its way over the line of march, and the lover of the history of the red-blooded West was given many thrills as the picture of each succeeding epoch was presented.

History of City Recalled

Balboa, Montezuma, Cabrillo all meant little to the observer as compared with the scene of Father Junipero Serra planting the cross at San Diego and the raising of the flag at Old Town in the days when such sturdy characters as Kit Carson were making the great West. There was a feeling of native pride for these men and for the mighty gigantic Neptune, representing the Panama Canal, and an ________ of civic loyalty for the final picture in the pageant, “The Past and Future of San Diego.”

Preceded by Grant Marshall Fey and a platoon of mounted police, the pageant moved up B street and on 12th and out 12th by H street promptly on time. Some weird figures followed the police, marchers wearing gigantic heads of wild animals and forming a bit of oddity and pleasantry, if not an intentionally historical setting for the first float, “The Aztec War God,” which itself was of most hideous design, even if historically correct. The war god’s sacrificial altar was one subject toward which the crowd did not shudder, as might have been the case had a volunteer victim appeared. Neil Eishenberger was the captain of the float.

Balboa Next On List

“Balboa Taking Possession of the Pacific” was the next float in line. The characters of the period of 1513 were Balboa, two Spanish captains, eight Spanish soldiers, ten Indians, two Spanish soldiers leading horses, in addition to the banner carrier in costume. The scene represented Vasco Nunez de Balboa, attired in leather surcoat and cape, trunks and hose and helmet, in the act of planting the standard of Spain in the surf of the Pacific ocean and proclaiming the sovereignty of the king of Spain. Four soldiers of the period with halberds and guns, and seven Indians in costume of their tribes and carrying lances, were grouped about Balboa in attitudes of wonder and expectation. Back of the little party arose steep mountains covered with tropical foliage. H. M. Skinner was the float captain.

“The Downfall of Montezuma” presented a scene of the portico of Montezuma’s palace, the monarch of the Aztecs clad in red, white and purple, and crowned with gold and long plumes of brilliant color. Cortes, sword in hand, roughly dressed in the half mail of the Spanish conquistadors, stood by. Five Spanish soldiers and a group of six Indians of Montezuma’s court crowded back, surprised and in terror of the white men. . . . Cortes and his five Spanish soldiers. A dozen Indians and four Spanish soldiers accompanied the float which was captained by N. J. Doyle.

Cabrillo of the Carnival

“Cabrillo Receiving His Orders” may have had different orders or made some of his own, but it was a good Cabrillo float showing the palace of the Viceroy Mendoza, with Mendoza seated on the throne surrounded by courtiers and soldiers and handing the scroll to Cabrillo. The characters were five sailors accompanying Cabrillo, ten Spanish soldiers and two offices. W. E. Ross was captain of the float.

A beautiful and impressive float was the next representing “Planting the Cross at San Diego,” in which Father Junipero Serra appeared in front of the cross he had just placed, surrounded by soldiers, Franciscans and Indians. The scene was that of old San Diego, with Point Loma and a section of the bay in the background, and all around Serra and his followers were scattered the implements of a new camp and guns of the soldiers. The characters were five Spanish soldiers, ten Franciscans, ten Indians, an Indian squaw and papoose, and two monks for the horses. R. W. Nelson captained this float.

San Diego Mission

An indication of what may be expected in the Mission parade Saturday was seen when the San Diego mission float appeared in last night’s pageant. It was accompanied by character Franciscans and followed by marchers costumed as Indians, while Indian grooms attended the float. This float was the first built, following the plan carried out in building all the twenty-one mission floats in the order of the actual founding of the missions. John Hayes captained the float.

“Raising the Flag at Old Town” represented Captain Dupont with the American flag in front of a pole, while the accompanying characters were soldiers and sailors of the American army and navy. Mexican, Spanish and American settlers of that period — 1844 — and American scouts and trappers as grooms. Four Franciscans accompanied the float. T. Kutscher was float captain.



Neptune Float Gigantic

An enormous float was that of “Neptune,” representing the Panama canal opened to commerce. The gigantic figure of Neptune and the dainty mermaids on the opposite side of the canal, the fortifications with cannons peeping grimly from the walls, a battleship passing through the canal, and all this scene electrically lighted, presented a pretty picture. Ten sailors and a large number of marchers representing workmen of nearly every race, as are actually at work on the canal, accompanied the float, which was captained by J. I. Granthan.

One of the most beautiful floats in the pageant was that representing “Past and Future of San Diego” placed in the parade by John D. Spreckels. Miniature buildings on the float representing Old Town and other sections, San Diego Union’s building, new Spreckels theater, trolley lines, boats, etc., all brilliantly electrically lighted while high on the float three young women representing Prosperity, Progress and Peace.

The grooms were four boys in knickerbockers, representing the rising generation, and attendants of the float were five Franciscans, five sailors, mechanics, three Spanish soldiers, six Indians and a number of Spanish war veterans.

There was music galore in the pageant, the bands appearing being Moore’s of Los Angeles, the City Guard Band and the Eighth Battalion Mexican band from Ensenada.

A big feature was the YMCA Drum Corps, all of whom came in for loud applause all along the line of march.

San Diego Union, July 21, 1911, 2:2-5. Barrett guest of honor at banquet.

San Diego Union, July 21, 1911, 3:5. Queen Ramona and King Cabrillo to hold reception, greet subjects today.

San Diego Union, July 21, 1911, 10:2-3. Feats of aviators thrill spectators.

San Diego Union, July 21, 1911, II, 12:1. Governor Richard E. Sloan of Arizona delivers interesting address at groundbreaking; says Arizona will be represented at Fair.

San Diego Sun, July 22, 1911, 1:3-5, 3:3-4. Final pageant of great celebration is triumph of art.

San Diego Union, July 22, 1911, 1:1-8. Celebration Ball, notables attending; parade points promise of future.

San Diego Union, July 22, 1911, 5:1. Biplanes race and maneuver in air; fly over bay.

San Diego Union, July 22, 1911, 7:2-4. Eighth Battalion Band of Mexico makes immense hit.

San Diego Union, July 22, 1911, 10:2. Fiesta spirit reigns; city streets aglow with life and color.

San Diego Union, July 23, 1911, 1:1-8, 5:2-6, 6:1-5. Exposition carnival ends; Mission parade.

San Diego Union, July 23, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: A Great Triumph for San Diego.

San Diego Sun, July 24, 1911, 12:3-4. Spreckels not likely to have competition; bids for 41-year street railway franchise will be opened next Monday; Spreckels has agreed to pay a two percent tax on gross earnings.

San Diego Union, July 24, 1911, 7:2-3. Barrett wires exposition endorsement to Champ Clark, speaker of Congress; expresses belief Panama-California Exposition resolution should pass.

San Diego Union, July 24, 1911, II, 9:1. Henry Kabierske says success of celebration is forecast for 1915 Fair.

San Diego Union, July 24, 1911, 14:1. 60,000 saw sights of Isthmus in four days it was open.

San Diego Union, July 25, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Taft Did Well By San Diego.

July 26, 1911. Marston File, Correspondence on Location of Exposition, 1910-1914 . . . Letter Marston to Olmsted: The Clark Braly regime was doleful and fearful. The fact that in three weeks Mr. Braly had given 23 permits for shooting rabbits in the park shows what he might have done if he kept in office for four years.

San Diego Union, July 26, 1911, 1:1. San Francisco Fair directors agree on locations for international show.

San Diego Union, July 26, 1911, 9:1-2. Members of Congress will recognize San Diego’s Exposition.

San Diego Sun, July 27, 1911, 1:6. Mayor Wadham is back; gets back offer; Mayor refuses to tell what corporation wanted him to become attorney.

San Diego Union, July 27, 1911, 4:2. EDITORIAL: Both Expositions Should Be Supported.

San Diego Union, July 27, 1911, 5:4-5. Praise from all sides for great celebration.

San Diego Union, July 27, 1911, 10:3. House speaker Champ Clark will aid Exposition cause.

July 28, 1911, Marston File, Correspondence on Location of Exposition, 1910-1914 . . . Letter Olmsted to Dawson: Two Bridges Contemplated — I have felt all along the danger to the park landscape of having the tops of these bridges so high as some of our plans have contemplated. It is a great deal better for the park landscape to keep them down, also it shortens the bridges and makes them less costly. The location of the Spanish bridge on the Date street entrance is very good . . . as it comes at the mouth of the Spanish canyon and tends to frame in the east side of Cabrillo canyon.

So far as possible to do so, I am in favor of keeping the plan decidedly informal north of the Spanish garden. The canyon makes an entirely adequate separation in grouping and design and I see no necessity for buildings north of the canyon to follow the formal grouping to the south of it. If they are distributed informally and with curving drives and walks in the main, whatever drives and walks are left after the Exposition are almost certain to be adapted to whatever planting and improvement can appropriately be carried out in this central portion of the park as a matter of park design.

San Diego Union, July 28, 1911, II, 11:2. Mayor Wadham denies he has any intention of resigning office; also refuses to discuss appointment of Park Commissioner.

