Balboa Park History 1913

Panama-California Exposition Company: Collier, president; Spreckels, first vice president; Davidson, second vice president, Mc Lure, third vice president; Burnham, fourth vice president; Frank P. Allen, Jr., Director-General; Winfield Hogaboom, secretary. . . . H. O. Davis made Director-General in July, 1913.

San Diego County, California by Samuel F. Black, Vol. 1, S. J. Clarke Publishing Co., Chicago, 1913.

Chapter 64, pp. 351-363: San Diego – Panama Exposition (Note: the following article should be read with caution as it contains numerous errors.)

On July 19, 1911, ground was broken for the exposition to be held in San Diego, commemorative of the opening of the Panama canal. The pageantry exercises at the exposition grounds and noted men and women taking part therein, were all described in a felicitous manner by John S. McGroarty, editor of the West Coast Magazine. His article is given below:

“On July 19th last ground was broken for the Panama-California Exposition at San Diego. On the day of the groundbreaking and for three days following, the event was fittingly celebrated in a most unique, unusual and impressive manner by the people of San Diego and many thousands of visitors from other parts of California and the world. Pageantry by day and by night, carnival that revived the old Spanish spirit of care-free and pleasure-loving California, music, color and gaiety held sway.

“Historically, epoch-making, and from a serious point of view the celebration was distinctly important. The success of it all, which was very notable, indeed, is regarded as a certain indication that San Diego’s Exposition in 1915 will prove the most attractive as well as the most unique show ever given on the American continent.

“The San Diego Exposition will be entirely different from the world’s fair to be held in San Francisco in 1915. The San Diego show will be a Pan-American affair. Congress has recently authorized the president to request the republics of South and Central America to participate in the Exposition at San Diego. As a consequence, these nations will make great efforts to be splendidly represented. In addition to all this, our own southwest will be exploited in a fascinating manner, its ancient life and history will be shown – antedating as it does, the civilization of any other portion of the United States — and its progress in mineral, agricultural and commercial lines will be brought out in an original and vivid manner. Irrigation will be particularly exploited with all the miracles that have been wrought in its name.

“The San Diego Exposition will be a floral and a horticultural wonder. It will be an archaeological and ethnological marvel. Every flower that grows, every tree than man has known, the prehistoric races of man, the ancient temples in which they worshipped, the sacrificial altars, the pueblos, the cliff dwellings and the teepees of the nomads — all these will appear. No exposition of such fascinating possibilities has ever been planned or dreamed of before anywhere in the world.

“The groundbreaking for the Exposition was fixed to place practically on the anniversary of the foundation of San Diego, which is also the date that marks the beginning of California as an integral part of the civilized world. California was discovered in the year 1542, only fifty years after Columbus had discovered the New World, but it was not until July 1, 1769, that the Franciscan padres came to San Diego bearing with them the Cross of Christianity and the stakes of the white man’s civilization. On July 16, 1769, the Mission of San Diego was founded — the first of that marvelous line of Mission Hospices that were builded along El Camino Real, the “King’s Highway” between San Diego and Sonoma, a distance of 700 miles, the remains of which now constitute the only historical ruins of any extent existing within the borders of the United States.

“It was fitting and entirely consistent, therefore, that the groundbreaking for San Diego’s Exposition which is to celebrate the completion of the Panama Canal, should be held in the month of July, the month of the first miracle performed one hundred and forty-two years ago before on the same spot, under the same blue sky, and on the shores of the same bright Harbor of the Sun. And it is no wonder that the people gathered from far and near by the thousands and hundreds of thousands to witness an event at once so stirring and fascinating, appealing as it did to the imagination of even the dullest beholder.

“The first act which the first white men who settled in California performed was the celebration of a military mass on the shores of San Diego bay. It was done by the Franciscan Fathers, assisted by the Spanish military forces which accompanied the expedition from Old Mexico.

“In order, then, to preserve the atmosphere of history, the Exposition groundbreaking began also with the celebration of a military mass celebrated by Franciscan Fathers on the same historic spot. Thus was the pendulum of history swung backward across the dusty pathways of nearly a century and a half of time on the morning of July 19, 1911, in San Diego.

“On the shores of the Harbor of the Sun the same Te Deum was sung that Junipero Serra chanted when he came up from La Paz with Don Gaspar de Portola, footsore and weary, but with a heart bursting with joy as he plucked a wild rose from its stem and said: ‘The is a beautiful land. The roses are like the roses of Castile.’

“From far away Santa Barbara, San Luis Rey, and the still more distant missions of the Sierra came, cowled and sandaled, the brown priests of St. Francis. In the heart of the hills that overlook the Sunset Sea and the purpled isles of the Coronados they reared an altar hard by the old Presidio Hill on which Father Serra had builded the first Christian shrine ever erected on these western shores. Not far away they could see the ruined towers and crumbled walls of the ancient Mission of San Diego de Alcala which signalized the first victory of civilization over heathenism in California. Almost at their feet tricked the waters of the first irrigation ditch ever made by white men within the borders of the United States, as at present constituted. Down in the quiet, peaceful Mission Valley stretched the sacred fields where was shed the blood of California’s first martyr,

“The celebration of the Solemn Pontifical Military Field Mass was a most entrancing and colorful spectacle. It was carried out with not only all the precision of military discipline, but also with the perfect organization of the Roman liturgy. The swing of the centuries was behind it.

“The magnificent altar, set in a natural amphitheater with the blue sky for its dome was an exact replica of an old altar of Loreto. An immense painting of Our Lady of Carmel formed the background. The floors were of spotless white and the enclosures were of Roman pillars adorned with gorgeous wild flowers and cut roses from the magic gardens of San Diego.

“Twenty-five thousand people were gathered on the open hillsides as the procession of acolytes, friars, secular clergy, distinguished guests, the Bishop and the military filed across the new made trails down to the altar. A hush fell upon the multitudes for a moment; they then broke into a deep murmur of admiration that sounded like the tones of some mighty organ.

“Franciscan priests were in full charge of the mass, the celebrant being Father Benedict, Provincial of the Order, who came from St. Louis for the occasion. Rt. Rev. Thomas James Conaty, Bishop of Monterey and Los Angeles, occupied a purple throne. Fully one hundred clergymen attended him. Within the sanctuary were seated Hon. John Barrett, representing the president of the United States, and Joseph W. Sefton, representing the director-general of the Exposition, recipients of the most unusual honor to non-Catholics.

“After the bugles of the troopers ceased to ring their wild music across the sun swept hills, the band played ‘Nearer My God To Thee,’ and then the stately bishop in his resplendent vestments arose in Cappa Magna and delivered the historical address of the day. It was a notable oratorical effort and was received with cheer after cheer by the people present, who represented all shades of religious belief.

“The actual groundbreaking ceremonies took place on the same spot where the Military Field Mass had been celebrated. The program began in the early afternoon in the presence of another monster throng of people.

“When the procession arrived at the site selected for the future exposition buildings, U. S. Grant, Jr. introduced Rev. Edward F. Hallenbeck, pastor of the First Presbyterian church, who delivered an invocation. This was followed by the exposition ode, ‘1915,’ sung by a triple quartet. Mr. Grant then presented Joseph W. Sefton, Jr., acting director-general, as master of ceremonies. Mr. Sefton made a short welcoming speech and introduced Acting Mayor P. E. Woods. The latter in turn presented Lee C. Gates, the representative of Governor Johnson. Mr. Gates spoke eloquently of the glories of California. Hon. John Barrett, as the representative of President Taft, made a brief address.

“The came the actual groundbreaking. Mr. Sefton loosened the earth with a silver pick. He then handed a silver spade to Mr. Barrett and the latter turned the first sod. The spade was then passed in succession to Mr. Grant, Acting Mayor Wood, Mr. Gates, President Charles Moore of the Panama-Pacific Exposition, John D. Spreckels, Governor Richard E. Sloan of Arizona, Will H. Parry, representing the governor of Washington, and to several prominent San Diego citizens. Each turned a spadeful of earth, the implement being finally passed back to Mr. Sefton, who turned the last sod.

“Mr. Barrett again addressed the gathering, this time in behalf of the Pan-American republics. Then followed the unfurling of the American flag to the strains of the ‘Star Spangled Banner.’ Next the President’s flag was broken out amid a great cheering, the release being effected by President Taft touching an electric button at the White House. The band greeted the President’s flag with ‘Hail Columbia.’

“Flags of the southern republics were next thrown to the breeze as the band played a medley of the airs of all nations.

“G. Aubrey Davidson spoke on ‘The Inauguration of the Panama-California Exposition.’ He was followed by Charles C. Moore, whose them was ‘San Francisco and Her Great World’s Fair.’

“Several San Diego gentlemen followed with remarks. The band played a medley of national airs and the groundbreaking ceremonies were ended.

During his address Mr. Barrett read the following letter from the president of the United States:

‘The White House, Washington,

July 11, 1911

‘My Dear Mr. Barrett: I have yours of July 11, in which you advise me that in response to an invitation to you as director-general of the Pan-American Union you are going to the groundbreaking of the Panama-California Exposition, to be held in San Diego from January 1 to December 31, 1915. This ceremony, I believe, is to take place from the 19th to the 22nd of the present month.

‘I beg that you will acknowledge for me the courtesy of the management in having extended an invitation to me to attend this ceremony. I cannot myself be present, but I should be very glad to have you represent me there and make appropriate remarks on the occasion.

‘San Diego is so situated that she is necessarily very much interested in the opening of the Panama Canal, and the fact that this exposition is to give particular attention to the relations between this country and Central and South American countries is sufficient reason why the American public should be especially interested in its success.

‘You will convey my compliments to the managers and to the people of San Diego and say to them what you know of my interest in our Central and South American relations and in the usefulness and successful issue of the exposition.

‘Sincerely yours,

‘William H. Taft

‘Hon. John Barrett, Director-General, Pan-American Union.

‘P.S. – I know San Diego because I have been there twice, my father and mother and sister lived there for years, and my father died there. I appreciate the singular beauty of its situation and the wonderful character of its climate. And all these circumstances give me a personal interest in promoting its welfare and in helping to assure the success of an enterprise like this. W. H. T.’

“On the evening of the first day of the celebration the long looked for arrival of ‘King Cabrillo’ and the crowning of ‘Queen Ramona’ nearly approached the dignity of pageantry although conceived wholly in a spirit of pleasantry. The light on the waters of the bay and the costumes of the queen and her ladies in waiting were quite gorgeous.

“The affair was handled with admirable care and success. A Spanish caravel was seen to come from across the waters of the harbor just as sunset. As the ancient vessel slowly crept from North Island toward the pier in San Diego the tremendous throngs on shore seemed to grow excited. Lights flashed from all kinds of craft in the harbor — here, there and everywhere. The caravel sailed on and on and at length reached the shore.

“In the prow of the ship a strange figure appeared who announced that he was Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, the discoverer of California, and that he had returned to revisit the scene of his exploits in the year 1542, when he first came to San Diego. Cabrillo seemed to doubt that the magnificent city he saw before him could possibly be the San Diego of old. He was assured that it was the identical spot and he was urged to come ashore and accept the freedom of the city which he had put on the map nearly four hundred years ago. A golden key to the city’s gates was placed in the old sailor’s hands and he was told that the people were eager to declare him king in preference to Colonel Collier or anybody else.

“His welcome seemed so genuine that Cabrillo was delighted, and he stepped ashore, whereupon he was placed in a sedan chair and borne by a band of Indian carriers up the main street of the town until the courthouse was reached. There at the doorway of the temple of justice, he found Queen Ramona sitting on a golden throne. The mob wildly demanded that Cabrillo should crown the queen. The immortal navigator gladly complied, performing the ceremony with all the traditional chivalry of his nation.

“Ten thousand people then swept both Cabrillo and Ramona before them to ‘The Isthmus,’ which was a wonderful place similar to the Pike at St. Louis or the Midway at Chicago. There were endless noises from countless horns and a din that would raise the padres from their graces in the Old Mission churchyard.

‘The Queen, who in private life is Miss Helene Richards of Point Loma, was chosen for her exalted position by a vote of the people, her popularity outrunning all rivals. Tall, and possessed of a brunette beauty, she graced her position and became the most acclaimed personage of the carnival. Wherever she went she was greeted with salvos of cheers. Prominent ladies and gentlemen of San Diego formed Her Majesty’s court and did much to make it the striking success that it was.

“On the morning of the second day there was a most beautiful floral parade. At night came the Historical Pageant, the object of which was to impress upon the people, the march of time in the magnificent southwest, the land of sunshine, of wastes redeemed by living waters from immemorial deserts; and to pay tribute to the ancient art and skill in engineering which not only the Franciscan fathers displayed nearly a century and a half ago, but also to acknowledge the greatness of the old Aztecs, who made the southwest their place of dwelling longer ago than the memory of man.

“The idea of the poet who conceived the pageant was to carry the people in imagination out of the mists of forgotten times, along the fateful pathway of the centuries, down to yesterday, with a glimpse of the vistas of tomorrow.

“What the poet dreamed, the consummate skill of the artist carried out. To Edwin H. Cough, the poet, and to Henry Kabierske, the artist, let the praise be given.

“The first float in the pageant represented a group of ancient Aztec priests sacrificing to the god of war. To make this representation faithful Mr. Cough drew upon all his vast knowledge of Aztec history and tradition as well as the mind of man can conceive it. We saw the priests of that wonderful civilization which was as old as Egypt. As the picture went slowly through the streets, the dullest imagination could not but feel the glamour of another day that faded long before the Atlantic shores knew the white man’s footsteps.

“Next came Balboa taking possession of the Pacific for the King of Spain. It was all as innumerable American boys have seen it in history and geography from the childhood of Benjamin Franklin to the present hour. There stood the great conquistador in helmet and coat of mail, knee deep in the waters of the mother of all oceans, the banner of Castile in one hand and his sword in the other, as he shouted to wind and wave that all the vast expanse of billows before him was then and should forever be vassal to the monarch whose golden throne bore the arms of Castilian power.

“Then came the next step in the tragedy of the years that saw the fall of Aztec dynasties and the rise of Christian rule. The tableau showed Montezuma in the dust and Cortez, the grim Spanish conqueror, standing triumphantly over him. About the fallen king were his dead warriors, who had once beaten Spain back and whose prowess and valor had sent Cortez weeping under the yew tree on that black night of his bitter defeat. But the Aztecs were doomed to go down at last. Spain was not long to be balked. The picture brought out very vividly the terrible page in history which it was designed to delineate. Following the conquest of Mexico history tells the thrilling story of the search for the famed seven cities of Cibola. Cortez was the most eager man of his time to find those cities which were said to be built of gold.

“Faithful to the chronicle, the fourth float in the pageant portrayed Cortez directing Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo to sail northward upon the unknown seas in search of Cibola. The portrayal was one of the most striking in the procession, with the conqueror pointing to the vague distance and Cabrillo, the intrepid mariner, eagerly expressing his desire to go on that immortal voyage which resulted, not in the finding of the seven golden cities, but in the discovery of the golden land of California.

“The fifth float was the Caravel of Cabrillo. It was very beautiful, the little ship with its joyous sails that came up the coast of glory so long ago, passing into San Diego’s harbor of the sun, then on to San Pedro, to Santa Barbara and as far as the windy headland of Mendocino, whence it doubled back to leave the great admiral in his last sleep in the warm heart of the land he found.

“Now appeared the splendid pageantry of the Brown Padres who built the old California missions along the sunny stretches of El Camino Real from San Diego to Sonoma, in the Valley of the Seven Moons. The tableau showed Junipero Serra planting the cross on the shores of San Diego Bay, Surrounding the heroic figure of the old Franciscan were wondering, half-naked savages, Catalonian soldiers, the Gubernador, Don Gaspar de Portola, the neophytes from Mexico, the muleteers, and other actors in that fateful drama of July 1, 1769.

“The ninth float was one that sent the greatest thrill through the miles of spectators who lined the streets of the city. It was the tableau of the raising of the first American flag in San Diego, which was, as some authorities contend, the first American flag to be raised on the Pacific coast. There is a tradition that a man in San Diego was in advance of Sloat at Monterey in planting Old Glory on California soil, although his flag was a necessarily crude production, seeing the he manufactured it out of his own red and white underwear. The pageant ignored this prosaic legend and showed a much more poetic transaction, which was greeted with tremendous outbursts of cheers all along the line.

“A very beautiful tableau was presented by the float which had an allegorical representation of Neptune presiding at the wedding of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, thus typifying the completion of the Panama Canal.

“The last and most elaborate float in the pageant told the story of San Diego from its first discovery by Cabrillo down to the present day, including of course, the intermediate epoch of the founding of the first mission by the Franciscans. This float, in its fascinating beauty of light and color, can be called nothing less than a masterpiece of stage ingenuity. Here the poet and the artist reached a climax. No indoor stage could have possibly done this conception justice. It needed the open highway and that was what it had. David Belasco would have gained something in craftsmanship had he been in San Diego.

“The third day was given over to a fine industrial parade which was greatly enjoyed by the crowds. Then on the morning of the forth and last day of the celebration came the event for which the people had so eagerly looked forward. It was the Pageant of the Missions.

“There is no appeal to equal the appeal that the old Franciscan Missions make to the people of California, the whole southwest, and, indeed, the whole country. The ruins of the ancient establishments are strewn along the old King’s Highway, which was the celebrated ‘El Camino Real,’ or Royal Road of the glorious days of the Spanish era.

“The spectacle presented was without doubt the most successful attempt at pageantry ever made in America. There were twenty-one floats, each representing a mission, beginning with Mission San Diego de Alcala, which was the first mission, and ending with the Mission San Francisco de Solano, which was the last.

“The pageant represented a stretch of more than a half century of time as to the life of the missions; that is to say, from the building of the hospice at San Diego in 1769 to the building of the Sonoma Mission in 1822. It also represented the entire length of the King’s Highway, seven hundred miles, from San Diego’s Harbor of the Sun to Sonoma’s Valley of the Seven Moons.

“There were nearly one thousand living characters in the procession, who represented monks, soldiers, knights, Indians and all the historical associations that surround not only the legends of the founding of the missions, but their actual establishment as well.

“For instance, the float representing San Juan Capistrano showed the warrior priest as he was in the distant centuries in which he lived. Characters to represent that era were brought forth. In addition to these there were characters to represent the time the mission was actually founded in California. There were hundreds of monks, trudging along on foot, hundreds of outriders, and hundreds more of Indians, soldiers and attendants.

“As the long, glorious procession came up the sunny street a deep hush fell upon the people who numbered a hundred thousand and made the biggest crowd that San Diego had ever entertained at any one time in her history. The pageant’s slow and solemn movement created the right atmosphere. It seemed as though the people were in attendance upon a religious ceremony, which it really was. Not a carnival horn was blown, not a noisy bell jangled.

“Back again from the mists and memories of the well-loved past came the brown-robed padres, so dear to the soul of California. Back came the days when a man could travel from San Diego to Sonoma and stop every night at a mission whose doors swung open to him without price.

“The replicas of the old ruins were faithfully portrayed by Mr. Kabierske, who had charge of the pageant under the direction of the Historical and Industrial Pageant Corporation of Philadelphia. This master artist here accomplished the crowning achievement of his career. He walked at the end of the procession and was greeted with hearty cheers by the assembled multitudes.

“All in all, the groundbreaking celebration here described was a splendid augury of the success with which San Diego will carry out the California-Panama Exposition of 1915. The pageantry and the carnival gave us a foretaste of which we shall see and hear when the trails of all the world lead to the Harbor of the Sun, less than four years hence, and the show shall be in full swing on these bright and luring shores.”

Steadily forward has been the movement of the forces engaged in preparing for the record that is to be written in San Diego in 1915 in celebration of the formal opening of the Panama canal. There has been no cessation of activities, nor even a slacking of the steady forward movement with which the preparatory work of the exposition has been prosecuted. The work of the year has been that of laying the foundation of the great project, making smooth the rough spots and paving the way for the greater building work that is to mark the year 1913.

To plan and execute a mammoth project requires time and care and the constant vigilance and earnest application of a force working in harmony throughout every department. So much of the ultimate success of an enterprise depends upon the care with which the ground work is constructed that the year just closed has been one of unusual importance to the exposition management, and yet there has been in the year such a condition of harmony and such hearty cooperation throughout the construction forces that the exposition officials feel that the work of the year has been well done and that a substantial basis has been established for the work yet to be done.

It has been written that “All roads lead to Rome.” The simile may be found in that the roads traveled by all departments of the exposition work have had a common center and now, at the end of the year, it is found that all have served to work to a common purpose. As in the weaving of a blanket the warp and woof cross and recross, in the end producing one great whole, so have the diversified threads of effort at the exposition ground, interlaced, been vitalized and now, at the beginning of the year of greater construction, give assured promise of the fulfillment of the magnificent plans of ultimate decoration and arrangement.

The progress of the year at the exposition is written in letters large. The first notable work was the completion of the administration building at the eastern approach to the Canyon de Cabrillo, where are housed the departments and from which are directed all the works on the grounds. As the scope of these works widened the departmental forces were enlarged until now the administration building is a hive of humanity. Each department has found multiplied details of labor to accomplish, but these have been met with vigor and the departments are well organized as a result of the year’s activities.

Other buildings that will have permanent place during the exposition have been erected during the year. The first of these to be constructed was the service building, where are houses for the horses and wagons used in exposition construction work, and where are stored all the construction supplied purchased in large quantities. This building, while serving a utilitarian purpose only, is of mission style of architecture. This building is the distributing point for all jobs on the grounds. When its present use is terminated the structure will become the headquarters of the exposition street cleaning department and an emergency repair station, this continuing throughout the exposition year.

The new years will bring thriving activities in building construction at the exposition, and this work is certain to be attended by accidents. Little of the work done in 1912 has involved workmen in danger, but meeting the demand that must arise later, the exposition management prepared and opened on December 15 an emergency hospital. This building carries, of course, the mission style of architecture. It is in charge of Dr. C. L. Caven as medical director.

Of more than passing interest is the exposition hospital. It will serve in all cases of accidents to employees of the exposition company from the date of its opening to the close of the exposition and also all emergency cases requiring surgical or medical treatment arising on the exposition grounds during the exposition period. The operating room is equipped as completely as that of any other hospital on the Pacific coast, and every article installed is of the latest design and finest construction. Nowhere can be found better apparatus. Furniture, chairs, sterilizers, operating tables, etc. represent the most advanced ideas in such equipment for hospital service. Dr. Caven has at his command a corps of highly trained and competent nurses. A great manufacturing company has contributed the entire equipment of the hospital to the exposition free of charge, even paying the freight on the shipment to the exposition site. This equipment is loaned to the exposition and is to be returned to the manufacturing company at the close of the exhibition at the contributor’s expense. The hospital is equipped to care for twenty-six patients.

Extreme good fortune has attended the work on the exposition grounds during the year. Many tons of dynamite have been used for blasting for drives and in grading building sites, and yet there has not been one instance of injury to any employee necessitating surgical attention.

There will be no unsightly fences about the exposition grounds. These, embracing six hundred and fifteen acres in the center of Balboa park, will be enclosed by a fence, strong and durable, but this will be a solid wall of green. One-half of this fence has been erected during the year and it will be completed early in 1913. Immediately after its completion, vines will be planted at the base and these will have two years of growth prior to the opening of the exposition. This work was given attention early in the construction period that the overgrowing vines might be planted at a time to insure development by the opening date.

This fence skirts Canyon de Cabrillo.

Horticultural activities have progressed splendidly at the exposition nurseries during the year. An addition was made to the smaller lath house where thousands of specimens of hundreds of varieties of trees and shrubs are being developed for transplanting, and another lath house, much larger, has been erected to shelter a larger stock of these growths. At this time the nurseries at the exposition contain about one and one-half million specimens of horticultural production, and while fifty thousand of trees have been planted during the year, many other thousands will be placed during 1913, while the exposition display stock will be nurtured and brought to full stature in endless variety well in advance of the opening.

