Balboa Park History 1914

Board of Playground Commissioners

Daniel Cleveland, President; Mrs. Sara Herron Chafee, Secretary; Mrs. Grace B. German, Rev. H. B. Bard, Sherwood Wheaton, Louis J. Wilde, members of Board.

Frank S. Marsh, Superintendent of Playgrounds

Golden Hill Playground, between 27th and 27th.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1914

Exposition Section

  1. Bird’s eye view of Exposition grounds with sketch of first version of Botanical Building.

Work started on Horticultural Building in latter part of 1913; design changed from cumbersome Spanish-style square structure to open-face building; dome frame set in place in December.

  1. What and Where the San Diego Exposition Is, by H. O. Davis.

Drawings of buildings (early versions)


Science and Education

Arts and Crafts

Home Economy

Agriculture and Horticulture

  1. Progress as shown at the Exposition site – pictures
  2. Most monumental of structures in Balboa Park

20 miles of iron pipe for water, 10 miles of storm drain, nearly as many miles of sewer

connections and about the same amount of electric conduit.

4:2 All buildings so put up that they will stand for half a century without necessity of repair to the frame on which they are built. The method employed has been to make all frames and columns on the ground and hoist them into place with cranes and derricks.

Plaster and stucco work is done in the buildings themselves, the contractor moving his molders and men into the buildings as fast as the carpenters make it ready for the plaster and decorations. The contractor produces every portion of the decoration on the grounds from blueprints, the plaster, which comes from Utah, and the material at hand in local markets.

The Division of Works furnishes the blueprints of the figures and ornaments wanted.

4:3. State building to be used as a depository for state historical material.

4:4. $3,500,000 raised for Exposition.

4:5. Service stations to be maintained.

4:5. Permanent park provided for city.

4:6. Canadian Northern to send steamers here.

4:7. Construction of bridge.

5:1-2. California counties show what can be done.

5:3-5. Ground plan showing Organ Pavilion north of California Building; Motor Transportation Building at head of Plaza de Panama.

New pipe organ from Austin Company of Hartford, Conn.; electric pneumatic — operated by a low-voltage generator drive by organ motor; movable console to organ with power cable; offer to donate organ made in 1913.

5:6. Irrigation expert appeals to east and west.

6:1-7. Visitors marvel at vast preparations.

6:3-4. Directors for 1913.

6:7. Panorama of Exposition showing buildings on El Prado on which work began March, 1913.

7:1-3. San Diego’s Fair finds favor with citizens of the great West.

7:4-7. State Societies aid in community development.

8:1-2. San Diego Exposition to have foreign exhibits.

8:3-4. Plants grown by the million.

8:5-6. San Diego Marine Band draws big crowds; free concerts given every Sunday afternoon at 2:30 near Kalmia Street entrance.

8:7. State participation

Legislative appropriations: Nevada . . . $40,000

New Mexico . 20,000

Utah . . . . 25,000

Washington . 25,000

Kansas . . . 10,000

9:1-3. Attractions of Isthmus will be unique: Scenic roller coaster and carousel; “A Street in China,” Ostrich Farm.

9:1-3. Exploitation not to lag at San Diego Exposition.

9:1-7. Special rates by rail and water granted Fair exhibitors.

  1. The men who made the Exposition – pictures

10:1, Santa Fe planning Indian Village at Exposition.

11:1. Amusements to be big part of show.

11:7. Open-air exhibits: International Harvester, Lipton Tea, etc.



2:3-4. San Diego’s Building Record in Exceptional Considering Depression.

Building permits in 1913 totaled approximately 7 million dollars.

Building permits in 1912 totaled approximately 10 million dollars.

1912 — bulkhead construction of San Diego harbor, 1 million dollars

City affected by prevailing business depression less than almost any community in the United States.

Watts Building – 5th and E

Meyer Davidson – between E and F

Spreckels’ Workingmen’s Hotel – between 3rd and 4th

Union Building – between Broadway and E.

January 2, 1914, Letter, Carleton Monroe Winslow to Board of Park Commissioners . . . Goodhue to procure reredos and other furniture for the [St. Francis] chapel in Mexico.

Gentlemen:- Under date of the 27th of December 1913, I have received a letter from Messrs. Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, from which I quote as follows:-

“We are pleased to learn that a portion of the money saved on the Fine Arts Building is to be expended in extra decoration. Mr. Goodhue has already started to make arrangements to procure the reredos and other furniture for the Chapel in Mexico. The $3,000 should be expended as follows:

The floors of the two stair halls should be tiled in same manner as the Chapel. A dado in colored glazed tile, about three feet, should be run around the ground floor of the West staircase and the ceiling should be decorated with a rich wooden ceiling. For this we have started already to make sketches. If any money remains, it should be used in placing a wall fountain in the East staircase hall on the axis of the doorway to the main exhibition hall, ground floor.”

In this connection, I have requested Messrs. Brown & DeCew Construction Company, Contractors, to submit an estimate for the extra floor tile work called for. I assume that the tile-dado work mentioned will be figured upon here in San Diego.

Quoting again: “Also please let us known whether our acceptance of the bid on lighting fixtures has been confirmed.” In the firm’s night letter of 18thof December, Mr. Goodhue writes, “As Caldwell’s lighting fixtures for both buildings come within allowance, have accepted same. Please have this confirmed.”

If your board has not already done so, will you kindly have communicated to either Messrs. Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson or myself the confirmation requested.

Very faithfully yours,

(Signed) Carleton M. Winslow


San Diego Sun, January 3, 1914, 1:7. Exposition building permits issued for Commerce and Industries, Foreign Arts Building and Fire Station, valued respectively at $27,000, $72,000 and $10,000.

San Diego Sun, January 5, 1914, 11:1-2. Park Board and Stadium Committee debated putting stadium at 15th or 18th streets; question of excavating costs.

Board of Park Commissioners Minutes, January 9, 1914. Mr. Winslow instructed to notify Mr. Goodhue that the $2,000 appropriation for hardware for the Fine Arts Building included the cost of the bell. . . . $500 appropriated to improve grounds around Children’s Home in Balboa Park. . . . Western Metals Supply Co. given an extension of 30 days to remove their powder magazine in Balboa Park.

San Diego Sun, January 9, 1914, 1:2-3. Stadium funds will only start project; Davidson willing to wait until people vote more money; there can be no Greek Theater, no elaborate sections of seats, and no concrete banks along cup.

San Diego Union, January 11, 1914, 3:2-3. Article mentioning Tracy Brick & Art Stone Company of Chula Vista.

San Diego Sun, January 12, 1914, 11:1. Park Board lights for Balboa Park on upper 6th Street, the western boundary of the park, and on the boulevards on the western part; President Forward does not know where the money is coming from.

San Diego Sun, January 14, 1914, 1:6. Director-General H. O. Davis says main group of exposition buildings will be finished soon.

San Diego Union, January 15, 1914, II, 11:1. Hagenbeck animals feature of 1915 Exposition.

Board of Park Commissioners Minutes, January 16, 1914. Salary of Superintendent increased to $250 per month.

San Diego Sun, January 16, 1914, 1:3. Park Commissioners to consider a Convention Hall instead of a Greek Theater in park; also can save money on grading for stadium by day labor under supervision of Park Board instead of contracting with grading concerns; “Those opposed to a Greek Theater said it might be a thing of beauty, but that its value to the city would stop there.”

San Diego Union, January 17, 1914, 18:1. Southern Highway exhibit planned for Fair; headquarters of association are in Clifton, Arizona, San Diego is western terminus.

San Diego Sun, January 19, 1914, 1:5-7. Capacity of stadium reduced from approximately 50,000 to 30,000; 15th Street site chosen; day labor to be used; level to be raised 5 feet; space will be left for a Greek Theater or Convention Hall.

San Diego Sun, January 21, 1914, 9:1-2. H. O. Davis said at Chamber of Commerce meeting last night that 8.0 million expected at Exposition next year; San Diego Exposition will be first of its kind . . . an exposition that will be the means of developing the west and of upbuilding San Diego . . . “We have but one single scale on which we weigh the acceptance or rejection of space to an exhibitor. If we can see a future market for the products of that exhibitor within the sphere of influence of this exposition, he is allotted space; if not, we have no space for him at any price.”

San Diego Union, January 23, 1914, 3:1. Architect of Utah Building was John Fetzer; structure will cost $30,000.

San Diego Union, January 23, 1914, 5:1. Park Board approves of annual Poppy Day.

San Diego Union, January 24, 1914, 8:1. Big attendance at Fair is assured.

San Diego Union, January 25, 1914, 2:4. Utah to consider state building at Exposition.

San Diego Union, January 25, 1914, 15:1. Counties to rush work at Exposition.

San Diego Union, January 29, 1914, 15:1. Kern and Tulare Counties plan for building and exhibits.

San Diego Sun, January 29, 1914, 2:3. Ten counties of the Sacramento Valley had representatives on the exhibition grounds in Balboa Park today to select a site for the Sacramento Valley Building.

Board of Park Commissioners Minutes, January 30, 1914. General foreman Christopher resigned effective February 14. . . . Board appropriated $7,500 to plaster inside of California State Building, the amount to be deducted from the Fine Arts Building budget.

January 30, 1914, Letter, Bertram Goodhue to J. P. Pendleton, Secretary, Board of Park Commissioners, Panama-California Exposition Papers, San Diego Public Library. Wants to find genuine old bell for Fine Arts Building; Borwn & DeCew Construction Co. have contract for tile work, flooring and decoration of Fine Arts Building.

San Diego Union, January 30, 1914, 11:1. Sacramento Valley spends $75,000 on Exposition; plans and building site.

San Diego Union, January 30, 1914, 20:2. Colorado Counties plan exhibit.

San Diego Sun, January 31, 1914, 11:4. Flag unfurled on top of huge scaffold tower of California Building; 485 feet above sea; engineering work on California Building carried out under the supervision of Samuel Evans, a structural engineer.

San Diego Union, February 1, 1914, 3:2-3. Montana counties raise exhibit fund; commissioners will reach San Diego early this month.

San Diego Union, February 2, 1914, 2:2-5. Hum of industry on Fair grounds; stately buildings and great bridge nearing completion.

San Diego Union, February 2, 1914, 6:3. Park Board says grading will save big sum; propose filling of 15th Street with earth from new stadium.

San Diego Union, February 5, 1914, 5:1. Property owners want new park named “Fay.”

San Diego Union, February 6, 1914, 8:1. W. W. Bowers defends Edwin M. Capps.

San Diego Union, February 6, 1914, II, 11:3. Rousing reception will surprise Colonel Collier; expected home from abroad early next month.

San Diego Union, February 6, 1914, 18:1-2. San Diego real estate bounds as 1915 approaches.

San Diego Union, February 7, 1914, 3:3. California Counties exhibit to be completed by summer; display will represent seven counties of state.

San Diego Union, February 7, 1914, 13:1. San Joaquin Building will be started soon; manager of valley exhibit consults with local Exposition officials; plans now being drawn; will cost about $30,000.

San Diego Union, February 8, 1914, 15:5-6. Cardiff giant — greatest hoax in history — offered San Diego Exposition.

San Diego Sun, February 10, 1914, 1:1. Sacramento Valley Committee wants same site John D. Spreckels wants for Organ Pavilion; space in rear of California State Building; threatens not to exhibit.

San Diego Union, February 10, 1914, II, 11:2. Cup for Collier on return home; movement started by Louis J. Wilde to present Exposition worker with token of appreciation.

San Diego Sun, February 12, 1914, 1:5, 7:2. Exposition site is marvel of beauty.

San Diego Union, February 12, 1914, II, 11:1. Collier arrives in New York City.

San Diego Union, February 12, 1914, II, 11:2. Montana commission coming to Exposition.

San Diego Sun, February 14, 1914, 2:1. Funds pouring in for Collier loving cup; idea originated by banker Louis J. Wilde.

San Diego Union, February 14, 1914, 7:1. Park Board transfers $7,500 to California State Building for completion of structure.

San Diego Union, February 15, 1914, 6:1-2. One barren waste now alive with color; Exposition garden spots to be perpetuated.

San Diego Union, February 15, 1914, 13:4. San Diego Marine Band to play in park today.

San Diego Union, February 15, 1914, 16:1. Marston endorses principles of Bull Moose.

San Diego Union, February 16, 1914, 12:3-4. What newspapers say about Exposition.

San Diego Union, February 17, 1914, 5:1. Magnificent cup ordered for Collier.

San Diego Union, February 17, 1914, 5:2-3. What newspapers say about Exposition.

San Diego Union, February 18, 1914, 5:2-3. Realty men view growing wonders of Exposition.

San Diego Union, February 19, 1914, 8:3. Playgrounds opened to general public. . . . Frank P. Marsh, superintendent of the San Diego playgrounds, makes an announcement that is of interest to those who are fond of indoor baseball.

An invitation is extended to all young men in the city who have their evenings free to participate in the games and other athletics and gymnastics at the Rose Park playgrounds, corner of 11th and I Streets, which are thrown open to general public use on Monday and Saturday evenings from 7 to 9:30 o’clock at no expense to participants.

The playgrounds have well-lighted ball diamonds and gymnasiums. Any wishing games there should communicate with the director of the playgrounds.

Park Commissioners Minutes, February 20, 1914. Carleton M. Winslow instructed to prepare plans for decorative wood ceiling for the hall stairway of the Fine Arts Building at a cost not to exceed $1,200 allowance for same.

San Diego Sun, February 21, 1914, 11:2. Collier expected here March 21; is now in New York.

San Diego Union, February 22, 1914, 11:3-4. Great Exposition bridge will be opened in March.

San Diego Union, February 23, 1914, 15:1. Pinkerton sleuths to watch over Exposition; head of detective bureau arrives in San Diego seeking contract; assures full protection.

San Diego Sun, February 24, 1914, 1:4. Assemblyman Hinkle suggests a government aviation school for Balboa Park during 1915 Exposition: “With a government camp — perhaps a permanent camp — in Balboa Park on the Exposition grounds, the government would profit as well as San Diego and the Exposition crowds. The park is considered a splendid site for a camp of this character.”

San Diego Sun, February 25, 1914, 1:7. Colonel Collier will probably not return to San Diego until September 1; will spend summer in Washington, DC, and New York, partially on Exposition business and partially on his own business.

San Diego Union, February 27, 1914, 14:1-4. What newspapers say about Exposition.

San Diego Union, March 1, 1914, 1:7. D. C. Collier, guest of Representative Kettner at Army and Navy Club; distinguished officials at capitol gather at dinner to Exposition president.

San Diego Union, March 4, 1914, II, 9:2-5. San Diego scenery vividly portrayed; Lawrence Bowman Clapp’s water-color pictures of Exposition grounds riots of delicate color.

San Diego Union, March 5, 1914, 1:1. Council vote is unanimous to dismiss engineer Capps.

San Diego Union, March 5, 1914, 3:4. Realty Board and Exposition directors seek protection of visitors; want hotel rates to be fixed.

San Diego Union, March 5, 1914, 3:6. Montana officials inspect Exposition grounds; report to governor.

San Diego Union, March 8, 1914, 6:1-2. Menageries and strange birds in Balboa Park delight children.

San Diego Union, March 9, 1914, 1:8. Collier retired from Fair work; need of rest reason for leaving office; Exposition president whose wealth and energy helped undertaking will look after business interests; co-workers surprised at announcement; stockholders meeting today for election of Board of Directors.

San Diego Union, March 9, 1914, 16:3. Colonel D. C. Collier, president of the Panama-California Exposition, has resigned from that office in a letter written from Washington, DC, to G. Aubrey Davidson, acting head of the exposition, here today.

Colonel Collier, who has devoted several years to Exposition work, says he needs a rest and that he has not the personal funds to continue the work.

The resignation of Colonel Collier was expected. The Exposition stockholders meet tomorrow in the Administration Building to elect a new Board of Directors. On Friday, the newly elected Board will meet and it is probably that Collier’s place will be filled at that time.

(December 5, 1914, “San Diego’s Evolutionary Exposition,” by Jerre C. Murphy, pp. 20-22. . . . Collier quit only when he could no longer live and work without pay. When he returned to his home city after his retirement from fair work, he was welcomed with a reception by thousands of people and given a loving cup big enough for a water cooler. He returned the compliments with the announcement that he had accepted the presidency of a railroad company organized to build a short route from Denver to San Diego through new territory.)

San Diego Union, March 10, 1914, 1:4 Hot fight over Exposition president; bankers Belcher and Davidson seek office in good-natured contest.

San Diego Union, March 11, 1914, 1:7-8. City to brighten up for Fair; improvements planned; Councilmen outline plans for year; streets to be paved; harbor work to be rushed.

San Diego Union, March 11, 1914, 1:8. Exposition stockholders elect two new members on Board of Directors; Belcher leads in race for presidency of Fair; no action taken on Collier’s successor.

San Diego Union, March 11, 1914, 3:1. Belcher expected to get Exposition place; elections of M. F. Heller and Julius Wangenheim to succeed L. S. McLure and I. I. Irving on Board of Directors give Belcher required number of votes.

San Diego Union, March 11, 1914. 7:3-5. Taxpayers oppose big Exposition sign.

Park Commissioners Minutes, March 13, 1914. The Superintendent reported the Mr. John D. Spreckels has selected the “Old Howard site” in Balboa Park as the location for the Organ Music Pavilion and that he was ready to proceed with the work; Superintendent instructed to permit said Pavilion to be erected upon the “Old Howard site,” provided that Mr. Spreckels could not be persuaded to place it in a better location; this Board to do the excavating and grading at the expense of Mr. Spreckels.

San Diego Examiner, March 13, 1914, 1:3-5. Hot row in Exposition camp; Davidson attributes loss of presidency to hostility of liquor-selling interests.

San Diego Union, March 13, 1914, 1:5. Rivals for Exposition place in last lap; question of “wet” or “dry” may hang over today’s election, but this was not admitted by the backers of either candidate.

San Diego Union, March 13, 1914, 1:7. Federation of State Societies plans to conduct flower-planting campaign.

San Diego Union, March 13, 1914, 8:1. Collier’s plans are uncertain; C. A. Richardson, former business manager, saw him in Chicago . . . In a letter to Exposition Board, Collier said his finances became in such a shape that last July he was forced to accept an allowance to carry on his work.

San Diego Union, March 13, 1914, II, 9:4. Collier predicts big success for Fair; Board meeting today.

San Diego Union, March 14, 1914, 1:1. Stockholders to elect Fair head by vote; election set for April 10; friction eliminated at harmonious meeting.

San Diego Union, March 15, 1914, 1:2-6. San Diego railroad station assured; Company adopts final plans.

San Diego Union, March 15, 1914, III, 1:2-4. Mission Theater to show story of early fathers at Fair.

San Diego Union, March 16, 1914, 1:1. Belcher withdraws name on account of fear that contest may develop bitterness.

San Diego Union, March 16, 1914, 7:1. Princess Tsianina, Indian soprano, scorns modern fashions; gives concert at Spreckels today.

San Diego Union, March 16, 1914, 7:1. Great bridge across Cabrillo Canyon is ready for use today; within 30 days main group of Exposition buildings will be completed and ready for installation of exhibits.

San Diego Union, March 17, 1914, 4:1. EDITORIAL: A Public-Spirited Act.

San Diego Union, March 17, 1914, 8:5. Work on Organ Pavilion begun.

San Diego Union, March 18, 1914, 3:5. City treasurer denies rumor of Exposition funds being exhausted; Stewart says that $698,000 remains in cash surplus and bonds.

San Diego Union, March 21, 1914, 1:2-4, 18:4. Davidson unanimously elected Exposition president today at meeting of Board of Directors on nomination of Frank J. Belcher.

San Diego Union, March 21, 1914, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Beautifying for Exposition Year.

San Diego Union, March 21, 1914, 5:4. H. R. Schmohl, Exposition artist, talks to teachers on clay modeling.

San Diego Union, March 21, 1914, II, 9:1. Large Exposition crowd predicted.

San Diego Sun, March 24, 1914, 1:1-2. Exposition buildings rapidly filling with exhibits; every large structure on grounds to be completed next week; parking to be done September 1; thousands of trees and shrubs growing; how millions of visitors will reach grounds; General Traffic Managers of transcontinental railways say San Diego must be prepared to handle a minimum of 6 million visitors, including those who will come from the east, from California, from states nearby and through the Panama Canal.

San Diego Union, March 24, 1914, 1:4-6. Santa Fe exhibit shows model of Indian pueblo.

San Diego Union, March 24, 1914, II, 9:1. Old mission bells at Fair true to original.

San Diego Sun, March 25, 1914, 12:3. Federation Trade Council voted to send letters to every labor union in Arizona urging them to push the initiative for a state building and exhibit here during 1915.

San Diego Union, March 25, 1914, 5:2. Fair hotel rates assured 1915 visitors; local organizations adopt resolution to keep prices reasonable.

San Diego Union, March 25, 1914, 14:2. Utah building plans received by Fair men. . . . Designs for the Utah Building at the San Diego Exposition arrived today from the offices of Canson and Fetzer, architects of Salt Lake City. When approved by the Buildings and Grounds Committee of the Exposition and Director General Davis, work will be begun on this structure, which will be one of the most pleasing of the buildings in the states’ section of the Exposition.

Members of the Southern California Counties Commission came to San Diego yesterday to inspect the building of the southern counties, which has just been completed and is now ready to be turned over by the contractor to the commission. Manager Wilson of the commission accompanied the commissioners and reported to Exposition officials that he is preparing to begin the installation of exhibits in the building at an early date.

Work will be begun in a few days on the ranch bungalow to be built on the model ranch of the Southern California Counties. The groves of citrus and deciduous trees are thriving wonderfully and a most remarkable growth will be shown by these trees in 1915.

San Diego Sun, March 26, 1914, 12:4. Railways make rates for Exposition; one-way fare will be changed from mid-continental points; this would mean a $50 round trip fare from Omaha, Kansas City, St. Joseph or Atchison to San Francisco, Oakland, Los Angeles or San Diego; $57.50 from St. Louis; $59.25 from Peoria; $62.50 from Chicago.

San Diego Herald, March 26, 1914, 5:5. Exposition Notes.

San Diego Union, March 26, 1914, 16:1. Fire Department to boost Exposition; members will send 50,000 picture cards showing station on grounds; building work is rushed.

Park Commissioners Minutes, March 27, 1914. Oregon State Building Committee asked Board for permission to erect a permanent building on the Exposition grounds in Balboa Park; Board advised Committee they did not have the power to grant their request. . . . Mr. A. B. Christopher returned to position of General Foreman of Balboa Park.

San Diego Sun, March 27, 1914, 2:1. Great Exposition will typify man’s work; accomplishments of man since world began will be featured here; work of cavemen, aborigine, 20th century inventor and an outline of future developments on the Pacific Coast and in the California southland.

San Diego Union, March 28, 1914, EXPOSITION SECTION

3:1. Temple of Music [Organ Pavilion} to be beautiful structure

3:2-4. School children enlisted in local booster’s ranks

3:5-7 Mirth to hold sway on Isthmus at Exposition

4:1. Seven Latin American countries to exhibit at Exposition

San Diego Union, March 28, 1914, 1:6-7, 3:1-3. San Diegans ready to celebrate Harbor Day.

San Diego Union, March 28, 1914, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Why Harbor Day Is Observed.

San Diego Union, March 28, 1914, 11:2-5, 12:1. Panama-California Fair is magnificent triumph of art and enthusiasm; 3,000 palms transplanted. . . . In bringing the friends of San Diego in other cities abreast of the vast work in progress on the grounds of the Panama-California Exposition, it is of first importance to tell them that the great reinforced bridge across Cabrillo Canyon, that most spectacular piece of construction, on which scores of men have been so busy for so many months, is at last completed. What this means can only begin to be realized by those who have followed to some extent the course of building, who have seen first the great skeleton of lumber creeping day by day and foot by foot across the canyon, then the solid concrete, as it were, creeping after.

Spanning a canyon 136 (?) feet and 1010 feet wide at the brink, this monumental structure consists of seven concrete arches, supported on fourteen huge concrete pillars carried by caissons down to bedrock beneath the soil. Each pier carried a load of 1,000,000 pounds and 1,000,000 board feet of lumber were required for the forms alone.

The west entrance to the grounds will be at this bridge, and it is certain that no traveler crossing there in 1915, with the magnificent buildings of the Exposition before him, the incomparable sweep of the city and sea and harbor in the offing, the green canyon beneath him and the California sky above, can fail to feel that he is reaping a beautiful and inspiring reward for his journey.

The central architectural feature of the Exposition will be the California Building, at the east end of the Cabrillo Bridge. In this building, the appropriation for which is $250,000, the state will have a structure second only to the state capitol at Sacramento in architectural beauty. The structure will be permanent and will be used for all time as an institution for the preservation of historical records and objects.

Like practically all the buildings of the San Diego Exposition, the state building will be designed on the Spanish Colonial type. A great dome, decorated with ornate colored tile, will surmount the main portion, and a tower at one corner and wings and arcades around it will further enhance the beauty and balance of its proportions.

The buildings of the main group, on several of which the elaborate staff work of the exterior is entirely finished, in the order of their beginning are the Home Science Building, on the north side of the Prado and cornering on the Plaza to the east; the Arts and Crafts Building; the Science and Education Building; the Agricultural Buildings; the Southern California Counties Building; and the sixth is the state building. Opposite this will be the Arts Building, also of concrete, the cost of which will be $200,000.

Many structures for exhibitors and concessionaires are underway, and seven state buildings are expected to be completed by the middle of 1914.

The Exposition site, with its rolling hills and canyons, lends itself peculiarly to road effects and artistic grading. A vast amount of this work has already been done. Prados and avenues and walks, completed many months ago, have been gradually lined and hidden in trees and bushes and all manner of green things.

One of the greatest triumphs of the Exposition is its nursery and horticultural work. In 1911, at the very outset of this great enterprise, the nursery was started, under Paul G. Thiene, and in it all the plant life, exotic growths from the tropics for the great conservatory, native trees and shrubs for landscape effects and the grounds about the buildings and wild flowering vines and creepers to deck the canyons have been grown and cared for.

In horticulture and landscaping, the Panama-California Exposition has an unparalleled advantage over previous Expositions, owing to the mildness of the climate and the prevailing freedom from frost. Thiene and his assistants have made the best of this advantage and the landscape effects, formal as well as wild and free, even now are of surpassing beauty and the wonder of eastern visitors.

In the nursery, which covers thirty-five acres of propagation beds and over one-hundred acres of growing beds, millions of plants have been propagated. Seven millions was the last figure shown by the books of the department.

In the enormous task of planting trees and older palms along the streets and avenues, the heaviest machinery has been employed. More than 3,000 palms, several of them with the earth around the roots seventy tons, have already been transplanted long distances and replanted.

In the transplanting of trees and the setting out of shrubs and vines from the nursery beds, every acres is treated with a full sense of its artistic possibilities. On the picnic grounds, for instance, overlooking Spanish Canyon, where one of the finest views of the buildings is afforded, the pepper trees are so distributed that every few rods as one walks along the paths, an opening is left and in it is framed one of the magnificent buildings on the Prado.

One section of the pepper grove is planted in Scotch heather, another in lippia grass, another in delicate vines, another in lawn. These plants are still young, but the ultimate beauty and variety of the effect, as it will appear a year from now, is very apparent.

Some of the more formal work surrounding the buildings which are completed or nearly so, has already been begun, and walking down the Prado, the visitor gets touches here and there suggestive of what a triumph, both architectural and horticultural, that delightful little treat is going to be. Slender Italian cypress stand like sentinels on either side of the entrances of the Home Economy Building, tender young vines are creeping up the walls, and brilliant shrubs find a striking background in the gray plaster.