San Diego Union, July 29, 1911, III, 13:1. Louis J. Wilde charges he was extradited north to face accusers through fear of an Exposition boycott.

San Diego Union, July 30, 1911, 5:3. Mayor Wadham to appoint F. J. Belcher, cashier of First National Bank, to Park Board; H. H. Jones not qualified because San Diego Consolidated Gas & Electric Co. has business relations with city.

San Diego Union, July 30, 1911, 7:2. Santa Fe Railroad gives $41,666 subscription fund to Exposition.; trip to Chicago by Colonel Collier results in big boost for San Diego Fair.

San Diego Sun, July 31, 1911, 1:7-8. Spreckels pays $60,000 for 41-year railway franchise.

San Diego Sun, July 31, 1911, 2:1. F. J. Belcher appointed to Park Board to succeed H. H. Jones.



July 19, 1911

10:00 am – Pontifical military mass conducted in Balboa Park

2:00 to 5:00 pm – Military and naval parade

3:00 pm – Groundbreaking ceremonies

8:30 pm – Landing of Cabrillo and march to Isthmus

July 20, 1911

10:00 am – Floral parade under auspices of Ladies Auxiliary Committee; decorated trucks and automobiles; floats representing Women’s Christian Temperance Union, Equal Suffrage Movement; American Women’s League.

2:00 to 5:00 pm – Athletic events, automobile racing, aquatic sports, four-day aviation meet at Coronado Polo Grounds; Lipton Yacht Cup races; sailing boat races in bay; San Diego Rowing Club; rowing, swimming and tub boat races.

8:30 pm – Historical pageant (Episodes I, I, etc.)

July 21, 1911

10:00 am – Industrial parade with fire department apparatus, the first horse-drawn cart ever used in San Diego in 1886; floats from Longshoremen’s Union, the Moose, and Ladies of the Grand Army of the Republic.

2:00 to 5:00 pm – Motorboat races, Lipton Cup Yacht races off Coronado pier.

3:00 to 5:00 pm – Queen Ramona reception in Palm Room; receptions for visiting members of all fraternal clubs in their respective headquarters.

9:00 p.m. – Grand Masque Ball at U. S. Grant Hotel

July 22, 1911, Saturday

10:00 am – Mission Pageant

2:00 to 5:00 pm – California Yacht Association closed its first regatta in San Diego waters on the Coronado course.

8:00 pm – Street ball, night of carnival and revelry.

“Isthmus” was at D and Union Street, open every afternoon and night with 30 shows.

Historical Pageant

10 floats designed by Henry Kabierske

Episode I: Aztec priests sacrificing to their war god.

Episode II: Balboa taking possession of Pacific Ocean in the name of the King of Spain.

Episode III: The downfall of Montezuma and the triumph of Cortes.

Episode IV: Cabrillo receiving his orders from the Viceroy of Spain.

Episode V: Cabrillo’s caravel.

Episode VI: Junipero Serra planting the cross at San Diego.

Episode VII: San Diego Mission.

Episode VIII: Raising the American flag at Old Town of San Diego.

Episode IX: The Panama Canal – Neptune at the wedding of the oceans.

Episode X: San Diego – Past, Present and Future

August, 1911, The California Garden. p. 6. . . . Is it because San Diego is a large body that it is apt to move slowly? In any event the fact that it does move slowly in some instances is the one here emphasized, and therefore in order to be in time for the fall planting The California Gardenonce more wished to advocate early planting of rose bushes, that is in late November and December. The reason being that the plants have time to get well established before making a top growth. Once again, also, it brings forward the proposition that every owner of a garden in San Diego should plant a dozen rose bushes each year until 1915, San Diego is not only justifying her claim to be a land of flowers and it is of some importance that she should do so by the time of the exposition. Allowing two thousand owners of gardens acting on this suggestion and fifty additional bushes to each, there would only be an increase of one hundred thousand in four years, a perfectly negligible quantity when we consider the area over which the planting would be spread and that one nurseryman near Los Angeles, among whose specialties the rose is only one of many, grows annually half a million bushes. It is not too much to say that the one thousand dollar Panama-California Rose Contest will and already has in a large measure caused the United States to expect a great thing in roses of San Diego. California Garden begs to insist that the Exposition with its improved park will only emphasize the barrenness of the land unless private gardens keep step in the progress. It is not inferred that San Diego has not fine private gardens and many of them, but it is insisted that they are the exception and not the rule. Therefore, plan to plant more roses and if you have been drying off those you have, prepare to trim them and irrigate at the end of August. Remember to get the growth well started before applying fertilizer.

August, 1911, The California Garden, p. 7 . . . An Exposition Dream, by Alfred D. Robinson

And I fell asleep and dreamed, and in my dream I went forward instead of back. It was the year 1915 and I had returned to San Diego after an absence of four years. Much wandering in other lands had filled my mind’s eye with trees and grass as a familiar setting for every scene so that the browns and the grays of the mesas and hills seemed barren and lifeless. In the August evening I sat on the porch and my eyeballs ached with the strain of the hours and steady sunshine and my throat was dry with the dust of a rainless summer land. To my friend at my side, I voiced my disgust and he said, “Oh, you will soon feel all right. Wait till our great open spaces have set your spirit free and you can wallow in the sunshine like a horned toad. Come along with me and I will give you more immediate relief.” We went out and boarding a street car quickly reached the gates of the Panama-California Exposition. Entering we headed for a band which seemed to be located at the end of a long avenue of eucalyptus ficifolia, whose blood-red blossoms flamed in the electric light. The trees helped to make my mood happier and better calculated to give just appreciation to the scene that opened before me as we passed through a generous portal and found the band surrounded by a vast throng. Where was I? Ten minutes earlier I had thirsted for green meadows and trees in a sun-baked land; now I had entered the garden of Eden. Palms and ferns and flowering plants and vines on all sides, sending out their delicate scents upon the night air to mingle with the odor of moist earth and recent rain, a draught as intoxicating as champagne. I opened my mouth and drew in a long breath with a sigh of supreme satisfaction, then turned to my friend with a look of almost stupid inquiry. He understood and said, “Let’s get seats and I will explain.”

We were in the largest lath house ever projected as a pleasure resort. Where the band played and we sat was a great central dome, 500 feet in diameter, arched over by a domed roof rising fifty feet in the air. Up its supporting columns ran choice vines, jasmines of such sweet savor, begonias and tecomas of gaudy hue and the curious Dutchman’s pipe. Palms from many lands and of many forms lined the borders and were in beds here and there while bigonias and other foliage plants nestled at their feet. In the air hung the orchids with their strangely beautiful blossoms.

From this central court ran out six great arms or aisles and in each were gathered and growing in grateful harmony a great family of plants. There were thousands and thousands of varieties and each was plainly labeled. The lighting had been carefully planned so as not to strike the eye offensively and the whole effect was absolutely entrancing.

Shortly after the groundbreaking ceremony in 1911 it seemed desirable to the directors of the exposition company to at once start a work that would utilize to the most the climatic advantages of San Diego and be a unique feature and advertisement. Very little consideration conclusively showed that the lath house as an effective substitute for a glass house was a peculiarly Southern California institution; that it embodied the maximum of efficiency with the minimum of cost, and furthermore would increase in value year by year. Plants from small pots becoming very handsome and large specimens in four-year’s growth under lath.

As a matter of course, opposition to the lath house project arose. Certain folks thought the outside would not look well, others feared the dampness from continually watering and growing vegetation might cause colds, and yet others regarded it as a possible mosquito breeder, but so strong a sentiment in its favor developed that this wonderful tropical garden was begun and was completed, and its building and growth was an abiding interest from its inception till the exposition opened when it easily took first place as an attraction.

When the music stopped for the evening, I wandered round the court and through the aisles. I filled my eyes with their colors and my nose with their odors and the grateful moisture laved my parched skin. I heaved a great sigh of gratitude and said, “Is it not strange there was not a thing like this in San Diego fifty years ago?”

San Diego Union, August 1, 1911, 5:5. Exposition plans to be public soon; two plans slightly different were submitted and approved and submitted to the final approval of the Olmsted Brothers; plans given to James F. Dawson.

San Diego Union, August 1, 1911, II, 9:2. Belcher named as Park Commissioner.

San Diego Union, August 2, 1911, 16:1-3. San Diegan wanted for Congress; Collier is proposed.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, August 3, 1911, 6:1. Park Board to stop speeding in park; beginning Monday policeman will be stationed on roadways to enforce law regarding speeding autos.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, August 4, 1911. EDITORIAL: Excellent Decision on Park of the Park Commissioners . . . No speeding of automobiles on the boulevards in Balboa Park in the future.

San Diego Sun, August 4, 1911, 5:4. How city got park: Edwin M. Capps quotes from Book One, Box 26, of records in the office of the city clerk.

Board of Park Commissioners, August 5, 1911. New trash cans; 25 new seats; aluminum tags for trees.

San Diego Union, August 5, 1911, 5:5. Will build storehouse in Balboa Park for Exposition floats.