Grading work on the streets and boulevards is eighty-five percent completed at this time. Following a well-defined plan of progression in building the exposition, the management has cared for this essential feature before beginning the construction of exposition structures. All the grading around the building sites, the platting of walks, etc. has been finished. Much of this work has been difficult, requiring the use of dynamite in blasting away the hardpan of red disseminated limestone found beneath the soil, and forming a building foundation endurable through the ages. This stone, also, when broken, constitutes a natural base for the asphalt surfaces of the walks and drives and eliminates the cost of constructing the ordinary macadam foundation. This favorable condition will be of vast importance in expense saving and time when the work of surfacing the drives is reached after the buildings are completed.

In addition to these things, the foundation has been placed for the southern counties building, this being located near the eastern entrance to the grounds at the terminal of Midland drive, and due east of the administration building. This building will be finished early in 1913. Three separate plantations are provided for the displays of the southern counties and two of these have been planted and these ought to be bearing by September, 1913. These plantations include oranges, lemons and grapefruit.

Substantial progress has been made on the construction of the great bridge that is to span Cabrillo canyon, with its western end at the Laurel street entrance on West Park boulevard, its eastern end at the administration building and squarely in the acreage devoted to sites for exposition buildings. This massive bridge, 900 feet long, 120 feet high and 40 feet wide, a reproduction in design of a famous bridge in Spain, and spanning a lake, is taking shape rapidly. The eastern approach is nearly completed, the foundations for the arches have been placed in the lake and on the eastern and western slopes of the canyon, and concrete is being poured into the forms of the eastern arch of the structure.

The Laguna de Cabrillo is completed. An earth dam has been constructed with a concrete spillway, and a concrete outlet and this reservoir is ready for the water which will not be turned in until the big bridge is completed.

Road work outside the exposition grounds and in the park has been advanced greatly during the year. While the rough grading inside the grounds is eighty-five percent completed, including the Plaza de California, the Prado, the Plaza de Panama, the Water Cascade, the Terrace, the Plaza Internationale, the Avenidas Internationale, the Calle Cristobal, the Calle Colon and the Isthmus thoroughfares outside the grounds have been brought to a high state of perfection. The West Park boulevard has been relocated and resurfaced and a complete fill made from the western entrance at Laurel street to the western approach to the bridge. Midland drive from the western entrance to the grounds at Russ high school has been relocated and resurfaced. The drive through the Canyon de Cabrillo, beneath the great bridge and crossing the lagoon, with its branching paths leading to different parts of the park, has been regraded and its steeper ascents eliminated. Along this drive hundreds of quail rise from the road with roar of wings to fly a few years and again settle to watch the passerby. Here, too, rabbits scurry aside and turn to watch with sober eyes the noisy truck or silent car, and here hundreds of song birds flit from tree to tree and send forth their cheering notes of welcome to the visitors, secure in the long protection that has been afforded them within the park confines.

One of the busy structures on the exposition grounds is the mill. This was erected in conjunction with the erection of the great bridge spanning the canyon. While a rule of the exposition management is that no needed expense shall be spared in prosecuting the work, economy consistent with this rule is practiced and the erection and operation of the mill has proved economical of time and money.

In the construction of the bridge, hundreds of forms are used as molds for concrete, and to have these made elsewhere on specifications would have entailed delays in construction that would be costly in the extreme. The problem presented was solved quickly by the commissioners of buildings, who established the exposition mill, thoroughly equipped with the most modern high-speed machinery for wood-working. This mill is provided with one machine for running shiplap, flooring, sizing timbers, beams, etc., having a capacity of 6,500 feet board measure daily. In addition there are humming crosscut and rip saws that turn out with rapidity the lumber demanded by the workmen in construction work, and a big band saw that is kept singing almost constantly, turning out scroll patterns for ornamental decorations as the designs are prepared by the men with the drafting board. Another machine quickly bores timbers for joints, and the plant is made complete by a saw filing and grinding equipment. Emery wheels, grindstones and forges, power-driven, are utilized to keep the tools of the workmen in the best of condition, axes, chisels, drills, shovels and all other individual equipment of the workingman being maintained in the highest state of usefulness at all times, and thereby increasing the effectiveness of the individual unit, which has proven during the year to be a mighty factor in the exceptional advancement of the work of building.

During 1912 the record of tree and shrub planting on the exposition grounds has kept place with that made by the men with the teams, the pick and shovel, and the annual report from the landscape gardeners shows that over fifty thousand trees and shrubs have been placed. It may appear that this is a large number, but this work has only begun and the record for the year constitutes only a small part of that outlined, and which must be done to realize the plan of the exposition.

The fast-growing eucalyptus has been utilized for decorative purposes and out of this planting has come a better knowledge of the tree. On the exposition grounds today are trees of this variety that are showing sturdy growth and vigor that were transplanted when sixteen months of age, and their stamina and development has exploded an old and firmly grounded idea that a eucalyptus could not be transplanted successfully after one year.

The visitors to the exposition now probably would doubt that the little sprouts of trees clustered on the sides of the ravines and canyons would be aught than shrubs by 1915, but startling promise of what these will be in two years is found in a number of trees near the administration building that were little bushes a few months ago, and which now lift their leafy tops high in the air. Trees will make the exposition grounds a bower of green beauty by 1915, and in the record of fifty thousand trees and shrubs planted in 1912 and the million and a half specimens of all kinds in the nurseries yet to be placed about the grounds or used for display purposes during the exposition is found the glowing promise that the Panama-California exposition will be resplendent in a swathing of emerald everywhere, and high and low.

The mill on the grounds has been used to splendid advantage in connection with the nurseries. At the beginning of 1912 the nursery stock was a few hundred thousand. Now these wonderful houses of lath contain over a million and a half plants in pots and boxes, ranging size from a pot two inches in diameter to a box four feet square. The mill during the year turned out thirty-five thousand of these boxes, with a range of size from one foot to four feet square. Nursing the stock in these boxes secures the greatest possible growth and every expedient is being used, even before the beginning of building construction, to insure the entire success of the horticultural features of the exposition.

Not the least of the accomplishments of the year by the exposition management is the provision made for the employees on the grounds. A large restaurant has been constructed, with neat bunk houses, where employees may obtain meals and lodging at extremely reasonable rates. The exposition management desired first of all to secure a force of workingmen who would remain “on the job.” A shifting force means loss of efficiency in the organization and loss of efficiency means increased cost. To gather and retain a large staff of workingmen, weld them into an organization capable of the greatest accomplishment, and yet to make conditions such that they would be contented, was a problem to which the department of works devoted attention early in the year — and the problem was solved.

Provision was made for the housing of four hundred workingmen. In the plan adopted is a radical departure from the ordinary bunk hose, with hundreds of bunks in tiers, sheltering a heterogeneous company of all sorts and conditions, temperaments and inclinations, and indifferent cleanliness. The exposition company constructed small bunk houses, each containing four bunks only, light, airy, comfortable and clean. This plan is capable of quick expansion and as the working force is increased as the exposition progresses, provision will be made for others as the demand arises.

Then the exposition provided a large restaurant, as light and airy and as clean as the little bunk houses. Here the large body of workmen employed on the grounds take their meals, and for this service and the use of the bunk houses, the rates are made barely sufficient to maintain these appreciated adjuncts. There was no desire to convert this service into a profit, and the rates have been extremely satisfactory to the workingmen. The result has been the securing and retention of a crew of workingmen who might find it convenient to move on to other work were conditions not entirely to their liking. To the retention of this contented force, individually acquainted with the work, is attributed much of the success that has attended the preliminary construction work of 1912.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1912, I

  1. San Diego, the Exposition of the How and the Now; Why San Diego embarked upon great enterprise?; What is an Exposition?; History of Expositions. . . . . it should also be understood why California is making ready for two expositions in 1915. First, to celebrate the opening of the Panama canal; second, to tell another story, or read the latest chapter of the great serial of human progress; and, in the third place, to reveal to the entire civilized world for the first time in a thoroughly comprehensive manner the wonderful resources of the great west and the possibilities of the homeseeker or investor in the states lying west of the one-hundredth meridian. . . . It is the concrete idea of the San Diego exposition projectors to go farther than men have gone in time past, and while illustrating in a thoroughly complete and sequential form the evolution of man and in the fashioning of his environments, to also show from the doorway of the present, the vista of opportunity laying just beyond the threshold. . . . In this respect the San Diego exposition will be unique. While the San Francisco fair will dazzle the world with an exhibition of the world’s wonders, the San Diego exposition will instruct and educate the world concerning the advantages offered in the great undeveloped sections of the Pacific coast and adjoining states. . . . It has been pointed out from time to time that San Diego is the first American port of call on the Pacific coast, north of Panama. It has been shown that San Diego is destined to become the gateway to the southwest, and with a transcontinental railway connecting the Imperial valley and Arizona and all of the east with the south Pacific coast, will open up the way for the population of those states and sections to the thousands of desirable immigrants who will come to the United States via the Panama canal and the west coast instead of by way of New York and eastern ports.
  2. 2. Plants gathered from all quarters of globe.
  3. 3. Exposition building accomplishments of the year 1912: Administration Building; Emergency Hospital; Foundation of Southern California Counties Building; Work on bridge; No unsightly fences; Grading 85 percent complete; Laguna de Cabrillo; Relocation of West Park Boulevard; Relocation of Midland Drive; Regrading of Cabrillo Canyon Drive.

Mill kept busy: used to make nursery boxes; 50,000 trees and shrubs planted in 1912.

Restaurant for employees; bunk houses for 400 workmen – each bunkhouse containing 4 bunks.

  1. 4. Year’s progress revealed in pictures
  2. 5. More pictures of San Diego’s Exposition.
  3. 6. Value of Exposition to states, counties, nations
  4. 7. Early history of San Diego’s Fair, its conception.; State Societies of San Diego boosting Exposition.
  5. 8. Builders of San Diego’s Fair in 1915; Frank P. Allen, Jr., Director-General.
  6. 9. Educational value of fair is incalculable (cont’d. from p. 6.)
  7. 10:1. Playgrounds of San Diego region
  8. 10: 2-3. Early history of San Diego Fair (cont’d. from p. 7.)
  9. 11:1-4. Coronado Tent City unique resort, started as a tiny camp 13 years ago.
  10. 11:7. Easterners eager for facts about San Diego.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1913, 3:1-9, 9:3. Exposition building accomplishments of year 1912: laying foundations, making smooth the rough spots, paving the way . . . completion of Administration Building . . . completion of service building in Mission style housing horses and wagons — to be used later as headquarters of exposition street cleaning department and as an emergency repair station . . . emergency hospital opened December 15, 1912 — equipped to care for 26 patients, manufacturing company donated equipment and paid freight . . . many tons of dynamite used in blasting and in grading building sites . . . 615 acres enclosed by a fence – one half completed in 1912, vines to be planted at base of fence to provide wall of green . . . 50,000 trees planted in 1912 . . . grading on streets and boulevards, 85 percent complete . . . grading around building sites and planting of walks finished . . . foundations placed for Southern California Counties Building . . . plantations of oranges, lemons and grapefruit . . . progress made on construction of bridge – reproduction of a famous bridge in Spain, 900 feet long, 129 feet high, 40 feet wide; spans a lake . . . eastern approach nearly completed; foundation for arches placed in lake and on eastern and western slopes of canyon – concrete is being poured into forms of the eastern arches of the structure . . . Laguna de Cabrillo completed . . . rough grading of road inside park 85 percent complete . . . West Park Boulevard relocated and resurfaced and a complete fill made from the western entrance at Laurel Street to the western approach to the bridge . . . Midland Drive from western entrance to grounds of Russ High School relocated and resurfaced . . . drive through Cabrillo Canyon regraded . . . mill erected in conjunction with building of bridge . . . fast-growing eucalyptus used for decorative purposes . . . restaurant and bunk houses for employees on grounds – housing for 400 workmen to keep a workforce that would stay on the job; small bunk house consisting of 4 bunks each.

Paul G. Thiene, chief nurseryman; owner of Ramona Nursery, North San Diego; appointed Superintendent of Nursery in 1912 and later Superintendent of Landscape.

San Diego Sun, January 3, 1913, 1:3-4. Work on State Exposition Building Is Ordered; Commissioners (G. W. Marston, Thomas O’Hallaran and R. C. Allen) decided further delay is unnecessary; Frank P. Allen to go ahead with work providing it does not cost more than $250,000; plans reported to be on the way from the east.

San Diego Union, January 3, 1913, 1:3, 6:3. Rosarians plant roses on Exposition grounds; child leads visitors in pretty ceremony in Balboa Park.

San Diego Union, January 3, 1913, II, 13:4. Charles Bowers of Montana suggests elk in Balboa Park; says they may be secured from Yellowstone.

San Diego Union, January 4, 1913, 6:1. Spain will enter exhibit at San Diego Fair.

San Diego Union, January 5, 1913, II, 13:2-4. Salt Lake capitalists obtain lease on new Spreckels hotel on south side of D street, between Union and State.

San Diego Sun, January 7, 1913, 2:1. New directors for Exposition to be elected Friday; President Collier left for conference with representatives of Exposition Commissioners in Watsonville, Calif.

Park Commissioners Minutes, January 10, 1913. Frank P. Allen, Jr. authorized to construct Electricity, Manufacturing and Mining buildings according to present plans.

San Diego Sun, January 10, 1913, 1:6-7. Colonel Collier reelected head of Exposition; Collier presided over meeting.

San Diego Union, January 10, 1913, 5:2. Park flowers survive freezing.

San Diego Union, January 10, 1913, 9:1. State of Washington will probably be represented at Fair.

San Diego Union, January 10, 1913, II, 13:1. Marston is candidate for mayor.

San Diego Union, January 11, 1913, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Exposition Appropriation Bills . . . As will be seen by a special dispatch from Sacramento to theUnion this morning, San Diego’s representatives in the legislature are losing no time in preparing to obtain appropriations for the Panama-California Exposition. Several bills, carrying a total of $900,000 to enable the state to be worthily represented at Balboa Park in 1915 have been framed. After their presentation and reference, they will stand over, in common with other measures introduced during the first thirty days of the session, until the legislature shall reconvene after the months’ recess which will be taken in accordance with the new provision of the constitution, which aims to allow time for legislators to study bills and hear from their constituents before passing upon measures proposed for enactment. The recess will presumably occupy the month of February. The exposition bills, then should come up for action in March.

. . . Since the legislature made a small appropriation two years ago for the Panama-California exposition, that undertaking has shown a progress that causes the admiration of all who have noted it. San Diego has given proof that it is thoroughly in earnest in its great project. For the state to stand aloof, or participate merely to the extent of the small appropriation already voted, would be very ungracious.

San Diego Union, January 11, 1913, 5:3. Vacancy of Board of Directors is filled; Stockholders elect John A. Boal to succeed Colonel Fred A. Jewell.

San Diego Union, January 11, 1913, 7:1. Panama decides to exhibit at Exposition.

San Diego Union, January 12, 1913, 1:4-5. Work on Fair buildings soon to begin; plans are approved for three permanent structures as part of group; Spanish-Colonial style of architecture to prevail throughout.

San Diego Union, January 12, 1913, 43:1-3. What prominent men say about the Exposition.

San Diego Sun, January 14, 1913, 8:1-2. Sacramento Valley folks vote $150,000 for Exposition; delegation from north impressed by Fair work; will urge county supervisors to place adequate exhibition here.

San Diego Union, January 14, 1913, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Bright Prospects for the Exposition . . . The first fortnight of 1913 brings wonderfully bright prospects for the great exposition to be opened in this city two years later. Hardly a day now passes without new evidence of substantial support from the outside world.

San Diego Union, January 14, 1913, 12:3-4. Sacramento Valley section will be installed at Exposition.

San Diego Union, January 15, 1913, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Generous Support for the Exposition.

San Diego Union, January 16, 1913, 4:6-7. The Zoo and Its Inhabitants, by Frederick J. Haskin.

San Diego Union, January 17, 1913, 11:1. Guatemala to have exhibit at Exposition.

San Diego Union, January 18, 1913, 7:2. Park Board fights injunction suit; effort to enjoin 6th Street extension meets opposition . . . To enjoin or not to enjoin the park board from permitting the extension of Sixth street through the west part of Balboa park was the subject of a hearing before Judge Sloane yesterday in the case of C. S. Alverson and Maud T. Frary against Julius Wangenheim and others.

Crouch and Harris, attorneys for the petitioners are attempting to show that the park board my be legally enjoined from permitting the construction of a roadway through the park. City Attorney Andrews, for the park board, and A. H. Sweet for the thirty-five or forty defendants, contend that the court has no legal right to enjoin the park board in the performance of a duty lying within its jurisdiction.

The case is being contested every step and long legal debates over points of law relating to the introduction of evidence took up the greater part of the day.

It is expected that several days will be consumed before the hearing is finished.

San Diego Union, January 18, 1913, 6:2. 6th Street extension suit is nearing finish; contention made that Park Board has no authority to divert property.

San Diego Union, January 19, 1913, 7:1-3. Hospital at Fair answers its first call.

San Diego Union, January 19, 1913, 13:1-2. What prominent man say about Exposition.

San Diego Union, January 21, 1913, 9:1. Dr. Edgar L. Hewett finds much encouragement for Fair on trip to East.

San Diego Union, January 21, 1913, 11:1. Governor Hanna of North Dakota favors appropriation for Fair.

San Diego Union, January 22, 1913, 9:3. Montana Exposition Commissioners become boosters on short notice.

San Diego Union, January 23, 1913, 10:2. Real reason why Montana should have exhibit; Fair Commissioners say state needs farmers.

San Diego Union, January 24, 1913, 6:1. Ohioans herald home Fair work; write letters urging home state representation.

San Diego Union, January 24, 1913, 6:5. D. C. Collier to start on education campaign; president of Exposition will address joint session of Colorado legislature.

San Diego Union, January 24, 1913, 14:1. Montanans enthusiastic over Exposition; select site.

San Diego Union, January 25, 1913, 5:2. Hearing on 6th Street suit closed; Judge Sloane intimates Park Board acted within its jurisdiction . . . After nearly a week of night hearings before Judge Sloane in superior court, the evidence in the case of C. S. Alverson and Mrs. Maud Thayer Frary against Julius Wangenheim, John Forward, Sr., Frank J. Belcher, Jr., and many other property owners in favor of extending Sixth street through the park, was concluded Thursday night.

Before the adjournment, Judge Sloane intimated, after a brief summary of the evidence, that he was perfectly satisfied as to the good faith of the commissioners in making the order for the opening of the driveway through what is known as Mulvey canyon, adding that he was largely interested in hearing argument as to the law. Arguments will being Thursday evening a 7:30 o’clock.

The case was heard last week during the regular court hours, but was interrupted by the criminal calendar. It has since been heard in evening sessions.

The plaintiffs claim that the motives of the park board in extending Sixth street were commercial, and that the work required would impair the natural beauty of the park.

Attorneys Crouch and Harris appeared for the plaintiffs, and A. H. Sweet and City Attorney Andrews for the defendants.

San Diego Union, January 26, 1913, 7:1. Expenses of Exposition shown in report; annual statement filed gives total of $624,424.18 expended during 1912.

San Diego Union, January 28, 1913, 7:4. Exposition finds favor in Dakotas . . . Secretary Hogaboom of the San Diego exposition has received a letter from Thomas Hall, secretary of state of North Dakota, which says there is a well-defined sentiment among the legislators as well as all over he state favoring an exhibit at San Diego. The North Dakotans realize the chance that is offered to advertise their resources and opportunities by means of an exhibit at San Diego.

In a communication from a prominent South Dakotan the exposition officials are notified that the bill providing for an appropriation for an exhibit here in 1915 has already gone to the legislature and will be passed upon in the near future.

These sister states are beginning to understand the ultimate aim of the San Diego exposition to aid the west in the development of its resources. They are learning that the San Diego celebration will be more than a mere collection of amusements and amazements: that it is a great signboard calling the world’s attention to the opportunities offered for settlement and investment of capital throughout the great west.

The North and South Dakota societies here are credited with aiding largely in creating this favorable sentiment among the residents of the two states towards the San Diego exposition.

The members of these two societies, all natives or former residents of North or South Dakota, and many with a wide acquaintance in the two states, wrote hundreds of letters to old friends still living there.

The legislatures were memorialized by the two state societies. Signed by hundreds of former North and South Dakotans these memorials were forwarded to the governing bodies of the two states sometime ago

Not only in this way, but by writing letters to the newspapers of the two Dakotas, did the members of the societies here aid the exposition in putting the idea of an exhibit here in 1915 strongly before the people of North and South Dakota.

San Diego Union, January 28, 1913, 11:1. Exposition asks $753,100 of State Legislature; Exposition appropriation bills total $535,000; California Building total is $200,000.

San Diego Union, January 28, 1913, 11:1. Denverites give great reception to Colonel Collier.

San Diego Union, January 29, 1913, 12:1. Virginian commends local Fair; urges a state exhibit.

San Diego Union, January 31, 1913, 22:1. Commissioner of Portland Fair makes unsolicited plea to Oregon legislature surging support for San Diego Exposition.

Park Commissioners Minutes, January 31, 1913. No further permits for house moving through park to be allowed; salary of Superintendent of Parks increased to $225.00 per month; Superintendent instructed to erect enclosures for 3 elk and 3 buffalo donated to local Park Department by the Board of Park Commissioners, San Francisco.

San Diego Sun, February 1, 1913, 17:1-3. Alameda, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Monterey, San Benito and San Luis Obispo have divided to combine on an exhibit at the San Diego Exposition.

San Diego Union, February 1, 1913, 3:2. Montana counties to exhibit at Exposition.

San Diego Union, February 1, 1913, 12:1. Collier’s campaign awakens Denver to Exposition; Coloradans display great interest in San Diego and Southern California; Collier says great event will be advertised in local literature.

San Diego Union, February 2, 1913, 8:1. Permit is taken out for Electrical Building; fair structure will cost $40,000; two stories with auditorium, 116x175 feet; of Spanish design with plastered exterior; arcade along south and west sides, tower three stories high at southwest corner.

San Diego Sun, February 3, 1913, 3:1. Colonel Jewell off on an Exposition tour.

San Diego Union, February 3, 1913, 1:1-2. Marston committee opens campaign.

San Diego Union, February 4, 1913, 6:1. Colorado solons consider bill for Fair; measure seeking appropriation of $100,000 for San Diego Exposition introduced.

San Diego Union, February 9, 1913, 10:1. Assemblyman E. C. Hinkle says Legislature sure to pass appropriation bills for $525,000; $200,000 for state building; $25,000 for state exhibits, furnishings, equipment and improvement of grounds.

San Diego Union, February 9, 1913, 27:1. Mayor Holleman of East San Diego says Colorado alive to San Diego sprit.

San Diego Union, February 9, 1913, 31:1. Montana commissioners estimate that state will appropriate $104,200 for building for San Diego Exposition.

San Diego Union, February 11, 1913, 11:1. Utah legislature goes on record for San Diego; bill introduced provides for expenditure of $75,000 for state exhibit at Exposition.

San Diego Union, February 11, 1913, 12:1. Marston outlines ideas of municipal government.

San Diego Union, February 15, 1913, 10:1. New Mexico’s lower House passes Fair bill; calls for expenditure of $75,000 for state exhibit at Exposition.

San Diego Union, February 23, 1913, 13:1. Princely home and courtly grace not qualifications for mayor, say Women for O’Neall.

San Diego Union, February 24, 1913, 7:1. Marston says drydock is an absolute necessity.

San Diego Sun, February 25, 1913, 7:4. Judge Sloane denies 6th Street Extension injunction against Park Board.

San Diego Union, February 25, 1913, II, 13:1. Arizona lawmakers invite President Collier to address them.