The most extensive piece of planting for exhibition purposes is in the groves and gardens of the counties of Southern California. In one section are 700 of the finest two-year old citrus trees that could be gathered in the citrus belt, and it is more than probable that these trees are the finest in the world today. There is also a deciduous grove, and next to it formal gardens surrounded by berry vines, the whole making a Southern California scene complete it is beauty.

This exhibit and smaller ones of its kind will combine to show the results of irrigation and intensive farming at their best, as they have never been shown before. The entire tract is surrounded by a pergola, upon which climb roses and many other kinds of blooming vines. In the heart of the whole are being erected several typical California bungalows, as the crowning touches to complete the effect of a California rancher’s domain.

In addition to all the other horticultural features, there is the Horticultural Building, a huge structure of glass and lath, in which will be shown the more delicate and valuable tropical specimens, of which a great number and variety are growing and being cared for in the nursery.

This house, which is now well on toward completion, is 600 feet square and 100 feet high. It is so planned that it will be regarded and sought out as one of the most delightful of public gathering places, where, if desired, band concerts may be given in the afternoon.

Wherever necessary to the completion of landscape effects, there will be lagoons in which water lilies and aquatic life of every description will be allowed to grow wild. In the canyon beneath the Cabrillo Bridge has been built a dam that will impound enough water to strengthen the effect of the bridge. On the opposite side of the grounds, there will be a deeper and much more extensive lagoon, winding its way through the center of the grounds up to a bulkhead on the Prado.

This extensive body of water will be utilized for the demonstration of aquatic materials, and an exhibition of flying boats that will operate between the grounds and San Diego harbor.

In a project of the magnitude of the San Diego Exposition, there are so many departments, so many features, so many angles from which to view it that no brief description can begin to give an adequate idea of what is being done and what is yet to be done there. After all is said and done, only a visit in 1915 will tell the whole story.

San Diego Union, March 29, 1914, 1:8, 2:1-2. Thousands join in city’s first Harbor Day.

San Diego Union, March 29, 1914, 1:6-7. Assistant Secretary of the Navy to visit San Diego, April 11.

San Diego Sun, March 30, 1914, 1:5-7, 2. Charlie Collier’s Coming Back . . . Stories have been printed in the northern papers alluding to Collier as “broke” and “stranded” among strangers in New York — all more or less true.

Collier isn’t exactly broke — he may save something out of the wreck when things are finally adjusted.

“Was the toboggan greased for Collier?,” is a question you hear asked a lot.

“Yes and no,” was the answer of a “loyal” San Diegan. “They didn’t plot to get Charlie down and then stamp on him, but they let him drift into financial trouble, and when he got there, there were certain folks here who would have liked to be crowned king in his place.”

Close friends of Collier deny the toboggan was greased for him. They say he was merely “spoiled,” that he was cheered on, that he went ahead on work for the exposition, and just neglected his personal affairs until hard times came.

At present Collier is not suffering. He has enough to live on modestly and is at work in the east, keeping his head above water.

Collier hasn’t touched a drop of liquor since October.

Several big eastern concerns, realizing Collier’s worth as a promoter, are said to have offered him good positions which he has refused because he is coming back to San Diego to start anew.

Whatever it is, he’ll do it with the same energetic, buoyant spirit that made the exposition possible.

Weeks ago Collier’s many friends chipped in to buy him a loving cup. The cup was bought — it awaits his coming. Those who are Collier’s friends are waiting to say “Good boy, Charlie. We know how you tried. And we know what you’ve done. And we want to thank you for it and help you in every way we can.”

For Collier, a giant in physique and a man of resolute will and volcanic of disposition, had beneath the rougher surface the soul of a poet and in his moments of repose the soft, gentle heart of a child.

From a struggling young lawyer, a product of the west, he arose by sheer pluck to be the most talked of man in Southern California — had he loved San Diego less — had he watched his own affairs, as he could easily have done, he might have been one of California’s wealthiest men.

But — well anyway he didn’t do that.

It will take a long time for San Diego to forget Collier.

San Diego Union, March 31, 1914, 7:1. Lantern slides to advertise Fair.

San Diego Union, April 1, 1914, 3:2-3. City Seal, designed by Carleton M. Winslow, accepted by city.

San Diego Union, April 1, 1914, 8. Douglas MacKinnon, Superintendent of Schools, recommended that one of the Exposition buildings be moved to north end of park and used as a high school after the Exposition.

San Diego Union, April 1, 1914, 9:2. Oil painting to D. C. Collier painted by Charles A. De Lisle-Holland; tribute to Collier published in Real Estate and Building News of Los Angeles.

San Diego Union, April 1, 1914, II, 1:1. 600 passenger agents to visit Fair site in November; Bertram G. Goodhue arrived from New York yesterday; is pleased with progress made on buildings and their appearance.

San Diego Sun, April 2, 1914, 11:1. Assemblyman Hinkle wants great university on Exposition site; plan endorsed by G. A. Davidson and F. J. Belcher. . . . Belcher: “It would be a shame to wreck a single one of these exposition buildings. I am heartily in accord with the movement and believe it would be one of the best things that ever happened to San Diego.” . . . Davidson: “We should have a Southwestern Agricultural College.”

San Diego Union, April 2,1914, II, 1:5. Collier will be home this month; big reception planned.

April 3, 1914, Letter, Bertram G. Goodhue, U. S. Grant Hotel, San Diego, Cal., to John Forward, Jr., Union Tile & Trust Company, San Diego, Cal. . . . Panama-California Exposition, Box 3, Folder 1, San Diego Public Library.

My dear Mr. Forward:

You will remember I spoke to you the other day regarding what seems, to me at least, a matter of considerable importance.

The original allowance for the Fine Arts Building was $150,000, this to include, of course, the architect’s commissions. This sum was afterwards reduced, and though the haziness involved led me astray, I thought that the building, as finally worked out in its original form, could be built for very nearly, if not quite, the allowance definitely fixed upon, of $125,000. Coming here last June, I found that, in the opinion of the Director of Works, an opinion based no doubt upon careful calculation, the building could be expected to cost, with the architect’s commissions, well over $140,000. At a meeting held immediately before my starting East, Col. Collier proposed that I make a complete new set of working drawings and specifications for a building to cost, including the architect’s commissions, $125,000; — that he personally was in favor of ruling that in case I failed to have such a set of plans and specifications back here within six weeks from the date of the meeting, the project be abandoned and I think no payment to be made me therefor.

After considerable natural hesitation and resentment, I finally acceded to this scheme, — performed my part of the agreement faithfully and well, so faithfully and well as it transpired that the new set of plans and specifications were let to a general contractor of $91,500, or thereabouts. To this sum has been added $3,000 for what both I and, I believe, the Park Board hold necessary to make the building what it should be as to its interior. There has also been made an allowance, not yet expended, of $5,000 for the interior furnishing of the little Mission chapel, strictly speaking no chargeable against the building. These two items, with the contract price, making a total of — say — $100,00 [sic]. In other words, I have saved the Park Board in the actual cost of the building, or rather the Park Board and the Exhibition itself, since my commissions are paid by the latter, $25,000.

But to do this necessitated a very considerable expense on my part, and the time allowed, six weeks, was all too short in which to do the work, so that a large force of men worked overtime.

The cost to me of making this second set of drawings was $3,811.95. My purpose in writing this letter is to ask you and your fellow members of the Park Board if, in your opinion, this amount should not be allowed me, for it is now evident that the estimates prepared on the first set of drawings were quite incorrect, and that the original building could have been built, including the architect’s commissions, for the $125,000 originally allowed, and that the responsibility involved cannot by any manner of reason be laid at my door.

Trusting, sir, that you and the other members of the Park Board, and those in authority of the Exhibition Executive Board, will see the matter in the same light as I — indeed believing that it cannot be viewed in no other light, I remain

Very faithfully yours,

(Signed) Bertram G. Goodhue.

April 4, 1914, Letter, Bertram Goodhue to John Forward, Jr., The California Limited: Santa Fe, En Route.

. . . handwritten

My dear Mr. Forward

In my letter to you of yesterday – written directly on the typewriter from hasty dictation – I made a misstatement which I wish to correct.

The figure that terminates the first paragraph on the second page includes my assumed commission of approximately $7000.00, which, of course, it should not.

Will you be good enough, therefore, to cross out the $25,000.00 and put, in its place, $18,000.00.

Regretting the error, which arose from the fact that I was dictating hastily before leaving for my train — and the necessity of imposing upon you the task of puzzling our my own handwriting — always illegible enough but doubly so on a moving train, I remain,

Very faithfully yours,

(Signed) Bertram G. Goodhue

(2 West 47 St., New York, NY)

San Diego Sun, April 4, 1914, 1:1. Gordon Decker and George L. Barney, members of a committee appointed by a San Diego Realty Board, want a plot of ground in the city park for the propagation of trees, flowers and shrubs; Forward, chairman of the Park Board, is in favor.

San Diego Union, April 4, 1914, 5:5. Marston resigns from Water Commission; trip lasting from May until November abroad given as reason.

San Diego Union, April 4, 1914, II, 9:1-2. Frank P. Allen evolves plan to assist campaign for beautiful San Diego in 1915; prepares list of things for year ornamentation which he will present at floral mass meeting Tuesday.


April 6, 1914, Letter, John F. Forward, Jr., San Diego, Calif., to Bertram G. Goodhue, New York City.

Dear Mr. Goodhue:-

I acknowledge receipt of yours of April 3rd and April 4th, 1914, relating to the Architect’s fee on the Fine Arts Building in Balboa Park. I believe all of the matters you mention were conducted by the Board of Directors of the Panama-California Exposition and not by the Park Board, hence I do not feel that I am well enough acquainted with the situation at this time to commit myself. I will take the matter up within the next few days with Mr. F. J. Belcher, Chairman of the Executive Board of out Exposition, in order that I may get their side of the story. I do not see how anything can be done in the matter at this time. It seems to me it should go over to the end of the year and then be taken up along with the other questions pertaining to extra allowances. As stated, I will consult with Mr. Belcher and advise you further during the week.

Yours very truly,



San Diego Union, April 6, 1914, 14:1. Splendid exhibit by Southern California Counties; buildings near finish.

San Diego Sun, April 8, 1914, 1:4. Collier coming home on April 17; great reception planned; writes from Lake Charles, La., where he is representing San Diego at a good roads convention, from there he goes to Chicago.

San Diego Union, April 8, 1914, 5:3. Russian Village at Fair planned.

San Diego Union, April 8, 1914, 6:5. Turnstiles ready for Exposition; admission will be charged soon; recording machines secured for employees.

San Diego Union, April 8, 1914, 7:1. Nevada Building will be started at once.

San Diego Herald, April 9, 1914, 4:2. When Charlie Collier comes home.

San Diego Sun, April 9, 1914, 2:4. Supervisors and commissioners of seven Southern California Counties arrive to inspect completed building today; cost approximately $45,000.

San Diego Union, April 9, 1914, 3:2-3. Fred de Lonchamp, Nevada state architect, to draw up plans for building.

San Diego Union, April 9, 1914, 6:4. Fay again requests that park buy water; Council denies petition previously defeated; Department demands return.

Park Commissioners Minutes, April 10, 1914. Messrs. Masten, Harris and Williams, representing the 6th Street property owners, appeared before the Board and presented agreements for the completion of the 6th Street Boulevard from Juniper to Hawthorne Streets; said agreements, have been corrected, were approved by the Board. . . . “Second Revised Plans and Specifications for the Completion of 6th Street Boulevard between Juniper Street and Date Street,” accepted.

San Diego Sun, April 10, 1914, 1:3-6. Citizens oppose charge at Exposition; declare Fair officials are making a serious mistake.

San Diego Union, April 10, 1914, 3:2. Supervisors of seven Southern California Counties lunch at Exposition; gathering held in newly completed building.

San Diego Union, April 10, 1914, 4:10. Rotary Club to advertise Exposition by big Golden Wheel, costing $10,000; to be sent to 115 cities in United States and England.

San Diego Sun, April 11, 1914, 2:1. Park Board agreed last night to leave 20 feet of ground on west side of 6th Street between the south line of Juniper and the north line of Hawthorn, which is in front of the Gay, Frary and Mulvey places, and also agreed to erect a cobblestone retaining wall along the east side of the cut between Hawthorn and Ivy streets; four law suits pending in Supreme Court and Superior Court to be dismissed; road will be completed immediately.

San Diego Sun, April 11, 1914, 11:4-5. Director of Works Allen not charging to make money; irresponsible people are hindering workmen and destroying flowers; if admission remained free, a watchman would be needed.

San Diego Union, April 12, 1914, 3:1. San Diego ready to receive Franklin D. Roosevelt, Assistant Secretary of the Navy.

San Diego Union, April 12, 1914, 3:2. Picture of symbolic seal for Exposition and its originator, Charles A. de Lisle-Holland; Miss Vance Burnett-Tabor, granddaughter of California’s first governor, posed for central figure of seal

San Diego Union, April 12, 1914, 3:6. G. A. Davidson, “father of Exposition.”

San Diego Sun, April 13, 1914, 1:7-8. Exposition directors will weigh matter of charging admission before taking action.

San Diego Sun, April 13, 1914, 9:1-2. Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Franklin D. Roosevelt, promises great naval pageant here in 1915; Navy Department is planning to establish two new regiments of the Marine Corps on the Pacific coast and San Diego stands an excellent chance of being made the base of operations; Roosevelt arrived yesterday and will leave tonight; took automobile tour of the city with Colonel Fred Jewell.

San Diego Union, April 13, 1914, 1:1, 2:5-6. Franklin D. Roosevelt. Assistant Secretary of the Navy, visits Exposition; his automobile was first to cross Cabrillo Bridge on April 12; Mayor Charles F. O’Neall, G. Aubrey Davidson, Colonel Fred Jewell and Lieutenant Commander G. C. Sweet were passengers; Roosevelt says San Diego will become great naval base

San Diego Union, April 13, 1914, 5:2-3. Gold Wheel ready to roll; Fairs will be advertised; Rotarian ready for international journey starting from San Diego

San Diego Union, April 14, 1914, 1:4-5, 3:5-6. Democrats laud memory of party’s founder at Jefferson Day banquet; Assistant Secretary of Navy calls San Diego third Pacific naval base; promises fleet; President Wilson coming to San Diego Fair.

San Diego Union, April 14, 1914, II, 9:2. Demonstration of loving citizens to greet Colonel Collier.

San Diego Union, April 15, 1914, 7:1. Superintendent MacKinnon working for full university course at High School; Board of Education wants to use Fair building for a municipal college.

San Diego Union, April 15, 1914, II. 9:3. Kate Sessions scores assessor, city officials.

April 16, 1914, Letter, Bertram Goodhue, New York, to John F. Forward, San Diego.

Dear Mr. Forward:

Of course the whole question of an architect’s compensation for abandoned plans and specifications is unusual and one demanding special consideration.

In the case of the Fine Arts Building, however, it is not distinctly proved that had the abandoned plans been figured upon by contractors, the cost of the building would have proved sufficiently below the allotted cost for the building to have been begun forthwith, thus saving at least two months time, perhaps more, as well as, naturally, providing San Diego with a larger and better building than the one now being erected from the second set of plans.

The original motion to abandon the first set and to direct me to prepare a second set in a given space of time came from Col. Collier. If he is now in San Diego, I trust you will bring this letter to his attention, for I am quite sure I can count upon his support.

You are quite right in supposing that this motion of Col. Collier’s was made at a meeting of the Exposition Directors, though, as I remember it, members of both the Park Board and the State Commission were present.

You will forgive me for differing with you in thinking that something can be done at this time, for the fact remains that between the sum authorized and the sum now being expended, there is a difference of about $18,000, so that to pay me the $3811.95 I ask for entails no hardship to anybody in San Diego, while the withholding of this sum from me seems at least from my point of view to be a serious injustice, as well as hardship, to your architect.

There is at present owing me on various accounts in connection with my work on the Fair about $15,000 and I am beginning very distinctly to feel pinched in consequence.

Trusting that Mr. Belcher and Col. Collier will confirm my view, and that you will see it in the same light, I remain,

Very faithfully yours,

(Signed) Bertram G. Goodhue.

San Diego Union, April 16, 1914, II, 9:1. President Wilson invited to San Diego by Ad Club for inspection of 1915 armada.

San Diego Sun, April 17, 1914, 9:1. Directors decide to bar those who haven’t 25 cents after May 1.

San Diego Union, April 17, 1914, 3:4. Kettner demands $100,000 for San Diego Fair. . . . Washington, April 16. Congressman Kettner of San Diego has threatened the passage of the bill to appropriate $500,000 for a government building at the San Francisco Exposition by planning to introduce an amendment to appropriate $100,000 for a government building at the San Diego Exposition.

This was not contemplated in the president’s recommendation to congress and if the amendment is offered a fight will be precipitated on the bill, which will jeopardize its passage through the house.

Congressman Sherley of Kentucky, who opposed an appropriation for San Francisco at the last session of congress, served notice on Congressman Kahn that he intended to oppose the pending bill.

A subcommittee on the house committee on Expositions has been working to perfect a bill under which the San Francisco government Exposition building will be a permanent edifice, to be turned over to the war department for the Presidio administration officers after the Exposition.

The complication interjected by Congressman Kettner has halted their work and the bill probably will stand in abeyance until the matter is fought out in committee.

San Diego Union, April 17, 1914, 7:1. Exposition to ask for $250,000 for U. S. exhibit.

San Diego Sun, April 18, 1914, 6:1-2. Davidson explains why Exposition gates will close; need for protection not only to the Exposition building and grounds but for the exhibitors and concessionaires.

San Diego Union, April 18, 1914, 3:1. Colonel Collier to get giant reception; plan presentation ceremonies at Spreckels theater; loving cup ready.

San Diego Union, April 18, 1914, 3:5. Closing of gates at Exposition justified; 25 cents admission to be charged.

San Diego Union, April 18, 1914, 3:5. Santa Fe exhibit work commenced.

San Diego Union, April 18, 1914, 7:4. Montana exhibit assured by donation.

San Diego Sun, April 21, 1914, 1 (whole page). U. S. force put ashore at Vera Cruz; on to Mexico City if necessary.

San Diego Union, April 21, 1913, 3:2. Collier reception stirs interest of throngs; civic, commercial and fraternal organizations to join in greeting.

San Diego Sun, April 22, 1914, 1:3-4. Colonel Collier comes today; great welcome is planned; Mayor O’Neall, Rufus Choate, F. J. Lea, G. Aubrey Davidson, C. A. Richardson, Louis J. Wilde and Carl Heilbron went to Los Angeles to greet Collier today.

San Diego Union, April 22, 1914, 1:5-6, 4:6-7. Record-smashing welcome awaits Colonel Collier.

San Diego Herald, April 23, 1914, 1:3-4. D. C. Collier, president Southwest Pacific Railway; announcement made at his reception.

San Diego Sun, April 23, 1914, 8:1-2. Hundreds Greet Collier, He Heads New Railroad . . . Colonel Collier’s homecoming was spectacular. Never before has such a reception been accorded to a citizen of San Diego upon his return to the city. When Collier reached the Grant Hotel, escorted by the Conquistadors of the Order of Panama, so many packed into the lobby to shake his hand that the colonel cold hardly make his way to the elevator.

It was the same way at the Spreckels Theater. Hundreds flocked there to hear the colonel’s address and see the loving cup presented.

Mrs. Collier sat in John D. Spreckels’ box with her two young sons and O.J. Slough and wife.

Collier’s announcement was that he had been made president of the new Southwest Pacific Railway, which will run from Denver to San Diego through the Colorado River basin. The railroad will be incorporated in about three weeks and will connect at Seeley with the San Diego and Arizona. Louis J. Wilde presented the cup.

San Diego Sun, April 23, 1914, 9:5-6. Davidson declares war with Mexico will not hamper the Exposition.

San Diego Union, April 23, 1914, 1:4, 8:2-5. Collier will bring railroad from Denver to coal world’s ships in Harbor of the Sun for shipment abroad and for development of a steel mill in San Diego; devoted host greets glad tidings with acclaim at monster reception; Collier absent nearly ten months; Directors accepted his resignation as Director, March 13, 1914; has accepted presidency of Southwest Pacific Railway.

Park Commissioners Minutes, April 24, 1914. Secretary instructed to order 12 elk, 10 does and 2 bucks, from California Academy of Sciences at $3.00 per head to cover incidental expenses.

San Diego Examiner, April 24, 1914, 1:1-2. Collier is given greatest ovation in history of city.

San Diego Union, April 24, 1914, 8:1. Collier’s dream of Exposition fulfilled; hurries to view progress made during absence.

San Diego Union, April 25, 1914, 1:1, 5:2-3. Enthusiasm keynote of Order of Panama session; tributes pour upon Colonel Collier from admirers.

San Diego Union, April 26, 1914, 16:1. Montana Building at Exposition assured; former Senator W. A. Clark of that State donated $10,000 toward fund for suitable building.

April 27, 1914, Letter Carleton M. Winslow to Board of Park Commissioners, Panama-California Exposition Papers, San Diego Public Library: Winslow has picked up two altar candlesticks and a cross at an auction which he is having re-gilt and re-antiqued for Chapel; has ordered old Spanish bell from S. E. Benoliel & Co. in Gibraltar for turret at cost of $75.00; light reflectors for Fine Arts Building, cost $234.00.

San Diego Union, April 27, 1914, II, 9:1. Collier’s heart is touched by tributes.

San Diego Union, April 29, 1914, 8:5-6. Moreland firm arranges for motor truck exhibit.

San Diego Union, April 29, 1914, 9:4. T. H. Shore, president of Ad Club of San Diego; article on plan to boost San Diego and Exposition throughout country.

San Diego Union, April 30, 1914, 5:6. Fire apparatus coming for Fair; City and Exposition will cooperate to purchase equipment.

San Diego Sun, May 2, 1914, 11:7-8. Alice Klauber: Spirit of people here must made Exposition have a lasting influence. Just what in artistic matters can be hope from our own Fair? Cites mural decorators employed on the fair grounds at San Francisco — Frank Brangwyn, Edward Symons, Robert Reid, Child Hassam, Jules Guerin, Dodge, and Brothers Du Mond. Wants an exhibition of artists of the Southwest in San Diego.

San Diego Union, May 2, 1914, 12:1. Plea for western art at Fair entered; San Diego Exposition site should prove more inspiring than San Francisco; lasting effect great; if advertising alone were sought, futurist exhibit would do the trick, by Alice Klauber.

San Diego Union, May 3, 1914, 7:3-4. Exposition builders exchange signs concession contracts.

San Diego Union, May 4, 1914, 5:4-5. Children’s Home rich blessing for unfortunate “little ones”; history traced.

San Diego Sun, May 6, 1914, 12:1. City votes $1.5 million in water bonds to buy dam at Morena; harbor bonds for $400,000 also insured by overwhelming vote.

San Diego Union, May 6, 1914, 1:8. Harbor and water bonds sweep city 6-1/2 to 1.

San Diego Union, May 7, 1914, 1:3. Committee on Industrial Arts and Expositions of the House of Representatives reported a bill setting aside a $100,000 governmental appropriation for U.S. exhibit at the Panama-California Exposition; exhibit will showcase development, irrigation and other subjects interesting to the west and southwest.

San Diego Union, May 7, 1914, 9:1. E. P. Ripley, president of Santa Fe Railroad, speaks on how Santa Fe will handle crowds at Exposition.

  1. P. Ripley, president of the Santa Fe Railway, and William Woodhead, president of the Association Advertising Clubs of American and owner o fSunset Magazine, were the guests of honor at the Ad Club meeting in the Panorama Roof Garden yesterday noon. A large number of representative businessmen were present as guests of the club and the attendance was probably the biggest the local men have ever had at a regular meeting.

Woodhead, in his talk, showed the growth of the Ad Club movement and explained what was being done by the various clubs in cities throughout the United States. He told of the work for honest, believable advertising that is being accomplished by the Associated Clubs, not so much from a moral standpoint, but from a standpoint of good business.

“The Associated Advertising Clubs,” said Woodhead, “have a membership of over 11,000, and there is a club in practically every large city in the United States. The work done by these organizations, too, is along constructive lines, because the time for preaching has passed.

“A few weeks ago I was in Toronto and was astounded at the preparations that have been made by the Toronto Ad Club for taking care of the convention which is to be held in that city next month. When the time comes for opening, everything will be in readiness for what I believe will be one of the best conventions that we have ever had for this purpose. The Pacific coast expects to be well represented and I believe can accomplish a great deal. I am glad to know that the Ad Club of San Diego will send a representative delegation and can assure you that great benefits will result from their meeting with the delegates of other clubs at Toronto.

“Besides delegates from the principal cities in the United States, there will be present at the convention twenty-five delegates from the Hawaiian Islands. There will also be forty delegates from England, as well as delegates from Australian, South America and South Africa. By your delegates meeting these men, as well as the other delegates from the United States and Canada, much good can be accomplished for San Diego and your Exposition. The publicity that can be got will be invaluable.”

Ripley made a decided hit with his talk, which was entirely impromptu. He told how he had been playing golf all morning and expected to leave in the afternoon and had been invited to the meeting with the understanding he was not to talk.

“I believe you will have a great many people here during Exposition year,” said Ripley. “Probably not so many as some have estimated. This morning a man asked me if we could handle 40,000 people a day and I asked him whether he thought you could take care of them. I believe we will be able to handle the crowds all right.”

Ripley emphasized the importance of advertising our Exposition, letting people in the east known what we had here. His talk was interspersed with several stories.

(The balance of the article discusses the Ad Club Joy Festival to be held at Wonderland, the Pacific Coast Division annual meetings, and routine business.)

San Diego Union, May 8, 1914, 8:5-6. Educated Indian embarrasses interviewer; six braves from San Ildefonso Pueblo arrive at Exposition grounds.

The first installment of “exhibits” for the Panama-California Exposition arrived yesterday in the form of six stalwart braves from the Ildefonso Pueblo, twenty-five miles north of Santa Fe on the Rio Grande. They are the advance guard of the Santa Fe Railway’s tribes that will inhabit the “Painted Desert” near the north entrance to the grounds.

The Indians are not here entirely as exhibits. They have work ahead of them. For the last ten days the preliminary work on the reservation has been in progress, and now it devolves on the redmen to mix the adobe and plaster it over the frameworks of their dwellings and the long adobe wall which will surround the “desert.”

The Indians are headed by a peaceful looking brave who wears among other garments a gorgeous beaded vest. His hair is work in two long braids on the tips of which are fastened strips of fur. He is an exhibit in himself. His name is Julian Martinez, according to the spokesman, Florentino Martinez, who identified the others as Crescentio Martinez, Juan Cruz Rival, Alfonso Rival, and Donetius Sanchez.

An interviewer approached Florentino and began his conversation in his best Indian.

“What ’em name?,” he queried.

Florentino answered with grunts, and the interviewer set down the names in order. The last name he misspelled. Florentino looked at the slip of paper impatiently.

“Oh, no,” he said, “that name is spelled S-A-N-C-H-E-Z.”

It developed that Florentino had been in school for many years and had an education considerably above the average.

The Indians will live in the tents erected just inside the reservation, but will be kept at work most of the time, according to Jesse Nusbaum, the Santa Fe agent in charge of them. Nusbaum started the entertainment by taking Sanchez for a ride on the rumble sea of his motorcycle. Sanchez was duly impressed and talked so much about it that all the other braves want to ride instead of working on the “desert.” Another detachment of Indians will be brought in a short time and in the autumn the women and children will join their lords and masters.

Park Commissioners Minutes, May 9, 1914. 28th Street to be graded between Palm and Redwood Streets under supervision of Park Superintendent.