San Diego Union, August 6, 1911, 17:1. Forward endorses Collier for congress.

San Diego Union, August 6, 1911, 17:2-3. William Clayton plans to restored Mission San Diego de Alcala and use for teaching of agriculture; also to erect a cross in Presidio in honor of Father Serra.

San Diego Union, August 7, 1911, 2:2-5. Site selected for Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco admirable for big Fair.

San Diego Sun, August 8, 1911, 8:3. Collier to boost in entire south.

San Diego Union, August 8, 1911, II, 16:3. South enthuses over Collier idea; commercial clubs and boards of trade indorse Congress to be held at Memphis.

San Diego Sun, August 10, 1911, 1:7-8. Cops in city park get John S. Hawley, Jr., former cashier for the Bank of Commerce, for speeding.

Board of Park Commissioners, August 11, 1911. L. C. Masten and Geo. Burnham asked Board to present plans for opening of 6th Street through park; carried.

San Diego Union, August 11, 1911, II, 11:1. William F. Gracey, American consul to China, promises Exposition aid.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, August 15, 1911, 1:3, 5:5. Art pottery to be made by San Diego plant; Joseph W. Sefton, Jr. erects a factory on University Avenue and A. R. Valentien, noted artist of famous Rockwood pottery, secured.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, August 19, 1911, 1:3, 3:3. House of Representatives endorses San Diego Exposition; authorizes invitation to Latin nations.

San Diego Sun, August 19, 1911. 1:1-2, 3:2. House for Exposition resolution; passes measure 160 to 51, inviting Central and South America to send exhibits to San Diego; official recognition means much; Collier’s success hailed with joy here; Sun’s extra tells San Diegans good news.

San Diego Union, August 20, 1911, 1:6. House votes recognition to Fair at San Diego; authorizes President to invite southern republics to participate; ballot stands 166 to 66; Collier congratulated by legislators.

San Diego Union, August 20, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Collier Scores Again.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, August 21, 1911, 6:1. Expect Collier to return September 1.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, August 22, 1911, 12:2-3. Civic Association urges buying of playgrounds; public comfort station is to be threshed out before the Council.

San Diego Union, August 22, 1911, 16:1. Senate will not pass Exposition resolution at this session; Collier leaves for New York.

San Diego Union, August 23, 1911, 16:3. Mission floats are stored in Balboa Park.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, August 24, 1911, 5:2. Collier is due in San Diego on Tuesday.

San Diego Sun, August 24, 1911, 3:3. Collier will be home on Tuesday.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, August 25, 1911, 7:1. Collier to tour the south for 1915 Fair; will remain 10 days in San Diego before leaving.

San Diego Sun, August 25, 1911, 1:4. Laborer threatens C. A. Richardson, auditor of Exposition; had been employed at the tents at foot of D Street.

San Diego Sun, August 25, 1911, 1:7-8. Collier dinner planned; great crowd expected.

San Diego Sun, August 25, 1911, 4:7 Sunbeams: They have constructed four walls and a roof within which to store the mission floats which were used in the carnival parades.

San Diego Union, August 25, 1911, II, 11:3. Chamber of Commerce plans complimentary banquet in honor of Colonel Collier on his return from Washington, DC, next Tuesday.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, August 26, 1911, 6:2. To welcome Colonel Collier.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, August 26, 1911, 10:2. Plans for Exposition placed before Goodhue.

San Diego Union, August 26, 1911, 5:4. Collier reception arranged.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, August 28, 1911, 5:4. Big crowd to welcome Collier.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, August 28, 1911, 6:1. Plan to start work on Fair buildings soon.

San Diego Union, August 28, 1911, 16:1. Fortune Lanier of Hotel Lanier unfolds plans to make San Diego garden city of world; would invite nations to install horticultural and floricultural exhibits; San Diego to maintain garden permanently after close of Exposition; assign to each nation a plot of 10 to 50 acres; invite seed dealers to grow flower plots; have U.S. Government give a practical demonstration of its reclamation system; would include building a dam to supply the park with water.

San Diego Union, August 29, 1911, 5:1. Monster reception planned for Colonel Collier.

San Diego Sun, August 30, 1911, 1:1-2. Collier says not candidate; he won’t run now; would rather serve city as Director-General of the Exposition.

San Diego Union, August 30, 1911, 8:1. M. R. Tarpey, former Lt. Governor of California, says people of entire state should aid both Fairs.

San Diego Union, August 30, 1911, II, 9:1-3, 16:2. Cheering throngs welcome Collier on triumphant return from capitol; vote 166 to 51 in House of Representatives.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, August 31, 1911, 5:2-3. Estimates of size of Exposition increasing.

San Diego Union, August 31, 1911, 5:3. Secretary L. G. Monroe urged states to exhibit at Fair while attending convention of Western Association of Commercial Executives.

San Diego Union, August 31, 1911, 10:1. Collier says back Exposition and San Diego will be emblazoned on map.

September, 1911, The California Garden, p. 9. That Lath House . . . Shall We Not?

Last month Alfred D. Robinson had a dream about an exposition lath house of unique arrangement and generous proportion which was the chief attraction at the 1915 Panama-California Exposition, which according to this dream was then in the height of its glory.

The man who dreamed is this month communing with nature in the fastnesses of the Yosemite, but the dream seems to have struck such a popular chord that The Garden has been importuned on every side to see if this one dream at least cannot be made to “come true.”

Some go so far as to say that this feature alone, if entered into with a right spirit by the exposition directors, would make the show worthwhile while, even if the visitors from the four corners of the earth had first paid their entrance fee to the great aggregation under the big tent at Frisco.

Many have painted their mental pictures in such lifelike colors that one could fairly hear the music of the band and smell the plants and flowers, here and there, catching a glimpse of the lath over which had crept the tinges of brown and green, gathered from the dews and the sunshine from without, and the damp earth and growing plants within, until the house and the plants, the music, the birds and the odor seemed to have been there from the beginning of things.

Of course there are objections. All admit the beauty of the conception, but it has never been done, and the idea of combining the lath house feature with the central auditorium hasn’t a precedent.

The Eiffel tower and the Ferris Wheel were a little out of the ordinary in their day and some in San Diego say this lath house would be to the Panama-California Exposition what the Ferris Wheel was to the only and original World’s Fair.

All other objections might be overcome, however, but what about the matter of getting the money to put it up? It might cost anywhere from $10,000 to $20,000, and spots have been picked out for practically all the Exposition’s twenties, and then some, so we are told.

The question naturally arises, “Is it a good scheme to warrant cutting off a corner here and there in order to permit of its consummation? Many who haven’t the spending of the money seem to think it is.

Naturally The Garden is prejudiced in favor of the lath house proposition and sees in it a most attractive exposition feature. At the same time it sees no obstacle in the way of the project too great to overcome.

Here are the opinions of a few of our citizens:

“Why not?” asks Joe Sefton, Jr., Acting Director-General.

“A lath house, that shall be a permanent and beautiful ornament to the park, and one of the great features of the Panama-California Exposition?

“Why not?

“It strikes the exposition company in a soft spot, this suggestion of Robinson’s. There is no reason why such a lath house cannot be built. There is no reason why once being built, it cannot become one of the most striking and beautiful features of the whole exposition.

“The only objection to your ‘dream’ is that it is too small. Make the lath house just as large as architects and constructors will dare to build it with the light materials that must be used in its construction. If possible, make it conform to the general architectural appearance of the exposition. Fill it with the rarest plants, vines and flowers that can be gathered together. Arrange it like our lath house now in the park with overhead pipes so that rain showers can be used when irrigation is needed. Such a house will always be warm enough to grow any species of plant life wanted for interior decoration. Make as many wings as will present a symmetrical whole, and when the exposition opens, light it as beautifully as possible; put, as you say, a band inside, arrange seats for spectators and properly and plainly label every plant in it.

“Such a house would be one of the most beautiful, instructive and enjoyable things at the exposition, and after the exposition, it could remain in the park for the delight of thousands for years to come.

“I am free to say that if the Floral Association wants to go ahead with the beautiful dream of Mr. Robinson, the exposition will cooperate in every possible way. Let it be, however, the exhibit of the San Diego Floral Association. Exposition engineers will prepare the plans for you and will assist you to carry out those plans when once you adopt them. It ought to be easy for the Floral Association to build, with this assistance, the finest lath house in the world. One that will make Henry E. Huntington’s lath house in his country place near Los Angeles look like a play house in comparison, and that is some lath house as Olmsted and Dawson will tell you.

“With all my heart, I am with you in this. Get busy on it and tell us how much ground you want for it, and how you want your plans drawn. You will see that the exposition will be only to glad to cooperate with you in every way, and to do everything possible to secure for this exposition, as you say, a feature that neither San Francisco nor any other city can possible create.

“Such a lath house as this might cost anywhere from $10,000 to $20,000. It would have to be painted and built in a more finished manner than the ordinary lath house. After the exposition it can be dedicated to the city and kept by the park commission.

“I will say for the exposition and for myself that the idea is one that we will be glad to support to the limit, if the Floral Association will organize the project and assume the responsibility and credit for it.”