San Diego Union, February 26, 1913, 9:4. Judge Sloane’s decision upholding Park Board’s action in proposed 6th Street extension to be appealed.

San Diego Union, February 26, 1913, 10:2. C. Stowell Smith, assistant district forester now in San Diego, experiments in timbers; tests all commercial kinds of California woods and announces results; three kinds of borers; all teredos dead at Santa Fe pier, but thriving west of Coronado ferry slip.

San Diego Union, February 26, 1913, 11:3. Exposition lagoon fills with water; heavy rainfall fills impounding basin in Cabrillo Canyon but does not damage.

Park Commissioners Minutes, February 28, 1913. Frank P. Allen presented plans of Art Building to be erected on Exposition grounds.

San Diego Sun, March 1, 1913, 1:3. Judge Sloane denied motion of counsel for Maud Thayer Frary for a continuance of temporary restraining order in 6th Street extension case.

San Diego Union, March 1, 1913, 15:1. Report praises Superintendent of Parks; annual statement shows expenditures for 1912; $700,000 remains; 10,612 trees planted . . . More than $700,000 of the $1,000,000 bond issue voted for the improvements of Balboa park remains unexpended, according to the report of the board of park commissioners for 1912, made to the mayor by Julius Wangenheim, president.

Of the $276,594.96 used on the park, about $172,000 was spent under contract by the director of works of the exposition and $106,500 was spent by the park commissioners on other portions of the park. Included in the latter expenditure was the laying out and planning of an extensive road system, and the increasing of irrigation facilities adequately to care for the added area planted to trees and shrubs.

Many trees planted

  1. G. Morley, superintendent of parks, reports that 10,612 trees, including thirty-five varieties, were planted in Balboa Park the last year, and 5,868 shrubs of sixty-three varieties.

In addition to the tree planting, Morley reports that 220,600 square feet of roads have been re-graded and surfaced; culverts and drains put in where necessary; nearly six acres of lawn seeded, and a sprinkler system has been installed. On the west side of Balboa park, between West boulevard and Cabrillo canyon, eighty-five acres were plowed and graded, and prepared for planting, two-thirds of which has been planted to trees and shrubs.

In the nursery are 44,500 trees and shrubs, raised by the park board, and 5,551 of purchased stock.

Financial condition good

That the finances of the park board are in a healthy condition is shown by the report, $15,000 of the $33,000 (?) maintenance fund provided for 1912 being still left in the treasury.

Superintendent Morley is highly commended in the report for the general excellence of his work.

Of the small parks, the superintendent calls attention to the general excellence of maintenance of La Jolla, the plaza and New Town parks. In La Jolla park 863 shrubs and trees are reported to be growing well. The superintendent recommends that some of the walks in New Town park be done away with and the space converted into lawns.

Regarding the Old Town and Mission Hills parks, the superintendent recommends the purchase of the whole square up to Fort Stockton drive and the development of the park.

San Diego Union, March 2, 1913, 31:1. Court ruling for 6th Street Extension; Judge Sloane refuses to enjoin Park Board from proceeding with work . . . Judge W. A. Sloane yesterday refused to grant an injunction, pending a decision of the supreme court on the petition of C. S. Alverson and Maud Frary Thayer against the extension of Sixth street through the west side of Balboa Park.

Crouch and Harris, attorneys for the petitioners, asked for an injunction until such time as the supreme court could be petitioned to enjoin the park board from proceeding with the work of constructing the road. Judge Sloane took this request under advisement.

  1. R. Andrews, city attorney, in his argument against continuing the injunction, insisted that the action was not brought in good faith and that John H. Gay and not the petitioners was the real party to the action and was furnishing the sinews of war.

Crouch and Harris claimed the action was brought in good faith and that regardless of Judge Sloane’s ruling, it would be appealed to the supreme court. Attorneys for the petitioners also insisted that, notwithstanding the court’s decision, they had not abandoned their contention that the transaction was tainted with fraud.

Judge Sloane held that the question of fact would not be reviewed by the appellate court and that with that question obliterated, there was nothing for the supreme court to consider.

San Diego Sun, March 3, 1913. Temporary restraining order dissolved; 6th Street case brought to close by Department 3 of Superior Court today.

San Diego Union, March 4, 1913, II, 13:4-5. Collier addresses solons of Arizona.

San Diego Union, March 5, 1913, 7:3. State Society “postcard day” to be held March 17 when 50,000 views of Exposition will be mailed boosting city.

San Diego Union, March 5, 1913, 12:1. Marston defends City Beautiful idea in talk to women.

San Diego Union, March 5, 1913, II, 13:4. Collier portrays benefits of Fair; addresses Phoenix Board of Trade.

San Diego Union, March 6, 1913, II, 13:1., 15:3-5. O’Neall Club asks explanation for Marston’s past action.

San Diego Union, March 7, 1913, 14:1. Nevada Exposition Committee inspect site for State exhibit; will appropriate $100,000 for San Diego Fair.

San Diego Union, March 7, 1913, 24:1. Foreign-born men defend alien newcomers; score speech of woman worker for Marston.

San Diego Sun, March 8, 1913, 2:3. Kansas exhibit assured; State Senate passes bill.

San Diego Union, March 9, 1913, 9:1. O’Neall supporter asks Marston questions.

San Diego Union, March 9, 1913, 25:2. Joseph Jessop urges more streetcars for Balboa Park; wants line to pass through grounds.

Editor, San Diego Union: Since the series of articles which appeared recently in your paper relative to street car development of the near future, the writer has given some thought to the question and especially to the suggestion that a line be run through Balboa park.

One phase of the matter especially appeals to me — that of making the interior of the park accessible by street car to those of our population who need the park most. I refer to the old people, the women and children.

Those who are not so fortunate as to possess automobiles can scarcely see more than the fringes of the park, for they are not able to take such an exhausting walk. With a street car line properly placed and ornamented or concealed, the most picturesque canyons and unfrequented spots would become accessible to a vastly increased number of citizens.

I hope that the sentiment of San Diegans and the plans of the railway company will favor the proposed route through the park at the proper time.

The advantages of furnishing transportation to exposition visitors and of relieving the congestion on the No. 1 and No. 2 lines is, of course, obvious to all. The rapidly increasing population north and east of Balboa park deserves good transportation facilities and this is the most practicable route, being shortest and most direct.

Another thing that has occurred to me with relation to getting the most use of our great Balboa park is the excellent adaptability for circus grounds and baseball grounds. Why should not the city reap the benefit of the large lease moneys paid by the frequent circuses that come to town? The park grounds are closer that those now in use and should be more acceptable.

I wish to see this community take advantage of every possible attraction offered by this great park, and, therefore, I feel that it should be made accessible by street car so that the masses may be able to get over it without unnecessary inconvenience.

Joseph Jessop, San Diego, 952 Fifth street.

San Diego Union, March 11, 1913, 11:2. President E. P. Ripley of Santa Fe taken on a trip over city and to Exposition site by Colonel Collier and G. A. Davidson; promises Santa Fe will keep pace with San Diego.

San Diego Sun, March 13, 1913, 7:4. Electricity Building – first exhibit building to be erected – will soon be rising.

Sam Diego Union, March 13, 1913, 1:2. State of Washington Senate passes bill, March 12, appropriating $25,000 for San Diego Fair.

San Diego Union, March 13, 1913, 15:1. S. H. Moore, Oregon bird expert, seeks 5-acres concession at San Diego Fair for pheasant farm.

San Diego Union, March 14, 1913, 9:1, 10:2. Rival candidates O’Neall and Marston re-avow their friendship at Rotary Club luncheon.

San Diego Union, March 15, 1913, 12:4. Burbank thornless cactus farm may be seen on 5-acre concession at San Diego Fair.

San Diego Union, March 15, 1913, 24:1. Southern California Counties first to erect building; to cost $62,252; exhibit to cover 15 acres; building described . . . The first building to be erected in the San Diego exposition by an exhibitor will be the Southern California counties building, for which the contract has been let and work upon which will commence within the next few days. The John Simpson Construction company has the contract, the bid being $45,252 (?).

The Southern California counties include the eight south of the Tehachapi and the cost of the building and splendid exhibit to be installed will be divided among the counties pro rata to the assessed valuation of each.

To occupy fifteen acres

The southern counties exhibit will cover about fifteen acres. Besides the building there will be a large tract of formal gardens and a model citrus orchard.

The site of the building has been in readiness for some time, all necessary retaining walls and fills having been made. The site is at the northeast corner of the intersection of the Prado, or main street, and the Calle Cristobal, not far from the east entrance.

The building will be 195 feet wide and 225 feet long. The main entrance on the Prado is through an arcade which leads into a large patio. This patio will be filled with lawn and flowers and deep cloisters will run north, east and west. On the left will be the administration department, including reception room and offices.

Room for entertainments

The small lecture room, 33x55 (?) feet, seating 250 people is at the right of the patio. Here will be held the smaller public entertainments and the display of motion pictures showing all the beauties and development of Southern California.

The central portion of the building will be occupied by the main exhibit hall, around which will run a gallery. The west entrance will include broad cement steps and a platform on which will play a small fountain. The men’s smoking room and lavatory, and the women’s sitting room and lavatory, as well as the quarters for the caretakers, will also be on the west side.

The gardens at the north of the building will be of a formal nature. Smooth paths will wander here and there between masses of shrubbery and drooping trees. Tiny shelters, belvederes and vine-hung pergolas will be flanked by masses of color from the flowers for which Southern California is rightfully famous.

Five-acres orchard

Recalling old gardens of England and Colonial days, or those early periods in California’s own history when time was counted by light and darkness, there will be a quaint sundial in one corner. At the northwest end of the formal garden will be a gate, admitting the visitor into the five-acre orchard, which will be the chief exhibit of the southern counties. There will be found 800 trees in full leaf of their sturdy four years of life, demonstrating to the world the possibilities of the ideal citrus orchard. Spraying, cultivation and irrigation will be carried on during the exposition year in the same manner which would be employed on an actual ranch.

San Diego Union, March 15, 1913, 12:4. Thornless cactus farm concession at Exposition will occupy 5 acres.

San Diego Union, March 16, 1913, 4:4. EDITORIAL – on San Diego and San Francisco Expositions.

San Diego Union, March 16, 1913, 4:4. Panama Expositions, by Frederick J. Haskin . . . The San Diego exposition easily will rank with the Pan-American, the Lewis and Clark, and the Yukon fairs. Enthusiasts claim it will far surpass them. Certainly it will be more unique, and will have a richer setting. The fair will cause an outlay of fully $20,000,000. The citizens of San Diego, a city of less than 75,000 people, raised the sum of $2,000,000 to start the project. Nearly $6,000,000 is being spent on a magnificent sea wall. John D. Spreckels is building the San Diego and Arizona railroad a distance of 220 miles on a new and lower grade. Nearly $5,000,000 will be spent in Balboa Park the magnificent domain of 1400 acres, in whose lap the exposition will be held. Over eleven miles of dock and 1000 acres of reclaimed land for warehouses will be ready to astonish visitors when the fair opens, January 1, 1915.

San Diego Union, March 16, 1913, 24:1. D. C. Reed, former mayor of San Diego, declares for O’Neall; calls Marston an obstructionist.

San Diego Union, March 16, 1913, 20:1. Nevada decides to spend $40,000 on Exposition buildings and exhibits.

San Diego Union, March 16, 1913, 30:2-3. View of Administration Building and work being done on bridge over canyon to Exposition grounds; frame work on bridge carrying beam and girder section shown.

San Diego Union, March 16, 1913, 44:1-5. What newspapers say about Exposition.

San Diego Union, March 19, 1913, 24:1. New Mexico plans monster exhibits at Exposition; $30,000 for building.

San Diego Union, March 20, 1913, 9:1. Visitors from Alameda and Santa Clara Counties are guests of city; ask to see site of Exposition.

San Diego Union, March 20, 1913, 15:2-3. M. A. Luce tells part taken by Marston in Temecula cut-off.

San Diego Union, March 20, 1913, 15:2. Louis J. Wilde prefers O’Neall.

San Diego Union, March 20, 1913, 24:1. New Mexico building to cost $30,000; plan big exhibit.

San Diego Union, March 21, 1913, II, 13:2-3. Wilde tells charity ball promoters to “Go plumb to hell.”

San Diego Union, March 21, 1913, 14:1. Alameda and Santa Clara Counties united for Exposition exhibit . . . The Alameda and Santa Clara county supervisors and exposition commissioners concluded their visit to San Diego last night with a business meeting in the green room of Hotel del Coronado, which resulted practically in a decision to participate on an extensive scale in the San Diego exposition.

The delegation from Alameda, being the largest, led in the decision. Santa Clara country concurring heartily. Members of both parties favored a strong representation.

Plan joint exhibit

The plan proposed for participation contemplates a joint exhibit by the counties of Alameda, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Monterey, San Luis Obispo and San Benito, and it is believed this ultimately will be adhered to.

(The names of representatives from Alameda and Santa Clara counties follow.)

The party returned north this morning in a special car attached to the owl.

Park Commissioners, Minutes, March 21, 1912. Superintendent reported arrival of 2 elk donated by San Francisco Board of Park Commissioners.

San Diego Union, March 22, 1913, 8:1. Diamonds wanted for Balboa Park . . . It is the intention of the park commission, as expressed by one of the commissioners last night, not only to have ball fields, but tennis courts and various fields for sports in the big park, and that if the demand were sufficient it might not be inopportune to begin plans at once.

San Diego Union, March 23, 1913, 6:2-3. What prominent men say about Exposition.

San Diego Union, March 23, 1913, 9:1. Tractors at work at Exposition; practical exhibit of great interest to farmers is planned; time-saving machines to be compared with those of old-style agriculturists..

San Diego Union, March 23, 1913, 26:1-2. Mrs. Horton says Marston is “tried and true.”

San Diego Union, March 24, 1913, 10:1. San Diego native M. D. Sherman scores Marston’s record.

San Diego Union, March 25, 1913, II, 13:3. Lumber arrives for Exposition . . . Three steamers, two of them new and making their maiden voyages, arrived at San Diego docks within the last week, with lumber and shingles, the greater part of which is for exposition construction work. The cargoes made a total of 910,000 feet of lumber and 5,000,000 shingles.

Workmen are busy pushing the bridge to the exposition grounds far out into the canyon. The electrical building and mill beyond the administration building are fast reaching a point where the walls will rise far more rapidly than do those of an ordinary constructed building because this building is to be put up in sections.

A crane of heavy timbers has been put in place over the foundations and floor timbers of the building, and a large amount of lumber cut to measurement is ready for putting together.

A huge 500-ton motor truck honks back and forth constantly between the work and the stone crusher, bringing a each trip an immense load of crushed stone, which is dumped automatically to the floor of the bridge, where it is mixed with cement and disappears, as if by magic, into the cavernous maw of the frame-structure, whose appetite for concrete seems never to be satisfied.

San Diego Union, March 26, 1913, 10:3-4. Article in recent issue of Philadelphia Star gives San Diego Fair valuable publicity.

San Diego Union, March 26, 1913, 12:3. Committee considers favorably appropriation of $200,000 for California State Building at San Diego Fair; State may spend $250,000 in all.

San Diego Union, March 26, 1913, 12:2. Residents to decide Park Boulevard paving . . . All previous proceedings having been repealed, the question of parking and grading Park boulevard has been again left open by the council.

Park Boulevard property owners, who live north of University Avenue, want their street paved with asphalt. Residents living south of University Avenue want Park Boulevard surfaced with decomposed granite. Property owners, both north and south of the boulevard, are divided on the question of parking. Some of them want no parking, some want the parking in the middle of the street, and some again want it on each side along the walks.

San Diego Union, March 27, 1913, 11:1. Utah votes $75,000 for two Fairs; San Diego portion will be at least $37,500.

San Diego Union, March 28, 1913, 22:1. 50,000 postcards mailed advertising city; decision to make it a semi-annual affair.

San Diego Union, March 29, 1913, 3:5. Assembly, March 28, favored $200,000 building for San Diego Fair’ appropriation bill passed unanimously in quick order.

San Diego Union, March 30, 1913, 3:2-3. What newspapers say about Exposition.

San Diego Union, March 30, 1913, 15:1. Dr. Hewett chosen to be Director of Exhibits; delighted with plans.

San Diego Union, March 30, 1913, II, 19:1. Overland climbs hills with 40 percent grade in park.

San Diego Union, March 31, 1913, 2:1. Mayoral candidate O’Neall regrets opponent Marston’s wife was driven by low gossip to defend her husband; says his committee has had no part in spreading slanders.

San Diego Union, April 2, 1913, 1:1. 2:5. 15 states of United States and foreign governments appropriated more than $2,300,000 for buildings and exhibits.

San Diego Union, April 2, 1913, 6:2-3. Sehon’s open letter on Marston attack.

San Diego Union, April 2, 1913, 6:4. H. L. Moody replies to Marston “ad” in Sunday newspaper.

San Diego Union, April 4, 1913, 6:1. Kids urge better quarters for animals; say cages are “too small”; Wangenheim replies to protest.

San Diego Union, April 6, 1913, II, 17:2-4. “King Mike,” regal Billy Goat, and some of his subjects and caretakers at zoo in Balboa Park.

San Diego Union, April 7, 1913, 9:3. Colonel Collier makes public letter accepting Marston’s resignation and praising his mayoral candidacy.

San Diego Union, April 8, 1913, 1:3, 2:3. Great canyon road linking San Diego with Imperial Valley to be opened tomorrow.

San Diego Union, April 8, 1913, 9:2. Montana to take part in 1915 Fair; Governor Stewart to name commission to investigate both expositions.

San Diego Sun, April 9, 1913, 1:8. O’Neall elected mayor over Marston by a narrow margin of 657 votes — 7,291 to 7,948; Captain John Sehon defeated for Council.

San Diego Union, April 9, 1913, 1:7-8. O’Neall is mayor by 668 majority; Manney, Benbough and Schmidt are elected councilman; Sehon is defeated.

San Diego Union, April 9, 1913, 9:4. Governor Johnson says $200,000 for San Diego Fair is all; Panama-California Exposition to have a state building with nothing in it; says State is in no position to spend money . . . “Nothing for the San Diego exposition except $200,000 for a state building to fulfill the pledge of the 1911 legislature and administration,” was the statement of Governor Hiram Johnson to President Collier of the exposition.

The governor, in declaring he would not sign any appropriation bill for the San Diego fair, pleaded economy, as he did recently to Panama-Pacific fair officials who endeavored to secure his approval of a $1,000,000 state building at the San Francisco exposition.

“But if you refuse to sign any bills carrying appropriations for exhibits, heating plants and ground improvements, the building won’t be worth much,” President Collier told Governor Johnson. “We have a state building with nothing in it.”

“I am sorry,” said the governor, “but I feel as though the state is in no position to spend money in such a manner.”

Bills totaling $353,000, exclusive of the $200,000 appropriation bill already passed by the lower house, have been introduced by Assemblyman J. Hinkle and Senator Wright in behalf of the exposition.

Senator Wright, since the legislature convened for the last session, has endeavored to get an audience with the governor as to his position on the matter. Wright, who is not in sympathy with the Bull Moose crowd, was denied admittance to the executive chamber.

The senator telegraphed Collier to sound the governor as to his attitude with reference to a building at the San Francisco exposition.

President Collier had very little to say tonight, but will ask the Southern California delegation to urge the passage of the exposition bills through both house and pass the responsibility to the governor.

“It looks as though we are to lose out,” said Senator Wright.

“If the act of 1911 appropriating $50,000 for the fair, and promising to increase this donation $200,000 more had not passed, it is doubtful if the governor would have permitted the exposition to get any money this year.”

San Diego Union, April 13, 1913, 5:1. Canadian participation in Fair is assured; only question is to extend invitation; northern government favors liberal appropriations.

San Diego Union, April 13, 1913, II, 17:2. Framing of Electricity Building at Fair grounds is practically finished . . . Work on the Electricity building at the exposition grounds is progressing so rapidly that its exterior will be completed within a very short time. Already its framework has been practically finished, there being but a slight amount of work to be done before the structure will be ready or the next and last stage — its outside coat. Already it looms above the administration building from the city side of the canyon, and, within a week, it will take on the appearance of the finished building.

The ground to be occupied by the Machinery Building has been brought to grade, and the first of the week will find workmen laying the foundation timbers for this building.

A large amount of lumber is already on the ground for this building, and with the new construction method for erecting large buildings adopted by the board of works, building frames go up very quickly. The Machinery Building will be the second building to go up, and with its completion and the work to b started soon by the John Simpson Construction Company next week on the Southern California Counties Building, the exposition will commence assuming a much more definite form.

San Diego Union, April 13, 1913, 52:1-2. Arizona’s snub of Exposition causes wide wail of protest; conflict between Governor and Legislature given as reason.

San Diego Union, April 15, 1913, II, 13:1. Appropriation from Japan will not be reduced . . . Larz Anderson, American ambassador to Japan, who recently returned to America from the Orient and who was at the Hotel del Coronado last week, says that anti-Japanese legislation threatened by California will not cause Japan to reduce its appropriation for the Panama-California exposition.

Anderson scouts the idea of friction between the United States and Japan. He says conditions were never better for a continuance of good feeling.

If Japan reduces its appropriation, it will be because economy is necessary. California should bear in mind, however, that Japan is very sensitive and would undoubtedly resent deliberate attempts to discriminate against its people the changes of reduction of the appropriation are remote, though, he said.

Anderson has presented his resignation to President Wilson. He has been connected with the diplomatic service for twenty years and wants to retire, explaining that private business requires all his time.

San Diego Union, April 17, 1913, 24:1. Roof contracts are let at Fair; 200 trees set out . . . The Russ lumber company and John Dee were yesterday awarded the contracts for roofing the 1915 exposition buildings being erected by the exposition company. The Russ Lumber company received the contract for material and the contract for putting it on the buildings went to Dee.

This is the same contract which two weeks ago was said to have been let to a Knoxville, Tenn. roofing contractor and supply man. The story printed at that time emanated from a Knoxville paper, which printed an alleged interview with the successful bidder, which, so far as anyone in San Diego was aware, was manufactured out of whole cloth.

In about ten days, the electricity building, now in course of erection, will be ready for its roof and, by the time that work is complete, it is believed the machinery building, the foundation of which is being laid, will be ready for the work of the roofing contractor.

The exhibition buildings, being erected by the exposition company, although large buildings, will all be constructed very rapidly, owing to the splendid organization of the department of works and the care with which preliminary details are worked out. Every load of lumber to go into the construction of each building is laid down at a designated spot and it is always found that when this material is wanted, it is at the most convenient point for the workmen.

A great many thousand feet of lumber and heavy frame timbers for the machinery building are not only on the ground, but a large part of the frame timber has already been cut and fitted, so that, by the time the foundation and floor is done, the electric crane will find its work ready for it.

Two hundred trees lining the Prado from the administration building to the east entrance were set out yesterday, materially altering the appearance of that thoroughfare, which is now clearly defined and separated from the ground prepared on either side for building.

Trees also have been transplanted in great numbers close under the west and north walls of the administration building, and, as these are nearly a third grown and of that variety, for the most part, of eucalyptus, making the most rapid growth in a very short time, they will assume height enough to soften greatly the rather severe lines of the building.

San Diego Union, April 20, 1913, 11:1-3. Rapid progress being made at Fair grounds; Electricity Building is nearing completion and framing to be started on Machinery Building this week.

San Diego Union, April 20, 1913, 12:1-2. Envelope used to boost San Diego Fair showing Exposition designs on front and back.

San Diego Union, April 20, 1913, 37:1-2. What newspapers say about Exposition.

San Diego Sun, April 21, 1912, 1:1. State Senate unanimously passed Senator Hinkle’s bill providing for an appropriation of $200,000 for a state building at the Panama-California Exposition.

San Diego Union, April 22, 1913, 22:3. Four New Mexico counties plans separate exhibits; Coalfax Mining Company plans outlay of $25,000 on exhibits.