San Diego Sun, May 9, 1914, 9:8. Collier has again assumed leadership of the firm of D. C. Collier & Company; has begun a campaign to put on market large holdings in Imperial Valley; offering for sale at low prices property in Point Loma and Alta Terrace subdivisions.

May 13, 1914. Panama-California Exposition Papers, San Diego Public Library.

To The Board of Park Commissioners of the City of San Diego

Claim of Piccirilli Brothers (Ferruccio, Attilio, Furio, Thomas, Horace and Getulio) for principal and interest and price of materials used in erection and construction of Fine Arts Building.

Claimants employed by Tracy Brick and Art Stone Company, Incorporated of San Diego.

Amount claimed $3,250/ became due March 11, 1914 for

all models on east and west gates and 2 interior balconies for the Fine Arts Building

materials furnished and delivered between February 18 and March 11, 1914

Work prosecuted under the jurisdiction and supervision of Commission for Fine Arts Building under a contract awarded by said Park Board to Brown & DeCew Construction Company.

That the materials furnished and supplied as aforesaid by these claimants were part of the materials required to be furnished by a contract entered into between Brown & DeCew and said Tracy Brick and Art Stone Company, and that said materials were part of the materials required to be furnished by the contract awarded the Park Board for the Fine Arts Building to Wurster Construction Company

Sworn to by Getulio Piccirilli, 13th day May, 1914.

San Diego Sun, May 13, 1914, 8:1. Park Commission prepares to go ahead to build stadium for $140,000; plans revised; will seat 27,000 instead of 50,000.

San Diego Union, May 14, 1914, 5:1. New Mexico plans to dedicate building; commissioners and boosters will celebrate structure’s completion in July; first of state group; counties throughout rich mineral state raise money for exhibits.

Park Commissioners Minutes, May 15, 1914. Plans of Quayle Brothers & Cressey, architects, and Rhodes, engineer, to excavate, grade and build the Stadium accepted.

San Diego Union, May 15, 1914, 3:5. Exposition offers vote of thanks; Montanans appreciate proposed $50,000 donation from former Senator W. A. Clark.

San Diego Sun, May 21, 1914, 2:4. City Council unanimous in favor of granting restaurant liquor license to the Exposition Company.

San Diego Union, May 21, 1914, 1:1. Council voted unanimously to allow sale of liquor in Exposition restaurant; Company will be held responsible to see that concessionaires observe City ordinance.

San Diego Union, May 21, 1914, II, 10:5. Exhibits for fair can enter United States free of duty; attaches will be admitted under bond per Immigration Department; Russian and Japanese products to appear in Foreign Arts Building.

San Diego Union, May 22, 1914, 8:3. Three-day choral festival in May, 1915 in Greek Theater donated by J. D. Spreckels is plan.

San Diego Sun, May 25, 1914, 1:5-6. Exposition expected to be finished November 11; at that time 600 passenger agents will be here to inspect.

San Diego Sun, May 25, 1914, 3:1-3. Work begun on Panama-Canal Extravaganza; created by Charles A. de Lisle-Holland; after Exposition the extravaganza will be taken apart and sent by way of the Panama Canal to Coney Island.

San Diego Union, May 26, 1914, 8:2-3. Order of Panama plans patriotic celebration July 2 – 4.

San Diego Union, May 26, 1914, II, 9:1. Playground Board reports shows results.

San Diego Union, May 26, 1914, II, 9:2-3. Collier tells Chicagoans glories of Fair and railway plans.

May 27, 1914, Letter, Carleton M. Winslow to Board of Park Commissioners.


Under date of May 20th I have received a letter from Mr. Goodhue in which he says as follows:

“On December 20th of last year we received a telegram from you as follows:

‘Answering your night letter of the 18th, we have obtained approval of Park and Board for you application for $5,000 for chapel and $3,000 for stairway decorations. Confirmation in writing will follow.’

No such confirmation has ever been received so won’t you please have an official confirmation signed and sent to me.

I ask this because I have already begun buying certain items and have lines out for many more. The other day I succeeded in picking up at auction there two altar candlesticks and a cross, absolutely genuine antiques, and very beautiful in the Spanish sort of fashion. These I am having re-gilt and re-antiqued, and they will be sent out either when finished or when wanted.

I have also ordered from Benoliel in Gibraltar an old Spanish bell big enough for the turret at a cost of $75.00, not including freight, which will add, of course, quite a little bit more, but which is certainly better than the cracked mission bell I saw at Albuquerque, for which they wanted something like $600.”

Your letter to me, dated 14th March, 1914 is practically a confirmation of this appropriation of $8,000, but may I request you to confirm the telegram of 20th December, 1913, either to Mr. Goodhue or myself?

Yours very truly,

(Signed) Carleton M. Winslow.

Park Commissioners Minutes, May 29, 1914. C. L. Hyde awarded contract for excavating and F. O. Engstrum Co. contract for general construction of Stadium. . . . Secretary instructed to send Mr. Winslow a confirmation of action of the Board, December 19, 1913, whereby an additional $8,000 was appropriated for the Fine Arts Building.

San Diego Sun, May 29, 1914, 7:4. Collier has invaded the Windy City to let railway circles know something about the Southwestern Pacific Railway of which he is president; issue of Chicago Tribune contains an interview with the colonel, tell what he intends to do; Chicago railroad officials are skeptical.

San Diego Union, May 29, 1914, II, 9:2-3. Former Senator Clark will great Montanans at San Diego Fair; expected here when state building dedication takes place; letter received.

San Diego Sun, May 30, 1914, 9:5. Fight for park edge property: When the employees of the Park Commission started work on the property at 12thStreet and the park early today, they were met with armed resistance from two watchmen and a Mrs. Curow, daughter of Mrs. S. A. Blanchard. Both the park and Mrs. Blanchard claim the property on which the men went to work.

San Diego Union, May 30, 1914, 8:2. Kettner’s measure for irrigation display at San Diego meets approval.

San Diego Union, May 30, 1914, 16:2. Stadium contract awarded two bidders; improvement to Balboa Park to cost San Diego, $102,594.00.

San Diego Union, May 31, 1914, 2:1. Exposition buildings nearing completion; pictures of Southern California Counties Building and patio of Arts and Crafts Building.

San Diego Union, May 31, 1914, 8:2-4. Balboa Park stadium plans complete.

San Diego Union, May 31, 1914, V, 2:1-3. Dream City assuming reality at Exposition grounds.

San Diego Sun, June 2, 1914, 6:1-2. Women’s Headquarters at Exposition Urged: A committee composed of Miss Gertrude Gilbert, president of the Amphion Club, Miss Alice Klauber, Mrs. R. C. Allen, Mrs. Frost, president of the San Diego Club, Miss Longenecker, Mrs. Carl Owen, president of the County Federation of Women’s Clubs, and Miss Lawson of the Wednesday Club met yesterday with the Board of Supervisors to discuss the creation of headquarters for women at the Exposition grounds; telegram sent to Collier asking him to present subject of San Diego Exposition at the biennial convention of club women in Chicago in June.

San Diego Union, June 2, 1914, II, 9:1. Growth of pueblo wins approval of bucks; six full-blooded Indians from San Ildefonso watch Exposition construction; females will follow.

San Diego Sun, June 3, 1914, 2:7. Collier telegraphed Board of Supervisors that his plans probably will take him out of Chicago before June 9 when the convention of women’s clubs starts.

San Diego Sun, June 4, 1914, 10:1. Board of Supervisors postpone decision on plan to establish headquarters for women on Exposition grounds; idea of a separate building for use of women not popular with all at the meeting.

San Diego Sun, June 6, 1914, 1:1. Beauty of Fair Evident: finishing touches being put upon Panama-California Exposition, almost fairyland; merchants of Japan and Russia are among the largest making reservations in the Foreign Arts Building; Japanese exhibits will show weaving and embroidery of rare silk costumes, the hammering of bronzes, and the carving of wood and ivory; Madame Vera de Blumenthal will show what peasant women of Russia do.

San Diego Union, June 6, 1914, II, 9:1. Council ratifies stadium contract; protests filed against accepting bid of Los Angeles firm.

San Diego Union, June 7, 1914, II, 1:2-4. Lestor Comedy Company of Universal Motion Picture Corporation took movie comedy on Exposition grounds entitled “Maggie’s Honest Lover.”

San Diego Herald, June 11, 1914, 8:1. Exposition Notes.

San Diego Union, June 11, 1914, 2:1. Aztec sculptures duplicated for Exposition.

Park Commissioners Minutes, June 12, 1914. Mr. Carleton M. Winslow presented preliminary plans for the improvement of the Plaza at the southwest section of Balboa Park.

San Diego Union, June 12, 1914, 1:3-4, 2:3-4. Colonel Collier’s railway files incorporation papers; new president declares actual construction will begin within year.

San Diego Union, June 13, 1914, 3:2-3. Traffic men of Gould railway turn ardent boosters of San Diego Fair.

San Diego Union, June 14, 1914, 8:2-3. Romance and tragedy of Mormon history to be shown on Isthmus at San Diego Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 14, 1914, II, 1:2-5, 2:1. Landscape gardening in park wonderful; barren land now blossoms like rose of Sharon.

Because the landscape gardening of the Exposition grounds has been so widely advertised, many San Diegans lose sight that this wonderful work, in point of area, is but a small part of the vast system of improvements gradually being brought to completion in Balboa Park. The Exposition grounds cover 450 acres. Balboa Park covers 1400 acres. It is the largest park in the country in the heart of a city, and under the master hand of Superintendent J. P. Morley it is rapidly becoming one of the most beautiful.

In considering the development of San Diego’s great park, which, with the growth and commercialization of the city, will be far more appreciated as a haven of rest and fragrance that it is now, it is impossible not to begin with Morley. Anyone who knows what the park was two and a half years ago, and what it is today, will appreciate this. The present park commissioners certainly do so, and it is to their broad-minded sympathy and cooperation that Morley modestly attributes the brilliant results of his service.

Morley is the son of an English landscape expert, and has been in the same line of work all his life. Before coming to San Diego he was superintendent of parks at Los Angeles, where some of the finest landscape work that city boasts was accomplished during his incumbency.

When he came to San Diego there was not a lawn in Balboa Park. There are now thirty acres completed, all just as uniformly green and beautiful as those seen from Sixth Street, and equipped with the Hadden system of sprinklers, the finest that can be obtained.

One of the most recent and striking additions to the park is a rose garden which when completed will contain 6,300 rose bushes and fifty different varieties. Situated between the West Boulevard and Cabrillo Canyon, this garden, already one of the beauty spots of the park, viewed from the Exposition grounds and the mighty bridge over which the approach is made, will loom up like a cluster of gems. At the east end, as a background, a pergola 300 feet long will be built and draped in vines.

The efforts of the park workers are being concentrated at present on the improvement of the west side so as to enhance the view from the Exposition grounds. Contending with soil conditions so bad that every little hole has to be blasted and new soil and fertilizer put in, before shrubs can be placed, Morley is hurrying the main planting as fast as possible. The finer details, such as little gardens and perpetually flowering beds, will be put in later as soon as the background has progressed far enough to be seen in perspective.

Another big alteration that has been made with a view to the Exposition grounds is the clearing of all but a few small trees off a stretch of lawn opposite Olive and Palm Streets, that leaves a magnificent sweep from Sixth Street of the fair buildings and Cabrillo Bridge. The trees, mostly large pines, were moved without a single loss and replanted with others of their kind, a find forest effect being thus created.

Ground has been prepared for a whole mile of lawn, parking of Sixth Street, and the extension of lawns opposite that thoroughfare is going forward rapidly. In accord with this general scheme, the entrance at Sixth and Upas Streets will be gradually improved and made one of the most impressive entrances in the park.

Countless shrubs have been planted and many varieties of trees, and many thousands of feet of cobblestone drains have been installed.

One of the striking and costly improvements contemplated is a plaza to be situated on the knoll west of Fir Street and north of Date Street, which commands a magnificent view of the harbor, Point Loma and the ocean. Between $30,000 and $40,000, according to Morley, will be put into the construction, planting and general improvement of this site, which will become more than ever the favorite of nurses and mothers with their children.

Another big feature, appealing to the city’s little one, will be the new aviary, to be started in August. It will be back of the present bird cage and will cover a space 50 feet by 110. In the canyon below will be a two-acre duck pond, in which a large assortment of water fowl will be kept.

Besides Balboa Park, Superintendent Morley has charge of the La Jolla, Mission Hill and Old Town parks, the plaza opposite the U. S. Grant Hotel, and sixty-five acres on Point Loma, where work has not yet begun.

A great deal of road improvement work has been completed, and the upkeep of the roads in their present fine condition is a large item of expense. Here are some of the items mentioned in Superintendent Morley’s last report.

“During the last year the Pine Hill Road has been regraded and widened to a uniform width of 25 feet, with a planting strip and a walk along the easterly side. Culverts and drains have been placed at proper intervals and the grade of the road pitched toward the hill for the better safety of traffic.

“A cobblestone bridge has been built in Cabrillo Canyon at the foot of Pine Hill Road. In the canyon south of Pine Hill and the one north of Laurel Street, cobblestone gutters for the care of storm water have been built. The stone for the above work was taken from the park, which made the cost about one-half what it would have been if we had to purchase the stone.

“The installing of the water system in the park is one of the main items of expense. A large quantity of old leaky pipe has been taken out and new pipe laid, according to plans adopted two years ago.

“During the year 4,144 (?) trees of various kinds, 3, 519 (?) shrubs and 1500 (?) flowering plants and bulbs were planted. A large number of these were planted where others had been killed by the frost during the winter.”

The present park commissioners are John F. Forward, Jr.; president, J. B. Pendleton, secretary; Carl J. Ferris and Charles T. Chandler.

San Diego Sun, June 15, 1914, 1:7-8. Davidson declares Exposition marks beginning of new era in city; is sure community will not suffer after Fair gates are closed.

San Diego Union, June 16, 1914, 2:3-4. Ground broken for Mormon panorama; series of paintings to depict history.

San Diego Sun, June 18, 1914, 1:1. Collier arrives in Los Angeles today; is enthusiastic about new railway.

San Diego Union, June 18, 1914, 9:2. Rotarian’s Golden Wheel emblem costing $1500 made to advertise San Diego’s Exposition went to Houston, Texas convention; picture and names of men representing San Diego.

San Diego Union, June 19, 1914, 16:2-3. Women seek recognition at Exposition; promise big fight if denied recognition; building asked, rest rooms sought.

San Diego Sun, June 20, 1914, 3:7-8. Collier, president of Southwest Pacific Railway, offers to take lease of reclaimed lands from State Harbor Board; wants that part of harbor at National City as terminal point for railroad; Company agrees to pay interest and sinking funds on $1.5 million bonds voted by people of California in 1909 for improvement of San Diego harbor; would come to about $80,000 a year. . . . The bonds voted in 1909 are 15-year bonds. When they were not issued, the City of San Diego took over its part of the waterfront by an act of the Legislature and improved it with municipal bond money. The State Board is still in charge of the waterfront from National City line south.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1914, 3:2-3. Exposition teapot tempest subsides after explanation.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1914, 7:2. Park land fuss nears conclusion; Judge intimates he will decide against Mrs. Blanchard. . . . Although withholding his decision for several days, Judge Sloane yesterday intimated that he would rule in favor of the city and against Mrs. S. A. Blanchard in the contest over the ownership of a 15-foot strip of land on the north end of Mrs. Blanchard’s lot at Twelfth and A Streets.

When contractors started grading this strip on Memorial Day, they were met by a determined woman with guns, and were held off until the arrival of the police. Immediately Mrs. Blanchard’s attorneys obtained a temporary injunction.

City Attorney Cosgrove yesterday submitted numerous affidavits from engineers now and formerly in the employ of the city upholding the contention of the city that the 15-foot strip belongs in the park. Attorneys Andrews and Lee for the Blanchards raised the point that the park had never been formally dedicated for park purposes, but this contention was not considered seriously by the court.

Cosgrove also submitted copies of the deed under which Mrs. Blanchard acquired title to the land in 1881, showing that she was deeded a lot only 58 feet wide, instead of 74 feet wide, as claimed. He admitted that the Blanchards had fenced in the 74 feet and had used it for thirty-three years. Judge Sloane declared that he saw no merit in the application of the Blanchards for an injunction, but he allowed her attorneys three days in which to file authorities supporting their contention that the city is estopped from claiming the strip because of the length of time it has been occupied by the Blanchards.

San Diego Union, June 21, 1914, II, 1:1. Santa Fe railroad officials declare San Diego Fair peerless.

San Diego Union, June 21, 1914, II, 7:1-3. Glad-hand boosters praise San Diego and 1915 Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 21, 1914, II, 8:1-2. U.S. Marine Camp probably exhibit for San Diego Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 23, 1914, 3:1. Chief Martinez, first auto whirl; Santa Fe agent finds pueblo head apt pupil.

San Diego Union, June 23, 1914, 3:6. Ayr Ivy to cover Burns’ cottage in park.

San Diego Sun, June 24, 1914, 1:2. Senator Works introduced a bill in the Senate today appropriating $100,000 for a reclamation and irrigation exhibit at the Panama-California Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 25, 1914, 8:4. Ferris declares Exposition is wasting water and should do sprinkling at night.

San Diego Sun, June 26, 1914, 1:7. Collier files written offer; Harbor Board considers leasing proposition; to propose revaluation.

San Diego Union, June 28, 1914, 6:2-5. National Cash Register to build at 1915 Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 29, 1914, 1:7-8. Student assassinates Austrian heir; Archduke and duchess shot dead in street at Sarajevo after escaping bomb.

San Diego Union, July 1, 1914, 1:4, 3:1-3. Monster three-day festival to show San Diego’s patriotism; celebration will begin Thursday a.m. with big historical pageant.

San Diego Herald, July 2, 1914, 4:2. EDITORIAL: Who Owns the Park? . . . The people residing east of the park are but a short distance from the exposition grounds, but will, unless there be a road through the park, have to travel miles to get to the grounds. So far the Park Commission has turned a deaf ear to the petitions for an outlet from the exposition to the east side of the park.

Park Commissioners Minutes, July 2, 1914. Superintendent instructed to have Engineer Rhodes survey and establish south line of Balboa Park. . . . Engineer Rhodes reported approximate cost of improving the Plaza in Balboa Park would be $37,900 if done by contract or $27,000 if done by Superintendent; report ordered filed.

San Diego Sun, July 2, 1914, 1:7-8. It was said that Colonel Collier has the matter of running for the House of Representatives in the Republican primary under consideration. What Kettner and Needham will do it Collier throws his large western hat into the ring was not known today.

San Diego Sun, July 3, 1914, 6:1-2. Buildings Nearing Completion Long Before Opening . . . To the north of the Prado is a large glass-roofed structure that will house some of the most wonderful plants in the world. The building is complete. Work on Santa Clara and Alameda Counties Building will start July 10. Montana, Utah and Washington State Buildings will start on or about July 20. Salt Lake Railroad Building will soon be underway. . . . A visitor observed, “Of all the spots in the world to hold an exposition, this is the greatest.”

San Diego Union, July 3, 1914, 2:5. $15,000 judgment given against Exposition; jury renders verdict in favor of injured laborer; case to be appealed.

San Diego Sun, July 4, 1914, 9:1-2. Clifford A. Williams, eastern manager of the Panama-California Exposition, on June 29, 1914, invited Federated Club Women, meeting in Chicago, to the San Diego Exposition.

San Diego Union, July 6, 1914, 7:1-2. Exposition work indicates early opening; Montana and Kansas buildings to be begun within few weeks.

San Diego Union, July 7, 1914, 3:2-4. Salt Lake Railroad to exhibit at Fair; building by Quayle Brothers and Cressey costing $10,000; sketch of building.

San Diego Union, July 9, 1914, 3:4. New playground southeast corner of Balboa Park to be opened Saturday.

San Diego Union, July 9, 1914, 7:3. Marine Corps exhibit at Fair considered.

San Diego Union, July 11, 1914, 7:3. Exercises to open playground on Golden Hill.

San Diego Union, July 11, 1914, 7:6. Fine art exhibit received for Exposition; description of panels showing early history.

San Diego Evening Tribune, July 12, 1914, 4:2. Twelve panels, replicas of the Farnum group of bronzes in the Pan-American Union Building, will arrive for installation in the vestibule of the California Building next week; artifacts from Central and South America will arrive in a few weeks.

San Diego Union, July 12, 1914, 1:4. 2,000 boys and girls gambol and sing to dedicated new Golden Hill playground.

San Diego Union, July 12, 1914, II, 7:1. Auto race track considered for Exposition.

San Diego Union, July 13, 1914, 5:1. Fair invitations to be issued today; handsome four-color document will bid world welcome; half million printed.

San Diego Union, July 16, 1914, 1:5. Old Mission San Diego de Alcala to be restored to commemorate 145th anniversary of the raising of the cross in San Diego by Father Junipero Serra.

San Diego Union, July 16, 1914, 9:5. Steamships “Kroonland” and “Finland” to ply between New York and San Diego during Exposition; “Kroonland” started service through the canal on May 1; accommodations and rates of same.

Park Commissioners Minutes, July 17, 1914. Secretary instructed to advise Mr. Belcher that West Boulevard would not be closed at the intersection of Laurel Street during the Exposition year.

July 18, 1914, Letter, Carleton M. Winslow, San Diego, Calif., to Bertram G. Goodhue, New York City.

Dear Mr. Goodhue:

Concerning your fee for work upon the Fine Arts building, Panama-California Exposition, I brought up the subject as yesterday’s regular meeting of the Park Board who put the matter in the hands of the Secretary, Mr. Pendleton, with directions for him to confer with me today, and report the matter back to the Board. We find conditions as follows:-

On November 10th of last year the Board paid over to the Exposition $3,000.00, which presumably was paid over to you on the 12th of the same month, under claim #11,940.

Presumably this has not been paid as you sent in a bill on March 20th, 1914, to the Exposition for $4,109.85 — 4-1/2 percent on the contract price, $91,330.00 on account.

Messrs. Brown and DeCew Construction Company at this time are being paid their bill in full. Including their extras, it amounts to $97,184.33. This includes $4,745.10 for work under the special appropriation to you of $8,000.00 for Chapel fittings, etc., leaving a balance yet to be spent of $3,254.90. Upon this basis the final cost of the building will be $100,439.23, and your fee at the rate of 6 percent amounts to $6,026.35 (Six Thousand Twenty Six Dollars and Thirty Five Cents.)

I would recommend that you make out this bill to the Exposition, mentioning the item of $3,000.00, and that you send a copy of the bill and communication to the Park Board.

Very faithfully yours,

(Signed) Carleton M. Winslow.

San Diego Evening Tribune, July 23, 1914, 8:3. Colonel Collier instituted a suit for divorce in the Superior Court yesterday afternoon against Ella Copley Collier. On the preceding day, Mrs. Collier began an action for separate maintenance alleging desertion. In his suit Colonel Collier charges extreme mental cruelty against his wife. He alleges that during 14 of the 18 years of their union, Mrs. Collier made married life unbearable for him because of her alleged uncontrollable temper. In the divorce complaint, Mrs. Collier is accused of influencing the mind of their eldest son, David, aged 16, against his father. She is also accused of charging her husband, before prominent citizens, with misuse of her money, thereby impairing her credit and injuring her financially. Mrs. Collier is accused of having threatened suicide with the use of chloroform. The following citizens to whom Mrs. Collier is alleged to have made derogatory statements against her husband are named in the complaint: Ralph Granger, Sam Ferry Smith, C. A. Richardson, George D. Easton, John F. Forward, Jr., William D. Rogers, G. Aubrey Davidson, and M. A. Graham.

San Diego Union, July 23, 1914, 1:3, 3:4. Exhibit spaces at Exposition grounds all taken.

Park Commissioners Minutes, July 24, 1914. Board given an additional $7,500 by Exposition to spend on park improvement; plaza and slopes on 6thStreet to be improved with funds. . . . Secretary reported that, according to bills already paid, the architect’s fee due Mr. Goodhue was $6,026.35.

San Diego Union, July 24, 1914, 2:2. New Mexico has 1915 flag ensign designed for Exposition; picture and description of same.

San Diego Evening Tribune, July 26, 1914, 1:1-2. Park Board upheld by court decision; right of Mrs. M. E. Blanchard to 14 feet of property in Balboa Park is denied; 12th Street is opened up to high school buildings; City Attorney Cosgrove wins victory.

San Diego Union, July 26, 1914, 6:1. Judge Sloane sustains Park Commission; denies Mrs. Blanchard’s right to 14 feet of property; Cosgrove wins case.

San Diego Evening Tribune, July 27, 1914, 1:5-6. Judge W. R. Guy throws Collier’s suit for divorce out in Superior Court; sustains demurrer to complaint interposed by Mrs. Collier and gives plaintiff ten days in which to file amended complaint; every count in first suit is overruled; no answer yet in suit for separate maintenance; Collier’s charges are too vague.

San Diego Evening Tribune, July 29, 1914, 5:6. 300 three-year old saplings from Colombo arrive for Lipton Tea plantation.

Park Commissioners Minutes, July 31, 1914. Secretary instructed to draw a voucher for $3,026.53 (?) in favor of Panama-California Exposition as balance in full to Bertram G. Goodhue for architectural fees on the Fine Arts Building.

San Diego Evening Tribune, August 1, 1914, 1. Russia declares war on Germany.

San Diego Evening Tribune, August 1, 1914, 3:3. George W. Marston and family in England.

San Diego Union, August 2, 1914. Germany declares war on Russia.

San Diego Union, August 2, 1914, 10:1. $100,000 fortune to be left for Balboa Park.

San Diego Union, August 2, 1914, II, 1:1. “Painted Desert” excels Fair exhibits.

San Diego Union, August 3, 1914. French troops repulse German invaders.

San Diego Union, August 5, 1914. England at war with Germany.

San Diego Union, August 5, 1914, 14:1. Order of Panama proposes Horton monument.

San Diego Herald, August 6, 1914, 1:3. Boost the Exposition.

San Diego Union, August 6, 1914. Belgium hurls back German invaders.

San Diego Union, August 6, 1914, 5:2. Montana Building contract to be awarded.

Park Commissioners Minutes, August 7, 1914. Carleton M. Winslow presented plans for a new aviary in Balboa Park. . . . Mr. Vorhees, representing Mr. M. D. Goodbody, stated “Sixth Street Boulevard” extension form Juniper to Date Streets was completed. . . . Board of Education requested to set aside $10,000 to be used for parking and planting along the Stadium.

San Diego Union, August 8, 1914, 8:1. Oracle Company to manufacture ten million cigarettes known as the “Exposition Turkish Cigarette” at Exposition.

San Diego Union, August 8, 1914, 8:5. Tourist firm says war will benefit Exposition; buildings rush work.

San Diego Union, August 9, 1914, II, 1:2-5. Pledge of magic Exposition made good.

San Diego Union, August 9, 1914, II, 7:1. Beauties of Fair lure thousands to grounds.

San Diego Union, August 9, 1914, II, 7:5. City Park closed to heavy traffic.

San Diego Union, August 11, 1914, 2:2-3. Exposition buildings sought for San Diego High School.

San Diego Union, August 11, 1914, 2:4. Exposition movies will be shown in big cities.

San Diego Herald, August 13, 1914, 1:2. Prolong the Exposition if necessity demands.

Park Commissioners Minutes, August 14, 1914. Present grade of Sixth Street Boulevard extension accepted.

San Diego Union, August 14, 1914, 6:1-2. Commissioners praise unusual features of San Diego Fair.

San Diego Union, August 16, 1914, II, 1:2-3. Model Farm visualizes soil tillers’ dreams.