Mr. Olmsted Considers Necessary Appropriations Only Obstacle

Brookline, Mass., 1st Sept. 1911

I have been much interested in the article in your August number suggesting a large lath house as a feature for the Panama-California Exposition. We have had the matter under contemplation, but as yet have not secured an appropriation.

At present it seems unlikely that a sufficiently large appropriation can be set aside for this purpose to accomplish such a large and elaborate structure as that described in the above mentioned article. If this should prove to be the case, it seems to me it would probably be better to plan a less formal or more picturesque structure. If the lath house could be located at the head of one of the ravines, it would be appropriate to adopt an irregular plan with units of different sizes and shapes and on different levels, in part covering the ravine so as to provide opportunity for rustic stone dams, pools and picturesque rock work, and crooked paths on the side slopes of the ravine in addition to a reasonable amount of comparatively smooth level ground nearby for the sorts of plants which can be more appropriately grown on such ground

It would certainly be most desirable to have as large a lath house as possible, with as complete and interesting a collection of plants suitable for it as the finances of the Exposition and Park will permit.

Yours truly,

John C. Olmsted

Mr. Gill Sees Wonderful Possibilities in Exposition Lath House

Mr. Irving J. Gill, Architect: Not only is the proposition feasible, but it contains wonderful possibilities. A mammoth lath house covering 30,000 square feet, beautifully laid out and worked out on practical lines, would be the grandest thing of its kind in the world. There is nothing like it and it would be wonderfully popular. It would serve to satisfy a longing for the beautiful, the quiet and the refined and at the same time furnish amusement and good clean enjoyment. If San Diego cannot get away from the commonplace and rise above the gaudy and racy midways of the past, it will be a great disappointment. The glory of this lath house will be its atmosphere of refinement, its coloring and its coziness, with clean popular refined amusement, amid beautiful surroundings. It could be made the greatest attraction the fair would have. Mr. Robinson’s dream should set others to thinking, until it evolves into something real and tangible.

Mr. Howard of Howard & Smith, Los Angeles: It would made a most attractive feature of the exposition and would demonstrate better than anything else, the possibilities of plant growth in Southern California.

Mr. Marston: The suggestion is both interesting and valuable.

The Union friendly to Exposition Garden, by Fortune Lanier . . . In Monday’s issue, August 28th, the San Diego Union published an article unfolding plans to make San Diego the Garden City of the World.

Alfred D. Robinson, president of the Floral Association and president of the Civic Improvement League, being absent from the city on an extended tour through the Yosemite Valley and feeling that now was a propitious time to inaugurate this movement of making San Diego the Garden City of the World, before San Francisco or Los Angeles had appropriated Mr. Robinson’s ideas, I laid the matter before Mr. McMullen, editor of the San Diego Union, who thought so favorable of the plans, he assured the writer that his paper would be more than pleased to exploit the movement before the general public.

In an interview with the reporter, it was suggested that Mr. Robinson’s dream, published in the August issue of California Garden, be published entire, which, no doubt, will be done at a later day.

The idea of inviting the principal seed dealers of the United States to grow flowers, shrubs, etc., as an advertising feature, was discussed before his departure. The entire membership of the San Diego Floral Association, I feel, is back of this movement and since Mr. McMullen, editor of out leading newspaper, has taken kindly to the idea, we can anticipate success.

Mr. O. W. Howard of Howard & Smith, floriculturists and landscape gardeners of Los Angeles, said that an international world-wide floricultural and horticultural exhibit would be the most unique proposition ever placed before any country. No exposition in any land has ever attempted to hold a world-wide flora and fauna exhibit, because no section is so climatically situated and adapted to do so successfully. San Diego has the climate and the adaptability and the SPOT (Balboa Park) to produce such a panorama. It would attract floriculturists, horticulturists, agriculturists, and all other “Tourists.”

Board of Park Commissioners, September 1, 1911. Motion that the action of this Board heretofore locating the Exposition site in the south portion of Balboa Park be changed, and the same is hereby changed to what is known as the Central site thereon; carried; motion that it be the sense of this Board that Palms be planted in the Palm Canyon on each side of the proposed bridge at Laurel Street.

September 1, 1911, George W. Marston Papers, Collection 219, Box 2, File 25 – Panama-California Exposition – Buildings and Grounds. Night Letter, J. C. Olmsted to G. W. Marston, September 1, 1911.

Your telegram date September first stating that the officials of the exposition have changed the site to the central portion of the park received. We regret that our professional responsibility as park designers will not permit us to assist in ruining Balboa Park. We therefore tender our resignation to take place at once. We have wired Blossom to do no more work on the exposition or park plan and for him to leave San Diego at once.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, September 2, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: San Diego Exposition Ideas Are Finding Favor.

San Diego Union, September 2, 1911, 10:3. Tentative plans for Fair site accepted yesterday at a meeting of the buildings and grounds committee with Director of Works Allen; grounds will be larger than area originally proposed; plans were submitted to the city park commission for approval; they will be forwarded to Bertram Goodhue, official architect of the exposition, for his final commendation.

San Diego Union, September 3 1911, 16:3. Exposition officials change site of Fair at meeting of buildings and grounds committee, August 31; choose higher ground; new site is on central mesa and 165 acres will be devoted to buildings; main approach will be a bridge across Cabrillo Canyon; especially constructed trolley lines will make easy access to grounds; Bertram G. Goodhue, architect from New York, will arrive this week.

September 6, 1911. Marston File, Correspondence on Location of Exposition, 1910-1914, San Diego History Center Research Archives. Olmsted to Blossom regarding Sixth Street connection from Juniper to Date Streets.

San Diego Sun, September 6, 1911, 3:3. Exposition men decide on site plans; exhibits to cover 145 acres; total area is 350 acres; botanical garden will cover 600 square feet.

San Diego Sun, September 6, 1911, 3:4. Sunbeams: Charlie Collier wore dress suit while on his eastern trip boosting the 1915 Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 6, 1911, 7:1-7. Magnificent Exposition site laid out; extended to meet requirements; embraces 167 instead of 37 acres; foundations alone to cover are of 147 acres, exclusive of large outdoor exhibits; architect Bertram Goodhue and his assistant, Carleton Winslow, arrived in San Diego yesterday. . . . Collier said he had received promises of participation from southern states and Brazil. . . . All the grading, street and roadwork will be so arranged that there will be a system of roads and streets, with ornamental centers, lined and surrounded with groves of trees and flowering bushes, the erstwhile foundation spaces being sodded with bluegrass.

San Diego Union, September 8, 1911, 4:4-5. Letter, Charles Cristadoro: Our Most Important Exhibit.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, September 9, 1911, 1:5-6. Olmsteds resign as landscape engineers.

San Diego Union, September 9, 1911, 8:1. A. B. Titus chosen art commissioner for Exposition.; former San Diegan; director of Art Students League of New York.

San Diego Union, September 10, 1911, III, 18:1. San Diego Civic Association plans reception for John Nolen.

San Diego Union, September 10, 1911, 8:1-5. John C. Olmsted resigns; opposed to new site for Exposition.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, September 11, 1911, 3:2-3. Steamer with representatives of Chamber of Commerce and Exposition will make boosting excursion to South America sometime in January.

San Diego Sun, September 11, 1911, 2:3. Olmsted Brothers leave park work; telegram received by Julius Wangenheim, president of Park Board, explaining reasons.

San Diego Sun, September 11, 1911, 12:3. Exposition ship will make run to south coast.

San Diego Union, September 11, 1911, II, 9:2. Alan Polok made controller of Fair; former San Diegan places in charge of all employees and disbursements.

San Diego Sun, September 13, 1911, 1:1-2. Plan to wipe out pretty canyon to extend 6th Street from Fir to Juniper for electric line brings protests from property owners and others.

A plan to extend Sixth street from Fir to Juniper, up through one of the prettiest canyons in the city park, has brought forth a strenuous protest from property owners on Fifth street, and many others interested in the welfare of the park.

The plan to extend the street through the canyon is said to be a part of the new exposition program, and is being done in order to run an electric line to the exposition grounds. The property owners object for the reason that the new roadway will completely obliterate one of the prettiest canyon spots anywhere near the business district, and they declare it is unnecessary, as there are two parallel streets, not over 200 feet from the proposed railway.

“The new road will prove an immense expense,” said one of the property owners interested today. “It will wipe out years of work in beautifying this spot, and mean cutting down many beautiful trees and shrubs.”

It has been suggested that a road connecting Sixth street with the oiled road in the park be constructed at Fir streets as a compromise thus doing away with the proposed canyon road.

President Wangenheim of the park board said this morning that no decision has been reached in regard to the road, but that a public hearing would be given all interested, before any decision is reached.

San Diego Sun, September 13, 1911, 1:7-8. Advocates of Capps’ plan say improve the port and then talk about parks and pretty things.

San Diego Sun, September 13, 1911, 8:2-4. Five stockholders object to moving the Exposition; want opinion of taxpayers.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, September 14, 1911, 10:2-3. Greek peddler is held up and robbed on the park boulevard near the Russ High School; ropes stretched across boulevard bring victim to halt; says highwayman carried big revolver.