San Diego Union, April 23, 1913, 22:1. Making of movies to be shown at Exposition; Fair officials grant P. L. Holland novel studio concession; other concessions granted bring total to approximately $450,000.

San Diego Union, April 25, 1913, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Colonel Collier’s Washington Mission . . . Colonel Collier’s mission to Washington may not prove a success; nobody can predict what the new congress may or may not do. But it will be a mistake to regard that mission as a forlorn hope. It has more than a fighting chance if the people of San Diego will stand solidly behind the exposition president and back him in his courageous effort.

San Diego Union, April 25, 1913, II, 11:1. Colonel Collier’s aim is to secure $1.0 million for Fair.

San Diego Union, April 25 1923, II, 11:2. E. B. Yerington, wealthy Nevadan, is to boost Fair.

San Diego Union, April 25, 1913, 11:3. Description of Southern California Counties building at Exposition; cost $100,000.

San Diego Sun, April 26, 1913, II, 13:1. Board of Directors votes to ask city for bond election for another one million dollars.

San Diego Union, April 26, 1913, 1:5. Board of Directors ask for new million dollar bond issue for Fair; money needed for construction of eight buildings and permanent improvements.

San Diego Union, April 26, 1913, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Make the Exposition a Success . . . Should the tentative plans for calling the bond issue be carried out, as now appears certain, the entire subject will have exhaustive discussion. Every point as to which there may be doubt will be fully explained. It will be hoped, however, that the discussion will be amicable and that the people of San Diego will manifest the same public spirit and show the same united front that have already carried the exposition project so far on the road to success.

San Diego Union, April 27, 1913, 1:5, 5:1. BABIES PUZZLE EXPOSITION BOARD; San Diego Women Discuss Infant Problem of Big Fair; Is Ingenious Suggestion of Nursery/Kindergarten Practical and Would Parents Visiting Exposition Allow Their Children to Be Cared or in Public Gaze of Throngs? Should Youngsters Work or Play? These Questions Call Forth Various Answers by Interested Women

“How about those babies? There’s something I haven’t thought of.”

President D. C. Collier looked up from a paper he had been fingering meditatively and called in a number of his assistants who were at work in the same room. As nobody appeared to hear him the colonel made his inquiry more direct.

“Hogaboom, how about these babies?”

Hogaboom slanted a suspicious eye at his superior and then replied resignedly,

“I’ll bite. What babies? I’m really very busy Colonel.”

The colonel frowned majestically.

“This is no kid, Hogaboom. I’m talking about babies . . . the real live, kicking, crying, cooing article. Here is an application from a woman in Los Angeles who wants to take care of the babies at the exposition.”

“What babies?,” repeated Hogaboom.

“Any babies, all the babies, everybody’s babies, regardless or race, creed or color. She specifies no conditions and names no limit.”

The able assistants looked up from their desks and gasped in unison. Hogaboom retained his self-possession.

“What the deuce does she want to do that for?,” he asked calmly.

Then Collier explained.

The woman who is courting the job, the mere consideration of which temporarily staggered the redoubtable colonel, is Mrs. C. Aber of Los Angeles. Mrs. Aber is at present conducting in a department store of that city such a retreat for the offspring of temporarily preoccupied parents as she wishes to introduce here on a much large scale in 1915. Her plan is unique, comprehensive and idealistic as described by the exposition men, though some doubt has been expressed as to its practicality. Collier, Hogaboom and Herbert Lewis, after giving the subject considerable thought and discussion last week, arrived at the conclusion there were too many angles and subtleties foreign to their checked experience.

“It impresses me,” remarked Collier, “that it requires a feminine intelligence to cope with a proposition of this sort and with any degree of success. A baby is a -er -er-”

“A baby,” suggested Lewis mildly.

“That’s it,” continued the colonel, breathing deeply. “A baby, being a baby, is an essentially feminine produce.”

“There’s no denying that,” murmured Hogaboom.

“Well then, let’s put it to the women.”

And so it was definitely decided and it is for the purpose of guiding the exposition authorities to wise and beneficent action on Mrs. Aber’s application that the Union has obtained opinions of twelve prominent women in this city, including mothers, physicians, club women and those active in organizations and philanthropic work. All agreed that the subject not only merited discussion, but should be given the most careful consideration before any definite decision was made and the details of Mrs. Aber’s plans were frankly commended and criticized.

Mrs. Aber’s idea, as outlined by the exposition men, is to have a large room set aside as a public nursery in which she, with a trained corps of assistants, would receive and check babies and young children, allowing their unencumbered parents to go upon their way, carefree and rejoicing. The unsuspecting infant, after being detached by fair promises from the maternal apron strings, is meanwhile enveloped in a maze of the most delightful deception. On the theory that a child is never so happy as when engaged in constructive work, occupations will be provided of such a beguiling character that, while the ideal is schooling, the deluded infant is unconscious of being engaged in anything but the most profitless enjoyment.

The chief attraction would be a miniature factory, in which baby hands would fashion paper furniture and flowers. The handiwork of the little ones might be sold to anyone sufficiently enraptured to buy. In addition to this possible revenue and the trifling sum changed parents for the double service to them and their children, Mrs. Aber believes that the instruction and amusement of children could be made an interesting exhibit in itself — one worth a price of admission.

The women who have given opinions are practically united in believing that a nursery where babies and children may be checked and properly cared for will be needed at the exposition. They advocate, however, great caution in selecting the person to whom the concession is granted and a careful examination of the qualifications of all applicants.

“I am glad the Union has taken up this discussion,” said Dr. Louis Heilbron, a member of the San Diego Club. “Such a concession would have to be conducted on a most practical and scientific basis and anyone undertaking it must possess great executive ability. All applicants should be carefully examined as to their experience and efficiency. I do not know Mrs. Aber and she may be a woman splendidly equipped for the work. Personally, I should like to see it given to a San Diego woman, if there is anyone here willing and competent to undertake it.”

Dr. Heilbron, in common with a number of others, does not consider the kindergarten idea or any effort aimed at systematic instruction practical, without a definite arrangement for daily or almost continuous attendance on the part of the children. She is also opposed to making the nursery an exhibit.

“I do not approve of having an admission charge,” she continued. “Of course, an exhibition showing the systematic and scientific care of children would be instructive. But the parents and children are entitled to first consideration, and I think both would feel more at ease if the public were kept out entirely. Children receiving too much attention or even observation become distracted, if not self-conscious and spoiled.”

Mrs. G. B. Miles, superintendent of the Children’s Home, while recognizing the necessity for a place along the general lines of the one suggested, considered a number of Mrs. Aber’s ideas visionary.

“I’d like to talk to that good lady,” said Mrs. Miles, laughing good-naturedly. “I don’t know it all, but I should not care to undertake the job as she has outlined it. I have all that I can manage here. We average between ninety and a hundred children all the time. The middle of last February we opened a baby’s cottage where we have twenty-five children between two months and five years old. In the cottage along we have three day nurses, two young assistants, and one night nurse.

“I do not approve of exhibiting the children. Then I have been wondering how the nursery could be conducted along sanitary lines. With so many strange children coming and going daily it would seem well nigh impossible to eliminate the danger of disease and contagion. Then I think there is apt to be difficulty with the parents. I doubt if particular parents would be willing to leave their children in such a place anyway. Children vary so, not only in health and cleanliness, but in race and color. There would, it seems to me, to satisfy all, have to be a good many divisions made. The undertaking undoubtedly would require a large building and a great many attendants.”

Most of the women consulted said that after considering a few of the more obvious possibilities of the idea they could not imagine leaving their own children in an exposition nursery, however well it might be conducted. One suggested as a primary color division, “a dark room, a light room and a medium room,” another a corps of chemically-pure wet nurses for the proper nourishment of nursing infants, and a third an automatic sterilizer and all-around regenerator; a painless machine to be invented by some local wizard for the occasion, by means of which the grubby, ragged or sickly infant may be converted , for the nonce, into a radiant and spotless creature. But such frivolous and satirical sallies were always followed by dark threats of summary vengeance on anyone daring to publish them in connection with their names.

Mrs. Oscar J. Kendall of the Wednesday Club and the Talent Workers thinks the idea a splendid one for people who could not afford to make other provision for their children. She doubts, however, the advisability of trying to sell the articles made by the children as it might lead some parents to imagine that their children were being exploited or urged to work too hard.

“Such a nursery would be a god-send to the poor and I think it should be conducted as nearly as possible along charity lines. To make it as sanitary as possible, I think every child should be bathed and given a little play dress.,” said Mrs. Kendall.

“To try to carry out the educational idea does seem too impractical. You never can tell what a child will go or not do, and the right sort of woman can accomplish wonders with them. A great deal can be done by suggestion and when started in a simple, amusing, constructive undertaking, a child is very apt to remain absorbed for a long time.”

Mrs. E. M. Capps, president of the San Diego Club, said that Mrs. Aber’s plan had impressed her as a “very visionary thing,” beautiful in theory, but not likely to be carried out successfully.

“I am afraid it would be very difficult to persuade the younger children to leave their mothers at all,” she said. “Babies two and three and four years old are very adverse to going to strangers and I am afraid may of them would spend a good part of their time crying. Then, personally, I would have fear of disease.”

Mrs. J. E. Jennison, president of the Daughters of American Revolution in San Diego, expressed herself as having at the head of the enterprise a well-known San Diego woman, experienced in such affairs, who would receive the endorsement and assistance of woman’s organizations. She would approve having the nursery open to inspection, In the world’s fair at Chicago, she said, there was a children’s building with a model nursery and a department with incubator babies, both of which were interesting exhibits.

Mrs. Grant Conard, wife of ex-mayor Conard, said:

“I think the idea is an excellent one, but I doubt if there would be sufficient demand to justify a nursery on a very large scale. Nearly everyone who has a place to live has a place to leave their children, and most parents do everything to avoid the necessity of leaving them in a public nursery. Splendid use could be made of the playgrounds in caring for the children.

“As for teaching the children anything, I have my doubts. Little could be done along that line without regular attendance.”

Mrs. Julius Wangenheim was another who did not take the thought of instruction very seriously.

“If the nurses or attendants succeeded in entertaining the children and making them forget they were in the hands of strangers, they would be doing very well indeed, I believe,” said Mrs. Wangenheim. “I do not imagine though that the children will cry or be so upset on leaving their parents that they cannot be made happy for a time at least. The class of women who will profit most by the nursery will be those who have been compelled to leave their children alone or in the hands of others anyway.”

The frequency with which children are hurt or lost in crowds was given by Mrs. Carl Owens of National City, president of the San Diego County Federation of Women’s clubs, as one of the chief reasons for having such a nursery.

“The children would not become worn out and irritable and the parents would be free to enjoy unhampered the things that the little ones could not enjoy,” said Mrs. Owens. “I would be in favor of having a school for the children who could come everyday for a time and of exhibiting their handiwork. I hardly think it would be wise to sell anything.”

“No ailing children or those with infectious diseases should be taken. Unless great caution were exercised, there would be danger of spreading disease.

Dr. Charlotte Baker is of the opinion that the dangers of infection and a number of other unpleasantnesses suggested would be reduced to a minimum by keeping the children in the open as much as possible.

“There would really be less danger of a lot of children together, under proper care and supervision, contracting diseases than there would be out among the crowds and in the buildings,” she said.

“I do not like the idea of making the nursery an exhibition and would not allow incubator babies to be shown at all. The nursery should be kept up by the exposition and not run for profit for anyone. An adequate charge should be made for each infant and the superintendent should be paid a salary like any other employee. It would be a splendid thing if there were an emergency hospital in connection with the exposition. I think there will be plenty of use for it.”

Mrs. Ivor M. Lawson and Miss Elizabeth Freese, both members of the Wednesday Club, considered Mrs. Aber’s ideas ingenious but not practical.

Mrs. Aber’s application will be held under advisement by Colonel Collier.

San Diego Union, April 27, 1913. 12:2-3. What newspapers say about Exposition.

San Diego Union, April 28, 1913, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Oregon at the San Diego Exposition.

San Diego Sun, April 29, 1913, 1:1. Collier leaves tomorrow for Washington, DC to work for government recognition and a one million dollar appropriation.

San Diego Union, April 29, 1913, 22:2. Exposition grants concession to scenic road; L. A. Thompson given contract to operate railway at grounds, four miles in length.

San Diego Sun, April 30, 1913, 1:1. California Building plans complete; $250,000 structure is to be permanent; architect Goodhue is coming; groundbreaking to be held soon. . . . The dome of the building will be 573 feet above sea level. The dome is designed after the Cathedral of Guadalajara and the Mirand tower in Spain.

San Diego Union, May 1, 1913, II, 13:4. Fraternity men to have building at Exposition; 2-story structure being designed after Green Pantheon with a glass roof; site not selected; plans being prepared by S. L. Holopeter, a draftsman in the office of Bristow and Layman, architects.

San Diego Examiner, May 2, 1913, 1:6-7. Let us vote the Fair bonds, but demand to know where the money goes.

San Diego Sun, May 3, 1913, 1:8. Work to be started soon on Domestic Liberal Arts Building and Foreign Liberal Arts Building; work on $200,000 State of California Building to start within the next 10 days. . . . The Domestic Liberal Arts Building will face El Prado on the south side, standing on the shores of Laguna Alta. The Foreign Arts Building will be next to it, at the southeast corner of the Plaza de Panama and El Prado. Also on Laguna Alta, opposite, are an emergency hospital and a service building.

San Diego Union, May 4, 1913, 3:1-4. Visitors surprised at marvelous progress made at Exposition.

San Diego Union, May 5, 1913, II, 11:2. Congressman Kettner introduces bill to allow exhibits for Fair to be admitted into the United States free.

San Diego Sun, May 6, 1913, 1:7-8. Mayor O’Neall says city park lands are fine places for schools. “I don’t think any sentimental reasons should lead us to exclude schools from the park.”

San Diego Sun, May 6, 1913, 1:7-8. Rustic canyon – once beauty spot – is now no more. Flowers and trees fall before the grader. Opening of 6thStreet tremendous task. Property owners charge that Park Commissioners did not make good their promise to transplant uprooted trees elsewhere in park.

San Diego Sun, May 7, 1913, 16:5. Board of Directors change name of Electricity Building to Home Science Building; Machinery Building to Arts and Crafts Building; Domestic Liberal Arts Building to Commerce and Industries Building, and Foreign Liberal Arts Building to Foreign Arts Building.

San Diego Union, May 7, 1913, 1:4-6. Editors of California Press Association amazed by Fair work; praise San Diego’s boost spirit.

San Diego Union, May 7, 1913, 1:7, 12:1-4. Businessmen here aim for one million dollar bonds for Fair.

San Diego Union, May 7, 1913, 7:1. Wangenheim resigns from Park Board; praises work by John Morley,

San Diego Union, May 7, 1913, 12:1. Collier making friends for Fair in the East.

San Diego Sun, May 8, 1913, 1:7-8. Park Commissioner John F. Forward urges park appropriations for the coming year of seven percent; current appropriation was five percent; Council agreed to increase rate, but specified Park Commission would have to pay city for water used in the park. Forward: “The park with its boulevards is fine for the wealthy man with his automobile. What we are trying to do is to make the park a resort where the poor man can enjoy himself. They should have grass to roll on, and other things should be provided for their comfort.”

San Diego Union, May 8, 1913, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Arizona’s Surprising Course . . . San Diego will hope that the neighbor state’s legislature will reopen this exposition question and determine it from a viewpoint of business interest, if not from that of sentiment.

San Diego Union, May 8, 1913, 10:1. Exposition buildings are given new names.

Park Commissioners Minutes, May 9, 1913. Commissioners Forward, Ferris and Chandler; Forward elected president. . . . Superintendent instructed to notify Mr. Davis, pound master, to remove dog pound from park . . . Board agreed to recommend bond issue of $850,000 for permanent park improvements . . . Mr. Adams, president of City Council, requested removal of Park Department office from City Hall; Superintendent instructed to vacate the office and to erect an office at the headquarters in Balboa Park.

San Diego Union, May 9, 1913, 7:1. State building plans forwarded.

San Diego Union, May 9, 1913, 12:3. San Diegans aboard Cleveland received great encouragement in the orient; think displays from Java for Fair are likely.

San Diego Sun, May 10, 1913, 1:4. The House passed, May 10, a bill authorizing free admission under bond of foreign exhibits for San Diego Exposition.

San Diego Union, May 10, 1913, 3:1. Chamber of Commerce endorses bond issue for park work; calls on Council to fix date for election.

San Diego Union, May 10, 1913, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Exposition Bond Issue . . . No very strenuous campaign should be necessary to carry this proposed bond issue. The people of San Diego have stood by the exposition in the past. There is no reason to doubt that they will continue to give it their hearty support.

San Diego Union, May 11, 1913, 1:1. Exposition bill providing for free entry of goods for exhibition passes House by unanimous vote, May 10; Kettner stifles opposition to San Diego measure; Senators pledged to support; equals U.S. recognition; Collier pleased by victory. . . . Bill provides for acceptance of cash or a bond by the Secretary of the Treasury to guarantee that all awards and other obligations to exhibitors shall be met by the Exposition Company.

San Diego Union, May 11, 1913, 10:1. Progress on Fair work amazing; water pipes are laid.

San Diego Sun, May 12, 1913, 2:1. John Simpson Construction Co. at work on Southern California Counties Building today; foundations laid some months ago; preliminary work of raising frames has been done.

San Diego Union, May 12, 1913, 20:1. Park Commissioner Schmidt wants to lease city park land to get more revenue.

San Diego Union, May 13, 1913, 20:7. Cracker and Preserve concern propose to build plant at Fair grounds.

San Diego Sun, May 14, 1913, 8:1. Workmen are building pergolas around citrus grove and Southern California model farms exhibit.

While the John Simpson Construction Company is busy building the Southern California Counties’ Building at the eastern gateway of the Exposition, workmen are building the pergolas around the citrus groves and the Southern California model farms exhibit.

Three pergolas will act as a sort of frame for the settings of the win exhibits to be made by the seven southern counties, setting them off to the best possible advantage, beautifying them greatly, and at the same time adding to the comfort and pleasure of the visitor.

The pergolas are eight feet high and ample in width to cover a broad walk, and they will be thickly covered by creeping rose vines, as near a perpetual booming variety as possible, so that the flowers will be in constant evidence, reminding the visitor who walks beneath or occupies the rustic benches to be placed there, that he is in Sunny Southern California, where such things are not only possible, but natural the year around.

Outside the pergolas will be planted a row of handsome acacia trees.

San Diego Union, May 14, 1913, 22:4. Plan for real tea garden at Exposition; Sir Thomas Lipton sends agent to San Diego to arrange for exhibit.

San Diego Union, May 14, 1913, 14:1. City and County Building in park is favored.

San Diego Union, May 15, 1913, 3:2. Council endorses park bond issue; passes resolution favoring election on funds for park improvement.

San Diego Union, May 18, 1913, 1:1. Construction at Fair amazes one and all.

San Diego Union, May 18, 1913, 12:2. Wangenheim’s park work appreciated; Board adopts resolution praising retiring commissioner for services.

San Diego Union, May 18, 1913, 13:1-3. Exposition’s scope, loyalty of city is amazing

San Diego Union, May 19, 1913, 1:7, 5:2. Peaceful end comes to Captain Sehon.

San Diego Union, May 20, 1913, II, 11:1. Bids for California Building called for June 14.

San Diego Sun, May 21, 1913, 8:1. Kettner Bill giving local exposition international recognition passed by Senate on Monday and signed by President Wilson permits bonded warehouse at San Diego Exposition; suspends immigration laws to admit exhibitors, their workmen and assistants.

Following the signature of President Wilson to the Kettner bill, which passed the Senate Monday, it is possible the San Diego Exposition will be called upon to make room for some more foreign exhibits as the passage of the bill is recognition and authorization of the exposition by the government under the meaning of the act approved April 29, 1902.

The Kettner bill provides that both the Secretary of the Treasury and the Secretary of Commerce may extend to the San Diego Exposition all rules and regulations necessary to suspect customs laws and create a bonded warehouse of the Exposition grounds, and the Commerce Department to suspend the alien labor and immigration laws for the same purpose and in the same district. The usual bond and safeguard is required and the notice will be sent by Department heads to all foreign governments through the American diplomatic service.

The passage of this bill puts the San Diego Exposition on an equal footing in foreign countries with than in San Francisco, with the difference that San Diego makes a more direct appeal to exhibitors, through its unique and favorable plan of operation, its scope and character.

Colonel Collier is in Washington and has wired his complete satisfaction at the end of two year’s struggle for recognition, a struggle that was won in spite of opposition from sources from which there should have been no opposition.

The division of exhibits may now approach any foreign government or organization, exhibitor or art gallery, scientific society or college and do so on any equal footing with any exposition ever held. Exposition officials expect a big increase in the number and volume of exhibits following the approval of the bill, just passed by President Wilson.

San Diego Union, May 22, 1913, 2:1. Wild Animal Farm may add fame to San Diego.

San Diego Union, May 22, 1913, 2:4. Council sets July 1 as date for $850,000 bond election to make better Fair.

San Diego Union, May 22, 1913, II, 14:1. Visitors flocking to Exposition building.

San Diego Union, May 23, 1913, 4:1. EDITORIAL: On Exposition Bonds . . . As matters stand, the success of the exposition and the stupendous advantages that it will cause the city are fully assured, provided the people give to the undertaking the additional support which is now found to be required.

San Diego Union, May 23, 1913, 12:4. Automobile makers plan exhibition of motor-propelled vehicles; plans for building $200,000 structure; story of wheel will be told.

San Diego Union, May 24, 1913, 9:1. President Wilson signed Kettner’s bill for a bonded warehouse, May 23, which all departments in Washington, DC, construe to mean recognition of the Exposition, making it in fact as well as in name an International Exposition.

San Diego Union, May 24, 1913, 9:1. Moore, president of Panama-Pacific Exposition, raps San Diego Fair; enrages Collier.

St. Louis, May 23. Col. D. C. Collier registered at the Jefferson hotel on his way back to San Diego from Washington, where he has been in the interest of the Panama-California exposition. The colonel was in fine fettle. He had just received a telegram from Congressman Kettner that the president has signed Kettner’s bill for a bonded warehouse at the exposition, which all of the departments in Washington construe to be full recognition of the exposition, making it in fact as well as in name an international exposition.

He was particularly pleased at the action of the president because of the action of C. C. Moore, president of the San Francisco exposition, who, after the bill had passed both houses of congress, went out of his way to wire an dozen or more senators urging that the bill be reconsidered.

The colonel, upon learning of this, sent the following telegram to Moore: “Have seen most of your telegrams to senators. They are deeply resented in many quarters and I desire to formally notify you that unless you discontinue your entirely unwarranted interference with legislation in favor of San Diego, there will surely be reprisals, and you will encounter unexpected opposition to legislation essential to your exposition. (Signed) D. C. Collier.”

He addressed himself as being utterly disgusted with the narrow and bigoted attitude of Moore and suggested that his time would be better passed in building rather than tearing down.

San Diego Union, May 25, 1913, 2:1-4. Priceless flora bedeck grounds.

San Diego Union, May 25, 1913, 12:1. Act authorizes governmental departments to make special rules and regulations for the free admission of exhibits and persons accompanying the same; places San Diego on same footing as previous expositions; makes it possible for San Diego to ask for a fair share of any appropriations for Exposition purposes in 1915; jubilee announced over success of bill; Collier to be guest of honor at banquet when he returns Friday.

San Diego Union, May 26, 1913, 3:2. Bridge work is rushed, spans chasm.

San Diego Union, May 26, 1913, 5:7. Strictest economy is Exposition watchword.

San Diego Union, May 26, 1913, 10:1-2. Fair bill’s friends have hard fight to prevent mutilation; last clause attacked by Smoot and Penrose.