San Diego Evening Tribune, August 17, 1914, 2:1. The Father Horton committee of the Order of Panama selected Richard Zeitner to design a portrait bust of Alonzo Horton to be erected at a site in Balboa Park; to be paid for by popular subscription and to cost approximately $6,000.

August 18, 1914, Report on the Panama-Canal [sic] Rose Contest

San Diego, Cal., August 8, 1914

To The Directors of the Panama-California Exposition, San Diego

Gentlemen: In April, 1911, your Company through its Mr. Herrick, then of the Publicity Department, asked the San Diego Floral Association to give its help in preparing rules and other details for a proposed contest for a new rose to be called “San Diego.” Such contest to be known as “The Panama-California Exposition Rose Contest” and the prize offered by the Exposition Company to be One Thousand Dollars ($1,000.00).

The Floral Association agreed to give assistance and it was arranged that the Exposition Company should do all the work of caring for the roses and pay all expenses incident to the Contest, and the Floral Association should formulate rules of contest, give publicity thereto as far as possible through its magazine, California Garden, and appoint judges.

In the May, 1911 issue of California Garden rules for the contest were published after they had been submitted to the Exposition Company and approved, and the following paragraphs were included:

“That it (the rose) be quite distinct from any existing variety.” . . . “It must be distinctly understood that the Panama-California Exposition Directors reserve the right to withhold any reward if no entry shows pronounced merit and distinct individuality.”

Several contestants entered (the list of names and other details are of record in the Exposition Nursery office) and from February to March the bushes arrived and were planted in a special fenced enclosure in the Exposition nursery grounds in Balboa Park.

The showing made in blooms in 1912-13 was disappointing and the contest was continued for a year. 1913-14 the results were even more discouraging and the judges through the Floral Association desire to report that nothing worthy of an award under the conditions of the contest has appeared.

The Floral Association, therefore, seeing no hope of any change, desires to acquaint the Exposition Company of this finding and to further state that in so doing it considers that its connection with the Panama-California Rose Contest comes to a close.


  1. D. Robinson, Pres.
  2. T. Keene, Secr.

San Diego Union, August 19, 1914, II, 9:2-3. Exhibits to show wonders of industrial invention at San Diego Exposition.

San Diego Union, August 20, 1914, II, 9:2. Foreigners demand space at Exposition.

San Diego Union, August 23, 1914, 10:2. Apiary exhibit to be on view at Exposition.

San Diego Union, August 25, 1914, 8:3. “Climbing the Yelps” to offer queer sensations.

San Diego Union, August 27, 1914, 7:1. Dr. William Radar, editorial writer for the Philadelphia Ledger, comes to San Diego to write Exposition article.

Park Commissioners Minutes, August 28, 1914. Mrs. A. C. Griffith presented a personal bond for $2,500 for the grading of 28th Street from Palm to Redwood Streets.

San Diego Union, August 30, 1914, 12:1. Foreign grains grown in Utah for 1915 Fair exhibit.

San Diego Union, September 1, 1914, II, 9:1. Charmed crowds view growth of San Diego Fair.

San Diego Union, September 2, 1914, 5:4. Interior of San Joaquin Valley Building will be decorated in grain; description.

San Diego Union, September 3, 1914, 7:1. Plans for Horton monument. . . . A committee of five members of the Order of Panama has undertaken to raise sufficient funds by popular subscription to erect a suitable monument to “Father” Horton, founder of the newer San Diego. The window of “Father” Horton still lives in San Diego and is well pleased with the plan.

At the last meeting of the Order, the chairman of the Horton monument committee presented a report of progress.

“We already have some subscriptions to the fund,” he said, “and our solicitations are bringing in more every day. We expect to raise at least six thousand dollars.

“We will ask the board of park commissioners to give us a suitable place in Balboa Park. We want a place that is high, overlooking San Diego Bay. Mrs. Horton has told us of one spot just beyond where Seventh Street runs into the park, where “Father” Horton used to climb in the old days at sunset to watch the sun go down beyond Point Loma. It would be the ideal site for the monument.”

The committee has had certificates printed to exchange for subscriptions to the monument fund, and members are now placing books of the blank certificates in several downtown business houses where subscriptions will be received.

San Diego Union, September 4, 1914, 4:5. Wells-Fargo exhibit to depict development of the West.

San Diego Union, September 4, 1914, 4:6. Plans given for Hawaiian Village.

San Diego Union, September 5, 1914, 7:1. Exposition plans of Santa Fe unabated.

San Diego Union, September 5, 1914, II, 9:1-2. Hubbard witnesses tribal dances at Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 6, 1914, 8:1. Harry Stewart walks 26,000 miles for four and one-half years in Africa, Europe and America advertising Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 7, 1914, 8:1-4. Exposition attendance smashes all records.

San Diego Union, September 7, 1914, II, 9:2-4. Miss Scripps spending $50,000 to give La Jolla unique playground.

San Diego Union, September 8, 1914, 5:2. California bird life to be seen at Exposition.

San Diego Herald, September 10, 1914, 1:4. Oppose the machine; keep Boss Hardy out.

San Diego Union, September 10, 1914, 3:4-5. Workshops of world to open for San Diego Fair visitors.

San Diego Union, September 11, 1914, 7:1-2. Wells Fargo periodical gives Exposition publicity.

San Diego Union, September 12, 1914, 2:6. Last art stone placed on State Building at Fair.

San Diego Union, September 13, 1914, 8:1. Exposition Board favors plan to beautify city.

San Diego Union, September 13, 1914, 8:2-4. Panama Canal concession changes name.

San Diego Union, September 15, 1914, 3:4. Japanese secure third concession at Exposition.

San Diego Sun, September 16, 1914, 3:1. All declare that Exposition is a real beauty spot; pre-opening attendance increases daily; 697 paid admissions on Sunday, September 13.

San Diego Union, September 16, 1914, 14:2. Archaeological displays collected from Central and South America for Exposition.

San Diego Herald, September 17, 1914, 1:1-2. The people must act to recover their lands.

San Diego Evening Tribune, September 17, 1914, 7:1. Nevada will erect a state building at Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 17, 1914, 6:1. Exposition rounds into wonderful beauty.

Park Commissioners Minutes, September 18, 1914. Ten-acre park in southeast portion of the City named “Mountain View Park” . . . Carleton M. Winslow instructed to prepare plans for an aviary to cost $1,500.

San Diego Sun, September 18, 1914, 9:1-2. Collier favors government railroad, but is against route: Col. D. C. Collier, president of the projected Southwestern Pacific Railway, was today shown a dispatch from the Sun correspondent, Gilson Gardner, in which the bill presented by Representative Bryan for the construction by the government in Arizona and Utah of a railroad into the timber and coal lines to be tapped by Collier’s projected road is discussed.

“We want to get that road into San Diego,” Collier said, “and it doesn’t matter who builds it. We are willing to present the government with our surveys and other assets costing nearly $300,000, if Uncle Sam will build the system. The war in Europe has naturally interfered with our plans as we were arranging for foreign capital.

“The route suggested in the Bryan bill, however, from the Kaibab National Forest of Arizona to Marysvale, Utah is impracticable and would not benefit the southwest. The government line should be built to connect with the Salt Lake at St. Thomas on the Santa Fe at Chloride. From there the line could be extended to San Diego, which is the logical point for it to run to.”

San Diego Union, September 18, 1914, 5:1. Historic exhibits soon to reach Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 18, 1914, 5:4. Nevada Building at Exposition assured.

San Diego Union, September 20, 1914, 8:2. Uniforms chosen for Exposition bands. . . . The two uniforms which will be most in evidence at the Exposition and which will contribute largely to the prevailing color and atmosphere of Mission and Old Spain — the guard uniform and the band uniform — have both been officially accepted.

Each is a triumph of the costumers’ art. The uniform of the musicians is of black velvet with gold trimmings, a yellow sash, and a broad sombrero, trimmed with silver. The uniform of the guards, which is copied from a Spanish court uniform, is a brilliant affair — sky blue coat and trousers with gold buttons and yellow and crimson trimmings.

Costumes as shown will be worn by members of the Panama-California band, which will give concerts every day during the Fair. It will be directed by Peter J. Frank and under the management of J. M. Dodge.

A series of concerts has been arranged by which members of the musical organizations hope to pay for their uniforms. The first concert will be given Friday afternoon at the Spreckels Theater.

San Diego Union, September 20, 1914, II, 9:1. Open-air school planned at Exposition during 1915.

San Diego Union, September 20, 1914, Women’s Section, 5:1. Publicity plans for Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 22, 1914. Three concessions to open Sunday at Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 23, 1914, 3:4. YMCA awarded space in the south balcony of the Varied Industries Building; to be used as a combination rest room, restaurant and writing room during 1915 . . .

The Y.W.C.A also was granted space in the Science and Education Building for a rest room for the girls and women employed at the Fair. The YWCA will equip the room and furnish an attendant and the girls of the Exposition will be invited to make it their headquarters.

San Diego Union, September 23, 1914, 9:1. Exposition band made first appearance; musical program at Spreckels Theater; uniforms patterned after Spanish lieutenants’ costume; pictures.

San Diego Union, September 24, 1914, 6:1. Concession space at the Exposition is all engaged.

Park Commissioners Minutes, September 25, 1914. Secretary instructed to notify Mr. Belcher that the Fine Arts Building was ready to be turned over to the Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 25, 1914, 2:3. Alameda County pleased with Exposition; will install $25,000 exhibit.

San Diego Union, September 25, 1914, 14:1. Benches ordered from San Diego firm for Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 27, 1914, 1:2. Santa Fe says railroad is preparing for heavy traffic; 400,000 visitors predicted for Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 27, 1914, 5:2-5. Street car line opened to east Exposition entrance.

San Diego Union, September 27, 1914, Women’s Section, 4:2-4. Hawaiian Village an Exposition feature.

San Diego Union, September 28, 1914, 8:2-5. Street car line opens to gate of Exposition.

San Diego Sun, September 29, 1914, 12:1. Governor Hiram Johnson to be guest of honor at a banquet in the rotunda of the California Building, October 2.

San Diego Union, September 29, 1914, 8:5-6. Ethnology exhibit for Exposition on way from Washington, DC.

San Diego Evening Tribune, September 30, 1914, 10:2, 16:3. Designed For Real Purpose; Exposition Aimed to Exploit Pacific Coast, Back Country and Boost Trade.

Those who have attended other expositions know full well that the prime purpose has been the booming of a small community, a single city. The purpose at San Diego is different and finer — a purpose not of building up the community of San Diego, but of helping all California, all the southwest, all the west; indeed all the nation in its agricultural and industrial features. San Diego is the first port-of-call on the Pacific coast. Naturally, then, it should benefit tremendously from the operation of the Panama canal, whose opening this exposition celebrates. But more important than this is the result which the canal will have on the back country of the Pacific slope.

Today that country is barely tapped. The exposition has prepared exhaustive figures based on government and state reports and has found, for example, that in which might be called the country back of Southern California there are some 8,000,000 acres under cultivation today. Round about these 8,000,000 acres is a great deal of desert country, whose development it is very difficult to see, but there are also millions and millions of acres of country which is not particularly desert country but exactly like the 8,000,000 acres which have been reclaimed thus far, with similar soil and similar climate, and with water supply close at hand. It needs only the hand of man to make this section bloom as do the 8,000,000 acres. The government reports give the undeveloped and potentially arable farm land an area of 44,000,000 acres in this section of the southwest.

Now the 8,000,000 acres, also by government report, produce in a single year a revenue of $148,000,000 from farm products along; there is nearly as much more in mineral products, but, excluding that possibility, just think of the agricultural future. There is no reason why the 44,000,000 acres should not produce as much proportionately as the 8,000,000 acres are producing today. In other words, there is an annual revenue of $400,000,000 more which must be added to the present revenue of the southwest. Here at San Diego’s back door is an empire in the making, today partly a promise, tomorrow a sure and complete reality!

When San Francisco followed San Diego by six months and chartered an exposition for 1915 and started plans for a great world’s fair, such as those which had been built in Chicago and St. Louis, it became apparent that San Diego must create something new, something different, or else there would be a duplicated effort, wasted energy, and a certainty of bad feeling between the north and south of California. None of these results was desirable and it became necessary for San Diego to avoid them all. Hence there was created a new type of exposition, entirely different from that at San Francisco and, from the standpoint of the southern city, much more impressive in its permanent results. It aimed at the quick and sure development of the west. The west needs settlers more than anything else, and the question is how these settlers are to be brought here. Certain it is that the army in back of the land movement must be made up largely of city men, of tradesmen, of artisans, perhaps of small professional men. Now these people have the desire to go back to the land already. There is scarcely a man who has lived in the city for five years and become disgusted with soot and deafened with noise and unnerved by the tension of the buys metropolis who does not feel the keen desire to get out of the smoke and bustle and get back to nature.

San Diego Evening Tribune, September 30, 1914. Greatest Novelty World Offers to Be Found Here January 1, 1915

The most novel, picturesque and education exposition ever erected, the Panama-California exposition at San Diego, will be opened to the world just three months hence, January 1, 1915. On this day occurs the formal opening of the Panama Canal, the completion of which is to be celebrated by the two expositions at San Francisco and San Diego. No other event has been marked by two celebrations of this sort, and no other event has been of such prime importance to the country which is celebrating. The striking feature of the expositions is that they are celebrations not alone of something which is completed and gone on, but rather of something which is ahead: they might be considered as heralding the mightier growth of the west through presenting to the world the opportunities the west offers.

Europe today is plunged in the greatest war of all time, and in 1915 will not receive the 500,000 American tourists who have gone there each year. Since these tourists cannot go to Europe, they are coming, beyond a doubt, to the west coast, and here they will see sights besides which those of Europe, and Asia, and Africa amount to little. No other country in the world has the majestic harmony of sea and canyons and mountains and forests and valleys beneath the clear blue sky of the American west.

It is more than a scenic tour. It is a voyage of discovery for the men of the east who know nothing of the opportunity that is awaiting them on the coast. They know vaguely that the canal will bring the west coast much nearer the older cities of the east and across the Atlantic. They do not realize that the hinterland of the west coast is going to be opened up to industry and commerce for the reason that the railroads from the coast will carry traffic from the east over the mountains, and from the back country out to the coast and back to the east again.

The great service of the expositions will be to bring people through the west country. It will be to show them what the west country offers in the way of agricultural development. That is the prime reason for the emphasis which the San Diego exposition is laying upon the agricultural features — the most important agricultural exhibit which has ever been held. Visitors to the world’s favors of former years saw farming machinery standing idle in a great hall of machinery, and paid little attention to it because they could not understand it fully. At San Diego they will see this machinery, but it will be at work in a tract sown to various grains, moving up and down the rows, performing just the same services it is supposed to perform on the great farms of the west. Of such an exhibit they will have an understanding. They will look long and they will remain long. And these visitors to whom the operating of an 80 or 160-acre farm can mean little, will also see the model intensive farm down the Alameda, where on five acres of land is grown as much as on four or five times as much space under old conditions. The effort is to show that new ideas have come about, and that today, by scientific methods, the farmer can support himself and his family easily, and lay aside a considerable surplus annually from one of these small tracts.

It is a lesson of tremendous importance to the city man who has had little success and wants to leave the city, but does not know how to get back to the land. Mighty things have been done in the west in recent years, but there are still mightier things to be done, because the resources of the great west are hardly tapped as yet.

Similar in spirit as showing old things in new form is the display of the southern counties, whose citrus orchard lies along the Alameda, directly across from the model intensive farm. Instead of seeing a great stack of oranges and lemons and grapefruit, the visitor will see the citrus fruit growing on the trees. He will be able to smell the fragrance of the blooms. He will discover that the orange really grows on a tree instead of growing in the crate in which he has always seen it in the fruit displays back east.

Adjoining this citrus orchard is the tea plantation, which has been brought to San Diego from Ceylon.. The 200 tea plants are in charge of a Singalese nurserymen, and throughout 1915 the natives will cultivate the trees and strip from them the commercial tea leaves, turning them over to the girls who will cure them and prepare them for serving to visitors in the pavilion at the center of the plantation. The progress made in two months during which they have been growing in San Diego, indicates that Sir Thomas Lipton’s experiment has been successful and that tea of good commercial value can be grown in the southwest. There are distinct possibilities for a great American industry in the future.

San Diego Evening Tribune, September 30, 1914. Atmosphere of Old Spain Envelops Visitors in Grounds of 1915 Fair.

The Spanish atmosphere at the Panama-California exposition is so striking that it cannot possibly be missed. Every building on the grounds is Spanish-Colonial, even the great Puente Cabrillo, which forms the west entrance, looks as though it has been transported from some ancient Spanish city. Even the large gardens and quiet patios are Spanish. The gardeners (?) and attendants are caballeros and conquistadors, the dancing girls are Spanish, the carnivals and other special events of 1915 are made up from the carnivals of Spanish-America of the old days. It needs little imagination to think that in walking through the gates of the exposition one has left behind him the turmoil and rush of a modern American city, and has stepped back three or four centuries into a city of Old Spain.

There is a wealth of romance in history of that sort and once we study the history of Southern California, we see that the finest traditions, the rarest poetry and beauty are in recollections of the old Spanish civilization. It was the realization of that beauty, almost forgotten, which impelled the San Diego Exposition to choose a certain beautiful and harmonious type for its buildings, not the old conventional Greek and Roman temples such as expositions of the past had built, but quaint Spanish missions and cathedrals and palaces in perfect accord with the gorgeous beauty of the mighty landscape one sees from the mesa where the Exposition Beautiful stands. There are no forbidding walls, nor entrances so vast as to overwhelm the visitor, but a calm sweet beauty which spreads over all, everything purely Spanish and purely delightful.

You walk or ride up the slope from the waterfront, burst through the border of trees along Balboa park, and come out at the end of a quarter-mile bridge whose seven white arches rise from a pool 135-feet below in the canyon. High up among the piers rises the slim Italian cypresses, so tall and graceful that they accentuate the height of the great Puente Cabrillo. A little distance from the bridge begins the jungle of palm and eucalyptus and acacia, a gorgeous color scheme of green with occasional flashes of brilliant crimson and the gold of the Spanish broom and the California poppy. You walk the length of the bridge, passing a trellis of roses and come to a somber memorial arch, whose cartouche has been chipped and worn so that it looks as though it might have stood there for centuries. You pass through the arch and, as though some magic wand had been waved, you leave behind the hum and rush and roar of a twentieth-century tidewater city and find yourself back in a city of Old Spain of two or three or four hundred years ago.

At one side, rising from a succession of broad stone steps stands a gorgeous old Spanish cathedral, with a wondrously intricate frontispiece, with a great tiled dome of curious design, and a lofty tower. Across the little plaza, connected on both sides by a tiled cloister, is a quiet mission of the California type with plain Spanish arches, with rough-hewn beams forming its ceiling, and projecting from the adobe walls, within it a little shrine, such as those in all the old missions along El Camino Real. You pass slowly from the Plaza and swing into the Prado, lined with acacia, with verdant lawn, and with a low ledge of poinsettia, gladiolas, and other blooming flowers, and then within the long cloister which on both sides of the Prado runs from the west gate through to the east. There are portals opening from the cloister and leading into cool patios which are in strong contrast to the bright sun of the Prado. The patios are filled with a gorgeous collection of California’s finest trees and shrubs and blooming plants, with bright flowering vines clambering up the sides of the white walls, up to the belfries whose mission bells swing, up to the high domes and the quaint towers which look down into the shadows. Almost hidden by drooping shrubs is an occasional softly-murmuring fountain.

About the walls of the buildings nests a horde of pigeons, swooping down occasionally after grain tossed out to them by the gardeners. Broad lawns with vine-covered pergolas stretch down beyond the patios and out to the edge of the canyon, looking down to the sea a mile away, down to the strand of Coronado and Fort Rosecrans and out to the distant lands, half-hidden in the mist. Or one can look up the valleys across orchards of olive, orange and grape, or to the foothills of the snow-capped Sierras, or to the lower hills of old Mexico, scarcely twenty miles away.

This is the situation as it is. The atmosphere of an old Spanish city, such a city perhaps as Cabrillo and his bearded sailors dreamed of as they stood on the same site nearly 400 years ago and looked off toward the sea and looked forward many years to the futile hope of New Spain’s glories.

The Spanish atmosphere has been carried out to the finest detail. The guards and attendants of the Exposition will be garbed as caballeros and conquistadors, and the dancing girls, who will move to the hum of the guitar and the click of the castanets, will be Spanish dancing girls in the bright costumes of Old Spain, in the dances which have been performed for hundreds of years in the plazas of Castile. It is all very quaint and very romantic and very beautiful. Down the Prado stretch the buildings, some of cathedral design, some of the old mission, some of the palace, and one or two bear a particularly strong touch of Moorish influence, but all are uniformly and quaintly Spanish.

Here then is the new type of exposition architecture, not altogether new, for it is rather a renaissance of the beautiful architecture which received such a glorious start in Mexico and Southern California, but new rather as used in exposition work. And just as novelty has been introduced in that, so has it been introduced in the style of exhibits and in the general purpose of the Exposition.

San Diego Evening Tribune, September 30, 1914. Santa Fe Holds Indian Exhibit; Great Concession Costing $100,000 Head List of Entertainment Features.

No exposition is complete without is amusement concessions. At San Diego there is a great street 2500 feet long, having a frontage, consequently of nearly one mile, which today is practically entirely allotted. Applications from several hundred feet of space have been rejected because the managers of the exposition felt the attractions offered were old and were not worthy of an exposition which claims to have created new types in every department. The result is a street which San Diego fully believes to be the best amusement street which has been built. Several concessions are already operating.

Just within the north gate at San Diego at the head of the Isthmus lies the “Painted Desert” of the Santa Fe Railway, the most important Indian exhibit which has ever been staged. Starting out with an estimated cost of $100,000, it is now likely the expenditure by the Santa Fe will considerably exceed that amount. The “Desert” is divided by a mesa running north and south. High in the rock, which covers this mesa, on the west slope are the habitations of the cliff dwellers. In the cactus-filled sands below them rise the habitations of the Navajos and other wandering tribes, with here and there a “hogan” or log house of the Navajos, set up and housing its red inhabitants. A shallow arroyo runs through this little village. On the east slope of the mesa is a great pueblo modeled after the ancient one at Taos. In that same section is a Zuni pueblo, and nearby lies a Hopi pueblo, with a row of small adobe houses of the Rio Grande tribesmen filling in the far side. The interior of the adobe houses is like that of the Governor’s Palace at Santa Fe. There are trading posts, and corrals for horses and for sheep and goats and cattle. Almost in the center are two “kivas,” one of the ancient variety entirely underground; the other of later date, in which the roof of the “kiva” is a few feet above the ground surface. There are outcroppings of rock through the sand and the rock is uniformly a close copy of the red sandstone with the occasional lurid colors which appear in the real Painted Desert of Arizona. The cactus and much of the rock and the cedar posts have been brought from New Mexico and Arizona.

A dozen or two of the red men have been at San Diego for two or three months building the pueblos and the adobe houses, and making sure that in the smallest details the vivid resemblance to real southwest Indian life is carried out.

On the desert all through the year, the red men will be weaving their rugs and blankets, shaping their pottery, and pounding out metal ornaments as they and their ancestors have done for centuries. Each night in the kivas will be performed the ceremonial rites of the various tribes represented on the desert.

Around the entire Painted Desert runs an adobe wall with an occasional gap which is filled with a stockade of cedar posts. The desert has already proved, even in its uncompleted condition, one of the most striking attractions on the grounds.

San Diego Evening Tribune, September 30, 1914, 10:8, 16:3. All Buildings Are Complete

For some time the main buildings of the exposition have been entirely complete, the taking down of the scaffolding from the lofty tower of the California state building marking the finishing touch on that structure. As one passes across Puente Cabrillo, he comes successively to the administration building, the California building and the ethnology building, the last two forming a permanent group for a California museum; then the science and education, and arts and crafts buildings. Here the Prado widens into the Plaza de Panama, at the north end of which lies the imposing structure of the Sacramento building. At the lower end of the Plaza are grouped the structures of Kern and Tulare, Santa Clara and Alameda counties, that of the San Joaquin Valley, and the great $100,000 music (organ) pavilion donated by John D. Spreckels. The Prado picks up again at the foreign and domestic arts and the home economy buildings, continuing on to the east, past the botanical building and the surrounding gardens, the foreign industries and commerce and industries buildings.

Almost at the east gate lies the Southern California counties building, beyond which is assembled the highly important agricultural exhibit, notably the citrus orchard and the model intensive farm. Across the way is a quiet path leading past the service buildings and the hospital, down along the Canyon Espagnol into the pepper grove. All of these buildings are complete. One passes up the Alameda and finds the fire station, the buildings of the International Harvester company, and the Standard Oil company completed; the tea plantation and the small pavilion of Sir Thomas Lipton complete, and work just started on other important outdoor exhibits. Going across the Calle Colon to the Isthmus, just skirting the Painted Desert, one walks along the amusement street and finds fifteen of the concessions all ready to open, and others in various stages of construction, most of them requiring only a few weeks work. On the lower plateau, the New Mexico building is complete, and those of Montana and Utah are practically ready to open, with work started on the Nevada and Kansas pavilions.

In view of the fact that the buildings still to be erected are mainly of a temporary character, the exposition might be considered as 90 percent ready to open, and this three months in advance of the opening New Year’s Eve date.

The ground occupies a total space of 614 acres, although the exposition has also improved the grounds across the canyon, which more properly are considered as a section of the 1400-acre Balboa Park. In reality, a considerable part of this extra acreage can be considered as exposition property.

The exposition will open not only on time, but also without owing one cent. When it is considered that the City of San Diego had 35,000 people when the exposition was chartered, the feat becomes the more extraordinary. The population has nearly trebled since that time. It was San Diego that first chartered its 1915 exposition, but instead of building a world’s fair which should compete with that at the northern city San Diego set about to create new ideas and to show features which San Francisco could not have by reason of the climate. To furnish additional variety, such foreign exhibits as were sought by San Diego were industrial rather than governmental. The Japanese exhibit, for example, divided between the foreign arts building, the Kyosen Kai and the small Japanese theater, is of a type different from any Japanese exhibition which has been made before. In the foreign arts building, instead of simply showing the products of Japanese craftsmen, the craftsmen themselves will be present embroidering the silken garments, carving their woods and ivories, weaving hemp, and thus demonstrating graphically exactly how the best products of Japan are made. The Russian and Italian exhibits are along similar lines.

San Diego Sun, September 30, 1914, 1:1, 12:2. San Diego invites the world to Exposition (feature for “California Newspaper Day”).

San Diego Sun, September 30, 1914, 11:1-8, 12:3. San Diego’s Exposition was built to charm and educate folks (feature article).

San Diego Union, September 30, 1914, 2:4. Story of Missions will be told at Exposition.

San Diego Union, October 1, 1914. Newspaper Day Edition

2:1-8. San Diego’s Exposition Dream Realized.

5:5-8. Fair prophetic of wondrous southland’s future.

San Diego Union, October 1, 1914, II, 9:1-3, 11:1-3. Mrs. Jesse C. Knox built rose garden on lower plateau.

Park Commissioners Minutes, October 2, 1914. Secretary instructed to put knoll on West Boulevard opposite the plaza in flowers instead of lawn, and to proceed with temporary improvements at the plaza in order that the same might have a finished appearance during 1915.

San Diego Examiner, October 2, 1914, 1:4. Plans made to restore old mission.

San Diego Examiner, October 2, 1914, 6:3. State accepts Fair Building.