San Diego Sun, September 14, 1911, 4:1-2. Sunbeams: New Timken residence on 4th Street between Upas and Walnut.

San Diego Sun, September 15, 1911, 4:6. Sunbeams: Black goat in menagerie in the city park.

San Diego Union, September 16, 1911, 5:3. Collier’s plan for southern route between Texas & Pacific and Southern Pacific rail systems; toured southern states.

September 18, 1911, Marston File, San Diego History Center Research Archives. . . . Olmsted to Julius Wangenheim. Left plans for general improvement of Balboa Park in office of Director of Works; proposals for entrances, shorts cuts and access to principal points in park; mentions drive across north end of park, drives in northeast park of park, West drive, and drives in vicinity of southern site of Exposition.

San Diego Sun, September 18, 1911, 1:1. Council adopts Capps’ plan for harbor.

San Diego Union, September 18, 1911, II, 9:2. Texans start move for Fair building; Collier and Dawe given hearty welcome at Dallas and Fort Worth.

San Diego Sun, September 19, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Small Parks, How?

San Diego Sun, September 19, 1911, 11:1. Quayle Brothers to design new Polytechnic School.

San Diego Union, September 19, 1911, 5:2. Arkansas greets Collier and Dawe.

San Diego Union, September 19, 1911, 5:3. Members of Floral Association propose unique ideas for Fair; A. D. Robinson suggested lath house; Fortune Lanier wants competitive farms from big seed companies, and Charles Christadoro envisions Little Lander farms with houses on them; Botanical Building to be lath house with glass section, 600 feet square by 100 feet high, with a central court for band concerts; competitive flower gardens to be back of lath house; Spanish Canyon to hold 50 million gallons of water.

San Diego Union, September 19, 1911, 10:1. Board of Education decides on plans for Polytechnic High School; 108 feet by 117 feet auditorium; brick walls faced with natural granite and artificial stone with broken ashlar work, same as old building.

September 20, 1911, Marston File, San Diego History Center Research Archives. . . . Samuel Parsons asking for work; no longer with New York parks: “I do not say that there is no other place except the south side. I can readily conceive of other places. It not unreasonable, I should wish, of course, to back up the Olmsted’s, but, in any case, I could make the best of a bad job.”

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, September 20, 1911, 7:1. Sefton leaves tonight for Chicago and Memphis on a boosting expedition.

San Diego Sun, September 20, 1911, 3:3. Collier getting hearty support from the south; his plans to divert traffic through southern cities makes hit.

San Diego Sun, September 21, 1911, 3:3. Sunbeams: Portion of park where Palm Street runs in has been used for dumping trash.

San Diego Sun, September 21, 1911, 4:3-4. O. K. Bullard objects to changing Exposition site.

San Diego Union, September 21, 1911, 18:3. South approves Collier’s plans.

San Diego Union, September 22, 1911, 5:1. Collier and Dawe warmly received in Mississippi.

San Diego Sun, September 23, 1911, 3:2. Collier, a hit in Little Rock.

San Diego Union, September 23, 1911, II, 11:2. 3,900 trees being planted in Balboa Park as part of Fair scheme; propagation section now comprises 25 acres; 5 miles of water pipe laid; work in park requires ten men, most day laborers and irrigators.

San Diego Union, September 24, 1911, 2:3-5. Artist’s sketch of San Diego as it appears in Exposition Year 1915; Exposition plans nearing completion; Director of Works to being construction by middle of November; Administration Building will be first to be erected; bridge will cross Cabrillo canyon from a point just above the deer and bear pens in the park; Laguna Alta (Spanish Canyon) where groundbreaking ceremonies were held; Plaza Mayor will be at the head of a small canyon in which the rifle range had been set up; lower end of state and county sections will be just above Russ High School tennis court..

San Diego Union, September 24, 1911, III, 17:1. Alabamans greet Collier and Dawe.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, September 25, 1911, 5:1-5. Frank P. Allen completes plans for 1915 Exposition.

San Diego Sun, September 25, 1911, 1:1-8. Drawing of new Exposition plans.

San Diego Sun, September 25, 1911, 1:4-5, 10:3. New Exposition Plans Shown in Detail.

Frank P. Allen, Jr., director of works of the Panama-California exposition, has finished plans for the exposition to be built in Balboa Park. The following description is written by one of the exposition officials.

These plans comprehend one of the most beautiful architectural compositions ever devised, a California landscape filled with examples of Spanish-colonial architecture designed by Bertram G. Goodhue, the highest authority in the world of architecture on this style of building.

Vista succeeds vista, and architectural focus succeeds architectural focus throughout the entire plan. There is no one point in all the grounds where every feature of the landscape or architecture will strike the eye to obliterate with one impression all the beauties of detail contained in the composition. Like the scenes along a wooded road or on a canyon path, new beauties unfold with each turning and the progress from one beauty to another is filled with pictures that delight the eye and elevate the mind.

Entrance to the exposition is gained by a high and long bridge. From this bridge the general skyline feature of the grouping is shown. At the end of the bridge is a widened space flanked with the Art and the California buildings, the space divided from the Prado ahead by a series of arches that define the composition. On the left, the Art building, while dimly in front, screened from a more intimate examination, is the Prado which leads to the Plaza Mayor, or central court of the group.

From the center of this the eye of the visitor will take in the broad facade of the Government building on the left, the Electrical building, the continuation of the Prado, and the Foreign Liberal Arts Building in front, and to the right, a series of fountains, formal gardens, and parked street that leads out to the foreign, state and county group, a vista of trees, running brooks and grass and architecture through trees.

Turning, the Machinery building and the Mining building close up the Prado from which he has just entered and he has his choice of three routes, each one visible and each one promising beauties of its own. If the visitor goes straight ahead, he traverses another Prado, or parked street, until he comes to a street that turns him to the left to the Botanical building, a lath house such as has never been built before, a lath house without dampness and without visible supports, filled with the rarest plans in the world and surrounded with a garden such as the hanging gardens of Babylon must have been, as beautiful as horticultural art and architectural ingenuity can make it. The approach to this building is through a Persian garden with a small still pond filled with lilies, lotus and flowering water plants, lined with rare trees, shrubs and flowers, a fitting introduction to the wonders of the lath house. Back of this again and surrounding it are the gardens and horticultural displays, all formal and all in a setting of trees, the rarest and most beautiful than can be made to grow in this climate, which is saying a good deal.

On the right of the Prado will be the Domestic and Liberal Arts buildings with the same settings, trees and vines and flowers. Straight ahead on the main axis will be the Plaza de Balboa, with the statue of Balboa, and the east entrance a little farther along. To the left of this is the Isthmus, “El Rodeo,” where the shows and concessions will be.

If when in the Plaza Mayor, the visitor shall elect to turn to the right and follow the vista toward the fountains, he will see as he passes down the secondary axis a formal garden or parkway through the trees, of which he will catch glimpses of distance, filled with palms planted in the canyon his right, and the hills and buildings of the city across the deep canyon further away. On the left, he will catch a glimpse of Laguna Alta, or upper lake, which stretches an arm almost to the Peru building, located on the left of this street. Straight ahead will be the cascades and the broad central court of the Plaza de las Republicas, through the trees of which will rise the broad facade of the Brazil building directly in front, a huge fountain and pools on either side of the center in the foreground.

Here will be presented one of the most imposing architectural compositions of the exposition, the huge Brazil building, the beautiful San Diego building on the left, the Argentina building, which he has just passed, on his right, and the foreign state building he has just passed on his left. Between these buildings will be the vistas of water and trees and on the right will be another vista leading further to the state building section, which he cannot see, but which is divined from the formal street and ornamental walks that lead away from the Plaza. Walking down this he comes first to a point where he may look back toward the first group of buildings across the canyon to the right, and as he rounds the curve of the street, he comes into a preliminary court made by the shoulder of the Mexico building, a foreign state building and the New Mexico building. As he passes through this preliminary court, he debauches into a more formal triangular court formed by the Mexico, New Mexico and Arizona buildings, in which he will find a garden typical of the great southwest, flanked by the buildings of the states of that territory, the whole forming a composition of its own, from which the street leads him further to the widened area where the facade of the Texas building strikes him with one architectural blow, as it were. Around this building, the vista leads him, the right side of the curve filled with county buildings and vistas, all arranged so that he walks from one formal setting to another, until he comes out on the bridge or dam of Laguna Alta, from which he gains another entrancing view of the buildings and gardens which line the shores of this bit of water on either side. Crossing the bridge, he comes to the south entrance to the grounds, though he may continue around the side of the lake through the children’s playgrounds and along the forested sides of the promontory to the Balboa statue at the east entrance.

Practically every building in all these groups will contain a central patio. Practically every building will be covered with flowering plants and vines. Every court will be a formal garden modeled after some famous botanical garden and containing not simply plants and flowers grown for ornamentation, but valuable and beautiful plants entered in competition by the great nursery firms of the world.