San Diego Union, May 26, 1913, 20:2-4. Fair structures arise, canyon bridge work spectacular.

San Diego Union, May 27, 1913, II, 11:3. Tickets for affair at Grant Gill Friday to honor Collier are now on sale.

San Diego Sun, May 28, 1913, 1:1. Tulare County to exhibit here . . . Exposition officials were very much interested today in a report that Tulare county was likely to cut out the San Francisco expo and use San Diego as her place to exhibit.

According to news dispatches, T. B. Twaddle, chairman of the Tulare supervisors, said that San Francisco’s charge of $2.50 a square foot for exhibits was more than Tulare county would pay. It would cost $8,000 for the county to put an exhibit there.

“We have voted $5,000,000 for San Francisco,” he said, “and that is enough.” The other supervisors agreed with him and are said to be ready to vote on Monday to come here, Twaddle said.

“If San Francisco does not come down in her demands, it is likely we will show a county exhibit only at San Diego.” “We kept asking them at Santa Cruz what they would do with the $5,000,000 voted They said it was for entertaining purposes. That was all the satisfaction we got.”

San Diego Union, May 28, 1913, 11:1. Ohio man signs contract for Exposition space; plans to build bungalow.

San Diego Sun, May 29, 1913, 2:3. Collier back says passage of Kettner bill means much to San Diego.

San Diego Union, May 29, 1913, 12:1. Bombay Indian Company makes appropriation for space for exhibit of Indian silks and curios; rare wares and jewelry to be made before crowds.

San Diego Examiner, May 30, 1913, 1:3-5. Wilde’s new bank building symbolizes strength and solidity.

San Diego Union, May 30, 1913, II, 13:1. Throngs scramble for tickets to Collier fete . . . With over 350 tickets out and people clamoring for more, it looks as if there will be a large crowd at the booster dinner tonight at the Grant grill, to be given in honor of Colonel Collier,

Nearly every man who took tickets to see had been back for more and the limitation were it not for the fact that the dining room will not any more could easily be raised to 600.

Most of the business houses will be closed today. That will make it easy for all the boosters to get to the dinner, which begins promptly at 7:30. Carl Heilbron will be toastmaster. Mayor O’Neall will speak on behalf of the city. J. Fred Lee will speak for the chamber of commerce. C. A. A. McGee will talk for the “newcomers.” E. O. Tilburne will speak for the Order of Panama. Vice President George D. Burnham will answer for the exposition organization, and Colonel Collier will talk for himself.

From what he has said in personal conversations since his return home, his talk will be a red hot one, right from the shoulder, too. There will be several guests of honor, among them John D. Spreckels and Colonel J. Wellington Boyle of New York, who attended the dinner to Collier about a year ago when he roasted President Taft for interfering with San Diego’s fight for recognition and predicted his political defeat.

Music, new booster songs, and all sorts of stunts will fill the evening.

San Diego Sun, May 31, 1913, 13:1-2. Collier given royal welcome by 500 men in Grant Grill; Spreckels confirms report that railroad will be completed by the time Exposition opens; Collier repeated the statement long known by business interests of the city that every cent for carfare for himself and his wife, every Pullman sleeper, every hotel bill and over personal Exposition expenses have been paid for out of his own pocket.

San Diego Union, May 31, 1913, 1:1-8. Flashlight banquet giving welcome to Collier, Exposition president, on his return from Washington, DC, where he obtained recognition of the 1915 Fair; Collier, who was unsalaried, calculated he had spent $100,000 out of his own pocket for traveling and other Exposition expenses; Spreckels promises railroad will be completed by the Exposition opening.

San Diego Union, May 31, 1913, 24:1. Order of Panama to be national fraternity; Brazilians want charter; details of Exposition are to be laid before Committee Tuesday night.

San Diego Union, June 1, 1913, 2:1. Thousands of rare pines and ornamental cedars, magnolias and live oaks, pepper trees and eucalyptus, acacias and grevilleas, Monterey and Italian cypress, and palms in infinite variety are being cultivated at Fair; Exposition grounds beginning to give some idea of paradise of verdure; paid for out of original $1,000,000 bond issue expended under the direction of the Park Board; palms in lower parts of canyons with smaller shrubs and vines and flowering plants extending up sides; derrick and machinery used in construction of bridge also used to lower and place heavier trees in the canyon; wire fences running along boulevards draped with free-growing rose bushes, ramblers and honeysuckle; 23-acre nursery; 600 acres to be treated..

San Diego Union, June 1, 1913, 11:1-2. Isthmus at Fair to be 25-acre fun tract; 8,000 feet frontage of freak amusements to include every sensation known; visitors can be frightened, shocked and pleased for a time.

When parting lovers, cheek to cheek here or anywhere are heard to sob out a long farewell and murmur brokenly, “Thismush, thismush,” as they undoubtedly will begin to do within the next few months, let it not be supposed that they are merely exchanging cabalistic love stuff. No, no! For a while “thismush” can be used as a love word under stress of great emotion, when almost anything goes, it really has a more general significance. It means “The Isthmus” and when lover sob it brokenly on parting they are comforting each other with the thought of where they’ll surely meet again, namely on “The Isthmus,” not of Panama, but of the Panama-California Exposition in 1915.

What is The Isthmus? It isn’t — yet. But it will be very much so. So many have asked that the exposition people have been put to it to give an answer. Some have said that it sounds “spicy”; others “unique and lively.” It will be all of these. Colonel Collier says it will be twenty-five acres of amusements, with an 8,000 foot frontage of fun, a sort of Broadway with tropical embellishments. Winfield Hogaboom says that it will be the Midway Pleasance with chili sauce. I. G. Lewis that it will be something “east of Suez” with all the refinements of civilization.

The Isthmus will be the amusement center of the exposition, the thoroughfare of thrills, as the inspired barker might put it; a journey of joy, extending from the north gate nearly to the east entrance, in the course of which every new sensation known to man and approved by the exposition censor may be experienced for the price of a dime, ten cents there or thereabouts.

To stroll calmly through the Cannibal Village, where tenderness is the only Christian asset, and enjoy the experience of being regarded as animated stew with one of its usual disadvantages; to wander at will in the Wilds of the Amazon; to sail down the Orinoco; to penetrate the fastness of the jungle; to mount to the topmost pinnacle of the Andes, and the next moment to plunge twenty thousand leagues under the sea; to negotiate all these terrifying and breath-taking adventures in a pair of pumps or a hobble skirt, with the comforting assurance that one is never more than 100 yards from a soda water fountain — such will be the joys of The Isthmus.

It would be staggering to the most Herculean and resourceful mind to endeavor to describe all at once the multitudinous wonders and distracting diversion of The Isthmus. There will be subtle attractions to stimulate the most jaded and world-weary souls, as well as those of a more obvious and mirth-provoking character for the children. As planned, the concessions will be the most novel in the history of expositions, and The Isthmus will become famous, even as the Midway in the Chicago World’s fair became famous.

Many who, owing to youth or other handicap, missed the Midway, will see The Isthmus and revel in its wonders. Perhaps even the “poor little Irish maid” in the song, who, it will be remembered, had never been on the Midway or danced the “hoochy-koochy,” will come to San Diego, if she is still alive, clothed in years and sophistication, and dance the Tango on the Isthmus. Wouldn’t it be bully if she should?

San Diego Union, June 9, 1913, 5:1. Excursion parties will be regally entertained; first is from Montana; Exposition officials make preparations for proper reception.

San Diego Union, June 1, 1913, 11:1-2. Mining Building as it will look when gates are opened (illustration).

San Diego Union, June 2, 1913, II, 1:2-3. Workingmen’s Hotel (Golden West) is Spreckel’s plan; plans being drawn by Harrison Albright; Wurster Construction Co. of San Diego awarded contract.

San Diego Union, June 2, 1913, II, 13:1. Plan big Burbank exhibition for Exposition; thousand of plants created by California wizard to be shown; Rollo Hough, vice president of Luther Burbank Company, in San Diego yesterday; “A great deal of interest has been evidenced by residents of San Diego county in spineless cactus,” said Mr. Hough. “This plant will revolutionize live stock conditions in the southwest, of which San Diego is the outlet. The public has been imposed on by persons selling false spineless cactus and using Burbank’s name.”

San Diego Union, June 3, 1913, II, 14:1. Order of Panama meeting tonight; first step in campaign for extension of body will be taken then.

San Diego Union, June 3, 1913, II, 15:1. Texas after fund for big Fair building.

San Diego Union, June 4, 1913, II, 13:2. Honolulu sending representative to Collier; A. L. MacKaye, Hawaiian newspaper man, coming here soon; may plan big exhibit.

San Diego Union, June 5, 1913, 2:2-3. Wide Awake Club endorses Exposition bonds without a dissenting vote.

San Diego Union, June 5, 1913, 9:1. “D” Street to be “Old Broadway” in future.

San Diego Union, June 5, 1913, II, 13:3. Utah and Nevada plan unique exhibits; Mormon church will send archaeological collection to San Diego Fair; replica of mines of Comstock lode to be on view at Exposition in 1915.

  1. A. Smith of Salt Lake and Senator W. G. Hunter of Nevada visited the exposition grounds yesterday and talked with officials about the part their respective states will play at the San Diego fair.

The Mormon church has offered the use of its historical material and nearly every commercial organization in the vast system of business affairs operated by the church will be represented. The church also has one of the greatest archaeological collections in all the west, a collection that covers the entire Great Basin country from the Rio Grande and Colorado river regions to the valley of the Great Snake and Columbia rivers, between the Rocky mountains and the Sierra Nevada.

. . . Senator Hunter was also enthusiastic over the opportunity for Nevada offered at this exposition, and especially to Southern Nevada, in which portion Esmeralda county and Goldfield, from which he comes, are situated. Nevada, like Utah, has a great deal to expect from her exhibit. She has more vacant land than any other state in the union, being third largest in the union in point of public lands available. Her historical material is varied and attractive and her huge dry farming areas all are looking for more men and women to bring them into industrious utility.

One of the most attractive exhibits she ever made was an exact duplicate of the enormous underground workings of the famous Comstock lode, from which in less than twenty years, was taken nearly a billion dollars worth of gold and silver. These workings contain more than 50,000,000 feet of timbers and extend five and a half miles in one direction and three in another. The deepest workings are 4,000 feet below the surface and at present high grade ore is being taken from one mine at a point two and a half miles from the shaft on the 2,500 foot level. The great Sutro tunnel is a part of this system and will be carried out in miniature with wires and tubing, with all the numerous shafts working the different colored strata and the replica of Virginia City on the surface. Added to this will be the miniature of the great copper mines at Ely, where the ore is scooped up with gigantic steam shovels and the wonderful mines at Goldfield, where on mill turns an average of $1,300,000 a month in gold bullion.

San Diego Union, June 5, 1913, II, 22:1. Colonel Jewell and E. J. Swayne say Italian art dealers are interested in placing exhibits at Fair; local officials declare they will welcome exhibits from all over the world.

Park Commissioners Minutes, June 6, 1913. On motion of Commissioner Ferris and duly seconded and carried, it was resolved that the Board of Park Commissioners are unalterably opposed to the erection of the City Hall and Court House, or any public building in Balboa Park.

San Diego Union, June 6, 1913, 1:3. Collier wants every visitor to become a booster; tells what Fair will do for San Diego; endorses bonds; California Society gives unanimous approval.

San Diego Union, June 6, 1913, II, 11:2. Park Commissioners Forward, Ferris and Chandler tell Mayor O’Neall their objections to County-City buildings in park; County Supervisors in favor of locating courthouse in park.

According to Mayor O’Neall the principal reason given by the commissioners was that they did not want the building in the park. They also considered that the park would be an inconvenient location, especially from the county’s viewpoint, as the jail must remain in its present location, and if the courts are located to the park it would be inconvenient to transport prisoners between prison and court. The mayor said he agreed with the commissioners on the latter point.

“I am in favor of having the county go ahead and build a new courthouse on the present site, such quarters as the city may occupy to be leased to it at a yearly rental of 4 percent of the cost of construction and sinking funds for the bonds. They city can sell its present property.”

San Diego Union, June 8, 1913, 1:3-5. Governor Johnson signed bill giving $200,000 to Fair yesterday.

San Diego Union, June 8, 1913, 7:1. Ask anything you want to know about Exposition at Broadway headquarters tomorrow and have the matter explained; bond issue is needed; different man will be on duty each hour from 8 a.m. until 5 p.m.

San Diego Union, June 8, 1913, 10:1-2, 15:1-4. Exposition is greatest factor in making San Diego miracle city of Pacific coast, verdict of boosters.

San Diego Union, June 8, 1913, 12:1. Fourth Exposition building, on south side of El Prado opposite Arts and Crafts, begun; fifth, soon; Science Building foundation and part of first floor completed; work is rushed; Mission design is used; will be one of the smallest of the large group; will open on El Prado and Plaza de Panama with two large and ornamented doorways; will have two bell towers, resembling in this the Santa Barbara mission, though the towers themselves include a suggestion of the well-known belfry at San Gabriel mission; construction of bridge arches progresses rapidly; automatic mixer is utilized; cribbing for first pier on the city end of bridge put in place; lumber used for forms to support hundreds of tons of concrete to be used for foundations and bracing of buildings to be erected later.

San Diego Union, June 8, 1913, II, 13:1. George W. Marston urged to stay for mayor.

San Diego Union, June 8, 1913, 13:1-3. City Feverishly Active Preparing for its Mammoth 1915 Exposition; Marvelous Progress Made in All Departments; Great Bridge to Span Canyon Stretching Itself Across Space Rapidly; Success Indicated by Daily Achievements.

The one thing at which visitors to San Diego never cease to marvel is the feverish activity and the vast preparations being made for the year-round exposition the city will hold in 1915.

Probably not one in a dozen people realizes the scope and extent of these preparations and the sight of the huge frames and concrete structures under construction, men laying foundations for more buildings going up in every portion of the city, municipal and private wharves under construction, the myriad activities of a hustling, bustling city surprises these visitors.

At the administration building on the exposition grounds, where are housed the offices of the exposition, is found a complete organization, departmented and correlated in such a manner that every part of the work that has proceeded steadily for over three years goes along like clockwork.

  1. A. Davidson launched the exposition idea in August, 1909, and San Diego grasped it with an enthusiasm and energy never equaled in this country. The work has never flagged for a moment since then and today hundreds of men are on the grounds, in the offices and far afield, toiling night and day to have every portion of the project ready for the opening day. The work of preparation has been carefully and completely done. The physical side has been as carefully done.

San Diego is creating one of the most beautiful parks in the world and building simultaneously its exposition. After the men who are doing this work are dead, there will remain a monument to their sagacity and industry second to none in the world. The question as to what permanent mark or improvement is left by an exposition is answered by San Diego: it will leave a world-famous park and a world-famous gathering place, with courts and buildings of enduring material — reinforced concrete — and great halls for museums, art galleries and meeting places set in a system of parkways as beautiful can could be devised, on a site that is conceded to be one of the most commanding and inspiring in the world.

Ground was broken for work July 19, 1911, and the grading has been finished in nearly a year. A great plant propagating yard was established in 1911 and now contains millions of trees, ferns and vines for decorating the grounds, parkways and buildings. Visitors see great trees being hoisted over the sides of the huge viaduct to the slopes below for planting in holes already prepared; trees that will never be moved again.

Surrounding the administration building is the steel and lumber yard, where is stored the great quantity of steel rods for use in the concrete bridge across Cabrillo canyon, and the lumber for the buildings. The bridge is 900 feet long, 130 feet high, now about 20 percent complete, a structure in the building of which no human hand touches either sand, cement or stone — all being done automatically by electric power from one central point.

Of buildings, there are four now under construction — that known as the Home Science building being most advanced. The Arts and Crafts building is being rushed, as are the Science building and the Counties of Southern California building. These four are in various stages from foundation to roof covering. The most advanced building methods to save labor and time are being used on all of them and they seem to grow overnight almost, so fast does modern construction methods accomplish the desired result. Bids will be opened, June 14, for the $250,000 California state building.

The great bridge is probably the most spectacular piece of construction going forward in California today. It seems to swing out from the abutments to a dizzy height, and will, when completed, last for all time. Thousands of tons of steel, cement, stone and sand are being placed in it as fast as modern methods can place them. The bridge connects the very heart of the city with the heart of the exposition and city park grounds, and is a monumental structure.

When the California state building is finished, it will be connected with the bridge, and the two will form one architectural piece of work, nearly 1200 feet long and over 375 feet high, the top of the tower of the state building lifting its dome more than 500 feet above the sea and radiating a light visible to mariners more than 100miles over the ocean, north, south and west.

Director of Works Frank P. Allen, Jr. has adopted to the construction of frame buildings the methods used for steel construction and the result is little short of marvelous in results and economy. The construction of large exhibit buildings is naturally of the truss order, as large unobstructed floor space is required. Steel construction methods are easily adaptable to this style of building. The process is exactly the same with timber for framework, as it is for steel. The frames are built on the ground, cut, fitted and bolted together, and a large electric crane swings them into place above, where they are easily and quickly bolted home.

President D. C. Collier, who works, has never taken a salary not an expense account, and he has done nothing but work for the exposition since 1909, his expenses since that time being variously estimated as low as $100,000. He had traveled thousand of miles, voyaged thousand more and has appeared before practically every element in the world that he thought would make for the success of the project.

President Collier believes that the world has tired of the antiquated and obsolete methods of exhibiting “products” as such. He believes these teach the beholder practically nothing beyond the fact that man’s transportation facilities are adequate to the task of collecting them, and his means ample to defray the expense; otherwise, there is nothing to be learned from such exhibits.

In searching for a them for the San Diego exposition which would teach the visitor something worth knowing, and, therefore, leave a lasting and useful impression, President Collier hit upon the plan of presenting a synopsis of man’s evolution through a demonstration of the myriad processes marking the present acme of civilization and embodying the history of man. It was a brilliant conception and its great merits have been recognized by the countries of the world, in that a great many more than were expected to do so have arranged to become participators in the San Diego celebration of the opening of the Panama canal. Under the plan of President Collier, products will be seen as adjuncts to the exhibition of processes which call them into being.

After San Diego had sent its invitations to the various states and to foreign countries and these had responded in so much greater number than was at first deemed possible, it was found necessary to greatly enlarge the scope of the exposition. To this end the city now is about to vote an $850,000 bond issue.

As President Collier has stated the need for the additional funds has been felt for over a year for many reasons. Chief among these is the added responsibilities that have come to the exposition through the determination of nine states to exhibit here and their appropriations of funds for the purpose, and the desire of five others that are taking active steps to be ready on time.

Added to these are the state and counties of California itself, which were quick to grasp the opportunity, the seven southern counties being the first to start actual work on the grounds.

There are seven countries of Latin American that have accepted the invitation to participate here and negotiations are pending in five others.

As to exhibits from the United States, some of the biggest industrial concerns in the country are coming in and the railroads will have either a joint exhibit building of their own or a series of separate buildings, plans for some of them being underway in the division of works. Commissioners are working now in the east with the automobile trade, with every prospect of securing a large joint exhibit in a separate building.

The Smithsonian institution and the National museum are cooperating with the division of exhibits to secure exhibits of ethnology and archaeology from all over the world, and Congressman Kettner will soon introduce a bill authorizing the departments of the government to place their exhibits here as well as at San Francisco.

Enough exhibits already have been secured to make good on all promises of the exposition, but there will be no rest until every conceivable exhibit that will go to make a complete exposition of the history and achievement of the human race in America are secured, including the great government department exhibits.

It has been demonstrated that the unique plan for exhibits and concessions and special attractions devised by the exposition officials and now being carried out, is one that meets with favor with the people who are

desirous of exhibiting and of placing concessions, and the exposition has strong evidence that it will be able to get all of the exhibits and attractions that it desires by 1915.

In the matter of attendance, the conservative estimates made by the railroad officials, basing these upon the wide campaign of publicity that has been put out by the exposition, shows that the attendance will be more than sufficient to maintain the exposition during 1915, and that it will bring to San Diego hundreds of thousands of visitors, not only from all the eastern states but from foreign countries. Estimates made by railroad officials and others give evidence of a daily attendance here of upwards of 25,000 people throughout the entire year of 1915.

A series of events calculated to draw large crowds of people to San Diego at various times throughout the exposition is being planned now and there can be no doubt that the plans may be carried out.

All these things are made possible by the united action of San Diego in supplying the funds and supporting by every other means possible the work of the men in charge of the creation of the exposition. When it shall have closed, San Diego will have so advertised its resources of every kind that with its 100,000 people as a nucleus, its growth cannot fail to be rapid, for it will have brought to its doors every element in the United States and Latin America that might contribute in even the smallest degree to its rise to a place as one of the great seaports of the world.

San Diego Union, June 8, 1913, 15:1. Michigan State Society endorses bonds.

San Diego Union, June 8, 1913, II, 1:1. Enterprise of big Fair astonishes Washington; national legislators enthusiastic over plans of San Diego Exposition; Smithsonian to assist; educational value of unique displays expected to create profound interest.

San Diego Union, June 9, 1913, 5:1. Excursion parties will be regally entertained; first is from Montana; Exposition officials make preparations for proper reception.

San Diego Union, June 9, 1913, 5:7, 7:4. Secretary of State Lucero of New Mexico impressed by prospects of Fair.

San Diego Sun, June 9, 1913, 8:1. Governor Johnson signed State of California Building bill yesterday; $200,000 appropriation is in addition to $50,000 appropriation bill signed two years ago.

San Diego Union, June 10, 1913, 24:1. Businessmen give reasons for voting bonds.

Park Commissioners Minutes, June 11, 1913. Committee of residents living east of Balboa Park want a drive from east boundary of park near Ivy Street to connect to the Exposition grounds . . . John Nolen wants a road on the north side of the park connecting with Switzer Canyon road.

San Diego Union, June 11, 1913, 1:3. Captain A. T. Belantine, USA retired, returned form a trip around the world says San Diego’s Fair is being heralded abroad.

San Diego Union, June 11, 1913, 3:2-3. City Pound must be moved from its old-time location.

San Diego Union, June 11, 1913, 12:1. Realty Board endorses bond issue.

San Diego Union, June 11, 1913, 22:1. Auditor’s figures prove boost for bonds; Moody shows that only $403,000 of million-dollar issue expended to date.

San Diego Union, June 11, 1913, 26:1. Edward S. Stephenson of Tokyo to publicize San Diego Fair in Japan and China.

San Diego Union, June 12, 1913, 26:1. Japanese to hear advantage of Exposition; Hogaboom makes arrangements for representative with Nipponese papers.

San Diego Sun, June 14, 1913, 1:1. Belcher explains finances and plans of local Exposition in full.

San Diego Union, June 14, 1913, 1:1. Louis J. Wilde say we will all leave if bond issue fails; banker back home and full of hope for San Diego.

San Diego Union, June 14, 1913, 7:1. Bonds will be discussed at general meeting of New York State Society.

San Diego Union, June 14, 1913, 7:2. Modeling decorations for buildings (illustration)

San Diego Union, June 14, 1913, 7:2. Tulare County to do its share toward Fair; A. E. Miot, secretary of Tulare Chamber of Commerce, in San Diego to consult with Exposition officials..

San Diego Union, June 14, 1912, 7:4. N. S. Stevens, shoe polisher, gives five dollars to fund.

San Diego Union, June 15, 1913, 2:4. New York Society pledges support of bonds.

San Diego Union, June 15, 1913, 2:5. Bids received for California State building; Wurster concern of San Diego, $272,700, lowest; plans to be revised.

San Diego Union, June 15, 1913, 6:2-4. Miles of frieze border modeled at Exposition; wet clay, plaster used in carloads.

San Diego Union, June 15, 1913, 10:1-2. Financial statement of Exposition Company issued; books opened to public.