San Diego Sun, October 2, 1914, 1:6-7, 2. Governor Johnson Accepts Fine State Structure: beautiful building praised at lunch given by Wurster Construction Co. . . . While the auditorium will be used for exhibits during the fair, the space can be cleared at the conclusion of the exposition and the spacious enclosure used as a convention hall with a seating capacity of 3,500. There are three balconies and, in addition to the auditorium, there are a number of other large rooms in the building. The doors to the edifice, which were swung open yesterday, are all hand-carved mahogany and were the work of months. They cost in the neighborhood of $800.

Gov. Hiram Johnson, in the presence of about 70 exposition directors, citizens, contractors and skilled workmen, today at noon formally accepted on behalf of the people of the state the magnificent California state building, on the exposition grounds in Balboa park.

The acceptance of the handsome permanent structure by the executive occurred at the conclusion of an informal luncheon tendered by the Wurster Construction Co., the builders, and the building commission, composed of G. W. Marston, Thomas O’Hallaran and R. C. Allen, in the spacious auditorium of the office. Mr. Marston is absent in Europe, but Messrs. Wurster, O’Hallaran and Allen were hospitable hosts and looked well to the entertainment of the guests.

In the party were numerous newspapermen from San Francisco, Sacramento, Los Angeles and San Diego.

All Pleased

All present went into ecstasies over the architectural beauty of the building, which stands just across the Cabrillo bridge at the Laurel street entrance to the exposition grounds. Two hundred and fifty thousand dollars was invested in the structure, through state appropriation, and many compliments were paid the Wurster Construction Company for the masterly manner in which the plans have been carried to completion.

Work of Art

The exterior of the building, with its magnificent decorations, is a genuine work of art and the interior arrangements and decorations are fully as fine.

The tower, which can be ascended by a spiral staircase, is the highest point in the city of San Diego and can be seen for miles. The view from this tower is second to none in San Diego county and will be enjoyed by thousands of exposition visitors in 1915. The dome of the building is one of the most beautiful ever erected in the state.

For Conventions

While the auditorium will be used for exhibits during the fair, the space can be cleared at the conclusion of the exposition and the spacious enclosure used for a convention hall with a seating capacity of 2500. There are three balconies and in addition to this auditorium there are a number of other large rooms in this building. The doors of the edifice, which were swung open yesterday, are all hand-carved mahogany and were the work of moths. They cost in the neighborhood of $800.

The state also gave liberally to the San Francisco exposition, but the state buildings in the northern city are not of a permanent character, and the permanency of the San Diego structure has been a source of much gratification to Gov. Johnson.

Davidson Presides

President Davidson of the exposition company presided at the day’s luncheon. Beside Gov. Johnson sat U.S. Senator John D. Works.

The governor and all the guests were greatly pleased by the California building, but were loud in their praise of the entire exposition.

San Diego Union, October 2, 1914, 6:1. Travel expert predicts overflow crowds at Exposition.

San Diego Union, October 2, 1914, 14:1. Exhibits arriving for San Diego Exposition.

San Diego Union, October 3, 1914, 3:2-4. California Building completed and turned over to Exposition, October 2.

San Diego Union, October 4, 1914, 8:1. Archaeologists prepare display for Exposition.

San Diego Union, October 6, 1914, 7:1. Santa Fe brought six Navajo Indians from Gallup, New Mexico, to work on “Painted Desert.”

Six Navajo Indians arrived in San Diego yesterday from Gallup, New Mexico. Chief Nuntah Viah heads the little band, which will help in the construction of the Navajo portion of the Painted Desert, the exhibit of the Santa Fe Railroad, which is now well underway at the grounds of the Panama-California Exposition.

Within a short time after their arrival, the Indians were busy building their “hogan.” There are two varieties of these dwelling places. One is for summer use, while the other variety is for winter. The summer houses will be built of cottonwood and leaves and plenty of air spaces will be left for ventilation. The winter houses are more substantial as well as being more carefully built. They are of cedar and earth.

Supplies for the Indian houses were received several days ago. With the supplies also arrived old timbers, which have been used for years as water troughs in villages in New Mexico, Indian plows, old cartwheels and other articles which will be spread over the village to give it the proper atmosphere. The white plastered walls are being painted a mud color, which also helps to carry out the idea of a typical New Mexican village.

Work is being rushed, for it is hoped to have the village built and inhabited before the opening of the Fair. When completed there will be nearly fifty Indians in the village.

The Indians who arrived yesterday were clad in the picturesque Navajo costumes of many colors.

. . . . .

Another attendance record was broken at the Exposition Sunday, when, despite the threatening weather conditions, 1,030 persons paid their way through the gates.

Several of the completed concessions on the Isthmus were open for business. Work has commenced on many of the concessions and the street already has taken on the gaudy air of an exposition midway.

. . . . .

The “shachi,” a mythological Japanese fish, which is considered the king of the sea and who fights devils and disease and affords protection when placed over doorways or on the roof of a building, arrived yesterday and will be placed over the tea garden.

This is a most important act, according to Japanese workmen. They say it would be impossible to induce Japanese maids to serve tea in the garden unless there posed one of the mystic shachi over the building.

One of the fish, which are made of plaster, will be placed over each corner of the structure, which is being erected close to the botanical building.

. . . . .

Gus Simon, a midget, who is considering a proposition to become a part of George M. Teall’s “Midget City” at the Exposition was a visitor yesterday. Simon left for San Francisco, where he will confer with other midgets regarding accepting an engagement at the Exposition here.

Simon is three and one-half feet tall and is, because of his extreme height, considered almost out of the midget class. He was at the Boer Village at the St. Louis Exposition.

. . . . .

Sixty of the finest paintings of the late Donald Beauregard have just been suitably framed by a Chicago art firm and will be loaned to the New Mexico Exposition commission by Hon. Frank Springer for display in the great auditorium of the New Mexico building at the San Diego Exposition. It is to be doubted whether any state at any exposition ever made so fine a showing in the art work as will New Mexico, the newest of the states of the union.

Springer had arranged for the mural decorations of the auditorium and had commissioned Beauregard to depict the life and work of St. Francis, the New Mexico patron saint, in these mural paintings. Beauregard was stricken with fatal illness while engaged upon that work and died after he had partly completed two of the six great panels. These partly completed panels will also be placed in the auditorium as they illustrate the spirit with which the work had been undertaken.

It is likely that no other portion of the exhibit will be so much featured in magazines and newspapers as this evidence of New Mexico’s art spirit, as manifested in the work of this lamented artist and the generosity of Springer.

San Diego Union, October 7, 1914, 3:1. Exposition takes steps to assist visitors in 1915. . . . Under direction of E. J. Chapin, head of the Panama-California Exposition traffic department, a general information bureau will be established at some point in the business district about December 15. The bureau will be free to visitors, but rooming houses will be charged a small fee.

A score of solicitors were sent through the city yesterday on a canvass of rooming and lodging houses. Proprietors of these places will be asked to name the prices of rooms, tell of the conveniences and location. Only those who agree not to raise the prices of their rooms during 1915 will receive the cooperation of the bureau.

The information bureau could have been let by the Exposition as a concession it was explained yesterday, but it was considered preferable to operate the bureau in connection with the Exposition. The bureau will not be conducted for profit but to cover the expenses of operation which will be about $300 per month.

A map of the city showing lodging and rooming houses will be made for the benefit of tourists.

. . . .

The Kansas building, work on which started a few days ago, has sprung up like a mushroom. The framework was almost completed yesterday. The building will be completed in twenty-one days, according to the contractor. It is located between the Nevada and the Alameda and Santa Clara structures.

. . . .

The first shipment of benches recently ordered from the McCormick Lumber Company will be delivered

today. Set side by side they would measure 8000 feet in length.

. . . .

Paving has been discontinued for the present. The rain of Saturday interfered greatly with the plans of the contractor, who estimates that with good weather conditions, the paving inside the gates will be completed in thirty days.

. . . .

Installation of ornamental lamp posts at the Laurel street entrance to the park was begun yesterday. These lights will extend from Laurel street over Cabrillo bridge and along the Prado. The standards are to be stained a bronze-green and will support pear-shaped globes. The globes are in transit and are expected within ten days.

San Diego Union, October 8, 1914, 3:5. Navajo women weaving rugs at Exposition.

Park Commissioners Minutes, October 9, 1914. Motion carried authorizing Superintendent to proceed with the proposed aviary, allowing $2,500 for same. . . . Buffalo calf named Carlotta in honor of Commissioner Carl I. Ferris.

San Diego Examiner, October 9, 1914, 6:1-3. California Building is a notable achievement. . . . San Diego with its representatives, Thomas O’Hallaran, R. C. Allen and George W. Marston, commissioners for the great state of California, did not have to go outside San Diego to find a contractor to erect and bring to completion the magnificent California state building, the permanent structure which is forever to identify the spot of the Panama-California Exposition in this city.

The man and organization for the occasion were found in F. H. Wurster and the corporation of which he is the leading factor, the Wurster Construction Company of this city, which also comprises H. L. Mebius and John W. Gates.

Wurster and his company are not the only marvels in the matter of constructing buildings with expedition, solidity, according to specifications, and within the time-limit, but they are no less pronounced as important builders of the city of San Diego itself.

Contractor Wurster and his company have brought with them, as residents of this city, twenty-eight families of artisans of all kinds, all of whom are in the employ of the company, receiving the highest standard of wages and each, in its own way, contributing to the wealth and development of San Diego, under the exemplary leadership of their employers and friends.

Most of these artisans have been continuously in the employ of the Wurster Construction Company for eighteen years. They have continuously found employment on the structures on which the Wurster Construction Company has been engaged, the scene of the latest activity of a number of them being upon the California state building on the exposition grounds. The successful completion of this building and the whole-hearted manner in which it was accepted by the governor of the state of California caused Mr. Wurster to realize that this was the master accomplishment of a building record of marvelous achievements.

Friday last, when the building in question was being turned over, in behalf of the Wurster Construction Company to the state of California, there was not an auditor who did not interiorly admire the simplicity of the tender by the president of the company, the master-builder, and the modesty in the tremulousness of his voice as he exclaimed:

“I have turned over, completed, many private and public buildings, but in this instance I am particularly proud, for where is there a building that will stand the test of time and remain a permanent monument to the great state of California? Would not any man be proud to erect such a monument?”

Governor Johnson did justice to the structure and the builders. He proclaimed the pile a triumph of the architect Bertram G. Goodhue of New York, and the artisans, and that it was with a feeling of pride that he took part in its acceptance. Contractor Wurster was congratulated by builders everywhere because the latter knew his name would be inseparable from the fame of the structure in the memory of the thousands who are to make pilgrimages to it during the coming exposition.

The site of the California state building is an eminence overlooking the city of San Diego. The building is of stone and reinforced concrete throughout. It is indestructible by any of the elementary forces of nature. It has fronts 250 and 150 feet respectively, is two massive stories in height, with an imposing dome and a cloud-piercing spire, surmounted by a weather-vane, a representation in steel of Cabrillo’s ship, seven feet in width and five feet high. This vane swings at a height of 250 feet above the earth. It commands not only an entrancing prospect of San Diego and adjoining counties, but also views of the distant main.

Exteriorly, the structure is imposingly ecclesiastical in treatment, due mainly to the Byzantine dome and cathedral belfry and spire. The walls are severely plain, though the entrance and belfry are indescribably rich and involved in tracery, in ornamented and concrete stone, by way of representing the carving and sculpture of Spanish structures centuries ago.

The dome, to a degree, also shares this richly ornate adornment and is, at the same time, emblazoned in tiles of white, blue, black and gold, as a foil to the somber tones of other parts of the structure. The facade is divided into shields, arches, niches, ovals and other architectural designs, in which there are either medallions, busts, or life-size representations of Cabrillo, Viscaino, Serra, Portola, Charles V, and Philip III of Spain, Ascencion and others involved in the early history of this country with Spaniards.

In the interior, there is a noble auditorium with galleries, as also a number of large rooms. These are to be used for public gatherings and the display of early historic treasures of Hispano-American history.

Contractor Wurster is known all over the country as well as in San Diego and California, for the reason that for twenty-five years he has been engaged in many states and on the heaviest kinds of undertakings. There is no line of structural work on which he has not operated. There is no contract so large as to deter him from undertaking it, neither is there any condition which will prevent him from bringing it to a successful conclusion.

His first big operations were in Buffalo, New York, where he started in business in 1889, and where later he constructed the entrance to the Midway, the Stadium, and the New England states building at the Pan-American exposition.

At the same time and place, there were a number of other structures under his direction, which represented a valuation of $1,500,000.

In Wichita, Kas., Contractor Wurster later found a field for his active brain, experience and energy, and there also left the impress of his genius upon the structural achievements of that section.

The St. Louis exposition also testified to his skill and remarkable energy for the reason that he was credited with the construction of the Machinery hall, the Galveston Flood building, the North Pole concession and the Inside Inn. The importance of these structures made an impression on all who saw them and the size of the last mentioned may be imagined when it is stated that it contained 2,387 rooms.

Five hundred thousand dollars worth of work was done by the Wurster Construction company at the Lewis and Clark exposition at Portland, among which was the American inn, one of the greatest memories of the exposition.

The phenomenal activity of San Diego two years ago in the building line called for such men as the Wurster Construction company. Quarters were taken in the Spreckels building. The first achievement was the Coronado school building, a gem of its kind. Then followed a block of stores on Fifth between Elm and Fir streets. Then the Golden West Hotel was undertaken. It occupies a half block of reinforced concrete. Then came the Mission garage, one of the finest structures of the kind in the state. Then follows a procession of structures, among them the Hagan residence, the J. W. Sefton residence at Point Loma, the Post-Baily building at Seventh and Broadway, the Emporium block, the E. D. Rood and other buildings. The contracts handled here up to the present time aggregate more than a million dollars. This does not include the massive music pavilion on the exposition grounds to contain a great organ, both building and organ to be the gift of John D. Spreckels.

Mr. Wurster is remarkable for his mental acumen and physical activity and energy. He is a master of every feature of his business. His company employs the best mechanics and pays them the best of living wages. They are treated well and in return give the best that is in them. There is more work here for the Wurster Construction company and Contractor Wurster says his organization is ready for everything that may come along.

In the construction of the California building, C. M. Winslow said that all the ideas of architect Goodhue were carried out to the letter and P. Tritch represented the state commission in seeing that all structural parts of the building were properly assembled.

San Diego Union, October 9, 1914, 3:2-3. Rose woman plans contest.

San Diego Union, October 10, 1914, 8:1. Confusion reigns as songs swamp Exposition.

San Diego Union, October 10, 1914, II, 9:2-3. Navy Department to maintain miniature Marine camp at Exposition.

San Diego Union, October 11, 1914, 9:1-2. “War of the Worlds” to be shown during San Diego Exposition; unique electrical exhibit.

San Diego Evening Tribune, October 12, 1914, 3:2-3. Landlords prepare for Fair visitors; Board of Health shows that city has over 23,000 rooms for lodging and housekeeping purposes, exclusive of family dwellings.

San Diego Union, October 12, 1914, 3:1. Admission record broken at Exposition.

San Diego Union, October 13, 1914, II, 9:1. Exposition points of interest to be renamed.

San Diego Union, October 16, 1914, II, 9:4. Society organized to protect Fair visitors. . . . Delegates from various San Diego welfare organizations, including religious, fraternal and club bodies, met last night at the San Diego Hotel to organize a local branch of the Travelers’ Aid Society for the protection of young women, boys and girls who will visit San Diego during the Panama-California Exposition in 1915.

Orin C. Baker, general secretary of the national association, explained the conditions in the East and indicated what should be done in San Diego for the protection of the unwary against vicious persons who frequent national expositions. A resolution was unanimously adopted appointing a committee to organize the work in San Diego.

Dr. F. R. Burnham acted as temporary chairman and appointed the following persons who agreed to serve: George W. Marston, Dr. F. R. Burnham, G. Aubrey Davidson, Miss Ellen B. Scripps, Ernest White, Dr. Homer Oatman, Mrs. Philip Morse, Mrs. M. German, Judge W. R. Gay, Mrs. E. Verlacque, Dr. E. F. Hallenbeck, John Akerman, Mrs. D. C. Glidden, Rev. Lora Townsend, W. E. Greistwelt, Mrs. Thomas O’Hallaran, Mrs. Henry Foote, Dr. Charles Barnes, Milton MacRae, Patrick Martin, Mrs. E. S. Van Wagenen, Rabbi Montague Cohen, Mrs. M. Cohen, John Bacon, Mrs. Eva Bird Bosworth, Rev. H. B. Bard, G. N. Koeppel, J. P. Smith, Carl A. Johnson, John W. Snyder, I. Lezensky, C. I. Kirkland, S. C. Payson, Dr. Louis Heilbron, Rev. Father Hefferman, E. I Hardy, Mrs. Florence McCoy, Mrs. Shelton Bissell, Mrs. Charles Spalding, J. P. Penfold, Mrs. E. H. Wallace, and J. R. Langleis.

  1. P. Penfold read a communication from G. A. Davidson, president of the Panama-California Exposition, in which he pledged the support of the Exposition board to cooperate with the local branch of the Travelers’ Aid Society in every way to protect the unattended visitors to San Diego during the Exposition year. The Y.W. C. A., which has taken care of this work in the past, will turn this portion of its activities over to the local branch.

The committee will meet in the blue room of the U. S. Grant Hotel this afternoon at 3 o’clock, when the details of the work will be planned.

San Diego Sun, October 17, 1914, 2:1. The Exposition band will give its first concert in full uniform tomorrow.

San Diego Sun, October 17, 1914, 2:3. Work begun on “War of the Worlds.”

San Diego Union, October 18, 1914, 13:2-6. “War of the Worlds” big show.

San Diego Union, October 19, 1914, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Arizona and the Exposition.

San Diego Union, October 19, 1914, II, 9:4. Exposition band draws thousands.

San Diego Union, October 20, 1914, 7:3-4. Big Spreckels Organ arrives; pavilion nears completion.

San Diego Union, October 20, 1914, 8:5. San Joaquin Valley Building to be dedicated Saturday.

San Diego Union, October 21, 1914, 8:1. Sunset Company sets aside Fair fund; Southern Division head proposes expenditure of more than $50,000.

San Diego Evening Tribune, October 22, 1914, 5:2-3. 500 passenger agents inspect Exposition grounds; sightseeing this afternoon is on program following lunch in Pepper Grove.

San Diego Union, October 22, 1914, 8:4-5. Beauregard paintings arrive for placing in art display at Panama-California Exposition.

Park Commissioners, Minutes, October 23, 1914. Winslow instructed to proceed with inside work of the Chapel until the same be completed.

San Diego Evening Tribune, October 23, 1914, 3:1. Exposition will get big force of Marines; encampment at North Island to be divided between San Francisco and San Diego.

San Diego Union, October 23, 1914, 8:1-2. San Joaquin Valley to dedicate Fair building of Spanish-Colonial type.

San Diego Union, October 24, 1914, 1:5-6, 3:2-6. San Joaquin Valley Building dedicated.

San Diego Union, October 24, 1914, 3:6. Japanese exhibits arrive for Fair.

San Diego Sun, October 26, 1914, 7:1. Kettner’s homecoming welcome; meeting in Majestic Theater Saturday night, October 24. . . . Carl Heilbron: “An invitation from Needham or any Republican to the President of the United States or to any of the big men at Washington to attend our Exposition, would be about as welcome as a polecat at a lawn party.” . . . G. A. Davidson told how Kettner landed a battalion of marines and a marine band for the San Diego Exposition. Colonel Collier declared Needham has always been opposed to the San Diego Exposition and was working against San Diego’s interests in Washington.

San Diego Union, October 26, 1914, 2:2. Hotel reservations pour in for 1915.

San Diego Sun, October 27, 1914, 9:2-3. Description of Metropolitan Life Insurance Company’s exhibit, designed by Henry Kabierske, for installation in the Science and Education Building.

San Diego Union, October 27, 1914, 16:1. Banker purchases first Fair ticket.

San Diego Union, October 27, 1914, 16:5. National Cash Register’s $10,000 Fair exhibit will include a movie theater.

San Diego Evening Tribune, October 28, 1914, 5:2. Auditor H. L. Moody wants 1915 Fair t pay for water; claims $50,000 is due City.

San Diego Union, October 29, 1914, 3:2-5. President Davidson predicts two million visitors in 1915; Southland Ad Club adopts as slogan “See Your Exposition Now.”

San Diego Evening Tribune, October 30, 1914, 1:6. Collier would meet Needham in debate . . . The Evening Tribune today is in receipt of the following telegram:

Santa Ana, Cal., October 30 — The Evening Tribune, San Diego, Cal.

“I have denounced J. C. Needham in every county in this district as a carpet-bagger and a traitor to San Diego and its Exposition. His shifty and evasive statement in Monday morning’s Union does not answer my charges. I hereby challenge him to meet me in joint debate next Monday evening in San Diego. I authorize L. J. Wilde to represent me and will consent to almost any conditions for the privilege of meeting him face to face before a San Diego audience. — D. C. Collier.”

Mr. Needham, when shown the above, stated: “I have received nothing from Col. Collier. When I do, it will have my prompt consideration. The issue between Col. Collier and myself is purely personal, largely a question of veracity, and I am not sure the people are particularly interested in personal issues in a congressional campaign. I would say, however, that I would be delighted to meet my opponent, Mr. Kettner, and discuss with him the issues of the campaign on Monday night, or at any other time, and our respective records in congress.

“I will say, however, that should I hear from Col. Collier, the contents of any communication will receive due and prompt attention.”

San Diego Evening Tribune, October 30, 1914, 12:1. Merchants, bankers and other influential citizens have begun a campaign to induce the Union Pacific & Salt Lake Railways to “come in” with all the other roads and attach San Diego coupons to their 1915 California tickets.

San Diego Examiner, October 30, 1914, 1, 8. Congressman Kettner’s Homecoming; Greeted at Oceanside and at San Diego; Parade up Broadway to Fifth Street; Order of Panama Part of Reception; Speeches in Majestic Theater at Third and C; Louis J. Wilde Presided. . . . The bombshell of the evening, and, indeed, of the campaign was exploded by Colonel Collier, who was never closer to his best. Collier, champion booster of San Diego, is not accustomed to the language of denunciation, but in roasting Needham he evidently found a congenial topic. Evidently he was stirred to the quick by a deep sense of indignation because, as he said, of the monumental gall of the main in coming from a district where he had just been repudiated to run for congress in this district, the chief city of which he had, as a member of congress, betrayed.

Collier briefly sketched the history of Needham’s defection at the time when San Diego needed him most. Collier, as director-general of the Panama-California exposition, had gone to Washington in April, 1910, to secure federal recognition for the San Diego fair. After working for several days, he found that the fight between San Francisco and New Orleans was so close that unless San Diego gave her consent to a temporary truce, San Francisco’s cause was lost.

Collier agreed that Senator Frank Flint and Congressman Sylvester Smith should cease their fight for San Diego and join hands with San Francisco in the fight against New Orleans, provided that when San Francisco had won its fight, the delegation supporting that city (of which Needham was a member) should rally to the support of San Diego.

This agreement was made on May 5, 1910, and Needham was a party to it. But when San Francisco has secured what it was after, the pledge given San Diego was repudiated. Collier then had to begin his fight anew. Congressman Smith had been stricken with a mortal illness and the only support Collier could secure in the house from this state was from Congressman John Raker of the First district and Congressman William Kent of the Second, one a Democrat and the other a Progressive, and each of them serving his first term in the house. From the rest of the California delegation, he received nothing but bitter hostility, and Needham, who had agreed to support the claims of San Diego, was one of the group that resisted the claims of San Diego.

Prior to joining in this hostile movement, Needham had told Collier that there was no use in trying to do anything for the San Diego fair; that he might as well pack his grip and go home.

In spite of all discouragement, Collier persevered, and finally, with the assistance of Raker and Kent, secured the approval of Oscar Underwood, leader of the majority in the lower house. Thus the house passed the bill granting San Diego federal recognition.

And when it came up for final passage, Needham voted for it!

“He had worked against it when San Diego needed help; but when San Diego no longer needed or desired his vote or influence, he had not the courage of his convictions, but voted for the bill,” was the way Collier put it.

And then the bill went to the senate, and there was defeated mainly through the influence of Senator Elihu Root, guided and inspired by Julius Kahn, leader of the group of congressman in the lower house, of which Needham was a member; the group had already made Collier’s path in Washington such a thorny one.

But this did not end Needham’s antagonism to the bill, when, through the energy of Collier, it was again revived in the session of 1913. Needham had been defeated for reelection, “but,” said Collier, “he was there with a lot of other lame ducks, trying to influence this or that bit of legislation this or that way. And I found him again, high in the counsels of the enemies of the bill to grant the San Diego exposition recognition.

“He was turned out by the voters of his own district, and then this hypocritical, double-faced, straddle-bug came down into San Diego county, into the city he had striven his best to injure, and asked for the Republican nomination

“And let it not be said when this expose of Needham’s treachery to San Diego becomes public that it was any eleventh-hour drawback, put forth at the last moment, without due warning. I was in Washington last May when I heard that Needham was coming here for the express purpose of running for congress, and I wrote to Dr. Gochenauer, James McMullen and others prominent in the counsels of the Republican party, warming them that if Needham was to become a candidate I would tell everything of what he had done or tried to do against San Diego and the San Diego exposition. He became a candidate, and I kept my word.

“He seems to be of a migratory disposition. Let us give him a chance to move on — but not to Washington. Let us give him a hint to betake himself to some other district where he can repeat the performance of running for congress two years from now.” . . . . .

Congressman Kettner’s address was modest. He merely told of what he had done and what he believed he can still do for San Diego and his district. He told how he came to San Diego nearly thirty years ago; how he used to drive a mule team and how he once drove a street car on San Diego streets. He declared that his usefulness at Washington has just begun, and praised his wife for the assistance she had given him here and at Washington

San Diego Sun, October 30, 1914, 1:8. Collier challenges Needham to debate.

San Diego Union, October 30, 1914, 3:1. Exhibits pouring in for 1915 Exposition. . . . E. J. Chapin, traffic-manager for the Panama-California Exposition, was notified yesterday by the National Cash Register Company of Dayton, Ohio, that two carloads of cash registers will be shipped from New York, November 5, on the steamer J. L. Luckenbach to San Diego.

The Luckenbach will arrive in San Diego about November 27. She will come into the port for the first time and probably will make this port regularly thereafter.

The National Cash Register Company thus routed its goods that they might be delivered in San Diego by the first boat to be placed on the run by the Luckenbach Steamship Company.

The traffic department also announces that inquiries asking information as to San Diego’s accommodations and prices are now coming regularly from all parts of the country.

Under the direction of this department, solicitors are working throughout the city, listing rooms and prices. It is thought that when special celebrations are held during the fair year that the downtown hotels and lodging houses will be taxed to the utmost and it is deemed advisable to arrange for all the rooms possible in the residential district.

The information bureau, to be opened between December 1 and December 15, will have a full list of the rooms of the city and the prices to be asked for them. The location of the bureau has not been decided as yet, but plans are progressing towards its establishment.

. . .

November with be the busiest month in the history of the construction of the Exposition, according to manager Chapin of the traffic department. Notices of exhibits on their way to San Diego are being received every day. During November tons of exhibits will be received and hundreds of workmen will be busy setting them up.

At other Expositions exhibits have been straggling in thirty days after the opening. It is believed that at the Panama-California Exposition, they will be here thirty days in advance.

. . .

A carload of tractor engines has been shipped from the Chicago factory of the International Harvester Company. As is now well known, the International Harvester Company will have the biggest single exhibit at the Exposition.

The tractor building was recently completed. Other shipments of agricultural implements will follow the shipment of engines it was announced.

San Diego Union, October 30, 1914, 7:2-4. Electric chairs, a Fair novelty.