There will be an absence of the hurly-burly of the main street of the ordinary exposition, the plazas are so screened with trees and the prados so arranged that at no time will it appear that there is a huge crowd on the street.

The site is not isolated from the city, as was that of the Alaska-Yukon, the Louisiana Purchase, or the Columbian expositions. One may walk from the waterfront in San Diego to the center of the exposition without fatigue. It is accessible from all sides and really in the heart of the city of San Diego. Approaching it one gets the impression of entering a medieval town, with its low buildings and general architectural features masked in front, the towers and domes of cathedrals and palaces rising above to tempt a journey of discovery, and the details of architectural beauty satisfying upon closer examination.

San Diego Sun, September 26, 1911, 1:7-8. Harbor election is called for November 14.

San Diego Union, September 26, 1911, 18:2. Collier and Dawe now in Alabama.

San Diego Union, September 27, 1911, II, 2:2-3. Zoo planned for 1915 Exposition; garden to contain specimens of American birds and animals; Sefton and Spalding promoting idea of building a zoological garden and aviary on one of the canyon sites.

San Diego Union, September 27, 1911, 18:3. Arizonans latch out for Exposition boosters.

San Diego Union, September 28, 1911, 8:2. Collier is still making friends; now at New Orleans.

San Diego Union, September 28, 1911, 10:1. Goodhue’s arrival means start of Exposition building; Allen’s ground plans finished and ready for consulting architect’s eye; work begins November 1; California Building, a huge structure of domes with central tower; plans and estimates for Administration and California Buildings “are well under way.”

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, September 29, 1911, 7:1. Goodhue plans an artistic triumph.

October, 1911. The California Garden, p. 3. The Lath House – the Park – the Show. . . . Some of our readers are asking “Are we going to have that lath house in the park?” The exposition officials all say “it’s a fine thing” and the Park Board says “go ahead with it.” Then we are asked “Where are the funds going to come from to build it?” The Garden suggests cutting out one of the other buildings if necessary. We are told that our “Mission City” is to be something different than anything ever attempted before, but when we read down the list of buildings we are forced to remark “same old thing.” Even our mission style of architecture is to be imitated by poor old Frisco — the city that follows the bellwether. Why not cut out our liberal arts building or some other such chestnut which has not place in an exhibition such as we have planned and build that lath house. Firstly, we can build three lath houses for what one of those temporary buildings will cost, and then it will be a permanent improvement in the park. Build it mission style, if necessary to harmonize with the general scheme, with its arches and towers, its patio and its campanile. And in the patio, by the fountain of our Mission Fathers, not such a version, however, as the former park board had the nerve to perpetrate on the Old Town Plaza, sweet music will be played, and possibly in one of the ells, separated from the onlookers by a wire netting, gay-colored parrots will flit amongst the palms and banana trees as they were wont to do of old, and monkeys and other denizens of the tropics will chatter and caper amongst tropical plants.

Perhaps if fewer mistakes were made, more money could be saved. When we view the dozens of palms in the park nursery trying to recover from the ordeal of having been removed at the wrong time of the year, we are surprised to read in the newspapers that thousands of palms are to be transplanted at this late date. When we read that Olmsted resigns after spending a year’s work and thousands of dollars in laying out and working out the plans for the exposition, a men whom we were told was an eminent authority on landscape art, and to think that he resigns because he did not want to be dictated to by those whom he had a right to consider his inferiors in landscape architecture, it makes us feel as though enough money had been wasted to build two lath houses.

Some of the members of the Floral Association have made excellent suggestions which are to be carried out — that of the seed farms by prominent seed firms to display the fruit of their product — that of offering a $1,000 prize for a rose to be called “San Diego” — that of having model “Little Landers” farms showing how a living can be made on an acre of ground in San Diego and last but not least the Lath House. By all means let us have them all. The Garden also hopes to be able to report another feather for the Association’s cap by its next issue. A surprise that seems to be near consummation.

October, 1911, The California Garden, p. 9. Once More the Lath House

No apology is made for again taking a modicum of the limited and valuable space of The Garden to discuss further the Lath House question for the park, in connection with the exposition, if the exposition so pleases, but for the park anyway. Public sentiment seems overwhelmingly in favor of this idea and, therefore, it should be carried out, for is not the Park, the people’s; are not the people paying for the million of park improvement funds, and are not the Park Commissioners the servants of the people? The press has stated that the lath house is to be one of the features of the Exposition but The Garden would be glad to see the Park Commission express itself, for it fears that the Exposition might want to put the house on wheels so as to be able to move it around with the changes in site for the Exposition. In any event, this lath house proposition is up to the Park Commission as something for the city of today, tomorrow and twenty years hence. The Exposition is an incident in its lifetime. The Garden must also insist upon the combination of a lath house for plants and to serve as an auditorium. In this combination lies the unique feature of the suggestion. Southern California has many more lath houses than glass houses. San Diego builds one almost every day, so that just a lath house full of plants is a mere repetition, even if on a big scale. Then the word has floated around that this lath house is to be occupied only by the rarest specimens. The Garden ventures to take issue with this idea. It believes that it should be largely occupied by plants that everyone knows, only grown to their best; a demonstration of the superior conditions pertaining in San Diego, inviting comparison. How is the multitude to draw comparisons with rare exotics to which they are strangers?

Another suggestion has been made that the San Diego Floral Association build this lath house for the Exposition as its exhibit and that after 1915 the Exposition give it to the Park. The Floral Association has always dreamed of owning a lath house and ever sees its dream coming nearer realization so it feels that it has to be a little selfish and conserve its energies for its own use first. Moreover, its members are taxpayers and subscribers to Exposition stock and, as such, they say to both Park and Exposition Boards, “build a lath houses in the park.” A certain Park Commissioners encourages the Floral Association to believe that the Lath House idea appeals to his imagination and he is of such a caliber that if he be convinced of its desirability, San Diego will have that lath house in its park.

August, 1911. The California Garden. Mr. Olmsted’s Resignation and “Next” . . . All true lovers of our Park and well wishers for its development must join with California Garden in its deep regret at the resignation of the Olmsted Brothers as the landscape architects for the park in connection with the exposition for 1915. It would be useless and probably unwise to attempt to do more than express this regret, but we may and must inquire, “What now?” Again, the Garden prays, let a suitable man be found to act as superintendent of our park, and having found such a one, keep him. A certain policy of compromise and makeshift has crept into all public work in San Diego and it ought to be getting sick of highways that revert to cow trails and park plans that won’t stay fixed overnight. Those who knew the late George Cooke can now, in a measure, appreciate what was the loss to San Diego when he went on. He knew the park and loved it as no stranger can and therein lies the danger. Where shall a man be found who will make the park his first care in these days of conflicting interests?

San Diego Union, September 30, 1911, 7:1. Florida welcomes Collier and Dawe.

San Diego Union, October 1, 1911, 5:1. Lagoon is planned for Balboa Park fish exhibit; government expert here to investigate possibilities for exhibit of ocean denizens.

San Diego Union, October I, 1911, II, 9:2-3. Polytechnic High School buildings will present handsome appearance (drawing).

San Diego Union, October 1, 1911, 17:3. Architects finish plan for Administration Building; drawing (names of architects not given).

(San Diego) Tribune, October 2, 1911, 3:2. At the annual meeting of the San Diego Architectural Association tonight, Irving Gill expects to be relieved of the secretaryship. He stated today that the duties take up too much of his time; president W. S. Hebbard, vice-president S. G. Kennedy and treasurer Charles Quayle are expected to be re-elected.

San Diego Union, October 3, 1911, 16:5-7. Little Landers’ manager makes suggestion for San Diego Fair.

San Diego Sun, October 6, 1911, 1:4. Work on Administration Building to be started in a few weeks; appeal will be made to subscribers to pay up so work can be carried out as planned. . . . The company announces that the site had been decided upon, many palms planted, and that grading will be started in the near future. An appeal has been made to subscribers to pay up, that the work can be carried out as planned.

San Diego Union, October 6, 1911, 8:2. Collier’s tour to end tomorrow; visited 32 southern cities on trip.

San Diego Union, October 7, 1911, 5:1. Dr. Edgar L. Hewett says Exposition should advance science.

San Diego Sun, October 9, 1911, 2:3. Colonel Collier, J. W. Sefton, Jr., S. C. Payson and Victor Wankowski are at Memphis, Tenn. Today at the opening of the All-South conference called by the Southern Commercial Congress and the Panama-California Exposition to divert travel through the south; Collier has just finished a trip of 40 days during which he visited every city of the south between El Paso, Texas, and Raleigh, North Carolina.

San Diego Sun, October 10, 1911, 2:5. With Collier in the southland.

San Diego Union, October 12, 1911, III, 13:4. Typical Gold Camp feature for Fair.

San Diego Union, October 13, 1911, 5:2. Washington, DC, pleased with Colonel Collier.

San Diego Union, October 13, 1911, 9:4. Colonel Collier now in Chicago.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, October 14, 1911, 6:4. Counter plans for harbor to be offered; San Diego Civic Association not opposed to municipal ownership but insists on docks south of D Street.