San Diego Union, June 15, 1913, 13:2-3. Putting up bents for Cabrillo Canyon span; each arch supports itself and braces its neighbors; made of reinforced concrete; when filled with concrete each pier will carry 1,100,000 pounds.

San Diego Union, June 15, 1913, 30:2-3. Stroll along the Isthmus.

San Diego Union, June 16, 1913, 1. William Kettner says “bonds must carry.”

San Diego Union, June 16, 1913, 18:1. Buildings rising like mushrooms on Fair site; builders make use of new scientific methods of construction and speed work.

San Diego Union, June 17, 1913, 1:2. Painters, paper hangers, and decorator unions endorse bonds.

San Diego Union, June 17, 1913, 7:1. Colonel Collier says San Francisco agents are fighting bonds; manufacturing association endorses bonds.

San Diego Union, June 17, 1913, II, 2:3. Alexander Neilson, president, says San Diego and San Francisco Exposition Club for bonds.

San Diego Union, June 17, 1913, II, 2:3. Bolo Club endorses bonds.

San Diego Union, June 17, 1913, II, 13:2. West Coast Magazine boost Fair.

San Diego Union, June 18, 1913, 2:1. Pan Builders’ Association, Printers’ Board, and others endorse bonds.

San Diego Union, June 18, 1913, 5:1. Logan Heights Improvement Association endorses bonds.

San Diego Union, June 18, 1913, II, 1:2. Walter Wagner, member of Southern California Exposition Commission, says “vote for bonds.”

San Diego Union, June 19, 1913, II, 1:2. L. G. Jones, in letter to Union, gives reasons for bonds.

San Diego Union, June 19, 1913, II, 13:1. San Diego teachers endorse bonds.

San Diego Union, June 19, 1913, II, 20:1. Autos needed to bring voters to polls, July 1.

San Diego Sun, June 20, 1913, 1:7. Spreckels will give Exposition organ; announcement made at meeting of Brooklyn Heights Improvement Club last night; gift to be permanent.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1913, 1:2. Carpenters’ Union determined to put Exposition on unfair list; workmen refuse to cease jobs.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1913, 5:1, 5:3. Brooklyn Heights Club and P. J. Benbough endorse bonds.

San Diego Union, June 21, 1913, 1:5. Supervising architect Bertram Goodhue here from New York office; will visit Fair grounds with Carleton M. Winslow, his assistant; is pleased with progress made.; some lemons at northern fair, but real beauty here, promise; wonderland of flowers to grace San Diego exposition in 1915, says architect; San Franciscans far behind in construction work.

“While the people of the East will go to San Francisco to see piles of machinery, lemons, oranges or grapes, when they visit San Diego’s fair, they will see a wonderland of beauty and flowers and trees. And, believe me, the construction work on the buildings is far ahead of what has been accomplished to the present in San Francisco.”

This remark was made by Bertram G. Goodhue, supervising architect of the fair buildings, who is at the U. S. Grant Hotel on one of his flying trips to the west coast from his office in New York.

“How are things going at the fair grounds?,” he was asked.

“Surprised and delighted,” came back the answer like a flash. “Everything will be ready for the opening, I think there is no doubt about that. Of course, I am only the architect and of the question of finances I have nothing to day. But I and my assistant, C. M. Winslow, who is on the job all the time, dreamed a dream of beauty here that will last even if the stucco on the buildings in Balboa Park, where some of the exposition buildings are now half-completed, are torn down and forgotten.”

Goodhue and Winslow will pay a visit to the exposition grounds today.

San Diego Union, June 21, 1913, 7:1. Hawaii is anxious for big exhibit at Fair here; H. P. Wood, former San Diegan, now head of Exposition committee, visits Balboa Park.

San Diego Union, June 21, 1913, 11:1. Nebraska State Society endorses bonds.

San Diego Union, June 22, 1913, 1:1. Trolley Company not to ask permit for park line until after bond vote; San Diego Electric to delay petition for franchise and await election.

San Diego Union, June 22, 1913, 3:1. San Diego women working for bonds.

San Diego Union, June 22, 1913, 3:1. Louis J. Wilde says, “Defeat of bonds will kill town.”

San Diego Union, June 22, 1913, 9:2. Wadham, San Diego’s former mayor, boosts Exposition bonds; declares Fair’s management is most economical.

San Diego Union, June 22, 1913, 11:1. Edward Sullivan supports bonds: “Money raised for such purposes as that contemplated by the bonds means greater prosperity, increased population and bigger, enhancing values to every real estate holder in this city. It is not sentimental, it is hardheaded business sense. . . . The future problem of cheap transportation is water rates. San Diego’s harbor offers the best facilities to ship owners. Its harbor is its greatest asset and the Exposition will be the means of calling attention to it.”

San Diego Union, June 22, 1913, 13:1-3. Fair work done so far astonishes all observers; pipe underground, shrubbery on surface, building in air; two lawns built: On the west side of Cabrillo Canyon are great cleared spaces where grass is to be grown. Along the west Park Boulevard are two great lawns, among the largest in Southern California, their green expanse shaded by beautiful trees indicates what the finished park will be. In the center of the park are new roads and boulevards. In Cabrillo Canyon is the most spectacular piece of construction in California, the great concrete bridge. On the old golf links are two graded boulevards. Above the Russ High School is a new graded boulevard to the very center of the park. In the canyons on the east side are two new roads, with numerous by-roads.

San Diego Union, June 22, 1913, 22:1. Bond campaign causing activity in real estate.

San Diego Union, June 22, 1913, 25:1. “Barker” describes Isthmus.

San Diego Union, June 22, 1913, 36:1. San Diego has big start on San Francisco’s Fair.

San Diego Union, June 23, 1913, 1:3. Rev. Willard B. Thorp, pastor First Congregation Church, argues for bonds.

San Diego Union, June 23, 1913, 5:3. Theater audiences cheer for bonds.

San Diego Union, June 23, 1913, 18:2. California Building plans are changed; bids all above appropriations; no further delays are expected.

Plans for the California Building are being changed by architect Bertram G. Goodhue, so that the contract work can be awarded to the lowest bidder and the work rushed. The bids submitted some time ago were all above the amount of the appropriations made by the park board for the building, $250,000. The lowest bid, which was submitted by the Wurster Construction Company, $272,000.

Every effort is being made by those in charge of the business affairs to open the doors promptly at midnight, January 1, 1915.

It is believed that if there are no further delays, the big fair will be opened on time.

San Diego Sun, June 25, 1913, 10:5 and June 27, 1913, 9:3. Residents east of park want entrance to Exposition grounds, preferably on Juniper Street.

San Diego Union, June 25, 1913, 10:3. Colonel Collier elected head of El Consejo General of the Order of Panama.

San Diego Union, June 25, 1913, II, 1:3. Al Herman, vaudeville actor, boosts bonds.

San Diego Sun, June 26, 1913, 8:1. Ocean Beach Wonderland Park to be informally opened next week; $300,000 playground.

San Diego Union, June 26, 1913, 6:1. San Diego Society of Archaeological Institute of America endorses bonds.

San Diego Union, June 29, 1913, 1:3-4, 2:2. Schumann-Heink will aid fight for Fair bonds.

San Diego Union, June 29, 1913, 14:1-2. Building of park here to cost less by half than elsewhere; advantages of topography and climate.

San Diego Union, June 29, 1913, II, 17:1-4. Proposed stadium is largest in America; Quayle Brothers & Cressey, architects; endorsement of Fair bonds means expenditure of $150,000 in open-air theater.

San Diego Sun, June 30, 1913, 1:7. Spreckels Will Give Expo Organ, Announcement at Meeting of Club; Gift to be Permanent.

John D. Spreckels is planning to erect in city park on the exposition grounds a permanent concrete building costing in the neighborhood of $50,000 in which he will install one of the largest pipe organs manufactured. This instrument, it is said, will cost in the vicinity of $40,000 and will be used for concert purposes not only during the exposition, but for years after.

Just what the building will be called and what else it will contain is not yet stated. No details have been carried out, but it is said that the structure will be a unique feature of the exposition and that it will be so substantially constructed that it will stand for years.

This announcement was made, according to officials of the Brooklyn Heights Improvement Club, at a meeting of that club last night by President D. C. Collier of the exposition company, who was there to boost the bonds. He only touched upon the plans and members of the club were curious to know just exactly what the building will be like and for just what purpose it is intended.

“It is a temple of mystery,” said one today. “All we know about it is that it will be built of concrete, to last for centuries, and that it will contain a big pipe organ.”

San Diego Union, June 30, 1913, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Tomorrow’s Bond Election.

San Diego Union, July 1, 1913, 1:6. Bonds to be voted today; voters urged to get out; two-thirds required to carry the $850,000 bond issue, the proposed stadium and open-air theater to be financed with $150,000 from bond issue.

San Diego Sun, July 2, 1913, 1:6. Greater building activity is assured by bond victory; vote for bonds was 16 to 1 (9,843 to 613); Frank G. Belcher, manager of campaign for bonds.

San Diego Union, July 2, 1913, 1:6-7, 2:2-3. San Diego weeps Exposition bonds to victory.

San Diego Union, July 2, 1913, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Bond Election.

San Diego Union, July 3, 1913, 9:1. Mayor O’Neall christens Wonderland resort at Ocean Beach.

San Diego Union, July 4, 1913, 18:4. Science and Education, Arts and Crafts, Home Industries buildings being erected; others to start soon; trees and vines planted daily.

San Diego Union, July 9, 1913, II, 1:1. C. H. Akers, owner of Arizona Gazette, appointed chairman of commission for San Diego Exposition by Governor Hunt; is here with others from Arizona.

San Diego Union, July 9, 1913, II, 11:2. Balboa Park will have 10 new fire hydrants; Exposition officials to pay for them; insurance rates to be lowered.

San Diego Sun, July 10, 1913, 13:2-3. Monument of Balboa planned for park; will cost about $15,000 and will be procured by a world-wide sculptor’s competition and unveiled late this fall.

Regular Meeting of the Board of Park Commissioners, July 11, 1913, was held at the office of the Board.

Present — Commissioners Forward, Ferris and Chandler. Absent — None.

The minutes of the meeting of June 20th were read and approved.

A committee of residents living East of Balboa Park appeared before the Board, and presented a petition for the opening of a Park Drive, from the east boundary of the Park near Ivy Street running westerly to connect with the Exposition Grounds. A sketch of the proposed route was submitted to the Board, and after a general discussion it was decided to lay the matter over for a time, as there were no funds available for the work, unless the City Council would allow an appropriation of $10,000.00. The Superintendent was instructed to meet with the Committee, in regard to plans for the road, and give an estimate as to the cost of the work.

Mr. Nolen appeared before the Board in regard to a road on the north side of the park, connecting with Switzer Canyon Road, and also in regard to using a round through the Exposition Grounds. The Superintendent was instructed to take the matter up with Mr. F. P. Allen, Chief of the Division of Works of the Panama-California Exposition.

Mr. MacKinnon, Superintendent of the Public Schools, appeared before the Board, in regard to the proposed Stadium, for which Bonds were voted at the recent Bond Election. After discussion of the subject, Mr. MacKinnon was requested to be present at the meeting Friday, July 18th, and have Mr. Cressy, the Architect, submit plans of the Stadium to the Board.

The Superintendent reported on the bad condition of the Park Roads, and submitted a report of the South Park Commissioners of Chicago, on the successful use of light oil on the Park Roads. On motion, duly carried, the Superintendent was instructed to experiment on one of the Park Roads with oil of like character.

The Superintendent was instructed to ascertain the cost of putting in a salt water service for a proposed aquarium, and also take up the matter of a water supply from Mission Valley, with Councilman Fay, Superintendent of the Water Department, and report at next meeting of the Board.

On motion, duly made and carried, Mr. Andrew J. Suffern was elected acting secretary of the Park Department, at a salary of $100.00 per month.

The Payroll for the month of June, amounting to $3,115.00 and the following bills, amounting to $2,068.00 were approved.

(See original copy of minutes in the San Diego City Clerk’s Office for a list of the bills.)

Signed – A. J. Suffern, Secretary.

San Diego Union, July 13, 1913, 13:1. State to have its next to finest building at Exposition; state capitol at Sacramento is finest; Grading for Agricultural Building started this week; contract has been let to a local firm of constructors; bungalow built in demonstration orchard of Southern California Counties exhibit.

San Diego Union, July 13, 1913, 27:1. Mlle. Marcelle Jourdane, French actress, appearing here this week, says fame of Exposition has spread abroad.

San Diego Union, July 13, 1913, 52:1. Lobby eclipsed by Fair in interest at Washington, DC; whole nation aroused to possibilities of participation at San Diego.

San Diego Sun, July 16, 1913, 2:6-7. Exposition auto race, Los Angeles to Phoenix, will run November 2 and 3; advertising for race will give Southern California a chance to become the western terminal of an ocean-to-ocean highway.

San Diego Union, July 17, 1913, 1:6-7, 3:1-3. Men raise monument on sun-scarred and barren hillside; gather tiles with picks and shovels for cross to Junipero Serra.

San Diego Union, July 17, 1913, 10:3. Charles H. Akers in his Arizona Gazette writes builders creating new empire; article given in full.

Park Commissioners Minutes, July 18, 1913. Superintendent Morley said a road from the east side of the park to the Exposition grounds would cost about $11,000; a road on the north side of the park with a connection to Switzer Canyon would not conform to the Exposition plan.

San Diego Union, July 18, 1913, 1:4, 7:3. Arizona girls strong for Fair; pretty maids break ground for building regardless of lack of appropriation.

San Diego Union, July 19, 1913, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Portland and Seattle.

San Diego Union, July 19, 1913, 8:1. Park Board names Quayle Brothers and Cressey architects of stadium; work to begin in two months.

San Diego Union, July 20, 1913, 5:2-3. Marvelous progress building Fair amazes throngs.

San Diego Sun, July 21, 1913, II, 11:2-3. Collier meets Hadji Tahar, importer, who promises $1.0 million exhibit from Arabia, India, Morocco, Egypt and Algeria; Tahar claims he has been given power to choose between San Francisco and San Diego Fairs; plans drawn by Los Angeles architect call for a site embracing 60,000 square feet of ground.

San Diego Sun, July 23, 1913, 7:1. H. O. Davis, assistant to president Collier, draws up contract plans for Hadji Tahar’s exhibit; calls for Tahar to deposit $10,000 at once and stipulates work o buildings is to begin not later than October 1, 1913; Tahar will present contract to advisory board in Los Angeles.

San Diego Sun, July 23, 1913, 1:1-2. Secretary of Navy Daniels visits San Diego; promises entire U.S. Navy will be here in 1915.

San Diego, California, July 25, 1913.

To The Honorable, Board of Park Commissioners of the City of San Diego, California.


The question of the opening of 28th Street, from Nutmeg Street to Upas Street, which was presented by Mr. Griffith and referred to me by President Forward for a report:

From what I understand of the road or boulevard question surrounding Balboa Park, it was planned in the Olmsted survey that there should be a boundary boulevard, 100 feet wide surrounding the Park, which, I believe, is a good idea, as it would tend to give the Park a separate individuality from the surrounding property.

In regard to 28th Street, I find that for four blocks at the south end, the street has been graded, curbed, and Washingtonia Filiferea Palms planted in the parking strip. The street is eighty feet wide, forty feet for a roadway, and twenty feet on either side for a parking strip and sidewalks.

It seems to me that under existing conditions it would be advisable to establish the Boulevard at eighty feet wide on the east side of the Park, for the following reasons:

First: It will make a continuous, unbroken line from the north end of the park to B Street, whereas if it should be made one hundred feet wide, there would be a jog in the Boulevard of twenty feet at the south end of the Park, for a distance of one hundred feet, and also the block between A and B Streets which would necessitate the purchase of twenty feet to make the Boulevard one hundred feet wide for its entire length, from B Street to Upas Street.

Second: If the Boulevard is made one hundred feet wide, it would necessitate some heavy cuts and fills to make grade, as the hills slope down into the Park on a sharp grade in a number of places; consequently there would be a high embankment along a considerable distance of the park, making it very unsightly when viewed from the inside, although giving a fine view when traversing the Boulevard.

Third: If 28th Street is opened the entire length of the Park frontage, most of the road will be built on Park property, and should be set aside as a Boulevard, and come under the Park ordinances in regard to control of traffic, etc.

Fourth: The grading, curbing and all improvements on the Boulevard should be paid for by the abutting property owners, as the enhancement of value on the abutting lots would be much greater than the cost of improvement of the Boulevard.

Fifth: If 28th Street cannot be opened its entire length at the present time, that the section between Upas and Nutmeg Streets be opened and improved by the property owners abutting the Park, and that the work be carried out under plans and specifications approved by the Board of Park Commissioners, and the work be done under their supervision.

Respectfully submitted,


San Diego Examiner, July 25, 1913, 2:3-6. How Julius the Judicious changed his mind/also how the just judge that owned property on lower Sixth street was induced to modify his injunction.

Few things have so stirred the gaiety of San Diego as Austin Adams’ “The Crime of the Canyon.” The story of the crime; that one Tim the Terrible, spurred by greed, has determined to have a beautiful canyon in the “People’s Pleasance” cut down, destroying the last bid of forest wildwood in that tract, in order that a street may be cut through to enhance the value of property in the business part of that street.

Here is an extract from “The Crime of the Canyon,” which is more appreciated by some than others.

“You remember, don’t you,” argued Tim the Terrible, “how Julius kicked against the harbor improvements at the foot of D Street, I mean Broadway, because he wanted to save the waterfront for some sort of people’s promenade, and let our shipping go to San Pedro? No, I’m leery of Julius; he poses as an advocate of Civic Estheticism.”

“Well, he may be crazy, but he ain’t no fool,” answered Louis the Mastodon positively, as though he knew what he was talking about.

Just then another of the conspirators, who had heard the conversation, stepped up and whispered something to Tim the Terrible, which made him jump and burst out laughing.

“Do you mean it?,” asked Tim the Terrible.

“Sure,” replied the man who had whispered to him. “Julius the Judicious owns property on Sixth Street, or rather his firm does.”

“That’s enough,” remarked Tim the Terrible, “Julius is ours.”

Scene 2

“How about you Julius?,” asked the Committee, noticing that the judicious one remained silent and seemed to be swallowing something. “What are you trying to swallow, Julius?”

“I am trying to swallow my own words — all that I have said about the City Beautiful. You known that we must never sacrifice Art!”

“Can’t you manage it?,” inquired the Committee. “Try. Tim the Terrible has enormous possibilities as a Depositor, remember, and most of the Big Ones are with us. Yes, and your own firm owns property down on Sixth Street. Do try to swallow your words, old man.”

“All right, I’ll try,” answered Julius the Judicious.

Another Scene

A just judge was approached. He promptly issued the desired injunction, and the scrapers ceased from scraping, the hatches from chopping, and the mules from hauling the dump carts — pending the hearing. . . . Was Tim the Terrible discouraged by this? Not so’s you could notice it.

“Get busy now,” he said to his attorneys, “and dig up some way for use to get around this blooming injunction, if we can’t knock it out. What the deuce do you lawyer guys think I pay you for anyhow?”

“We can induce the Just Judge to modify the injunction, I think,” replied Attorney Saccarine, “so that it will restrain us from wrecking the canyon only on Lady Malvina’s block, thus leaving us free to ruin everything above and below. How does that strike you, King Tim?”

“Go after it,” ordered Tim the Terrible.

He went after it, and after he was going after it one of his trustees met him and whispered to him that the Just Judge himself owns property on lower Sixth Street. La! La!

“Here! None of that rough stuff,” cautioned Attorney Saccarine, trying not to betray his joy, “no contempt of court for mine.”

“Contempt nothing!,” retorted the trustee. “All I mean by telling you that His Honor owns a fine lot down on Sixth Street was that, if he does his painful duty and gives us what we want, the pain won’t be very bad. Get me?”

The various proceedings in court proved far more entertaining than any vaudeville show that has come to town in many moons. The witnesses (most unwilling ones) did “turns” which were alone worth the whole cost by both parties to the litigation. There, for example, was Gentle George. By reason of the fact that he was formerly a Custodian of the People’s Pleasance and a life-long champion of the City Beautiful, a lover of trees, and an outspoken foe of “brutal commercialism,” the friends of the Canyon subpoenaed Gentle George to beat witness against the proposed desecration of the part of the park. He came, and he wore on the witness stand his smile that won’t wear off.

“Kindly state, Gentle George, the substance of a conversation you had some time ago with the world-famous landscape artist from Boston, with regard to this canyon,” said one of Joyous John’s lawyers, with the air of a man about to set off the spark to ten tons of dynamite.

Gentle George smiled his blandest smile and cleared his throat so ominously that many of the Sixth Street saints grew nervous and cast anxious glances at Attorney Saccarine, who sat pat and serene and didn’t turn a hair, as if he had something up his sleeve. And he had, too. He knew Gentle George. Also, he remembered that since that conversation with the world-famous landscape artist from Boston had taken place, Gentle George had moved from his old store on Fifth Street to his new store, which has a hundred-foot frontage on Sixth Street. Moreover, Attorney Saccarine did not overlook the fact that the hot campaign was at it hottest height, and that Gentle George, who was running for Mayor, would not let his love for trees nor his love for the City Beautiful cause him to say anything likely to cost him the votes and the powerful support of the Big Ones. So, when Gentle George smiled and cleared his throat, Attorney Saccarine smiled and winked at the anxious saints to reassure them.

Then Gentle George repeated the substance of his talk with the Boston expert on the Beautiful Outdoors. He said that renowned authority has declared that the Canyon was one of the most beautiful, if not the most beautiful in San Diego, and that, as such, it would be a great pity ever to destroy it by running Sixth Street through it.

The Saints jumped.

But Attorney Saccarine sat pat and patted his sleeve to make sure that it still had something up it. And it had, for Gentle George was not quite through. He had something to say, and he said it.

He said that although the great landscape artist had expressed his hope that the lovely canyon might never have to be destroyed, he also expressed the opinion that, as San Diego was destined to become an enormous city, the day might come when Sixth Street would have to be run through the canyon. Again Gentle George smiled. He had tactfully testified for both sides. The saints grinned, and the other side didn’t.

Gentle George came forward with a contribution of $1,000 to Tim the Terrible’s $40,000 fund — but for some reason or other, he was not elected Mayor. Cities, no less than republics, seem to be ungrateful.

In the dizzy criss-cross of all these legal proceedings, Joyous John’s lawyers appeared before another Just Judge of San Diego; and it was during the proceedings in this court that much happened which added to the gaiety of nations — and to our stock of knowledge of Human Nature. Julius the Judicious and Allen the All Wise furnished the star acts. Being such modest and shrinking souls, the sufferings of these two witnesses were painful and deliciously funny.

“You are president of the Park Commissioners, are you not Julius?,” asked Joyous John’s lawyer.

“Yes,” replied Julius the Judicious modestly.

“At first you did not approve of the destruction of the Canyon, I understand,” went on the lawyer carressingly.

“Well – I – I – that is, I -,” stammered Julius blushing.

“I understand, Julius,” broke in the lawyer, “as a property owner of Sixth Street, you naturally had to think of yourself. You still own property on Sixth Street, do you not?”

“Need I answer that question?,” asked Julius, appealing to the court.

“Certainly,” answered the Court, “you must answer the question.”

“Well then,” said Julius, suffering tortures as an Esthete and Art Lover, “my firm does own some Sixth Street property, but – but.”

Further questioning brought out that Julius the Judicious owns so much of the capital stock of his firm that if the ruin of the Canyon adds value to Sixth Street property, he (the judicious park commissioner) will suffer only from the injury done to his artistic appreciation of the Beauties of Nature. His fortune will not hurt very much. Julius the Judicious was then excused, and Allen the All Wise was sworn to testify — as the greatest living expert on Parks, and the highest paid job-boss on earth, that the very best way to improve the park is to chop down the oldest trees, burn shrubbery and flowers, and run a street straight through an exquisite natural ravine by gashing the banks with cuts and fills.