San Diego Evening Tribune, October 31, 1914, 5:6. Union Pacific is ready to help Exposition; traffic manager declares system long ago decided to issue coupons for trip to San Diego next year.

San Diego Sun, October 31, 1914, 1:8. Collier rushes home to flay Needham, who refused to meet him. . . . “I am the man who is charging you with being a traitor to San Diego. I was the head of the exposition which you betrayed.” . . . Needham replied to Collier’s challenge that Collier was not a candidate for congress and that he would not meet him.

San Diego Union, October 31, 1914, 8:3. Army of employees rushing work at Fair grounds; Several buildings on Isthmus completed; new ones under construction; motordrome takes form; two hundred rare plants from Japan for tea room. . . . Workmen rushing to completion the different concessions, the Isthmus, the amusement street at the Panama-California Exposition, is one of the busiest places on the grounds.

Several structures have been completed and a number of one ones have been begun.

The plastering of three walls of the Panama Canal concession has been completed and the great building looms up as the largest underway on the avenue of fun. That it will be completed in thirty days is the prediction of the contractor.

Work was begun yesterday on “A Street in Panama,” which will be located close to the Panama canal concession. This show will have a frontage of 100 feet. It will have overhanging balconies, street tables where food may be obtained and, in fact, all the atmosphere of a street in Panama.

The motion picture film factory and theater is under construction. At this place motion pictures will be made for the benefit of the public. The finished product will be shown on the screen.

“The Story of the Missions,” the concession owned by T. B. Getz, was started several days ago. This show consists of a lecture room, and old-fashioned Spanish patio, and a theater where the story of the missions will be told by means of electrical effects.

The motordrome, on which construction was begun a few days ago, is rapidly assuming form. This concession is owned by Farmer Burns, well-known throughout the world of sport as a wrestler.

During 1915, Burns proposes to furnish thrills for the thousands of amusement seekers. A balcony, protected by a steel beam, is being constructed on top of the motordrome for the benefit of spectators.

The aquarium is practically completed. Yesterday salt water was brought from La Jolla for the tanks. It is expected that the fish will be placed soon and that the show will open for public inspection sometime before the opening of the fair.

Close to the Prado and near the Japanese Tea Gardens workmen are busy with the framework of the restaurant. Plastering will begin within two weeks.

Two hundred rare plants from Japan arrived yesterday. They will be placed about the Japanese tea room, the exterior of which is practically completed. The folo bridge was completed yesterday. The bring exercises a strange superstition in the lives of the Japanese. They believe that those who are able to negotiate its steep sides without falling are destined to have a long happy life. One workman remarked yesterday that anyone who crossed it safely was entitled to a long life.

The flowers and shrubs in the Japanese garden are growing nicely. Water was let into the tiny stream yesterday for the first time.

. . . .

  1. A. Denison of Oakland, for years Secretary of the Oakland Chamber of Commerce, was a visitor to the Exposition grounds yesterday.

Denison was highly pleased with all he saw and paid the publicity man some compliments for the way he is advertising not only San Diego and the Exposition, but all of California.

. . . .

(The program for the Sunday afternoon concert of the Exposition Band in the Plaza de Panama follows.)

San Diego Evening Tribune, November 2, 1914, 1:2-3. Dan V. Nolan, chairman of the Republican County Committee sent a telegraph from El Centro, October 31, stating, “Collier’s speeches hurt Kettner here more than Kettner’s visit helped.”

San Diego Evening Tribune, November 4, 1914, 1:8. William Kettner is reelected by a big majority.

San Diego Sun, November 4, 1914, 1:1-2. Kettner elected; state wet.

San Diego Sun, November 4, 1914, 6:3. Model Kitchen exhibit by Miss I. S. Pratt in Home Economy Building. . . . Exposition officials were pointing with pride today to the model kitchen exhibit being entered by Miss I. S. Pratt in the Home Economy building. Adjoining the kitchen, a model laundry will teach housewives just how clothes should be handled from washboard to clothesline.

Miss Pratt’s wonderful exhibit throughout will show by practical example, just how hundreds of economies may be put into use in small households where the income is none too large to meet expenses.

The Home Economy building contains numerous exhibits of interest to women and will probably be the one building on the grounds where the attendance will be largely feminine.

Park Commissioners, Minutes, November 6, 1914. Golden Hill playground to be opened on Sunday mornings.

San Diego Evening Tribune, November 6, 1914, 9:1. Roland W. Reed’s collection of photographs of North American Indians has been installed in the Arts and Crafts Building at the San Diego Exposition.

San Diego Sun, November 7, 1914, 7:2. Colonel Collier, who spent five years and a fortune making the San Diego Exposition what it is today, expects to leave for Washington, DC, soon on business connected with the Southwestern Pacific Railroad, but he declares he will return to San Diego in time for the Exposition opening on New Year’s Day; Exposition officials will close gates to public, December 1.

San Diego Union, November 9, 1914, 9:1. Wonders of Fair Viewed by Film Starts; Hawaiian Troupe Charms Visitors to Magic City With Native Songs; Studio Near Completion; Construction Work Progressing Rapidly; Attendance Almost Reaches Record. . . . Attendance at the Exposition yesterday fell just short of the high record, paid admissions reaching 1952, or 26 less than the number reached three weeks before, when the Sunday band concerts were inaugurated. The west gate continues to break records, but there was a falling off at the south entrance.

The Exposition band gave a longer concert than usual, adding several selections after an intermission, but a special feature of the day was a brief program given by the Hawaiian troupe from “The Bird of Paradise,” loaned for the occasion by Ben Giroux, manager of the company. The singers gave their selections just before the band concert, and brought the crowd galloping down the arcades to the cool corner of the Plaza de Panama in the shade of the Science and Education building, where the weekly concerts are given.

Once assembled the crowd remained about the Plaza until the close of the concert, then watched the feeding of the great flock of pigeons, and finally wandered about the lower plateau, along the Prado, and up the Isthmus, where there was more rapid construction work in progress.

Interested visitors during the day were several of the Keystone Film Company’s stars, including Charlie Chaplin, “Fatty” Arbuckle and Miss Mabel Normand. They had joined Walter Brookins, the aviator, and Thomas Ince of Los Angeles, who came to the exposition to examine progress on the motion-picture studio half-way up the Isthmus, erected by the concession company Ince-Sennett-Brookins.

The studio is now about half completed, the work being done by H. P. Hoyt, the contractor who built several of the other important buildings. The preliminary inspection brought satisfactory remarks from the concessionaires as well as the actors, who are looking forward to spending a large part of 1915 at the Exposition.

The studio will be used for a good deal of the detail work in the films to be made next year, the audience having an opportunity to see movies in the making. In addition, some of the dramas will be staged on the grounds.

The intent is to use the regular motion picture actors from some of the Aztec and Toltec ceremonials, which will form an important part of the special events program through the year. It is thought the two enterprises may be worked together for the benefit of both. Brookins and Ince probably will be regular visitors to the Exposition as soon as the studio building is sufficiently far advanced to allow the installation work to proceed.

San Diego Union, November 9, 1914, 12:1. Marston family returns to San Diego; merchant relates experiences during four month’s trip in Old World.

San Diego Sun, November 10, 1914, 7:3-4. George W. Marston given “Welcome Home” dinner at YMCA last evening.

San Diego Union, November 10, 1914, 2:4-5. Rain Brightens Floral Display at Exposition; Poinsettias of Unusual Size Spring into Bloom After Welcome Showers; Exhibits Being Installed; Tractor Engines for Harvester Company Demonstration Reach Grounds. . . . The rain of Sunday night and yesterday worked wonders on the vegetation of Balboa Park. Poinsettias in the canyon directly beneath the Administration Building were in bloom for the first time this season.

Because of the rains the poinsettias are much earlier in blooming than usual. The flowers are a beautiful red and much larger than in other seasons, according to gardeners.

Besides the marked good to the grounds, rain saved actual money in that artificial sprinkling will not be necessary for several days.

Notice of shipment of the Walter Baker Cocoa and Chocolate Company’s exhibit was received yesterday. The exhibit left Boston a few days ago. It will be placed in the food products portion of the Varied Industries Building.

The Titan tractor engines, a part of the exhibit of the International Harvester Company, one 25 and the other 40 horsepower, were delivered at the grounds yesterday. The engines are being set up for field demonstration purposes in connection with the company’s exhibit.

A portion of the Burroughs Adding Machine Company’s exhibit also was received yesterday. This exhibit will be in the Commerce and Industries Building. The company will have a large space where workmen will be found setting up the machines during the life of the Exposition.

  1. C. Phillips, of the Chicago Kenosha Hosiery Company, arrived yesterday to set up the machines which will manufacture hosiery in the Commerce and Industries Building.

San Diego Evening Tribune, November 11, 1914, 5:4. The Pacific Steamship Company will operate seven steamers between Seattle and California ports during the Exposition rush season next year.

San Diego Sun, November 11, 1914, 1:7-8. Divorce to Mrs. Collier; no opposition is made; interlocutory degrees granted on ground of desertion; agreement ends in filing of new complaint and hearing on this is soon over; Mrs. Collier and Mrs. Raum testify; Colonel Collier represented by counsel.

Collier to pay $100 a month for the education of two songs, David Copley Collier, 16, and Ira Collier, 14; married on January 5, 1896; Mrs. Collier said Collier left her on August 10, 1913; She is sister of Congressman Copley of Illinois and a member of the Copley family of this city.

San Diego Evening Tribune, November 12, 1914. 2:4. The Washington State Building cost $8,000. The exterior takes the form of an old California mission, but upon entering the observer will find the natural beauty of the state of Washington reproduced in detail. Decorations will be of native trees and foliage, interspersed with the bright fruits of the northland.

San Diego Herald, November 12, 1914, 1:1-2. Why the proposed charter should be defeated, by C. R. Miller.

San Diego Sun, November 13, 1914, 1:1-8. Details of plans for Exposition opening.

San Diego Evening Tribune, November 18, 1914, 12:1. Tulare County exhibit is here; citrus fruits, raisins, grapes, prunes; building cost Tulare and Kern Counties $18,000.

San Diego Herald, November 19, 1914, 1:3-4. Exposition in readiness. . . . The cost of the Japanese exhibits at the Exposition is now estimated by S. Watanabe, who is in complete charge, at $250,000; exhibits in Foreign and Domestic Arts Building, Tea Pavilion and on Isthmus where Japanese games and a small theater will be introduced.

San Diego Sun, November 19, 1914, 1:7. Horton fund in muddle; Hugo S. Grosser, who originated the idea of a Horton monument, left the city a few days ago and may have taken the funds; the Order of Panama may abandon project.

San Diego Sun, November 24, 1914, 7:7. U.S. Marines to move to Exposition grounds; officers inspect site today. . . . Despite the strenuous opposition of San Francisco, San Diego has won the honor of having regimental headquarters and four companies of marines at the grounds of the Panama-California Exposition.

It is probable that the orders received yesterday by Col. J. H. Pendleton will be made permanent and that a camp of marines will be stationed and headquarters made here permanently.

The many friend of Colonel Pendleton and his officers, as well as of the men of Camp Howard, will be glad to learn that the camp probably will become a fixture here. The orders which came yesterday are said to have been due to the tireless efforts of G. Aubrey Davidson, president of the Exposition.

During 1915 the men will be stationed at the Panama-California Exposition, although they will not do public duty as was announced some weeks ago. A camp is now being made ready for them on the brow of a hill just south of the state buildings. The site is almost ideal, according to the marines who are well pleased with their 1915 residence site.

Colonel Pendleton will soon announce the date of the removal of Camp Howard from North Island to the Exposition grounds. Officers and men of the marine camp seemed well pleased when it was announced that they were to remain in San Diego.

“We are looking forward to 1915 with anticipation of an enjoyable year, and possibly a much longer stay,” remarked Colonel Pendleton.

San Diego Sun, November 26, 1914, 1:1-2, 2:4. Exposition will close its gates to public; all of December will be devoted to installing exhibits. . . . Colonel D. C. Collier, whose work for the Exposition will never be forgotten, will go east December 1, but has promised to return for the opening. His plan to leave the buildings intact for a university or for a Southern California fair each year, is becoming a popular one.

San Diego Sun, November 26, 1914, 1:1-2. El Centro-Yuma highway assured; Board of Control recommends appropriation of $200,000 for state road.

San Diego Sun, November 26, 1914, 2:5. Article in this week’s Harper’s Weekly entitled “A Fair and A Big Idea”; purpose of agricultural features is to show what can be done by a scientific utilization of resources.

San Diego Union, November 26, 1914, 5:5. Utah Edifice Accepted Officially by State. . . . Lewis Telle Cannon of the firm of Cannon and Fetzer, architects for the Utah building at the Panama-California Exposition, yesterday accepted the building from contractor Hiram Hoyt, on behalf of the Utah state commission. Cannon is at the San Diego Hotel.

Cannon, who is on his first trip to Southern California, evidenced his pleasure in the excellence of the structure and predicts that Utah will have one of the best state exhibits at the Exposition.

“To a stranger who knows but little of Southern California, the Panama-California Exposition is simply beyond all expression. I wandered around the grounds yesterday as if in a dream. It is indeed a fairyland of flowers. The architecture breathes of the atmosphere of Old Spain. It is the most romantic environment in the country, I think.”

Cannon says he has definitely decided that San Diego is the proper winter residence and promises to pass at least a part of each winter here.

San Diego Evening Tribune, November 27, 1914, 3:2. The carrying capacity of street cars, automobiles and other vehicles of San Diego County was severely taxed yesterday to accommodate the great throngs that gathered on the Panama-California exposition grounds to witness the wonderful Thanksgiving Day exhibition of Lincoln Beachey, the renowned aviator, for the benefit of the Belgians.

The paid admissions to the exposition grounds yesterday numbered 4,282 adults and 265 children. Thousands of people occupied vantage points outside the grounds.

During the performance, including graceful flying upside down, Beachey looped-the-loop no less than seven times. In bomb throwing from mid-air his aim was accurate and the good ship Globe was soon a mass of wreckage from the explosion of bombs manufactured at the flouring mills of that name.

Beachey announced that he will make flying in San Diego an annual Thanksgiving Day event.

San Diego Evening Tribune, November 28, 1914, 2:5. Last Exposition band concert takes place tomorrow afternoon. Directly after the concert the gates of the Exposition will be locked and the public will not be allowed in until the formal opening a month hence.

San Diego Union, November 29, 1914, 2:3. When the flash from the White House is registered in the Fair grounds, it will be the harbinger of a new era in San Diego. After that, pandemonium will be loose and echo itself amid the colonnades that Father Serra and Cabrillo dreamed of and that have since become an actuality on what only a few years since was an arid mesa crowning the city that grew around it.

San Diego Union, November 29, 1914, 4:4. City Clerk Allen H. Wright suggested using the California Building for a City Hall after the Exposition.

San Diego Union, November 29, 1914, 15:2. Article about Frank P. Allen, Jr., the man of built the Panama-California Exposition.

San Diego Evening Tribune, November 30, 1914, 6:1. Colonel Collier will be master-of-ceremonies for the opening of the Exposition; invites suggestions from all.

San Diego Union, November 30, 1914, 3:3. Crowds visit Fair for last peep before opening.

December, 1914, The California Garden, pp. 4-5. The Early Bird at the Exposition . . . I have been to the Exposition grounds in Balboa Park. My visit was official and my detail thus worded: “Go up there and give us a birds eye view of the planting.” Of course, I realized that no other of the staff had the requisite optic; nevertheless, I had the support of other important officers.

An interested friend had pleaded, “Do go by the main entrance and note the effect of the red awnings on the administration building.” This advice was followed and the red blinds were approved.

Perhaps, there had already been too much written about the Exposition, as there has been of everything else of a public nature, and now the opening is so close, folks ought not to waste time reading, but should go to the place and see for themselves.

Before I went I had read in a northern paper that the grounds were abloom with foliage and laughed, but it is true in a sense for the real effect of the planting is a picture in greens, and the actual flowers count for little where they are not almost intrusive.

That Cabrillo bridge is worth while whatever it cost and however it was built. The view from it both ways is disappointing. To the south the gas works and an awful straight line of a grade crossing somewhere this side of it are very dominating, and the canyon is too wide and too straight for the picturesque. On the other side, it is almost as uninteresting, but fortunately lacks the glaring offenses enumerated across the way. Here the whole scheme is so big that nothing but mass planting will have any effect, and it is certainly open to doubt whether any planting will be much more effective than the wild brush which gives at a distance a velvet appearance without hiding outlines. Of course, this refers to the aspect from the bridge. The view from the bottom of the bridge will be vastly superior.

These pre-exposition remarks, so to speak, I imagine are a reflection of the timidity felt at approaching the building with the red blinds, Never before had I used my reportorial office to run past a turnstile, and yet I was determined on principle not to pay that quarter. As it turned out there was no cause for alarm. An affable gentlemen with a sufficiently strong individuality to allow him to wear a thick beard I these strenuous safety razor days turned us over to a Mr. Gorton who proved to be a friend of an old friend, Mr. Sumner, and from that moment we were not only comfortable but having a good time. In fact, the trip through the grounds was an unadulterated pleasure, though there was an anxious moment when at a sudden turn we ran almost upon the donor of the great organ, but a hurried glance showed that he wore neither halo, horn, nor tail, but was respectfully listening to a lady who was opining that the race would lose the use of feet because of the automobile — or was it the street car?

I knew more than I ever did and care less about the names of the shrubs and trees planted in the Exposition grounds, though I am assured that a system of plain labeling is being evolved, for the general effect and not the individual specimen is so distinctly the charm, and the informality or irregularity of the planting its main merit. The formal touches are the least artistic. The winding paths round velvet lawns, under pergolas covered with vines; the narrow deep trails in the cool of the buildings’ walls; the unexpected everywhere; these are the things that count. Let the average citizen of San Diego take notice of the true effect of the irregular plantings, the trees that grow in the lawns as if birds had dropped the seed; a batch of our native Rhus integrifolia here, and some other unconsidered growth there; and then go home to his four-square cemented, standardized garden and ponder.

Plainly the guide has a special affection for Palm Canyon. He apologized for everything in it that was not a palm. Everyone to his taste, and doubtless many will share his enthusiasm, but frankly I was unimpressed. It is not to be mentioned in the same breath as Spanish Canyon, far the best of them all, because of its planting, the glaucous foliage of acacia and eucalyptus showing to great advantage, and because it has some mystery. It does not lay open to the eye at first glance; it turns corners, has a blessed irregularity; it is charming.

Another pet of our guide was the little patios set in the Science and Education building and here his preference was fully justified. They should be observed on a hot day when the eye seeks a cool, quiet spot to rest upon/

Another pleasing feature is the cryptomeria walk at the northeast corner of the lath house. Enter it from the north and see how it leads to the lawn and planting above it is right and that is a high compliment.

I have nothing to say about flowers. In fact, I only noticed the Baby Rambler roses in the garden of the Southern Counties building, and then to deplore their livid presence. The Exposition does not need flowers. Of itself it is bright and light, the sky is blue, but it wanted the greens of trees and shrubs and grass and it has them in the right places. I emphatically endorse the planting at the Exposition in San Diego. Of course, it is obviously done for Exposition purposes, being several times too thick for permanent work, but that was surely the thing to do. Whatever may be the attendance and the judgment of the stranger, San Diego should get much pleasure and profit from this undertaking so well carried out by a not over large community.

San Diego Evening Tribune, December 1, 1914, 1:5, 7:5-6. Final rush to install at Exposition is on.

San Diego Evening Tribune, December 1, 1914, 10:2. Thirteen elk are quartered now in the paddock at Balboa Park according to the Park Commission; the original two on the paddock were augmented by a consignment from the Button-Willow Ranch at Bakersfield.

San Diego Sun, December 1, 1914, 2:5. Article, “San Diego’s Evolutionary Exposition, A Twelve-Month Summer School of Efficiency,” by Jerre C. Murphy in Colliers describes pluck fight to build the exposition.

San Diego Union, December 1, 1914, 3:2. Elk for Balboa Park arrive; herd makes splendid addition to zoo; 20-acre enclosure at south end of park provided by Park Board in canyon running through the Howard Tract; herd now numbers 13.

San Diego Union, December 1, 1914, 7:5-6. Globe Milling Co. plans model bakery covering 2600 square feet in Varied Industries Building.

San Diego Union, December 2, 1914, 8:4. Japanese Tea House at Exposition Completed; description.

San Diego Herald, December 3, 1914, 1:4. All good government clubs are opposed to the proposed Hardy charter.

San Diego Sun, December 3, 1914, 1:4. Four more companies of troops and a band to be at Fort Rosecrans all of 1915.

Park Commissioners, Minutes, December 4, 1914. Superintendent reported receipt of 12 California elk donated by Messrs. Miller and Lux and distributed by the California Academy of Sciences, on died; paddock provided by fencing an 18-acre plot south of Exposition grounds and west of Midland Drive.

San Diego Examiner, December 4, 1914, 2:1. Plan to ask building of state scored. . . . “I was distressed today,” said one of the most unobtrusive and devoted citizens of San Diego to a representative of the Examiner, “by a flippant remark of somebody who managed to get into a local paper that the California building on the exposition grounds ought to be turned into a city hall for San Diego after the exposition.”

“The idea is to be condemned for many reasons,” said the speaker. “It is one of which a public-spirited citizen would be ashamed, it puts San Diego in the position of a pauper, a beggar. It proclaim her as incapable of building a municipal structure for herself and as asking the people of the state to build one for her. Imagine the degradation. On the one hand, high-minded citizens of San Diego charming and edifying the world by the building of an exposition, on the other, the groveling spirit, that maintains itself on tips.”

The speaker went on to say that the proposition was an insult to the people of the state. The people stood for the appropriation of $250,000 for a building at the exposition, first as a means of treating San Diego in the same spirit as they treated the San Francisco exposition; next, in order that the California exhibit might be displayed here in a structure worthy of the state, next as an enduring monument in this commercial town to the world-inspiring event, the completion of the Panama canal, and finally, a souvenir of the Spanish renaissance, which is the dominating idea in the architecture of the exposition.

The state building was designed exteriorly as a memento of the past. Interiorly, it was conceived, says one critic, for a museum of facts and features of this section of the country, a purpose which will be a credit to the state and a drawing force to San Diego.

“Uncle Sam has plenty of money,” concluded the critic; “will some person ask him to turn over the new post office to San Diego for a police court and city jail? Chief Wilson says, I believe, we are badly in need of both.”

San Diego Union, December 6, 1914, II, 1:2. Tom P. Getz prepares “The Story of the Missions” feature for Exposition.

San Diego Evening Tribune, December 7, 1914, 3:3. Kern County exhibit here; display will cost $40,000.

San Diego Evening Tribune, December 8, 1914, 3:1. Ten Sacramento Valley Counties have a $50,000 composite exhibit on resources.

San Diego Union, December 9, 1914, 9:2. Humphrey J. Stewart, composer and musician, engaged by John D. Spreckels to pay the Spreckels Organ at the Exposition.

San Diego Sun, December 10, 1914, 1:5-8. Exposition is busy place; construction of Alhambra Cafeteria started, one of the big institutions of the Isthmus; will handle 700 diners at one seating; motion picture actors enact “Secrets of the Dead” on the grounds this morning.

San Diego Union, December 10, 1914, 2:4. Exposition Site Selected For Movie Play; Architectural Beauty of Magic City Attracts Gotham Motion Picture Makers; Japan’s Exhibit Arrives; Indians Coming for Santa Fe’s Show; Restaurants Nearing Completion. . . . Walter Edwards of New York city, a director for the New York Picture Co., arrived in San Diego yesterday with members of this company for the purpose of making a Spanish picture plan on the grounds of the Panama-California Exposition grounds.

Miss Clara Williams, well know to movie fans, Diana Carillo, Frank Burke and Thomas Chatterton are among the better known players in the company of twenty.

The company will work for the first time today. Early life of the Spanish settlers will be depicted in the play. Edwards found a background for his picture, after a short tour of the grounds yesterday. “The spot is ideal and the conditions here are perfect for picture making,” he said.

A studio is maintained at Santa Ynez canyon, near Santa Monica by the concern. As an exclusive right has been obtained to produce dramas on the grounds, it is probable the movie folk will pass much of their time in San Diego during 1915.

Two special Santa Fe trains will be required to bring 300 Indians, ponies, mules, goats, dogs, also raw materials for demonstration work, consisting of wood, clay, copper and silver to San Diego. The Indians and their paraphernalia are being selected from the various reservations in New Mexico and will arrive in San Diego, it is thought, about December 15.

Director Jess Nusbaum of the Painted Desert, the Santa Fe exhibit at the Exposition, was notified yesterday of the probable arrival of the Indians on that day. They are from the following tribes: Hopi, Zuni, Rio Grande, Apache, Navajo and Supai.

Some of the Indians engaged in the building of the hogans at the Painted Desert left some days ago to bring their families here. Stories they told of San Diego seemed so wonderful and spread so rapidly, that the Santa Fe has more applications for places in the exhibit than can be used.

Three hundred cases of exhibits for the Panama-California Exposition from Japan were unloaded at San Francisco yesterday from the steamer Tenyo Maru of the Toyo Kisen Kaisha line. The exhibits will be sent to San Diego by rail and are expected by the first of the coming week. Most of the goods are intended for the Foreign and Domestic Arts Building. Shiro Watanabe is in charge of all the Japanese exhibits here.

The cafeteria, on which construction was begun but a few days ago, is rapidly assuming form. It is located at the extreme south end of the Isthmus and the contractor says it will be ready for business on the opening night of the Fair. The Cristobal café, the largest of the kind on the grounds, located north of the California Counties building is practically finished, the workmen now being engaged in finishing the interior.

Gardening at the rear of the California building is almost completed. This location will be one of the beauty spots of the Exposition grounds.

San Diego Examiner, December 11, 1914, 4:7. Offices of Exposition president in harmony with spirit of great Fair. . . . One of the features of the Panama-California Exposition which is to become permanent is the headquarters of the president of the Exposition Association, G. Aubrey Davidson. The suite of rooms opens upon the quadrangle adjoining the California Building. The main apartment, which is of commanding proportions, will be used as a reception room in which President Davidson may have the honor of welcoming and entertaining Woodrow Wilson as President of the United States and patron of the Panama-California Exposition. Here, too, will be received the governors of the various states, distinguished men and women of the country, and representatives of foreign powers interested in the enterprise.

The chamber will be furnished and decorated in a manner worthy of the distinguished guests. A subdued natural light will be admitted through mullion windows on one side, and, when artificial illumination is allowed to radiate, the interior will glow with elegance and beauty. During the day there will be a charming vista of lordly boughs, Spanish columns, broad halls and stately arches of neighboring structures, as if transplanted from the Alhambra in Spain to the sunny heights of San Diego.

Loaned works of art are to grace the walls, notable samples of which have already arrived, among them pictures of life in the California redwoods, gems of water by Carleton T. Chapman, the distinguished marine artist, the Discovery of the Bay of San Diego by Cabrillo, the vessels of the hardy navigator riding the waters with the exultation of almost animate, sentient creatures, and Delimon’s “Thirty Pieces of Silver.”

The last mentioned has just been received by President Davidson from Arthur Mosely in London. The loan of the work will be highly appreciated for the reason that it is one more proof of the warm place which the owner has in his heart for San Diego, her enterprise, her exposition, her climate and her people. Sir Arthur is a Knight of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem, a prominent Conservative, and a member of the British tariff commission. He inspired a tour of the country by English teachers for the purpose of introducing American educational methods in Britain. He has presented a valuable oil painting to this city and is interested, with his son-in-law, in Imperial Valley lands. He has spent the last four summers here. He is a man of liberal fortune, acquired in South Africa, a lover of art, and, out of his munificence and humanity, has given to the English government a hospital on the coast of Scotland for the relief of wounded soldiers of the war.