San Diego Union, October 14, 1911. Groundbreaking for Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco.

San Diego Union, October 15, 1911, 1:7, 3:4. President Taft breaks ground at San Francisco for Exposition.

San Diego Union, October 15, 1911, 9:1, 10:2-4. John Nolen talks of “City Beautiful.”

San Diego Union, October 15, 1911, III, 17:1. Sefton says entire south is for Exposition.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, October 16, 1911, 9:2-3. J. H. Russell scores Civic Association.

San Diego Union, October 16, 1911, 15:1. Fletcher says San Diego was ignored at San Francisco celebration; only one guest from here got seat at banquet, he bought it; California voted $5 million to help San Francisco Fair.

San Diego Union, October 18, 1911, 3:4. Davidson returns from trip north; says he was treated well by San Franciscans; cannot speak for others.

San Diego Union, October 18, 1911, 18:1. One-acre farms to be feature of Exposition; Little Landers will show how family can live by cultivating the soil.

San Diego Sun, October 20, 1911, 1:8. Capps says Nolen plan is illegal.

San Diego Sun, October 20, 1911, 11:2. La Jolla to improve its park grounds.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, October 21, 1911, 5:1. Curtiss school on North Island to be reopened.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, October 21, 1911, 5:2. Mission Cliff park praised.

San Diego Union, October 22, 1911, 5:2. Chrysanthemums in full bloom at Mission Cliff Park.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, October 23, 1911, 3:3. Landscape architect Beers of Bar Harbor, Me. And Professor Bernhart of Los Angeles enthuse over work in park; spent forenoon in park nursery.

San Diego Sun, October 25, 1911, 1:3. Capps say substitute plan for harbor is absurd.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, October 26, 1911, 6:2-3. Work on first Exposition building ordered.

San Diego Sun, October 26, 1911, 11:4. Buildings and Grounds Committee instructed Frank P. Allen to begin work on the Administration Building immediately; Allen says building will be done by April 10.

San Diego Union, October 26, 1911, 7:1. Little Landers to have model acre at Exposition.

San Diego Union, October 26, 1911, 9:1. Buildings and Grounds Committee give Frank P. Allen’s ground plans formal endorsement; work on grading for Laurel St. viaduct and Administration Building to commence immediately.

San Diego Union, October 26, 1911, 9:2-4. B. P. Beers, landscape artist from Bangor, Me., declares revised plans for exposition are worthy of any architect in the country.

Board of Park Commissioners, October 27, 1911. Ordered that road by High School be changed as per plans submitted.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, October 27, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Civic Association Not Benefiting by Action of Leaders.

San Diego Union, October 27, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Specter of the Nolen Plan.

San Diego Union, October 28, 1911, 3:1. Frank P. Allen’s plans for exposition site are approved; Board of Directors and City Park Commission met yesterday; calls for an exposition 50 percent larger than first proposed and permits of unlimited expansion.

San Diego Sun, October 30, 1911, 6:4. A colored, bird’s-eye view of the city and the Exposition grounds with the proposed buildings, the lake and the bridges, about 20 inches long and 10 inches wide, is being issued by the Exposition company; L.G. Coop is handling the sale.

San Diego Union, October 31, 1911, 7:1. Members of Civic Association may reverse Director’s action.

November, 1911, The California Garden, pp. 5-6. Exposition Lath House Assured, by Winfield Hogaboom, Publicity Department. . . . The board of directors of the Panama-California Exposition have ordered Director of Works Allen to begin construction of the administration buildings in Balboa Park and actual construction was started Monday, November 6.

At the same time the board approved the general plans for the exposition as prepared by Director of Works Frank P. Allen, Jr. and discarded for all time the inadequate and expensive Olmsted plan that provided for the site in the southern end of Balboa Park.

There were many reasons that brought this action about.

In the first place the activity of Director-General D. C. Collier resulted in an increase in the scope of the exposition by about fifty percent.. The Olmsted plan called for about 35 acres of foundations. When the buildings and grounds committee called for a report on the applications for space, it was found that 145 acres will be required for foundations alone. To build an exposition on the southern site under the Olmsted plans to embrace the features actually offered the management would have been impossible and the board thereupon adopted the more central site where there is plenty of room and where the one item of grading and excavating dropped from a total of 130,000 yards to less than 70,000 yards.

One of the first things that awakened the board to the need for more room was the proposal of the San Diego Floral Association that a lath house be constructed in the park that should be a monumental structure of its kind and one filled with such material that it should be famous the world over.California Garden first published the details of this plan and the idea met instant favor from the exposition management. The matter of funds naturally is the most serious side of the whole thing; but plans were prepared for the lath house as if the funds already were provided.

California Garden estimated the lath house would cost maybe on the outside $10,000. Here is what happened. The lath house idea developed and attracted so much attention that from it grew the determination to make at the Panama-California Exposition a horticultural feature that has never been equaled at any exposition in the world. The lath house, from being the central thing, became part of a big feature. As planned now this lath house is to be no less than 600 feet square. It is to be 100 feet high, if it is possible for the constructors to design and construct a lath house that high. It will be filled, not only with ordinary plants and vines of this state, but with the rarest and most beautiful plans that can be obtained from the seed and nurserymen of the world.

In front and leading to it will be a Persian garden with a shallow lake, warmed and filled with Victoria Regias, lotus, lilies and surrounded by all the rare water plans possible to grow. Around the lath house will be lawn, shrubs and trees. Back of it another plantation, at least ten acres in extent, laid out in formal gardens in which the exhibitors of plants and trees of the world will be invited to show their wares. From the nursery and lath house will be supplied hundreds and thousands of vines and plants for decoration of the buildings of the exposition. In the lath house during the Exposition will be band concerts by the famous musical organizations of the world. After the exposition the lath house will be maintained as a permanent improvement of Balboa Park, a monument for all time to come and a pleasure place that will increase in beauty for half a century. And the cost, about $30,000.

The money will be forthcoming. No feature of the exposition will be lost because of the lath house. It will not be necessary to abandon the plans for the liberal arts building or any other “chestnut” to provide the lath house.

As a part of the horticultural feature will also be the rose contest; a contest to be carried on under the care of the San Diego Floral Association andCalifornia Garden. This contest has excited world-wide interest already and will excite more. Another idea of the members of the Association is that of the seed farms. This is not practical in its present shape and it is to be hoped that some member or members of the Floral Association will give it some study and work it out, for it can be a valuable feature.

By far the most important and the latest feature is the Little Landers’ model farms. Here is something that will be not only beautiful, but of real economic worth as well, an education and an inspiration, something of real benefit to the race, a thing that will show every visitor to the exposition that he can make a living easily off one acre of land in Southern California.

All these things have grown from the original idea of the lath house.

The lath house and the horticultural section will contain the plans that grow on the mountains and in the valleys of California as well as the rare plans send to the exposition by the seed men and the collectors.

To criticism of the plans for this feature of the exposition, it can only be said that when the matter is investigated, it will be found that the only reason definite plans have not been announced for this feature is because no members of the Floral Association have taken the trouble to study them out and present them to the management for adoption.

San Diego Union, November 5, 1911, IV. On the Margin by Yorick: Sell 500 acres of Balboa Park to provide a fund for the “City Beautiful.”

San Diego Sun, November 6, 1911, 9:3. Actual work on Administration Building begun this morning.

San Diego Union, November 7, 1911, 7:2. Work is begun on first exposition structure November 6; may be retained as permanent improvement; grading for foundation of Administration Building begun; 96 feet by 81 feet, two stories high, with basement.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, November 8, 1911, 3:5. Who is to pay for new boulevard near the high school? Attorney H. S. Utley to decided whether Board of Education or Park Commission shall stand expense. Present boulevard, near the old building which leads to 12th, will be closed.

San Diego Sun, November 8, 1911, 1:5. New polytechnic high school building will be erected in the center of Park Boulevard; for that reason the Park Board will be forced to construct a new boulevard.

San Diego Sun, November 8, 1911, 9:3. Levi Monroe, secretary of the San Diego Exposition Company, to quit; offered a better job by Chamber of Commerce, Billings, Montana.

San Diego Sun, November 8, 1911, 9:5-6. San Diego booster special arrived in Yuma, Arizona this am after having been the center of attention in Phoenix for two days; Collier explains how the opening of the San Diego Arizona and Eastern Railway will benefit southern states and how tide of travel may be started through southwest.

San Diego Sun, November 9, 1911, 4:4-5. San Diego folks sort of won that Phoenix crowd . . . Under the heading of “Come Again Soon, We Like You Fine,” the following article appeared in the Arizona Republican, published in Phoenix, soon after the San Diego boosters took that city by storm.

“The biggest and best bunch of busy boosters on the broad earth, that’s exactly what they are. The Republican ought to know for they came in last night and told us so. Who are we talking about? Well, you are slow! The San Diego folks, of course. Everyone of them blows a San Diego horn individually and in addition the bunch brought along a band to blow a collection of horns. And say, they are the dandy dops, they all blew just as hard for Phoenix as they did for home. Mayor Cristy handed them the keys to the whole she-bang and told them to get busy, they did . . . etc. . . . etc.