“Lets see, Mr. Allen the All Wise,” began the Canyon lawyer, “you’re quite an authority on Parks, are you not?”

“I ought to be,” answered Mr. Allen the All Wise. “I’ve read every book ever written on the subject of Parks.”

“Would you mind giving me the name of one book on the subject?,” asked the Canyon lawyer — and Allen the All Wise reddened and grew thoughtful.

“You need not give me a whole list of books,” remarked the lawyer, pitying the look of total ignorance on the handsome face of the All Wise, “just give the tile of one — just one single book — on your own specialty.”

The highest paid Expert on Parks winced. He turned red. He sat as if in a trance. He looked as if he would gladly given a whole week’s salary — yes, even such an enormous sum as that — to be able to think of one book on the subject of Parks. But he couldn’t, poor devil!

“What salary do you get?,” went on the Canyon lawyer unmercifully, after the crowd had chortled and every the Judge himself had laughed.

“Do I have to answer that question?,” once more begged poor All Wise Allen, turning appealingly to the Court.

“Well,” replied the Judge, laughing aloud, “as your salary is a joke all over San Diego, you might as well tell it here.”

“I get $20,000 a year,” replied Allen the All Wise, not at all as if he felt proud of it at that moment.

“Ask him if he really gets all that $20,000 annually himself,” whispered a Cynic to the Canyon lawyer.

“Sh-h,” cautioned the Canyon lawyer, “do you want to have me pinched for lese majeste?”

San Diego Union, July 27, 1913, 7:1 Counties have 16 acres under cultivation; International Harvester has 3 acres.

San Diego Union, July 27, 1913, 7:1-2. A citizen advises people to visit Exposition and see progress.

San Diego Union, July 28, 1913, 1:3. Don Frederico A. Peset, Peruvian minister, now in Los Angeles, is on his way to select site at Fair.

San Diego Union, July 28, 1913, 1:6-7. Secretary of War Lindley M. Garrison marvels at resources of 1915 Exposition city.

Park Commissioners Minutes, July 30, 1913. Petition of San Diego Electric Railway Co. for a franchise to build a railway through and upon Balboa Park.

San Diego Union, July 31, 1913, 1:3, 2:4. San Diego Electric Railway files application with Council and Park Board for a franchise to construct and operate a 10-track trolley line from F and 12th Streets to El Cajon Avenue.

*NOTE: H. O. Davis was made Director-General sometime in July, 1913. He was a rancher from Yuba City, whom Collier mad his assistant before he went abroad. Within a few months the Board of Directors appointed him Director-General. His job was to attract exhibits showing how the virgin southwest could be developed.

August, 1913, The California Garden, pp. 7-10. Visit to Exposition Nurseries . . . A number of members of San Diego Floral Association made a pilgrimage to the Panama-California Exposition nurseries in Balboa Park, Saturday afternoon, August 2, and were shown through the various departments by Superintendent Paul Thiene, assisted by Mr. Ralph Sumner.

To say that the visit was interesting is putting it very mildly, but when it comes to giving a description of what is there to be seen, the task is great, and the space required would take a book.

The first thought that impresses one is the unlimited variety of plant life, and the second is the clean, healthy condition generally of the plants themselves. We who have trouble in taking care of a wee bit of garden can’t help wondering how it is possible to look after a million plants, more or less, and keep them happy and contented.

Mr. Thiene seems to have the task well in hand, and thoroughly systematized. Every plant is accounted for on his books, and he can tell you just what it costs to propagate, fertilize, water, and carry the plant through to maturity when it is planted in its permanent location on the exposition grounds, or in one of the buildings.

Some of the tropical plants require artificial heat, even in our mild climate, and he has them under glass in his hot houses. Others need the damp, cool, shaded protection of the lath houses, and many others are able to withstand the weather as it comes by day and night, and are growing out in the open.

In size they range all the way from the tiniest cuttings and seedlings, to mighty trees sixty feet high, and the variety seems absolutely unlimited. There are all of our old plant friends, faithful and true, and an endless number of others which we never saw before. Some might be considered freaks of nature, from peculiarities of form or habits, but nevertheless they are making themselves right and home, and appear satisfied with their new surroundings.

An interesting feature of the whole proposition is the fact that they are being trained so as to be at their best at a fixed time, and that their present quarters are only temporary. With that fact in view, a great many of the trees, shrubs and plants, even to the vines, are in huge boxes, so that when the time comes they can be transplanted with the rich earth around their roots, and will go right on growing without a setback. The vines are being trained up ten-foot poles so that they will have a fine start when placed alongside columns or walls up which they are to climb.

Many avenue trees are already being placed, the hillsides are being thickly planted with all manner of growth, and their places in the nursery taken by others. It is necessary to keep a reserve supply, as some are bound to die, no matter how well cared for.

The stock of palms is large and varied, ranging from the dwarfs to the tall and wide-spreading one. Besides the little and medium-sized ones being grown in the nurseries, many large ones have been gathered in from all parts of the city. On account of the great building activity during the past two years, many trees had to be removed to make room for buildings. Whenever the park or exposition people learned of trees to be removed, they sent their expert tree-mover, Frank Sessions, to gather them in. It is no small task to take up a huge tree with many tons of earth attached to its roots, box it up, and carry it, perhaps, several miles and replant it. None have been refused, however, on account of their size.

Standing at the Laurel Street entrance to the park are three tall palms recently transplanted. Two of them have sent out near leaves, showing that the critical period has passed, and Mr. Sessions is confident that the third and tallest of them all, will soon do likewise.

Mr. Thiene’s particular pet is an Auracaria, recently brought to the nursery from Fifth and Robinson. It stands over sixty feet high and it was necessary to raise the roof of the biggest lath house to accommodate it.

Trips have been made up the coast to Los Angeles, Santa Barbara and even to San Francisco, and rare and beautiful plants gathered in for the Panama-California Exposition. Some of these have been plucked from under the noses of the San Francisco Exposition people, who took a long time preparing to get ready to start.

The association members were also shown the site of the big exposition auditorium/lath house, near the Southern California Counties building, and the ten-acre demonstration farm. Work has just started on the lath house excavations. Though time is an important consideration in plant growth, with the fine start given the plants in the nursery, there is no reason why the huge lath house should not be one of the greatest attractions of the exposition when its doors are open on January 1,1915.

That little farm promises to be the best ever. Already over 700 citrus fruit trees are growing and many of them would be bearing fruit if allowed so to do. The farm has a bungalow, a la California, a barn and garage, chicken-runs, and all the other necessary adjuncts to a well-regulated ranch. Around the farm is a pergola fence, which will be vine and flower-covered its entire length. This little farm will demonstrate the possibilities of changing a piece of virgin soil into an improved, attractive and productive ranch home with the short space of three years.

A number of big buildings at the exposition are nearing completion, the great bridge to span the canyon and to form the main entrance is progressing nicely, and, taking it as a whole, the undertaking seems to be well controlled.

Of course, the Association members are particularly interested in the floral side of the exposition and after Saturday’s visit, they are satisfied that the work is in good hands.

August, 1913, The California Garden, p. 11. Some Water Suggestions, by A. D. Robinson . . . Let us have a water commission and let it employ an expert, and among other things have experimental wells bored all around. Why should not some of the Park Improvement Bond money go into experimental holes in the park. A right good well or wells would make a mighty convincing exhibit at the exposition. The park should develop its own water system. Have experimental wells been bored therein? Rumor has it that a couple of years ago a water expert stated that the would undertake to develop a water system in the park, with no pay unless he did. Let that be as it may, the advantages of such a course, if it be feasible, are too obvious to need expanding. Now, with practically two millions to be put into the park on permanent improvement, is the time to do something, for it is problematical, if more than enough to keep up these improvements will be appropriated for a long time, and the call for water in the park as elsewhere will be ever on the increase. A makeshift policy on this water question is a crime, besides being very foolish. Let us know where we are and what we are doing and are going to do.

San Diego Sun, August 1, 1913, 1:7-8. Mrs. Mulvey wins writ in 6th Street case; Attorneys Ward and Crouch and Harris today obtained a permanent writ of prohibition against Judge T. L. Lewis, prohibiting him from modifying the injunction granted Mrs. Mulvey against Julius Wangenheim et al, as park commissioners, preventing the opening of 6th Street in front of her property. This means that the block from Hawthorne to Ivy on 6th Street cannot be opened until the Supreme Court finally decides the case of Mulvey vs. the Park Board, which will probably be a year or more.

San Diego Union, August 1, 1913, 3:2. Arizona girls are leaving as boosters for San Diego; take in sensations of Wonderland Park.

San Diego Union, August 1, 1913, 20:1. President Collier offers prize for Fair flag; annual pass to the Exposition will be given for the design accepted.

San Diego Union, August 3, 1913, 1:3. State Convention of Arizona Supervisors starts movement for exhibits at San Diego.

San Diego Union, August 3, 1913, II, 17:1-4. Walls of Exposition Buildings Are Swiftly Putting on Final Coverings of Rare Beauty; H. R. Schmohl, contractor, directing a crew of 26 workmen; staff — the fairy shell that transforms the ugliness of bare timbers into the beauties of decorative art; studio inside Home Economy Building; model maker, molder; plans and measurements; Schmohl had done staff work for expositions at Chicago, Atlanta, Nashville, Omaha, Buffalo, Charleston, St. Louis, Portland, Jamestown and Seattle; comes from a family of potters going back four generations.

San Diego Union, August 4, 1913, 1:4. Sam Davis, visitor, says Nevada will send exhibit; state has appropriated $40,000.

Park Commissioners Minutes, August 8, 1913. San Diego Electric Railway granted right to construct electric railway and to operate it until September 1, 1952. . . . Salary of park foreman A. P. Christopher increased from $115.00 to $125.00 per month.

San Diego Sun, August 8, 1913, 13:1. Frederico Pezet, minister from Peru, is in San Diego and is being entertained by the exposition management; he was met last night by Colonel Collier, exposition officials and members of the Order of Panama.

San Diego Union, August 8, 1913, 1:3. Peruvian envoy, Signor Pezet, and party here to select Exposition site.

San Diego Union, August 9, 1913. Autoists to boost Exposition and national road: At exactly 10 o’clock this morning, W. E. McCarton, Lawrence Jasmin, R. P. Cooper, and L. R. Haight will start from the front of the Union building in their big Spauling “50” car on a trip from San Diego to New York, along the ocean-to-ocean highway. A flag containing the Exposition colors — red, green, yellow and white — will be carried on the car as well as a number of pennants boosting San Diego and its Exposition.

San Diego Union, August 9, 1913, 1:1-2. Colonel Collier resigns all business expect Exposition’s.

San Diego Union, August 9, 1913, 1:2, 2;2-3. Peruvian minister honored at banquet at Hotel del Coronado; drinks toast to success of Exposition.

San Diego Union, August 10, 1913, 1:2, 3:4. Order of Panama bids Colonel Collier good speed; he is to travel in the interest of the San Diego Exposition; farewell party for Senor Pezet and Collier at Wonderland Park, August 9.

San Diego Union, August 14, 1913, 3:5. Supervisors for seven Southern California counties to visit Fair tomorrow; progress on model farm.

San Diego Union, August 14, 1913, 18:1. Fight for change in park railway grant fails.

San Diego Union, August 15, 1913, 1:7, 5:1-4. South to ignore San Francisco Fair if tactics are kept up; representatives of seven Southern California counties denounce C. P. Moore’s policies; an impressions has been spread that only the lower end of the state objects to the cost of exhibit space.

San Diego Union, August 15, 1913, 4:6-7. Federated State Societies in row over Panama-California Exposition publicity plans.

San Diego Sun, August 16, 1913, 1:6-7. Plans for California State exposition building filed with John L. Bacon, city building inspector; interior to be furnished in mosaic; will be of a type not found anywhere in Southern California and is similar to that of the Chicago Public Library; towering dome 200 feet in height on which will be a 15-ton lantern or pinnacle that will contain a powerful light; observation tower will be 150 feet above ground; Wurster Construction Co. to be the builder.

San Diego Union, August 17, 1913, 11:1. Special commissioner E. J. Swayne reports on return that he visited 16 countries of behalf of the San Diego Exposition with good success.

San Diego Union, August 18, 1913, 5:3-4. Agricultural Building will be biggest on Exposition grounds; built in the form of a right angle, one wing extending back toward the Southern California Counties’ plantation; work to be started soon on lath and glass house..

San Diego Union, August 21, 1913. 1:4-5, 7:6. Indian tribes will be brought to Exposition to live and work in replicas of their real homes. . . . Unique in the true sense of that much-abused word will be the exhibit of the Santa Fe Railroad at San Diego’s World’s Exposition in 1915. Colonel D. C. Collier, president of the Exposition company, has succeeded in the first of his many projects for the good of the fair, which carried him on his present trip East, and last night dispatches from his hotel in Chicago reported that President Ripley, head of the great railroad system, has definitely decided to expend more than a quarter of a million dollars in bringing to the Exposition in Balboa Park the Indians of the fifteen or more tribes living along the line of the railroad, and housing them in a great community house, a veritable city of mud, in which seven or eight hundred of the redmen, their squaws and papooses will live and work during the year the fair lasts.

The plans of Mr. Ripley and the road over which he exercises control, call for the most elaborate exhibit ever planned by any railroad or any other institution in this country. When the exhibit – if such it may be called – is in full swing, the visitors to the fair will have presented to them the whole life story of the native tribes of the great southwest, and no expense will be spared to make every detail perfect.

While, of course, the scheme is more or less indefinite as yet, Colonel Collier, in his dispatches last night, stated that there will be several hundred of the redmen’s houses on the grounds, grouped in their separate tribes, and with each tribe their art, baskets, pottery, blankets, and beaten silverware that has won fame for the makers all over the world. Indeed the history of Indians between the Missouri and the Pacific coast will be bared for the inspection of tourists and other visitors to the great Exposition.

Incidentally, the cultural features of such an exhibition will not be overlooked. There will be lecturers on hand to explain to the crowds what the symbols on the pottery, the queer markings on the blankets, the hieroglyphics on the houses mean. The exhibit will also be a course in the history of the development of the Indian from the savage past to the native of today, highly skilled in many of the arts and crafts.

Replica of Real Houses

The house in which the aborigines will live at the fair will be a replica of the famous community houses of the Southwest. It will face on the canyon, and, looked at from the front, will be six towering stories high. The entrance will be in the rear, on the level with the other buildings of the Exposition, and the visitor will pass downward to the living quarters of the inmates.

It will be built of adobe, just as the real houses are, and will look something like a squared beehive, story rising above story, like a huge pyramid.

Colonel Collier has not let any grass grow under his feet since he left home. In a wire sent to friends here he announced that New Mexico intends to reproduce one of the coal mines for which the state is growing famous.

Model Coal Mine Planned

  1. Van Houten of the St. Louis, Rocky Mountain and Pacific Railway, yesterday conferred with Collier in Chicago in reference to the coal mine exhibit. He stated that his company has sold its railroad to the Santa Fe and had retained land holdings and coal mines and would make an exhibit at the Panama-California Exposition.

Van Houten is on his way to Europe, where he will inspect a model coal mine in the Munich museum which may afford ideas for a better exhibit here.

It is proposed to tunnel from the sides of one of the canyons of the Exposition grounds and open a shaft into the New Mexico Building. Visitors at the New Mexico Building can do down into the mine from that building. All machinery will be of the latest modern kind, operated by electricity.

Coal will be shipped here from the mines in New Mexico and planting in the model mine for the demonstration of mining. The exhibit is expected to prove one of especial interest because of its novelty.

San Diego Union, August 21, 1913, 5:2. Cabinet members praise San Diego Fair.

San Diego Union, August 21, 1913, 20:1. New Mexico Fair Commission is chosen; drawings for buildings submitted.

San Diego Union, August 22, 1913, 9:1. Protective Society of Colored People to exhibit their work at Exposition.

San Diego Union, August 23, 1913, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Exposition Space Question.

San Diego Sun, August 25, 1913, 1:4-5. San Joaquin Valley Committee wishes to erect exhibit building.

San Diego Union, August 25, 1913, 1:3, 3:3-4. San Joaquin Valley boosters here; Commissioners come to learn of San Diego Fair

San Diego Union, August 25, 1913, 5:1. $350,000 worth of Exposition bonds sold in East.

San Diego Union, August 26, 1913, 4:1. San Joaquin Valley at San Diego.

San Diego Union, August 26, 1913, 18:1. San Joaquin Valley commissioner says no hot air in this Exposition.

San Diego Union, August 26, 1913, II, 1:2. Washington fair commission coming to San Diego; expected they will choose site for Washington State Building.

San Diego Sun, August 27, 1913, 1:6. State of Washington Commissioners here asked Fair directors to reserve a space for them to the right of the entrance to the state group division on the grounds; Elmer E. Johnson of Everett, Washington advised to make plans for a $10,000 building.

San Diego Union, August 27, 1913, 10:1. Faith in Exposition growing; Realty men of state friendly toward Panama-California Exposition; losing confidence in San Francisco’s exposition project.

San Diego Union, August 28, 1913, 1:1, 3:2-5. Harbor Affairs Admiral Nanney, in report to the City Council, scores Edwin Capps, San Diego’s harbor engineer.

San Diego Union, August 28, 1913, 20:1. Washington State Commission recommends an exhibit at San Diego Fair in 1915; will expend $25,000.

San Diego Union, August 31, 1913, 1:6. Harris Trust Company of Chicago agrees to purchase $850,000 park bond issue.

San Diego Union, August 31, 1913, 18:1. Nearly one million feet of lumber placed in Agricultural Building; foundation staked and blocks made for Foreign Arts Building. . . . The outside of the Home Economy Building, including the tower, has been treated to a tint — a rich-looking gray that lends an appearance of antiquity. . . . James Milburn, superintendent of construction.

San Diego Union, September 1, 1913, 1:5-6. Park bond sale will accelerate Exposition plans; construction of buildings and permanent park improvements to go forward as fast as human hands can do work.

San Diego Union, September 3, 1913, 1:3, 5:1. Order of Panama plans four days of pageantry and fun; carnivals, dedication of monument sites and unveiling of statue at Presidio Hill to be carried out with ceremony; Colonel Collier, in Washington, DC, has invited Spanish minister here.

San Diego Union, September 4, 1913, 11:4. Governor to lay cornerstone of California State Building, September 12.

San Diego Union, September 5, 1913, II, 11:3. Many designs submitted for Exposition flag.

San Diego Union, September 6, 1913, 3:4. Movie men to assist in laying cornerstone.

San Diego Union, September 6, 1913, 7:3. USS Maryland band to give concert; fine program is arranged for tomorrow afternoon in Balboa Park.

San Diego Union, September 7, 1913, 10:1. Lieutenant Governor to lay cornerstone.

San Diego Union, September 8, 1913, 1:4. 5,000 greet crack band; Cruiser USS Maryland may repeat successful concert at Balboa Park.

San Diego Union, September 9, 1913, 10:2-3. Work to begin soon on $125,000 Fine Arts Building; five bids for construction have been opened.

Park Commissioners Minutes, September 10, 1913. Contract for construction of the Fine Arts Building awarded to Brown and DeCew Construction Co. for $91,330.

San Diego Sun, September 10, 1913, 2:4. Great Progress Made on Local Exposition; huge Agricultural Building almost ready for metal lath; Foreign Liberal Arts Building will start week of September 6; fourth arch mold for bridge is being placed and pouring of concrete continues on arches one, two and three; Home Economy Building is almost complete; ornaments and stucco work in place; Southern California Counties’ section is laid out; water service is new 30-inch mains opened and fire plugs are being installed throughout grounds; Director-General H. O. Davis told by directors to have all main buildings under construction by October 1913.

San Diego Union, September 11, 1913, II, 11:1. Grand ceremony to mark laying of cornerstone.

San Diego Sun, September 12, 1913, 1:1-2, 2:1. Lieutenant Governor Wallace lays cornerstone for California Building today. . . . The cornerstone contained an iron box in which was the following as announced by Thomas O’Hallaran: architectural sketches of building; legislative manual for 1912-1913; booklets of Exposition; history of Exposition; copies of San Diego daily papers; list of Exposition officers and directors; copy of the official seal of the Exposition, and copy of the Seal of the State of California.

San Diego Union, September 12, 1913, 2:1-3. Lieutenant Governor to lay cornerstone amid pomp and ceremony.

San Diego Union, September 13, 1913, 1:4-5, 2:3. Lieutenant Governor Wallace lays cornerstone of California Building; pays tribute to spirit of San Diego’s citizens.

San Diego Union, September 13, 1913, 12:2. Standard Oil to exhibit at Fair; big building to be erected to house every process of manufacture; will cost close to $50,000.

September, 1913, Correspondence, Board of Park Commissioners: THE BOARD OF PARK COMMISSIONERS, of the city of San Diego, State of California, acting under the authority conferred upon said Board by the Legislature of the State of California in an Act entitled

“An act giving and granting to the board of park commissioners of the city of San Diego the right to use and the right to authorize the use of Balboa Park in said city for exposition purposes.” (Approved March 24, 1911.)

hereby authorize and empower the Panama-California Exposition, a corporation duly organized under the laws of California, to use that part and portion of Balboa Park enclosed within the boundary lines on the attached map for the purpose of holding an exposition during the year 1915 in the manner hereinafter set forth.

Said PANAMA-CALIFORNIA EXPOSITION is authorized to enclose any or all that portion of said park within the boundary line shown on the attached map and to charge such entrance or admission fee as may be deemed advisable by said Exposition.

Said Exposition is further authorized and empowered to erect or cause to be erected such buildings, structures, paths or roadways as may be necessary for the use of the Exposition, it exhibitors or concessionaires, and to sell, give or grant to any person or persons, association or associations, corporation or corporations, such rights, privileges and concessions as are usually granted by Expositions, or such rights, privileges and concessions as my be expedient or necessary to the success of said Exposition, and collect compensation therefor.

Dated September 19, 1913 . . . (Copy of above document is in the San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Union, September 22, 1913, 1:1-2, 3:2-3. Chief Iodine, famous Indian scout, to head big carnival pageant.

San Diego Union, September 22, 1913, 5:2. North Dakota to have exhibit.

San Diego Union, September 24, 1913, 10:1. Commissioners from Washington State delighted with San Diego.

San Diego Examiner, September 26, 1913, 2:2-3. San Diego Exposition to have unique features.

San Diego Sun, September 26, 1913, 1:1-2. Ground reserved for statue of Balboa at Exposition site dedicated; about 10,000 people there; opening remarks by G. Aubrey Davidson; address by Congressman Henry J. Sloane; remarks by Spanish Minister Don Juan Riano y Gayangos; Congressman Henry poured Pacific water on soil; statue to cost $15,000.

San Diego Union, September 26, 1913, 1:5-6, 3:3-4. Spot where towering monument to Cabrillo to stand solemnly dedicated to high uses; first great event of carnival passes into history with the road of guns booming a salute to Spain’s special envoy to San Diego.

San Diego Sun, September 27, 1913, 1. Serra Cross unveiled on Presidio Hill on final day of Carnival Cabrillo.

San Diego Union, September 27, 1913, 1:6-7, 3:3-6. Modern men pay homage to Balboa, hero of the undying person.

San Diego Union, September 28, 1913, 1:7, 3:3-4. Tile-studded cross is unveiled as tribute to past; padre memorial will stand for all time.

San Diego Union, September 28, 1913, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Civic Center Question.

San Diego Union, September 28, 1913, II, 5:1. Council to consider Civic Center plan; Mayor O’Neall favors arrangement; larger buildings wanted.

San Diego Sun, September 30, 1913. Mayor O’Neall favors a 99-year lease on 500 acres of Balboa Park on boulevard above High School with privilege of renewal; says it could bring 5 percent on $10 million valuation if properly handled; believes income from park lands, pueblo lands and waterfront would make San Diego a taxless city; people would have to vote on the proposal and the State Legislature would have to ratify it.