There are still other canvasses of high artistic excellence.

No less interesting to the general public and worthy the study of artists are four panels reproduced from the frieze for the room of the governor of the Pan-American Union in Washington, which were secured by Colonel D. C. Collier of this city for their present use, the sculptor being Mrs. Sally James Farnham of New York.

One of the panels represents Bolivar, the Liberator of South America, leading his dismounted cavalry through a rugged mountain pass. Another shows a meeting between San Martin and Bernardo O’Higgins, who defeated the Spaniards in the decisive battle of Santiago in 1817.

A third delineates the landing of King John of Portugal who, driven from his ancestral possessions by Napoleon, sought relief in his colony in the New World and transferred the seat of government to Rio de Janeiro where he landed in 1808. The man-oared barge to which he was conveyed from his warship is still preserved and was used to disembark Secretary Root on his visit to Brazil in 1906.

A fourth shows a meeting of Champlain with the Huron and Algonquin Indian chiefs near Quebec, Canada, to organize an expedition against the Iroquois, an alliance which led to the French and English wars and had a direct effect upon the development of the northwestern section of the United States and of all North America.

These sculptures are really masterpieces. They are historically and ethnologically correct. There is a wealth of detail that is rarely to be found, and, at the same time, the eye is able to command on the instant, forming a picture in every respect true to nature.

San Diego Examiner, December 11, 1914, 7:4. New Santa Fe station about ready.

Park Commissioners, Minutes, December 12, 1914. Mr. Belcher was authorized to place posts at the intersection of Laurel Street and the east line of Park Drive and close the Laurel roadway to traffic during the Exposition.

San Diego Sun, December 12, 1914, 2:3. Firefighters at Exposition are ready; motor chairs ordered.

San Diego Sun, December 12, 1914, 7:4. Stephen J. Bennett, carpenter, killed in Exposition accident; fell when scaffold of War of Worlds Building collapsed; second fatal injury, the other occurred when Jose Marron, a laborer, was struck by a falling derrick; he died October 30.

San Diego Examiner, December 14, 1914, 8:2. To commence restoration of mission.

San Diego Sun, December 14, 1914, 2:1. Exposition post office to open tomorrow in Commerce and Industries Building; aviary in city park opposite Exposition grounds nearly finished; animals, birds and horticultural displays in that part of park south of the Exposition will be a free sideshow to the big show.

San Diego Sun, December 14,1914, 7:2. Policing system for Exposition grounds; provisions made for 225 guards and watchmen and 75 gate men; John C. Frazer, manager of the Pacific division of the Pinkertons, in charge; Captain Wright to be assisted by three lieutenants and seven sergeants; station to be at the head of the Isthmus.

San Diego Sun, December 16, 1914, 2:5. Marines camp at Exposition site; force includes 500 men and officers in four companies; Laurel Street from entrance to Fifth Street paved.

San Diego Union, December 16, 1914, 3:2-4. Indians to Show Strange Tribal Dance; Exhibition Will Be Charity Ball Feature; Flights of Eagle Represented in Tewas’ Weird Ceremonial. . . . The Indians who are to appear in the eagle dance at the Shriners’ Christmas ball Saturday night, under the direction of Noble Jesse L. Nusbaum, are all members of the Pueblo of San Ildefonso, one of the seven Tewa villages north of Santa Fe, New Mexico. The eagle dance is one of the most interesting parts of the elaborate rain dance of the Pueblo Indians. This dance is given only after the crops have been planted, and, on the days set aside for it, the Indians gather from all the villages to join in the ceremonies. The eagle is the only bird these Indians recognize in their ceremonials and is looked upon as a “go-between” twixt heaven and earth, and they believe he can propitiate the rain god and bring an abundance of moisture to nourish the crops on which the Tewa Indians of the Pueblos depend for sustenance.

Among the Indians who will appear here in the eagle dance are Julian Martinez and Florentine Martinez, who will be assisted in the ceremonials by Jose Miguel Martinez, Juan Cruz and Roibal Maria Martinez. Elaborate Indian dresses trimmed with eagle feathers are worn in this dance. In the actions and steps of the dancers is represented the eagle’s flight. After a short interval these Indians will appear in a war dance of the Sioux. This is one of the liveliest of the Indian dances and many intricate steps are shown.

Another Indian dance that is sure to please the patrons of the Shriners’ ball is known as the danzone de Yucatan, in which Mr. L. Nusbaum and Mrs. Dorothy Canterbury will appear. This will be the first time the dance has ever been given in public in this country. While it is said to be a simple dance, it has many attractive features and is sure to become popular. In Spanish this dance is known as El Huesito.

Jay Sofer will furnish the music for the ball. He is now busy arranging the dance program. George F. Otto has volunteered to take care of the donations.

December 17, 1914, Letter, Carleton Monroe Winslow, Architect, 422 U. S. Grant Hotel Building, San Diego, Calif. to the Honorable Board of Park Commissioners, San Diego, Calif.

Enclosed please find a bill for a portion of the Chapel fittings, Fine Arts Building, received from Mr. Goodhue to be forwarded to you.

With this bill is a most interesting letter from Mr. Goodhue concerning these articles purchased and the decorating of the Chapel in general. I quote as follows:-

“The other day I succeeded in buying absolutely the most perfect thing in the way of oil paintings to hang up in the chapel that could be imagined, namely, a picture of Our Lady of Guadeloupe, with little scenes around the central figure relating to the legend; — painted in Mexico in 1771. Pictures of just this sort while familiar enough are by no means so common, and I have never seen such a better one than this. I got it at a private sale at the Anderson Galleries, and since the Park Board seems interested to know just how the allowance is being spent, I enclose my catalogue, the number of the picture being #21. With the altar, pulpit and communicants rail in your hands, I think there is nothing more I need to pick up here, so I am enclosing receipted bills bought for everything with the feeling that after all I have done about as well — here in New York as I could have in Mexico.

“There is just one more item I have not been able to find, namely a little holy water stoop. Couldn’t you get something of the sort out there” Failing any other way, why not get an Indian to make one out of onyx, — not a big thing with a pedestal, but a little one set in the wall. The set of stations is, of course, imperative, so if you despair of getting anything, let me know and I will get a set of engraved ones from Neziger, dip it in coffee, and put on mildew stain with blue paint.”

When we are through with this chapel, it will, undoubtedly, be one of the most interesting and quaint places in the Exposition.

Very sincerely yours,

(Signed) Carleton M. Winslow


San Diego Evening Tribune, December 17, 1914, 6:1-2. DAR tea room in the Arts and Crafts Building is a marvel.

San Diego Evening Tribune, December 17, 1914, 14:6. Merchants’ Association adopted poinsettia adopted today as the Exposition flower; will give prizes for best-decorated residences in city.

San Diego Herald, December 17, 1914, 3:2-3. Casting of statuary to be placed on east front of big Agricultural Building begun; will be placed in a few days; principal group representing the State shows California standing protecting the Indian and encouraging the white man in his labors; on one side is a symbolic statue of the influence of Latin American civilization and on the other a statue depicting the influence of the Anglo-Saxon and other northern peoples; memorial to Father Junipero Serra has been placed on the west wing of the Agriculture Building; placing of uniform fountain statuary underway.

San Diego Herald, December 17, 1914, 7:6. Exposition a triumph, unique in conception. . . . There is food for study, reflection and investigation to occupy the attention of the students for a week’s time before a building is entered. If one approaches the grounds by the electric line, B or F Streets, he will note at the right hand the brush and shrub covering the hillsides of a deep canyon, a sample of the thousands of mesas and foothills of the California mountains, just as nature had left them, untouched by the art of man. At the left is a duplicate of contour and outline, redeemed by the landscape architect and converted into an ornate park of rare loveliness — all attained in two or three years, possible of reproduction in hundreds of similar sites in San Diego County. . . . why should this great picture be destroyed? Why should it not be made permanent, this world’s garden feature? In no other part of California can conditions be equaled for a state botanical and horticultural exhibit, the experimental station where semi-tropical vegetation shall be exploited and developed to its utmost perfection.

San Diego Sun, December 17, 1914, 2:5-6. Article on Exposition hospital; has housed 700 patients already; Sun Drug Company and the American Sterilizer Company of Erie, Pa. and the Scanlan-Morris Company of Madison, Wis. Furnished equipment free.

San Diego Sun, December 17, 1914, 9:2. Railroad men doing yeoman service in notifying everybody of San Diego Exposition.

San Diego Sun, December 17, 1914, 9:3. Women Active in Exposition Plans; Colonel Collier and his assistants were busy today with details of Exposition opening celebration; Women’s Entertainment Committee met today.

San Diego Sun, December 18, 1914, 1:2, 2:4. Program of Exposition opening.

San Diego Sun, December 21, 1914, 2:3. Dr. M. A. Curtis, professor of philosophy in the Western Reserve University of Cleveland, Ohio praised archaeological display at Exposition; Japanese fan fish placed in pools and near horticultural building.

San Diego Sun, December 21, 1914, 12:1. Colonel Collier selected “Song of Exposition Opening” today; composed by Richard Kennedy of San Diego.

December 22, 1914, Letter, Carleton Monroe Winslow, 422 U. S. Grant Building, San Diego, Calif. to the Board of Park Commissioners of San Diego, Calif.


I beg to present the following report concerning the extra furnishings for the Chapel, Fine Arts Building, Panama-California Exposition.

Today I have been carefully over the matter with Mr. Pendleton and it is partly at his insistence that I make an official report at this time. It is as follows:

Original appropriation $8,000.00

18 Jul. ’14 Amount available 3,254.90

19 Oct. Misc. bills paid _ 575.31

” Balance available 2,679.59

Plus allowance saved on hardware __ 55.11

Total balance available 2,734.70

Bills paid to date are as follows:

1 Bell, Benoliel $75.00

Howell El. Co. 28.50

  1. W. Jones-Manville Co. 234.00

Piccirilli, fountain 142.48

Drayage .75

Customs, etc. 44.83

Drayage, etc., El. Fix. _ 50.50


Bills to be paid are as follows:

Candlesticks, etc. 75.52

Metal work, fountain 90.64

Misc. painting, statuary 139.50

Altar and pulpit 220.50


Total 1111.22

Balance 1623.48

I regret to report that this balance is not sufficient to meet the needs yet to be done. According to a letter from Mr. Goodhue, dated 24th November, 1914, the reredos for the altar, which he is assembling from Mexican antiques, will cost $2,000. This he has already contracted for some time ago, not realizing, like myself, that the incidentals were seriously eating into the available funds.

Reredos $2000.00

Other necessities and possible


Possible freight, etc. 150.00

Four benches 75.00

Painting of altar, pulpit 200.00

Total 2425.00

Subtracted from the balance of $1,623.48 this leaves a possible deficit of


which for the proper completion of this Chapel I feel to be most necessary. I would respectfully request that $1,000.00 be reserved for this purpose, out of which, undoubtedly, $200.00 can be saved. I beg to call attention to the fact that some of the items paid for our of the fund were not directly in the line of furnishings for the Chapel and Halls, items amounting to over $300.00. Mr. Goodhue and myself have given much extra and especial time to this thing, trying to make it the most unique and wholly successful incident in the Exposition. Mr. Goodhue, to help along the success of the Chapel, has presented to the Park Board a painting, an “Ecce Homo,” which he bought in Mexico in 1900, which will be received with the other furnishings.

Very faithfully yours,

(Signed) Carleton M. Winslow

San Diego Sun, December 23, 1914, 3:1. Exposition workers go like Trojans; C. E. McStay, pathfinder of the Automobile Club of Southern California, says 23 miles of coast route between San Diego and Los Angeles will be improved by dragging.

San Diego Sun, December 23, 1914, 9:1-2. Chimmie McFadden writes article describing Exposition buildings and grounds. . . . “The Panama-California Exposition, in my opinion, is one of the most quaint, artistic and beautiful expositions I have ever had the pleasure of seeing, and I have seen a goodly number.”

San Diego Sun, December 24, 1914, 6:1-2. Chicago & Northwestern Railroad ticket agent says thousands coming early to Exposition.

San Diego Examiner, December 25, 1914, 2:1. Crowds will come to the Fair.

San Diego Examiner, December 25, 1914, 2:2-3. Newspapermen view San Diego Fair exhibits.

San Diego Sun, December 26, 1914, 5:1-2. Order of Panama sponsors ride so shut-ins can see Exposition tomorrow.

San Diego Union, December 27, 1914, 4:3-5. Gleaned on Prado and Isthmus. . . . Construction on the building which will house the skee-ball concession began yesterday. It will be completed in a few days. Skee-ball is a new kind of bowling game. . . . Louis Rothe, a Coronado man, is completing an unusual exhibit in the Varied Industries Building. When completed visitors will have a submarine view spread before them, showing divers at work gathering abalone shells. The booth is for the advertisement of a firm which deals in abalone novelties. Another of the Rothe booths attracting much attention is in the Home Economy Building. In it will be a model kitchen. Overhead is a huge steak which looks enough like the real thing to make one order it at the first restaurant. Adjoining the model kitchen is a model laundry, the design for which was drawn by Rothe. The decorations are clothespins, cleverly made into attractive designs. Rothe had made many booths at the fair, many of them arousing favorable comment. . . . The Exposition automobile park concession is ready for business; provision for 4,000 automobiles at the north gate and 800 at the south gate; charge of 25 cents will be made for an entire night; gasoline and automobile supplies will be available. . . . Chief Yeoman C. P. Pitkin announced yesterday that the U.S. Government will mount an exhibit of guns, relics and curios in the Commerce and Industries building. . . . Several large boxes of lantern slides received at the New Mexico building yesterday. . . . “Old Darby,” Rosa Bonheur’s famous $65,000 masterpiece on the way to the Exposition from South Pasadena. . . . Los Angeles County Day, January 9. . . . Huge relief map of Utah received yesterday. . . . First regiment band of Arizona will come to San Diego for a lengthy visit. With the official Panama-California Exposition band, the Thirteenth regiment band from Fort Rosecrans, the Marine barracks band, and the Arizona band there should be enough music next year to suit the most enthusiastic. . . . Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart has invited organist J. J. McClellan of Salt Lake City, Utah to give organ recitals, probably in March.


Park Commissioners, Minutes, December 28, 1914. Secretary instructed to cut the Park force to meet the budget for 1915.

San Diego Sun, December 28, 1914, 1:8, 2. Putting final touches on Exposition; number of employees at Exposition during 1915 will exceed 4,000; 450 marines will be encamped on grounds and 500 cavalrymen east of the grounds; 300 guards.

San Diego Union, December 28, 1914, 1:3. USS San Diego Due In Home Port Wednesday Morning; Pacific Fleet’s Flagship Will Cast Starboard Anchor at Dawn in Man-o’-War Row For Exposition Opening; Crew Anxiously Awaits Inaugural Ceremonies; Thirteen warships ordered by Washington to participate in maneuvers during 1915, will feature festivities.

The United States armored cruiser San Diego, flagship of Rear Admiral Thomas Benton Howard, commander-in-chief, United States Pacific Fleet, will steam into the Harbor of the Sun from Mazatlan, Wednesday morning about breakfast time. Word to this effect was radioed from the big warship yesterday.

When the port or starboard anchor of the San Diego finds its resting place at the bottom of the harbor and the vessel begins riding easily at the end of her cable in man-o’-war row, it will mark the first time in the history of the navy on the Pacific coast where a flagship of one of Uncle Sam’s powerful fleets has anchored in the port from whence she derived her name.

Officers and crew of the Pride of the Pacific Fleet are said to be looking forward with the keenest anticipation for the opening of the Exposition and from reports received from the flagship, all hands, from Admiral Howard and Captain Robertson to the ship’s cook, are anxious to do their bit in making a success of the opening festivities.

Two powerful submarines, the K-7 and the K-8, convoyed by the naval tug Iroquois will arrive from San Francisco at noon today. Both submarines are equipped with radio apparatus and are the first craft of their kind so fitted to ever enter the Harbor of the Sun. They are to be stationed here until July, 1915.

The fleet, which will ride anchor on man-o’war-row on New Year’s Eve, is now officially known. It will consist of the flagship San Diego, submarines K-7 and K-8, torpedo boat destroyers Whipple, Paul Jones, Bruxton, Perry, Preble, Lawrence, Hall, Hopkins and Stewart, and repair ship Iris, thirteen ships in all. All the war craft will be decorated during the day, from stem to stern, with international signal flags and the sight will be an animated one on New Year’s Eve. It is planned to have the entire battery of search lights aboard the San Diego focused on the tower of the California Building at the Exposition grounds for several minutes before President Wilson presses a button at the White House opening the Exposition.

At 8 bells, or 8 o’clock, New Year’s Eye, all ships of the navy in the harbor will be brilliantly illuminated for about two hours and it is expected that this inspiring sight will draw thousands of visitors to the waterfront.

San Diego Sun, December 29, 1914, 1:1. Exposition program ready.

San Diego Sun, December 29, 1914, 1:1. Cruiser San Diego in; gets a royal welcome.

San Diego Sun, December 29, 1914, 1:2. Bonfires to light skies.

San Diego Sun, December 29, 1914, 2:3. Exposition officials disgusted at City’s failure to put Park Boulevard in shape for traffic from University Avenue to north entrance.

San Diego Union, December 29, 1914, 1:7. Confetti Banned on Fair Grounds; Sale Permits Revoked; Reimbursement Suggested When Merchants Complain . . . Frank J. Belcher, Jr., representing the Exposition, appeared before the Council yesterday morning and requested that the permits for the handling of confetti be revoked. He explained that the Exposition does not intend to sell confetti, its only object being to stop the use of confetti within the grounds of the Exposition. He explained the great cost and inconvenience that the officials would be put to in protecting the plants, foliage and the flushing of the avenues. The motion to revoke all permits to sell confetti was adopted.

Several dealers who have laid in supplies appeared before the Council at its adjourned session yesterday afternoon and said that the revoking of permits after stocks had been purchased would work a hardship on them. Councilman Benbough thought the dealers might be reimbursed to the extent of their outlay and Admiral Manney suggested confetti limits, excluding the Exposition grounds. A question arose as to the legality of such proceedings and the merchants were requested to confer with the Exposition officials.

San Diego Union, December 29, 1914, 3:1. Thousands Coming This Week for Fair Opening; Fifteen hundred due Thursday on liners Harvard and Yale; 40-piece band promised; Special rate from San Francisco extended to January 31.

Four coastwise liners, carrying approximately 2,158 passengers are scheduled to arrive from north coast points today, tomorrow and Thursday. Shipping men declare that this is the heaviest traffic for any consecutive three days in the history of Pacific coast shipping.

Fifteen hundred and ninety-eight passengers will arrive Thursday afternoon on the Pacific Navigation Company’s liners Harvard and Yale. The Yale will make two special trips this week from San Pedro, arriving here Thursday afternoon at 4 o’clock and again Saturday afternoon at the same time. One the Thursday trip the speedy turbiner will bring in addition to her other passengers, the Long Beach band of forty pieces. She will said Friday afternoon and return the following day, steaming for San Francisco at 8 a.m. Sunday.

The Yucatan of the North Pacific Steamship Company is due this morning from Portland and way ports with about sixty passengers, and will be followed tomorrow by the Pacific Coast Steamship Company’s liner President from Vancouver, Victoria, Seattle, San Francisco and San Pedro with a passenger list of 500.

  1. Don Dunann, city passenger agent of the Pacific Coast Steamship Company announced yesterday that the rate of $16, including berth and meals between San Diego and San Francisco on the steamers, President, Governor, Queen and Congress, has been extended to January 31, 1915. A $46 round-trip rate, including berth and meals from date of sale of ticket and effective for thirty days, went into effect yesterday.

One or more McCormick boats are due in port before New Year’s day from Columbia river and way points and it is possible that the list of arriving passengers will be augmented until the total for the next three days will reach the 2,200 mark.

San Diego Union, December 29, 1914, 3:5. 5,000 Automobiles Expected to Join in Parade; Largest turnout of machines on record predicted for New Year’s’; Racers will head line; Three thousand cars from other cities included in estimate.

San Diego Union, December 29, 1914, ?. Usher in 1915 With Straw Hat; light headgear boost for San Diego.

San Diego Union, December 29, 1914, ?. Gleaned on Prado and Isthmus. . . . President Charles C. Moore, of the Panama-Pacific Exposition at San Francisco will not attend the opening of the Panama-California Exposition at San Diego; urgent business prevents him from getting away; San Francisco delegation will be headed by the vice president of the Exposition and Mayor Rolph of San Francisco. . . . C. A. Matthews, assistant general manager for the Northern Pacific Railway, says it will be largely farmers of the country who will come to San Diego this winter; at present the farmers are the most prosperous fellows in the country. . . . Cadets of the Salt Lake City High School will visit San Diego after the close of the school year in June. . . . The Ogden Utah Tabernacle Choir will be in San Diego July 16, 17 and 18. . . . Gates to the Exposition will be closed to everyone at 12 o’clock noon, Thursday for cleaning work to begin. . . . Scaffolding removed from the Spreckels music pavilion yesterday. . . . Gwen Hick, in charge of the Washington building will hold open house on New Year’s Eve with dancing, guests to be served fresh cider. . . . All state buildings are being made ready for receptions on the opening evening of the Fair. . . . Special events being planned every day except Sunday. . . . Drivers in the Point Loma auto race will go to the Exposition directly after the finish, winner to receive award in Plaza de Panama if arrangements can be made.

San Diego Evening Tribune, December 30, 1914, 1:1-2, 5:2-3. Exposition ready to open tomorrow night: Official Program Exposition Opening Celebration — December 31, 1914

7:00 p.m. – Public admitted to grounds

7:00 p.m. – Dinner to press representatives at downtown Panorama Roof Garden

9:00 p.m. – Dedication of Spreckels Organ

11:00 p.m. – Opening Ceremony at Plaza de Panama, ending at midnight with flash from President

Wilson that will formally open Exposition.

January 1, 1915

9:00 a.m. – Automobile tour of city for press representatives

11:00 a.m. – Official Dedication ceremonies

12:00 p.m. – Dedication of Women’s Board Headquarters

2:30 p.m. – Great automobile procession starting at Broadway and Arctic Streets

7:30 p.m. – Reception and banquet Women’s Board at U. S. Grant Hotel

8:00 p.m. – President’s official banquet at Café Cristobal

January 2, 1915

10:30 a.m. – Grand military and naval parade starting at Broadway and Arctic Streets

11:00 a.m. – Automobile ride by Women’s Board (not officially announced)

8:00 p.m. – Grand carnival on Isthmus

The speakers announced to take part at the official dedicatory exercises, beginning at 11 o’clock in the morning of New Year’s day, follow:

Hon. Lyman J. Gage, presiding

Hon. G. A. Davidson, president of the Panama-California Exposition

Hon. William G. McAdoo, secretary of the U.S. Treasury, personal representative of President Wilson.

Count Del Valle de Salazar, personal representative of Alfonso XIII of Spain

Hon. J. Barrett, director-general of the Pan-American Union, representing the American republics

Hon. Charles Moore, president of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition

Hon. Hiram W. Johnson, governor of California

Hon. Oswald West, governor of Oregon

Hon. George H. Hodges, governor of Kansas

Hon. Tasker L. Oddie, governor of Nevada

Hon. Ernest Lister, governor of Washington

Hon. S. W. Stewart, governor of Montana

Hon. William Spry, governor of Utah

Hon. William G. McDonald, governor of New Mexico

Hon. George W. P. Hunt, governor of Arizona

Hon. William Alden Smith, U.S. Senator from the State of Michigan.

Hon. James Rolph, Jr. , mayor of the City of San Francisco

Hon. H. H. Rose, mayor of the City of Los Angeles

Hon. Frank K. Mott, mayor of the City of Oakland

Hon. Charles F. O’Neall, mayor of the City of San Diego

Hon. R. W. Fridham, chairman of the Southern California Counties Exposition Commission

Chairman of the Sacramento Valley Exposition Commission

Chairman of the San Joaquin Valley Exposition Commission

Chairman of the Alameda and Santa Clara Counties Exposition Commission

Chairman of the Kern and Tulare Counties Exposition Commission

While the speakers for the president’s banquet, New Year’s night at 8 o’clock at the Café Cristobal, are not officially announced, it is said welcome will be extended by President G. Aubrey Davidson, Mayor Charles F. O’Neall and Governor Hiram Johnson, representing the Exposition, the city and the state.

Responses are expected from Secretary William G. McAdoo, Count del Valle de Salazar, the governors of Utah, Nevada, New Mexico and Oregon and the mayors of fifteen California cities.

The routes of the great military and naval parade and of the automobile procession were announced in The Evening Tribune yesterday together with the list of participants.

In connection with the distinguished guests, it was announced today by the Order of Panama that the order is perfecting plans to initiate them all into the order. The chapel of the New Mexico building has been secured for the purpose Saturday night, January 2, at 8:30 o’clock.

This order, preserving the history and romance of the Spanish conquests in America and the bringing of Christianity to California, expects to make members of Secretary McAdoo, personal representative of President Wilson; Count de Salazar, personal representative of King Alfonso of Spain; John Barrett, director-general of the Pan-American Union; Governor Johnson of California; Governor Spry of Utah; Governor McDonald of New Mexico, Governor Oddie of Nevada; Governor West of Oregon and other distinguished guests of the Exposition.

San Diego Union, December 30, 1914, 1:2, 2:3. Din Heralds Flagship’s Arrival in Port; Whistles Shriek, Guns Roar as Cruiser San Diego Returns from Mexican Waters for Fair Opening.

With every shop whistle in the city shrieking a welcome, the cruiser San Diego, flagship and pride of the Pacific fleet, steamed into the harbor yesterday afternoon and dropped anchor at 2 o’clock. Coming from Mazatlan to participate officially in the opening celebrations of the Panama-California Exposition, the big cruiser made fast time, less than 72 hours being required for the trip from the West Mexican port.

The guns at Fort Rosecrans boomed out the customary salute as the San Diego entered the channel, and as the big ship poked its nose into the bay the whistle at the electric power plant blew the first blast of welcome. Other whistles took up the signal and for fifteen minutes the din continued. Distinctly heard in the tumult was the big calliope on the roof of the U. S. Grant Hotel, which broke into the aid, “Home Sweet Home.”

Rear Admiral Thomas B. Howard, commander-in-chief of the Pacific fleet and senior ranking officer of the navy, caught his first glimpse of San Diego in more than ten months, when the cruiser ended its voyage from Mexican waters. During that time he has been in continuous service along the lower coast, and his long absence lent enthusiasm to the greeting extended to him by naval and military officers and representative men of the city.

  1. Aubrey Davidson, president of the Exposition, and Rufus Choate, president of the Chamber of Commerce, were among the first to greet Rear Admiral Howard, Capt. Ashley Robertson and officers of the cruiser. President Davidson officially welcomed the Admiral on behalf of the Exposition and President Choate extended a similar welcome from the Chamber of Commerce.

Rear Admiral Howard was jubilant on the prospects of even a brief “holiday” in his ship’s home port, and enthusiastic over the participation by the cruiser and its men in the festivities attending the opening of the Panama-California Exposition.

“I appreciate the welcome we have received,” he said. “The officers and crew of the San Diego will gladly do their share toward making the opening of the Exposition as auspicious as possible.”

The Admiral smilingly posed for a Union photographer. In the group with him were Capt. Robertson, President Davidson, President Choate, Commander Cleland Davis, naval aide to the Exposition head, and Capt. R. P. Rifenberick, military aide.