San Diego Union, November 9, 1911, 7:2. Can High School Board use money for new boulevard? When construction is begun on new buildings, it will be necessary to do away with present boulevard leading past High School to 12th Street.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, November 10, 1911, 3:2-3. Poor quality of gas prevents flight of big Toliver airship.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, November 11, 1911, 1:3. Mission Cliff Gardens now name of park at pavilion.

San Diego Sun, November 11, 1911, 7:3. Enthusiasm of booster dinner breaks records; Collier speaks on work in south; Choate speaks for harbor bonds; 300 citizens at banquet at the Grant Hotel bivouac grill.

San Diego Union, November 12, 1911, V, 33:1. Clyde Power, eastern landscape engineer, says Balboa Park has great prospect; cites Parc des Buttes Chaumont in Paris for converted abandoned stone quarries into park; “We have to follow the French plan and produce a combination which conserves the natural beauty and effect, and, at the same time, supplies sufficient of the artificial to render the parks handsome and convenient for those who use them. . . . Nearly everyone you meet can tell you exactly how a park should be improved; he knows it all, and probably never saw a park. He has his ideas which may seem to him to fit the spot, but while fitting that spot, his ideas would ruin all that lies contiguous, for parks must be studied in their entirety.”

San Diego Sun, November 14, 1911, 2:3. District Attorney Utley says school board can legally pay a levy of $3,500 for a new boulevard through the park; will be paid from the insurance fund from old Russ building which recently burned; Board of Education advertises for bids for excavation of the ground.

San Diego Sun, November 15, 1911, 10:4-5. One million dollar harbor bonds carry almost unanimously, 7,196 for, 182 against.

San Diego Union, November 15, 1911, 1. Harbor bonds for $1 million carry 7,196 to 182, November 14.

Board of Park Commissioners, November 17, 1911. Retained John G. Morley as Superintendent of Parks at $200 per month beginning December 1; motion carried that no building sites in Balboa Park be granted for public or semi-public buildings except such as are required for park purposes.

San Diego Union, November 18, 1911, 8:2. Park Commissioners name superintendent November 17; John G. Morley will have charge of all beauty spots in San Diego.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, November 21, 1911, 10:1. Rushing work on Exposition grounds.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, November 22, 1911, 8:4. Golden Hill Improvement Club is negotiating with Park Commission for an athletic field and a club house in the park.

San Diego Sun, November 23, 1911, 1:2. Toliver forced to move airship or stand trial; under arrest for maintaining nuisance; case set for December 8.

San Diego Sun, November 23, 1911, 12:2. Collier is elected president of Exposition.

San Diego Union, November 23 1911, II, 11:2-3. Board of Directors meeting, November 22; Grant resigned as president and was elected chairman of the Board of Directors; Collier resigned as Director-General; post to be filled by acting director J. W. Sefton, Jr.; Collier names president of Exposition; B. H. Vreeland named secretary to take place of L. G. Monroe.

San Diego Union, November 25, 1911, 5:1. Directors vote $250,000 for publicity; of this sum $13,000 was expended during the last two years; B. H. Vreeland, new secretary, to take change on January 1, 1912.

San Diego Union, November 26, 1911, IV, 25:1. Russell C. Allen takes place of Marston on buildings and grounds committee; Marston resigns because he is too busy to serve.

San Diego Union, November 26, 1911, 32:1. Collier to work for passage of resolution; wants President empowered to invite Latin American republics to Exposition.

San Diego Sun, November 27, 1911, 16:3. Collier on way to Washington, DC, to work for passage of a resolution empowering the President to invite the Latin American republics to participate in the Panama-California Exposition.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, November 28, 1911, 5:2-3. Applications for Exposition space increasing.

San Diego Sun, November 28, 1911, 16:3. Exposition work is being rushed; buildings started; directors determined to have Fair ready on January 1, 1915.

San Diego Sun, November 29, 1911, 2:1. Hinkle rushes call for aid in new Exposition row; Sefton wires back to legislators that San Diego has real claim; Assemblyman Schmitt of San Francisco attempted to pass a resolution granting the Panama-Pacific exposition an exclusive advertising privilege at the expense of the whole state; Sefton says advertising on state stationery should mention both expositions.

San Diego Sun, November 29, 1911, 2:4-5. Many countries ready to plan exhibits for Exposition; Dr. Eugenio Dahne, commissioner for Brazil, says his country is ready to send an engineer to select site; inquiries coming from all over the world.

San Diego Sun, November 29, 1911, 7:1-2. To celebrate Thanksgiving; early morning prayer in park, near 6th and D Streets, the first of a number of services arranged.

San Diego Union, November 30, 1911, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Advertising the Exposition.

San Diego Union, November 30, 1911, 10:1. San Diego rains telegrams on California legislators; Community extends its active opposition to Schmitt resolution favoring San Francisco world’s fair at the expense of San Diego’s exposition by providing the Seal of San Francisco be places on all state documents and reports.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, December 1, 1911, 6:2. Allen placed orders for material; delivery of lumber for Administration Building will begin next Monday.

San Diego Sun, December 1, 1911, 11:2. Director of Works Allen placed orders for lumber and other material needed for Administration Building; building will cost about $30,000; was designed by Bertram G. Goodhue.

San Diego Union, December 2, 1911, 9:3. Material ordered for Administration Building; about 30 men now employed on grading alone.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, December 5, 1911, 5:2. Work on first Fair building starts soon; carpenters swarm out to site but are not needed until tomorrow morning.

San Diego Sun, December 5, 1911, 8. Workmen eager to begin Exposition building; wood frame for Administration Building ready to go up; a fill being built on opposite side of canyon for approach to Cabrillo Bridge.

San Diego Union, December 5, 1911, 14. San Diego compels compromise at Sacramento; Seal of San Francisco will not appear on State’s stationery.

San Diego Union, December 6, 1911, 12:2-3. Committee composed of Mayor Wadham, Superintendent of Water Fay and City Engineer Capps advise City to sell part of the park and purchase the Southern California Water system. Wadham proposes selling 500 acres of the city park to buy the water system, build a city hall and improve the rest of the park. “Why it’s wicked, yes, wicked, to maintain all that waste land.”

San Diego Union, December 6, 1911, 12:2. Material on ground for Administration Building.

San Diego Union, December 8, 1911, 16:1. Senator Root of New York thinks San Diego project is crowding San Francisco off map; Collier not disturbed.

San Diego Sun, December 12, 1911, 10:5. Collier announced appointment of John A. Fox as commissioner-at-large of exposition; will get exhibits from different states and national governments of Latin America; director of National Rivers and Harbors Congress.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, December 14, 1911, 4:2. EDITORIAL: Affording Equal Recognition to the Two Big 1915 Projects.

San Diego Union, December 16, 1911, II, 10:3. Work being rushed on Exposition building; 100 men are now employed on improvements in Balboa Park.

San Diego Sun, December 19, 1911, 8:3. Exposition now has coat of arms designed by Carleton M. Winslow, designer in the office of the division of works.

San Diego Union, December 19, 1911, 10:1. Smithsonian Institution national institutes volunteer exhibits here in 1915; plans maturing for largest Indian display in history of country.

San Diego Union, December 22, 1911, 12:2. Exposition News makes appearance, new monthly publication.

(San Diego) Evening Tribune, December 27, 1911, 6:1. Shows progress of Exposition buildings; unique display in window of Marston’s department store by 1915 officials; photographs and drawings.

San Diego Sun, December 27, 1911, 12:3. Window exhibit shows Exposition work.

San Diego Union, December 28, 1911, 9:5. Public views Exposition ground plan.

San Diego Sun, December 29, 1911, 1:3. Country Club to move; may choose Point Loma site; aristocratic organization forced out by Exposition.

San Diego Herald, May 11, 1944, 2:1. San Diego in 1911 . . . Panama-Calif. Exposition notes: With material ordered and delivery started construction work on the administration building for the exposition offices begins the second week in December. It will cost about $30,000.

Acting Director-General Sefton, went to Sacramento Sunday to remain a few days and assist assemblyman Hinkle in his fight to include the Panama-California exposition in the Schmitt resolution which grants special advertising privileges to the San Francisco’s World’s fair at the expense of the state.

Percy Goodwin, member of the exposition legislative committee, left this week for Washington to assist President Collier with the resolution empowering President Taft to invite the participation of the Latin-American Republics at the Exposition.

Nearly two score men and a score of teams are busy grading the approach for the cement bridge across Cabrillo Canyon, opposite Laurel street, where will be the main entrance to the exposition.

It is reported that the Pacific Electric will have a double track line from Riverside to San Diego before the end of the year in preparation for exposition business.


Report of the Director: (1) Expeditions – The Excavations at Quirigua

BALBOA PARK, 1909-1911: THE RISE AND FALL OF THE OLMSTED PLAN, by Gregory Montes. February, 1981.

Return to Amero Collection.


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