San Diego Union, September 30, 1913, 2:4. Law stands in way of park sale; Balboa Park lands cannot be sold until Legislature grants permission; area is worth $5 million.

(San Diego) Daily Transcript, October 1, 1913, 4:1. The members of the city council do not favor the sale of any of the land included in the city park, but would be favorable to long-term leases, 99 years, for such portions as may be desirable for residence purposes. They believe an annual revenue of $500,000 could thus be secured for the city.

San Diego Sun, October 1, 1913, 6:1-2. Judge C. H. Lamme says sell 600 acres of park and use the money for a sea wall from the foot of Broadway to the military reservation; if placed on market, the land would bring nearly $15 million; sea wall would reclaim 1200 acres; a couple of million would be left to buy and improve small parks.

San Diego Union, October 1, 1913, 1:4. San Diego citizens reach agreement regarding civic center site.

San Diego Union, October 1, 1913, 20:2. Permits issued for Agricultural Building, Machinery Building and Mining Building at Exposition.

(San Diego) Daily Transcript, October 2, 1913, 4:1. It is probable that, at the meeting of the park commissioners tomorrow, a full discussion will be had as to the advisability of selling or leasing 500 to 600 acres in the city park. Whatever is done, the voters must first pass on the matter and the state legislature must ratify their verdict.

San Diego Union, October 2, 1913, II, 11:1. Plan would sell or lease part of the park.

(San Diego) Daily Transcript, October 3, 1913, 4:1. At a meeting last night of the Washington State Society, the plan was endorsed by Judge Lamme to sell about 600 acres of the park and with part of the proceeds to build a sea wall.

San Diego Union, October 3, 1913, II, 11:2. Freight rates for exhibits to Exposition determined.

(San Diego) Daily Transcript, October 7, 1913, 4:1. President C. C. Moore of the San Francisco Exposition, his wife and party, were interested visitors at the San Diego Fair grounds yesterday.

San Diego Union, October 7, 1913, 18:1. Director-General Davis, home from Chicago, says Exposition is widely advertised.

(San Diego) Daily Transcript, October 8, 1913, 4:1. Superintendent Morley is strongly in favor of barring auto trucks and dogs from the city park. The trucks do great damage to the boulevards, and the dogs destroy the shrubbery and grass.

San Diego Union, October 8, 1913, 18:2. Superintendent Morley would bar auto trucks and dogs from park; says former damage boulevards and the latter destroy grass.

Park Commissioners Minutes, October 10, 1913. Miss Ryan given permission to erect and operate a refreshment stand near Bird Cage on west side of park. . . . Board of Playground Commissioners ready to begin work on playground on Golden Hill in Balboa Park.

San Diego Union, October 11, 1913, 2:2. San Diego Exposition spoons placed on sale; picture and description.

San Diego Sun, October 14, 1913, 6:3. City Council today passed three ordinances granting builders of the Expositions concessions; one exempts builders from the Plumbing Board of Health, electrical, building and theater licensing ordinances; others forbid establishment of carnival-type attractions within 1200 feet of any entrances and auto stands within 300 feet of any entrances.

San Diego Union, October 14, 1913, 1:4. Utah State Exposition Committee visits grounds and decides to double original appropriation of $25,000 for building.

San Diego Union, October 15, 1913, 3:2-3. Monastery will be reproduced at Fair; calls for something different leads to adoption of novel plan for building and exhibit by the New Mexico Commission.

San Diego Union, October 15, 1913, 10:3. Ordinances aiding Fair work passed; building and other ordinances made inoperative as far as Fair is concerned.

San Diego Examiner, October 17, 1913, 1:1-7. The Builders of the Fair.

San Diego Examiner, October 17, 1913, 4:1. Exposition features unique.

San Diego Examiner, October 17, 1913, 4:2-6. Construction of Fair buildings to be expedited with titanic energy.

San Diego Examiner, October 17, 1913, 4:2. Fair will assist in making park.

San Diego Examiner, October 17, 1913, 4:6. Many picturesque features of Fair.

San Diego Examiner, October 17, 1913, 4:7. Irrigation a big Exposition feature

San Diego Sun, October 16, 1913, 1:1-8. Wonderful Exposition springing up as a monument to the opening of the Panama Canal; the dreams of “San Diego, the Beautiful” and “San Diego, the Land of Heart’s Desire” are being realized.

San Diego Sun, October 16, 1913, 2:1-3. Process to be featured at Exposition.

San Diego Sun, October 16, 1913, 2:3-5. The Men Who Are Making the Exposition A Success: D. C. Collier, president; Frank J. Belcher, chairman of finance committee; Frank P. Allen, director of works; H. O. Davis, Director-General in charges of exhibits and concessions; G. A. Davidson, president of the executive committee; H. J. Penfold, secretary; Winfield Hogaboom, directory of publicity.

San Diego Sun, October 16, 1913, 2:6. Beautiful City Park is Aim: permanent buildings to be lasting monuments — art galleries, museums and auditoriums. . . . The light on the great dome of the California State Building, 500 feet above water level, will be visible to mariners 150 miles at sea. Of reinforced concrete, this building will be a depository for historical material and other objects necessary to preserve.

San Diego Sun, October 16, 1913, 3:1-4. Exposition Buildings Are Rushed: Fine Arts Building, opposite California State Building, to cost $200,000; work to begin in September; management wants all the buildings completed by July 1, 1914; each pier of Cabrillo bridge will carry a load of one million pounds when the bridge is finished.

San Diego Sun, October 16, 1913, 6:1. Exposition by featuring reclamation projects will point the way back to the land for thousands.

San Diego Sun, October 16, 1913, 13:2-4. Business organizations working to emphasize Exposition; lagoons, trees, flowers and palms to form background for buildings.

San Diego Sun, October 16, 1913, 15:4-5. National Irrigation Congress will make great exhibit here; want federal government to appropriate one million dollars to defray expense of exhibit. . . . The exposition grounds — the whole area — will be one great exhibit of the science and result of irrigation. From small ornamental flower gardens to plains bearing native plants, orchards, deciduous and citrus farms in miniature — every conceivable variation of agriculture is be shown at this exposition, both indoors and out, though most of it will be outdoors and cover an area of approximately 250 acres.

San Diego Sun, October 16, 1913, 21:2-3. Seven million plants for horticultural side of Exposition: The most extensive piece of planting is that of the Counties of Southern California; huge glass and lath house will be a gathering place where band concerts may be given; about 600 feet square and 100 feet high; to be completed next spring..

San Diego Union, October 17, 1913, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The San Diego Exposition.

San Diego Union, October 17, 1913, II: Special San Diego Exposition 1915 Section . . .

1:1-7, 2:1-2. San Diego Exposition.

2:3-5. Exhibit buildings rising like magic city.

2:7 Nerve and daring give San Diego big boost

17:7. Eyes of railroad turning toward San Diego Exposition.

San Diego Union, October 17, 1913, II, 1:1-5. Building Progress Made . . . The San Diego Exposition is a means to an end. Its buildings will stand for years, even centuries, in a beautiful park that will be enjoyed by our children and children’s children for generations to come.

The city and county are united in one idea, to make of this corner of the United States, the playground of the world where, unvexed with winter snow and cold, with summer heats and droughts, men and women may cultivate the highest ideals in surroundings of natural beauty, in fields and orchards and vineyards that make of the country a veritable land flowing with milk and honey.

San Diego, the beautiful, the Land of Heart’s Desire . . . .

The buildings are of enduring material and construction — so designed that they can be utilized later as museums, art galleries and auditoriums.

Lagoon planned opposite Agricultural Building for display of aquatic equipment and exhibition of flying boats.

Ground broken for some of the state buildings, all to be completed by the middle of 1914.

Work on the Southern California horticultural exhibit started in 1912, citrus tress are two years old.

(San Diego) Daily Transcript, October 18, 1913, 4:1. President Collier of the Exposition left today for New York on his way to Europe in the interest of the Exposition.

(San Diego) Daily Transcript, October 18, 1913, 4:1. One of the notable features of the San Diego Exposition will be the Ceylon tea garden which is to be built by Sir Thomas Lytton, who yesterday gave orders for the work to begin.

San Diego Union, October 18, 1913, 5:1. President Collier going to Europe on Exposition business.

San Diego Union, October 18, 1913, 7:1. Judge Lewis stops completion of 6th Street in Balboa Park.

San Diego Union, October 18, 1913, 10:1. Ceylon tea garden to be Exposition feature.

San Diego Union, October 19, 1913, 6:2. Santa Fe issues San Diego booster booklet.

San Diego Union, October 22, 1913, II, 1:2. Los Angeles to Phoenix Exposition race course underway.

San Diego Union, October 23, 1913, 7:3. Exposition inspection by Board of Health cannot be waived; City Attorney declares City Council cannot pass an ordinance waiving plumbing inspection.

Park Commissioners Minutes, October 24, 1913. L. S. Masten granted at 6-months extension of time in which to complete the work of 6th Street boulevard extension. . . . Mrs. Jessie C. Knox refused permission to keep a 5-acre rose garden and potpourri in Balboa Park after the Exposition closed.

San Diego Union, October 24, 1913, II, 11:2. Kansas Commissioner here to pick 1915 site.

San Diego Union, October 25, 1913, 3:1. Kansas will have building at Exposition.

San Diego Union, October 26, 1913, 3:1-5. Great pipe organ and music pavilion to be presented to city by John D. and Adolph B. Spreckels; designed by Harrison Albright minus embellishments; electric-pneumatic organ by Austin Organ Co. of Hartford, Conn.; crescent-shaped structure with great arch in center supported by clusters of columns and flanking this on the side an arcade; to be north of California Building facing south.

San Diego Union, October 26, 1913, II, 5:2. New Marine band to play in park today; its first concert will commence at two-thirty this afternoon at Kalmia Street entrance.

(San Diego) Daily Transcript, October 27, 1913, 4:1. The first of a series of concerts in the park took place yesterday at the Kalmia Street entrance to the park.

San Diego Union, October 27, 1913, 4:1. EDITORIAL; Oregon and the Exposition.

San Diego Union, October 27, 1913, 5:4. Marine band has splendid crowd.

Park Commissioners Minutes, October 28, 1913. Ordinance No. 5312 granted to San Diego Electric Railway to build and operate railway upon and through Balboa Park.

(San Diego) Daily Transcript, October 28, 1913, 4:1. The City Council has denied the petition of the Park Commissioners that the rate for water used in the park be reduced from eight to five cents per hundred cubic feet.

San Diego Sun, October 29, 1913, 1:1-3. Federation of Labor took Panama-California Exposition off “unfair list”; carpenters decide to allow Exposition to be counted as “fair” for the good of the city; Exposition buildings and California State Building are now “open shop.”

San Diego Union, October 30, 1913, 5:3. Imperial Valley plans exhibit.

San Diego Union, November 2, 1913, 8:2. Model is coming for Panama Canal extravaganza; site for unique attraction at Exposition grounds has been assigned; ground space of 200x300 feet; faces west.

San Diego Sun, November 3, 1913, 1:1-2. Thousands cheer at Exposition grounds; first car in the Los Angeles, San Diego-Phoenix Exposition Automobile Race arrives in San Diego; Barney Oldfield made time of 2 hours 30 minutes for the 130.4 miles between San Diego and Los Angeles.

San Diego Sun, November 4, 1913, 1:1. Olin Davis, San Diego boy, winner of auto race to Phoenix over Oldfield; unofficial time 13 hours and 15 minutes.

San Diego Union, November 4, 1913, 9:1. H. L. Ducomun and Bert Carlson wrote Exposition song, entitled “San Diego.”

San Diego Union, November 4, 1913, 10:1. German-American Alliance for Southern California and California arrive in San Diego to visit Exposition grounds.

San Diego Union, November 6, 1913, 1:1. Welcome planned Monday for Olin Davis, winner of Los Angeles to Phoenix auto race.

San Diego Union, November 6, 1913, II, 1:3. Concessionaires have begun the erection of their buildings on the Isthmus; work six weeks ahead of schedule.

San Diego Union, November 6, 1913, II, 11:3. Exposition work is six weeks ahead of schedule; officials promise that buildings will be complete by July; millions will be spent in amusement enterprises along Midway.

San Diego Sun, November 7, 1913, 3:1-2. Making wonderful progress on Exposition grounds and buildings; great scenic railway assuming proportions of Isthmus.

San Diego Union, November 7, 1913, 8:1. Park Commissioner C. I. Ferris asks Council to reduce park water rate.

San Diego Union, November 7, 1913, 8:2. “Host House” to be Exposition feature; plans are laid for San Diego County building at Fair; estimated cost $75,000.

San Diego Union, November 9, 1913, II, 7:1-3. New Mexico building, modeled after Mission Church on the Rock at Acoma with verandah and balustrade effect from Mission at Cochiti.

San Diego Sun, November 11, 1913, 14:1. Work rushed on Exposition buildings; preparations to be completed by August, 1914.

San Diego Union, November 11, 1913, 1:7. Olin Davis, winner of Exposition auto race, welcomed home.

San Diego Union, November 12, 1913, II, 1:1. George L. Hutchin, Portland, praises Exposition grounds.

San Diego Union, November 12, 1913, II, 1:2. Exposition work ahead of promises; six weeks leeway

San Diego Union, November 13, 1913, 7:5. Council considers public parks ordinance; so many changes favored that redrafted document will be considered; no speaking on streets..

Park Commissioners Minutes, November 14, 1913. The Superintendent was instructed to take immediate charge of the grounds on either side of Laurel Street from 6th Street boulevard to West boulevard and to proceed with planting of same. . . . The Superintendent was instructed to build a new Bear Den at once in Balboa Park. . . . The Superintendent submitted plans for a new bridge across the ravine at the intersection of Cabrillo and Pine Hill roads in Balboa Park; plans approved.

San Diego Union, November 15, 1913. 7:2. Great playground work to begin December 1; tract of 50 acres in Balboa Park set aside and plans perfected; feature for children, athletic field, ball grounds, gridiron, swimming pool, and gymnasium.

San Diego Union, November 16, 1913, II, 6:1-4. Panama Canal Extravaganza big feature; “Battle of Canal: is to be rare illusion; famous ditch will be shown within immense theatorium at the Exposition.

San Diego Union, November 21, 1913, 9:1. Polo will be big feature in 1915 Exposition.

San Diego Sun, November 22, 1913, 6:1-2. Park Board and Goodbody stalled by 6th Street case; Goodbody claimed $7,000 for grading, surfacing and rolling of 6th Street; can’t get paid by 6th Street property owners until he completes work and can’t continue work without being in contempt of court; Park Commissioners claim they have nothing to do with the matter.

San Diego Sun, November 22, 1913, 11:1. San Diego Marine Band will give weekly concert in Balboa Park at the Kalmia Street entrance at 2:30 Sunday afternoon.

San Diego Union, November 25, 1913, 6:3. Pacific Mail follows railways in slashing freight charges for Exposition in half.

San Diego Union, November 26, 1913, II, 11:1. Robert R. Ritchie, general western agent of the Chicago and Northwest Railway, says city’s future is assured; believes possibilities of Fair exceed those in San Francisco.

Park Commissioners Minutes, November 28, 1913. Panama-California Exposition authorized to use portion of Balboa Park within specified boundary lines for the holding of an Exposition in 1915.

San Diego Sun, November 28, 1913. Great Progress on Exposition; Steel is being hauled for last of the large exhibit buildings. . . . That the San Diego exposition will be entirely completed several months before the crowds begin to pour in early in 1915, was assured today when it was announced by the exposition officials that steel is being unloaded for the botanical building at the exposition grounds, the last of the main structures of the exposition.

Four of the exhibit buildings are already assigned with applications for space pouring in from all directions. The second story of the California State Building is beginning to rise. The landscape gardening of Balboa Park is proceeding nicely as a result of the recent rains. It is expected that the Cabrillo Bridge will be opened to traffic, February 1.

San Diego Sun, November 29, 1913, 1:3. Christmas services planned for city park; United Church Choirs to sing.

San Diego Union, November 29, 1913, 7:1. John D. and Adolph B. Spreckels’ gift of big organ to San Diego described in leading eastern newspapers.

San Diego Union, November 29, 1913, 8:1. Revised plans for stadium with capacity of 50,000 submitted to Park Board yesterday.

San Diego Union, November 30, 1913, 8:1. Marine band will play in the park this afternoon.

San Diego Union, December 1, 1913, 6:1. John Nolen to visit San Diego.

Park Commissioners, Correspondence, December 2, 1913.

December Second,

Nineteen Thirteen.

Hon. T. B. Cosgrove,

City Attorney,

San Diego, California.

Dear Sir:-

At the regular meeting of the Board of Park Commissioners of the City of San Diego, held Friday, November 21st., a motion was duly made and carried that a petition be presented to the Common Council of the City of San Diego, asking that the name “BALBOA PARK” be given to the 1400 acre city park. Said petition is attached hereto.

The writer was instructed to ask that you draft a suitable ordinance covering this question of name. The Board seems to have been under the impression that “BALBOA PARK” was the legal name adopted sometime in the past, but the City Clerk has advised the Board to the contrary.

Thanking you for your attention to this matter, I am,

Yours respectfully,



San Diego Sun, December 3, 1913, 6:1-2. Pastors unanimous in favor of Christmas day ceremony in park.

Park Commissioners, Correspondence, December 5, 1913.

December 5, 1913

  1. B. Pendleton, Secretary,

Board of Park Commissioners

San Diego, California

My dear sir:

Replying to your esteemed favor of the 2nd inst., asking that I draw an ordinance giving the name “Balboa Park” to the 1400 acre city park, beg leave to call your attention to Chapter 286 of the Statutes and Amendments to the Codes of California of 1911. This is an act granting to the Board of Park Commissioners of the City the right to authorize the use of the city park for exposition purposes and Section 3 is as follows:

“Section 3. This Act shall not apply to any park lands owned by the City of San Diego other than Pueblo Lots 1129, 1130, 1131, 1135, 1136, 1137, 1142 and a portion of Lot 1144, according to the official survey of the City of San Diego by Charles H. Poole, made in 1856, which Pueblo Lots are now and shall hereafter be known and designated as ‘Balboa Park’.”

It will be seen that any action by the City Council in regard to this matter would be unnecessary.

Very truly yours,

Signed: T. B. Cosgrove

City Attorney.

San Diego Union, December 5, 1913, 1:4, 5:2-3. County and City approve Broadway site for Civic Center.

San Diego Union, December 7, 1913, 8:1. Collier retired till after Fair.

San Diego Union, December 8, 1913, 1:2. Cook and Sons New York representative, D. J. Healy, here to study Exposition in the interests of his company.

San Diego Union, December 8, 1913, 5:2. Pastors oppose liquor sales on Exposition grounds.

San Diego Sun, December 9, 1913, 1:2. Winfield Hogaboom conceived the idea of a 100-foot pickle for the exposition grounds; it would tower above air on one of the highest spots on the grounds; an elevator would be inside; will be the exposition display of Heinz, the pickle maker.

San Diego Union, December 10, 1913, 1:7, 3:2. John Nolen says Civic Center would pay for itself.

San Diego Union, December 14, 1913, 11:1-3. Thousands hear San Diego Marine Band Sunday concerts in Balboa Park.

San Diego Sun, December 16, 1913, 14:3. Colonel Ed Fletcher thinks ban on sale of liquor on exposition grounds would be a square deal for licensed saloon men of the city.

San Diego Union, December 16, 1913, 20:1. Businessmen protest to Council over issuance of liquor licenses at Exposition.

San Diego Sun, December 17, 1913, 1:2. Exposition water bill causes debate; Exposition uses half of the water used in the park; the transfer of money from the general fund means that the city every six months would be paying about $1,200 of the Exposition water bill, or three-eighths of the water bill of the Panama-California Exposition.

San Diego Union, December 18, 1913, 2:4. Director-General Davis tells what he learned on reason trip to East; railroads will advertise Exposition.

San Diego Union, December 18, 1913, 5:1. More objections to the sale of liquor from E. J. Swayne, Ed Fletcher and George W. Marston.

Park Commissioners, Minutes, December 19, 1913. A letter was read from Carleton M. Winslow stating that the architects for the Fine Arts Building advised the immediate appropriation of $8,000 additional on the building; $3,000 to be spent on decorating the ceiling stairway, etc. and $5,000 to be added to the furnishing of the chapel.

San Diego Union, December 19, 1913, 20:2. Council asked for permission to close part of Upas Street from Park Boulevard to Vermont Street; needed for Standard Oil concession at Fair.

San Diego Sun, December 20, 1913, 2:4. Anthony Caro, former Exposition worker, filed suit against H. R. Schmohl, plastering contractor; while engaged as a woman on the Southern California Counties Building, on November 5, he fell from a defective ladder and sustained serious injuries.

San Diego Union, December 20, 1913, II, 1:1. New Mexico appropriated $30,000 for building; mural paintings by Frank Springer depicting life of St. Francis to be hung in auditorium; building will cover 15,000 square feet; one wing to contain an auditorium showing movies; other wing, an exhibition hall displaying resources of state.

San Diego Union, December 21, 1913, 2:2-5. Prince Hadji tells of wonders to be shown in Oriental City; to be built at a cost of one million dollars; pictures of Prince Hadji and son.

San Diego Sun, December 22, 1913, 2:1. Colonel Collier, president of the San Diego Exposition, is thought to be in Brazil, closing arrangements for the Brazilian exhibit at the local show. He was to have gone from Brazil to Berlin, Germany, but according to Winfield Hogaboom, head of the publicity department, will probably go from Brazil to Peru to perfect arrangements for exhibits from that country.

According to Hogaboom, Collier will probably not return to San Diego until April or May, as this will be the last trip to foreign countries that have signified their intention of exhibiting at San Diego.

San Diego Sun, December 22, 1913, 2:3. New Mexicans of San Diego organize New Mexico Society at U. S. Grant Hotel, Saturday; New Mexico building to cost $100,000.

Park Commissioners. Minutes, December 31, 1913. Park Board notifies Frank J. Belcher, Chairman of the Executive Board of the Exposition, that gardening and planting within the Exposition grounds will be done by the Park Board after January 1, 1914.

Park Commissioners, Correspondence, December 31, 1913.

Mr. F. J. Belcher

Chairman Executive Board

Panama-California Exposition

San Diego, California.

Dear Sir:-

The Board of Park Commissioners of the City of San Diego has instructed the writer to notify you that on and after January first, 1914, that no bills incurred by the Panama-Cal. Exposition for Gardening & Planting, with the Exposition Grounds, will be paid by said Park Board.

The Park Board believes that a large sum of money can be saved on the Gardening and Planting within the said Exposition grounds, if same is done by the Park Board. And said Park Board stands willing and ready to take over the Gardening & Planting within said grounds and insists upon doing same. Said Gardening & Planting to be done in accordance with the Gardening & Planting plans to be worked out in joint conference with your Executive Board and the Park Board.

In behalf of the Park Board, the writer has also been instructed to request an immediate conference with your Executive Board in reference to the financial status of what is known as the “Bond Fund.”

The Park Board believes that the gross extravagance of the Director of Works of the Panama-California Exposition is largely responsible for the poor condition of said “Bond Fund” at this time.

The large amount of uncompleted work remaining to be paid for out of said “Bond Fund” causes the Park Board to believe that the balance available in said fund is insufficient to carry to completion the work planned to be done within the Exposition grounds.

The writer trusts that you will favor us by taking this matter up at as early date as possible, notifying us that the conference has been called, whereby the Park Board will be assured that the money now available will be sufficient to complete the work on hand in the Director of Work’s office.

An early reply will be appreciated,

Yours very truly,



Copy to Mr. H. O. Davis, Director-General, Panama-California Exposition.

Return to Amero Collection.


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