Plans for the celebration tomorrow night, Friday and Saturday were explained to Rear Admiral Howard and Captain Robertson by President Davidson. The naval officers entered into the spirit of the occasion and assured President Davidson that they would gladly assist in the program.

Electricians on the San Diego will be busy today stringing hundreds of lights from the masts and other parts of the ship. On the stroke of midnight, tomorrow night, at the same time that President Wilson presses the button in the White House and officially opens the Exposition, the ship will be illuminated from bow to stern. Every search light then will be flashed upon the tower of the California building, and the San Diego’s initial part in the celebration will have been done.

In the big parade Saturday it is expected that 600 sailors from the San Diego will be in line, also the ship’s band.

Other distinguished persons who greeted Rear Admiral Howard were Col. J. B. Pendleton, U.S.M.C., chief yeoman George P. Pitkin of the navy recruiting station, commanders of the torpedo boats stationed here, and civilian friends.

Floating in the breeze from the after mast was the admiral’s flag — an emblem of blue upon which were two stars.

The ship’s band played, “I Love You California,” and other popular airs as the ship steamed into the bay. The rails were jammed with sailors who waved their white hats and cheered in response to the waving of handkerchiefs by hundreds of persons who lined the wharves.

Railroad agents were on the ship early in an effort to sign up a big party of sailors for trips to Los Angeles and other nearby points, but they met with nothing like their usual success. While a few men engaged tickets for out of town, the majority preferred to remain in San Diego for the Exposition opening.

“Nothing doing this time,” remarked one sailor to an agent. “There’s nothing big enough that you can offer in Los Angeles to pull us away from San Diego.”

The situation at Mazatlan and to the southern part of the peninsula was unchanged when the San Diego left, according to officers, although trouble was expected at Tepic, where several thousand Carranza troops were reported to have cast their lot with Villa. This new was wirelessed to the San Diego, with the added information that foreigners at Tepic and San Blas had been given refuge aboard the United States supply ship — Glacier. Rear Admiral Howard, on learning this, ordered the gunboat Annapolis to San Blas.

People of Mazatlan and vicinity were declared to be on friendly terms with the men of the Pacific fleet.

San Diego Union, December 30, 1914, 1:7-8, 3:4-5. Fair Work Closes In Feverish Rush As Crowds Arrive; Hundreds engaged night and day finishing details of great Exposition task white committees conclude arrangements for opening celebration; Exhibits being installed with all possible haste; Decorators Dress City In Gorgeous Attire For Welcome To Throngs She Will Entertain; Business houses, residences, thoroughfares gay with light and color; Messages from many quarters congratulate San Diego on magnificent achievement; Other telegrams announce coming of delegations.

While countless thousands are traveling through wintry scenes to reach San Diego for the opening of the Panama-California Exposition, members of the celebration committee are arranging the final details, and hundreds of workmen, divided into two shifts of eight hours each, are putting forth almost superhuman efforts to complete the last of the work, which is destined to spread the fame of Southern California to the most obscure villages of the country.

Flashing lights and the continuous clatter of steel hammers at the Exposition grounds last night told of the feverish rush to have everything ready for the entertainment of the throng that will attend the opening ceremonies.

With the exception of the rush work on the Isthmus, the Exposition is perhaps nearer completion forty-eight hours before the opening than any other fair of the kind ever held. Exhibits are being rushed into the buildings and new amusements are springing up on the Isthmus like mushrooms in the night. When the gates are opened at 7 o’clock tomorrow evening even residents of San Diego who have been closely identified with the progress of the work will be surprises.

Grounds and Principal Buildings Completed

Grounds and the main exhibit buildings were completed some weeks ago. The decorating of the interiors, the building of booths, the placing of exhibits, all of which is painstaking work, have taken longer than was originally expected. That does not mean that the Exposition is not ready; it means that a few scattered exhibits will have to be placed after the opening. There will be plenty to see and plenty of amusement to occupy anyone during the three days of festivities planned by the celebration committee.

Last Meeting Held

The last meeting of the general celebration committee was held last night at headquarters in the Union building. Final details of the celebration were arranged, and today every member of the committee is busy whipping into last-minute shape that for which he will be responsible New Year’s Eve.

Rather than be late at an event which in years to come will be used to mark time, hundreds already have arrived in the city. They come from near and far. San Diego hotel registers show that visitors from practically every city in the country are here to help San Diegans celebrate the opening of the Exposition and the completion of the Panama Canal.

Hundreds will come to the city today by boat and by train. Tomorrow special trains will roll in, bringing hundreds of boosters from every part of California, Utah, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, Washington, Oregon and other western states.

Five years ago San Diego told the world she would hold and Exposition in 1915 to celebrate the completion of the Panama Canal and invited all nations to help in celebrating the completion of the greatest engineering achievement of modern times. The Exposition is now practically complete, and San Diego has kept her promise.

City in Holiday Attire

Today San Diego is in holiday attire. For miles her streets are decorated in Exhibition colors and when the electric switch is turned on early tomorrow evening, her streets will blaze with color. Business houses have been decorated and residents throughout the city generally have helped the committee by decorating their houses.

Last night telegrams of congratulation on the completion of the Exposition poured in at celebration headquarters. Mayors of many of the largest cities in the country paid tribute to the city which, with only 40,000 residents a few years ago, had the courage to undertake a task of such magnitude. Telegrams announcing delegations from points in California and western states continue to be received.

(There follows a description of telegrams from Long Beach, Calif. and Imperial Valley.)

Gates to Open at 7

Gates at the Exposition will open at 7 o’clock tomorrow evening. The crowd will be expected to amuse itself on the Isthmus until the band concert by the Panama-California Exposition band, which will begin at the Plaza de Panama at 11 o’clock.

The ceremony of the raising of the American flag to the top of the tall mast on the Plaza de Panama, in which sailors and marines will participate, will take place after the band concert and a few minutes before the speaking.

Col. D. C. Collier will preside. After his opening remarks, Carl I. Ferris will speak on behalf of the San Diego Board of Park Commissioners, Mayor Charles F. O’Neall will speak for residents of the city, George W. Marston will speak as a representative of the Exposition commission of California, Gov. Hiram Johnson will speak on behalf of the state. President G. Aubrey Davidson will declare the Exposition open after President Woodrow Wilson presses the button which will illuminate the grounds. The fireworks display will follow and immediately after this the crowd will dance to the tune of band music as long as it cares to enjoy that pastime. Many will go back to the Exposition cafes, where they will celebrate the dawn of 1915.

Decorate Residences, Don Straw Hats Urges Celebration Committee

The Exposition decoration and celebrating committee again urges all residents of San Diego to decorate their homes with the official colors, red and yellow, American flags, and red, white and blue bunting and pennants. The business district presents a gala appearance, but there are many residences which should be decorated.

Poinsettias for decoration purposes may be obtained from the celebration opening committee’s offices in the Union building for $3 a dozen, a price far below that usually asked for these beautiful blossoms.

Not the least important decoration is the straw hat. It is particularly requested by members of the various committees that every San Diegan decorate his head during the celebration with a straw hat. A red and yellow ribbon band will also add to the appropriateness of the hat, and this is one way that everyone can help. It is just as easy to wear a straw hat as any other. If each individual will do his own part during the celebration a felt or cloth hat or cap will be a rare sight, and, with the cooperation of San Diego’s peerless climate, the word winter will become nothing but a faint memory in the city where straw hats and summer clothing can be worn with comfort the year round.

California’s Governor Will Lend Presence at Exposition Opening

Gov. Hiram Johnson will arrive in Los Angeles on his way to San Diego this afternoon or early tomorrow morning. In the Angel City, he will meet Lieut. Gov. A. G. Wallace and the two state officials will arrive in this city on a special car attached to the 1:10 p.m. train tomorrow. They will be met at the station by a delegation of prominent citizens and Exposition officials.

Downtown Hotels Taxed to Capacity by Vanguard of Exposition Visitors

. . . .

Roads in Good Condition South of Los Angeles Assert Automobilists

. . . .

Imperial Valley Party Coming For Celebration in Fifty Autos Today

. . . .

(Mayor H. H. Rose) Los Angeles Executive Cannot Come to Opening,

Sends Regrets

. . . .

Officials Deny Advance in Price of Admission For Exposition Opening

. . . .

Army of Pinkerton Men to Police Grounds During Inaugural Celebration

Two hundred and forty of the cleverest men in the employ of the Pinkerton national detective agency will police the Exposition grounds during the opening celebration. With a thorough knowledge of crooks and their ways and a mental picture of the leading pickpockets and confidence men, the Pinkerton force will be equal to the task of handling the undesirables who, no doubt, will choose the Exposition grounds as a field for operations. Some of the men will be dressed in the uniform of the Spanish conquistadors and many others will be plain clothes men who will mingle with the crowds and keep watch for suspicious characters.

The local police force, the Pinkerton force, and all local patrol and detective organizations will work together during the entire year, forming an alliance for the prevention and detection of crime.

Day and Night Crews Work to Move Exhibits from Incoming Trains

The controversy between the City and the Santa Fe Railway over the proposed closing of B Street is working a hardship on E. J. Chapin, traffic manager of the Exposition. In order to handle the freight for the Exposition under existing conditions it has been necessary for A. F. Hunt of the Santa Fe to put on an extra night crew. . . . .

Monster Auto Parade Assured for New Year; Parking Space Sought

The committee wishes every person owning an automobile in this city will arrange so as to be in line No decorations are required. The parade will be formed on the side streets, adjacent to Broadway and India Street.

San Diego Union, December 30, 1914, 1:4-6. Plans Completed for Dedication of $100,000 Organ; Symphony Orchestra and People’s Chorus to Assist. . . . Plans for the dedication exercises New Year’s eve of the $100,000 organ, the gift to the Exposition from John D. Spreckels, were completed yesterday by the music committee. Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart, the noted organist of San Francisco, who has been engaged for two years by Mr. Spreckels, will be assisted in the dedication program by the Popular Symphony orchestra, conducted by Chesley Mills, and the People’s Chorus, directed by Willibald Lehmann. After a conference the music committee decided that the excellent musical abilities of these organizations should receive recognition by being given a prominent part in the dedication exercises and an invitation was extended to the two directors to assist Dr. Stewart by furnishing several orchestral and choral numbers on the program. The selections chosen by Mr. Mills for the Popular Symphony orchestra are at the request of prominent musicians of the city. The dedication program which follows will begin at 9 o’clock, New Year’s eve.

Part one. Organ solos by Dr. H. J. Stewart.

Processional March from the music drama “Montezuma” (Stewart)

Fantasia on Christmas melodies (Stewart) . . . This number was composed specially for the dedication of the organ.

Overture, Guillaume Tell (Rossini).

Part two. Concert by People’s Chorus, Willibald Lehmann, conductor, and Popular Symphony Orchestra,

Chesley Mills, conductor.

March. “Pomp and Circumstance” (Elgar)

“The Heavens are Telling” from The Creation (Haydn). Mrs. Helen Ruggles White (soprano),

  1. F. Kelly (tenor), H. V. Mather (bass).

Overture. “Orpheus in the Underworld” (Offenbach)

“The Marvelous Work” from The Creation (Haydn). Mrs. Helen Ruggles White (soprano)

“Unfold Ye Portals” from The Redemption (Gounod). For chorus, solo chorus, orchestra and organ.

San Diego Union, December 30, 1914, 4. Gleaned on Prado and Isthmus. . . . Under the direction of Ernest Kaai, famous Hawaiian musician and composer, natives of Hawaii, who arrived in San Diego Sunday for a year’s residence in the Hawaiian village, Kenneth Croft’s interesting concession on the Isthmus at the Panama-California Exposition held a rehearsal yesterday morning.

Clad in their native costumes, the young women gave an exhibition of hula-hula dancing to the music of Hawaiian instruments and the singing of the Hawaiian quintet. The rehearsal was most interesting and was witnessed by only a few of the invited guests. A movie man was present, getting some pictures which he took for a motion picture syndicate.

The hula dance, a dance which is given only before royalty, was given for, perhaps, the first time in this country. The hula kui, a dance which is general among Hawaiians, was also given. Comely young women did the dancing and those present admitted they have never seen the equal of the dancers brought across the water for the entertainment of San Diego’s 1915 visitors.

One of the most interesting of the group of thirty-two Hawaiians is Princess Niau, who is 72 years old, and who for years enjoyed the reputation of being the Sarah Bernhardt of the Hawaiian Islands. She was the leading actress of her time, playing the leading roles in dramas which told of Hawaiian life and writing many plays which were popular with the people of the islands. In San Diego she will tell fortunes and instruct the younger girls in dancing.

Princess Kauilani, known as the most beautiful girl on the Hawaiian Islands, took a prominent part in yesterday’s rehearsal. With her dainty fingers she will serve poi to visitors at the village, taking her turn at dancing on the open-air stage which faces the open-air café. Princes Kauilani is noted for her grace in the water.

Another conspicuous in the rehearsal was Princess Akauiani, who is said to ride horseback better than any woman in Honolulu. She is also famous for her interpretations of many native dances.

The Hawaiian Village was completed yesterday. It shows old as well as new Hawaii and is attractively decorated with plants and foliage of Hawaii. Manager Croft, who was for a time worried as to finishing in time for the opening night, was ready yesterday and could have opened his show to the public had occasion demanded.

Max E. Parker, who has made the plans for twenty-one of the concessions on the Isthmus, drew a breath of relief yesterday for work on his last building began. Parker drew plans for the Hawaiian Bilalge, Alhambra Cafeteria, Neptune’s Wonderland, dance hall, doll house, shooting gallery, front for Ferris wheel, ice cream pavilion, bowling and skee-ball concession, Frank Salmons’ gem mine, the National Views’ Company arcade, circling wave, Farmer Burns’ motordrome, and many others. Parker has been one of the busiest men in San Diego during the past few months and, with the completion of his work, he feels ready for a vacation.

Mrs. L. E. Van Zandt, known as the only woman advertising manager of a big city newspaper, was a visitor at the Exposition grounds yesterday. . . .

Many newspapers of the East and Middle West are offering trips to the Panama-California Exposition as premiums in beauty contests and contests of various kinds. . . .

“The Story of the Missions,” the concession on the Isthmus by T. P. Getz, is practically finished. Last of the gardening work was finished yesterday . . .

The motordrome, owned by Farmer Burns, once champion wrestler of the world, is complete. Riders are practicing on the bowl-shaped track every day and Burns promises an entertainment with more thrills than an old-fashioned melodrama.

What is expected to prove one of the most attractive concessions at the Exposition is the Doll House, which is being installed by Vincent Payne. Dolls of various sizes from the smallest kewpie to those measuring twenty-two inches, all attractively dressed, will be displayed.

These will be awarded as prizes on a wheel of fortune or will be sold at the retail price. The inhabitants of the doll house will vie with each other for attention, for they will be dressed in the latest fashion fads. One style of kewpie will, however, be able to trace his ancestry back to Adam through lack of clothing, for this time will wear only a belt, hoister and six-shooter.

The largest dolls will be Indian mothers with papooses on their back and the Golden West girls. Miss San Diego will be shown as well as male dolls dressed in sailors’ uniforms. They will further advertise the city for the reason that the sailor dolls will wear caps with U. S. S. San Diego on the ribbon.

A novel feature of the doll house will be the display of some of the smallest dolls on a miniature stage. The stage is complete even to drop wings and lights. On this the dolls will be arranged like a chorus in a big musical comedy production.

San Diego Union, December 30, 1914, 4. Salt Lake Route officials and other railroad men of California will be banqueted at the San Diego Grill tomorrow evening at 7:30 o’clock.

San Diego Union, December 30, 1914, 8:1. Thriving Industry Shown by Valley at Exposition; Coachella’s Resources Are Demonstrated in Unique Exhibit of Dates; Product Unexcelled; Growers Awarded First Prizes For Fruit Against All Competitors.

Little is known of this valley by other counties of California and for this reason the date growers organized an association and elected W. I. Paul as their president. To convince visitors all over the United States that California is producing a fruit that grows only in a certain kind of climate, the Date Growers’ Association decided to install an exhibit at the Exposition.

The exhibit shows stages of growth of the date from the time the tree blooms until the product is packed in boxes. Dates of all varieties, from dates imported from Arabia and Egypt, will be on display.

San Diego Evening Tribune, December 31, 1914, 1:1-2, 5:3-5, 7:2. Notables of Nation Gather Here to Aid in First Ceremony, by George H. White . . . Excepts . . . San Diego is offering the world a new idea in world’s fairs from many points of view. The first is its simple beauty of Spanish-Colonial and the harmonious Moorish architecture and the grandeur of its setting in semi-tropical flora and marvelous views. Within, the Spanish atmosphere. Quiet nooks and patios and balconies, flowers, vines and plants, Spanish cavaliers and senoritas, dancing, serenading, cannot fail to captivate and transport the modern minded to forgotten romantic days. Second, perhaps, the greater appear will be found in the plan of exhibits, demonstrating processes of manufacture, handicraft peculiar to various peoples, agriculture, horticulture, mining, irrigation.

Special trains and hundreds of automobiles brought thousands of visitors today for the opening celebration. For days trains and steamers have carried capacity lists and a conservative estimate is said to be that 40,000 out-of-town visitors will participate in the great celebration which will continue tomorrow and Saturday.

The speaker’s platform on the Plaza de Panama is arranged to accommodate 500 persons who have been invited to occupy the chairs.

In the grand automobile procession of tomorrow afternoon, Chairman George Walker, of the committee, states that 3,000 machines are expected. Imperial Valley promises to have the greatest out-of-town entry. A hundred Imperial machines arrived yesterday and nearly 150 more today. Escondido, Riverside and points throughout Southern California have numerous machines here or on the way. A special request is made by Chairman Walker that as many San Diegans as possible turn out. The procession will form on the side streets of Lower Broadway and start at 2 o’clock. It will be led by the Mexican regimental band, and the racing cars entered for the Point Loma road race will be the first of the cars.

The Mexican band consists of forty pieces, and was sent to San Diego as a compliment to the exposition city and exposition officials by Esteban Cantu of Lower California. It is conducted by Lieutenant Isaac Romero, of the Twenty-fifth battalion of infantry, formerly of the world-famous police band of Mexico City, organized by General Felix Diaz, when he was chief inspector of police. Director Romero is generously offering the band’s services upon every occasion requested. A. T. Pecina, an interpreter, is serving as the medium of communication between Romero and officials.

More than 600 invitations were extended for the president’s banquet to be held at the Café Cristobal beginning at 8 o’clock tomorrow night.

The celebration of January 2 will be featured mainly by the grand naval and military parade to start from the foot of Broadway at 10:30 o’clock. This is anticipated as the greatest of its kind ever accorded San Diego. With the officers and crew of the U.S.S. San Diego, Admiral Howard’s flagship, and the destroyer and submarine flotillas, the coast artillery, marine corps, and First cavalry and San Diego military organizations represented, accompanied by six or eight naval and military and other bands, the parade is destined to be of special magnificence.

Tomorrow night the grand carnival on the Isthmus will being at 8 o’clock and the great frolic will continue as long as it may please the fun makers. Special features for this carnival have been arranged in abundance.

San Diego Herald, December 31, 1914, 2:2. Exposition Now Open. . . . Everyone in any way connected with the construction of this gigantic work is entitled to praise and credit for every detail has been finished on time and exactly as was contemplate in the minds of those who designed it. It is a splendid monument to the patriotism and enterprise of the people of San Diego and will bring lasting benefits to the city; it is also a tribute to the men who managed it as never before did a city get so much for its money.

The work is great, the result is grand, and in it all there is not a whisper or suspicion of graft.

San Diego Sun, December 31, 1914, 1:3. Parking places will be provided at both the north and south entrances; about 4,000 machines can be cared for at the north entrance and 500 at the south gate.

San Diego Sun, December 31, 1914, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Exposition Makers: Literally thousands have given of their best to make it a great success and all San Diego has joined in the work — whose result may well be cause of honest pride.

San Diego Union, December 31, 1914, 1:6-8. Exposition Will Throw Open Gates to World at Midnight; Spanish City’s Dedication Will Commemorate Completion of Panama Canal Linking Atlantic With Pacific, Marking Nation’s Greatest Engineering Feat, Making San Diego First Port-of-Call on Coast; President Wilson Will Touch Button at Midnight Throwing on A Sea of Light, Which Will Inaugurate All-Year Fair; Many Celebrities Coming; McAdoo party and King Alfonso’s representative due to arrive today.

Tonight’s Program

7 p.m. – Gates of all entrances to be thrown open. Also opening to the public of Isthmus amusements.

7 to 9 p.m. – Dinner for newspaper men at Panorama Roof Garden.

9 p.m. – Dedication of Spreckels’ organ pavilion.

11 p.m. – Ceremony of opening Exposition on Plaza de Panama; President Wilson to press button in Washington which will flash on all lights and explode fireworks.

Beginning of midnight carnival and dancing on Plaza de Panama.

Amusements on the Isthmus and in cafes; carnival to continue as long as crowd desires to remain.

San Diego Union, December 31, 1914, 1, 2:2-4. President Will Touch Button Opening San Diego Exposition. . . . With many hotels already crowded to capacity, the city in holiday attire, the Panama-California Exposition ready for the opening tonight, and fair weather promised by the weather man, thousands of San Diegans will awake this morning to pass another day, and greet the dawn of 1915 — that magic number which has been held before them since it was decided to celebrate the completion of the Panama canal and place San Diego before the world as the first port of call.

All day yesterday trains rolled into San Diego with throngs of passengers, a greater part of them coming to help celebrate a function never before attained by a city of this size. Today hotel reservations will be at a premium and visitors will be sent to rooming houses and private residences throughout the city.

Extra coaches were necessary on nearly all the regular trains and today several specials loaded with boosters and men whose names are known the length and breadth of the land will bring many hundreds more. That San Diego will entertain during the opening festivities of the Exposition at least 15,000 guests was the general prediction last night.

William G. McAdoo, secretary of the United States treasury, with Mrs. McAdoo, will arrive at 5:20 p.m. Count Del Valle de Salazar, representative of the king of Spain, will arrive at 1:30 p.m., and Governor Hiram W. Johnson will arrive on a noon special. Others who will arrive during the day are: Governor Oswald West of Oregon, Governor William Spry of Utah, Governor William G. McDonald on New Mexico, Mayor James Rolph of San Francisco, and the chairmen of many state and county Exposition commissions.

As the hour strikes seven this evening, the first formality in the opening of the Exposition will take place. Turnstiles will be unlocked and the public will surge through the different entrances, anxious to see the completed Spanish city.

At the same hour, nearly 150 newspapermen, from near and far, will be the guests of the general celebration committee at a banquet given at the Roof Garden café. After the dinner they will be taken to the Exposition grounds, where they will make a tour of the grounds, guided by Winfield Hogaboom, chairman of the committee.

The dedication of the Spreckels music pavilion will be a 9 o’clock, and after that ceremony the crowds will visit the amusement places on the Isthmus, returning at 11 o’clock for the formal ceremony of opening to the world the Panama-California Exposition.

Immediately after this ceremony, the Panama-California Exposition band will play for the carnival of dancing which will take place on the Plaza de Panama. Those on the grounds may stay as long as they please and continue the merrymaking until the dawn of 1915 chases the shadows of night.

Cafes will be open all night, both the Cristobal and the Alhambra. Reservations at these cafes have been beyond expectations. Both have made allowances for extra seating capacity, and it is probable that at least 2,200 people will be accommodated.

Tomorrow at 9 a.m., an automobile tour of the city will be given visiting newspapermen and at 11 a.m. the official dedicatory ceremonies will be held at the Exposition. At 2:30 p.m. the automobile parade will start from Broadway and Arctic streets. It will be viewed by representative visitors from a grandstand erected as Sixth and Kalmia streets.

Two Hostesses Name for Women’s Headquarters Panama-California Fair

Mrs. A. E. Frost, chairman of the hostess committee of the Panama-California Exposition, the duty of which is to select women from each of the clubs of the city, the federation and county societies, to act as hostesses for each day of the year at women’s headquarters in the California building, last night announced that Mrs. J. G, Burne and Mrs. Eunice James would be hostesses for New Year’s Day. Names are to be printed each week for the following week.

People’s Chorus Urged to Assemble Early for Exposition Opening

. . .

Liners Bear Thousands Coming to Exposition Opening Festivities

Pacific Coast Steamship Company’s liner President from Puget Sound; Harvard and Yale from San Francisco and Los Angeles.

Portland Rotarians Coming on Two Special Trains for Exposition

The Rotarians will pass New Year’s Day in Pasadena for the rose festival there and will then make the San Diego trip for the real fun of their long jaunt from Portland.

Utah’s Governor Coming with State Delegation to Exposition Opening

Many of those coming on the special train will remain in San Diego for the Point Loma auto races on the 9th, taking the opportunity, after the opening, to make side trips and to otherwise enjoy the beauties of the city.

Fair Opening Ceremonies to be Shown by Movies in Theaters of World

  1. K. Dowein, camera man for the Hearst-Selig Pictorial, who made the pictures of the San Diego Exposition recently shown at the Plaza Theater, arrived in San Diego last night to cover the opening ceremonies of the Fair.

Before leaving, Dowein will take pictures of scenes showing the lights turned on at the Exposition and the city of San Diego. These will be exhibited in movie theaters throughout the United States and in foreign countries.

Dowein has covered in a movie way practically everything of interest that has occurred in San Diego and surrounding country within the last year.

Nevada’s Representative to Exposition Praises San Diego’s Undertaking

State Senator George T. Mills said last night, “Nevada, like Arizona and the other Western states, has a great deal to gain through your Exposition. Trade relations between the different Western states are only in the embryo. When better train facilities are established, increased commercial transactions, undoubtedly, will be the result.”

Angelotti Delighted to Be In San Diego, Expresses Appreciation

Chief Justice elect of the Supreme Court of California, F. M. Angelotti is not any more delighted to come to San Diego than San Diego is delighted to have him as a guest.

San Diego Union, December 31, 1914. Noise-Making Devices To Sound Glad Tidings of Exposition Opening; Innocent Disturbance Will Be Tolerated by Authorities at New Year’s Birth. . . . Noise is wanted from every San Diegan at midnight tonight, when the gates of the Panama-California Exposition will swing open, while sirens blow, bells ring, klaxons cut loose, deep-throated steam whistles warble their prettiest, and pipe soprano and vapor-operated pipes have their piercing shrieks punctuated by the booming detonations of aerial bombs.

Vessels in the harbor are preparing to tie sounding leads on their whistle-cords, and then throw the leads overboard. Whistle-cords on all factories will be tied down. The gentle pedestrian who owns not even an automobile horn, will fall back upon the melodious tin horn, cow-bell, and crickety-crackerty revolving rattle.

On the mountains bonfires will burn and illuminate the landscape.

A telegram, purporting to come from the Anti-Noise Society of New York City, was received last night. It reads as follows:

“G. Aubrey Davidson, Sir: We address you as the Big Noise of the Panama-California Exposition. Ordinarily we are opposed to noise, but approve thoroughly of you and the Exposition. We regard blowing of whistles, etc. on the night of the opening as necessary to express the proper enthusiasm of San Diegans, which, if suppressed, might cause spontaneous combustion, and, therefore, heartily endorse all such plans.”

San Diego Union, December 31, 1914, 2:5. Arizona Editor Predicts Heavy Travel to Fair; Charles H. Akers, Official Representative of Governor Hunt, Voices Optimism; Visitors Enthusiastic; Letters Praising Peerless Climate Best Advertising Medium.

San Diego Union, December 31, 1914, 2:5. Imperial Valley Plans for Fair; El Centro Mayor Unable to Attend Opening, Pledges 150 Autos.

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