Balboa Park History July-December 1915

Note: Because of the large size of the section for 1915, it has been subdivided into two parts.

January to June, 1915 ~ July to December, 1915

July, 1915, Architectural Record, Vol. 38, 187-189. Of Spanish and Mexican Themes, by Bertram G. Goodhue.

Review of “Rejeria of the Spanish Renaissance,” a collection of photographs and measured drawings with descriptive text by Arthur Byne and Mildred Stapley. Also review of book on Mexico by La Beaume . . . p. 189. “The Mission style at its best means Spanish Colonial, just as Spanish Colonial at its best almost means Spanish.”

July, 1915, California Garden, 6. The Lath House:

Owners of lath houses should visit the one at the Exposition (be careful to call it the Horticultural Building) and go through it inquiringly, that is with an idea of finding possibilities in planting. Naturally they will not grow huge Araucarias and bamboos in their lath houses, nor shall we after the Exposition is over in this big one, but it is very worth while to see with a size Cibortium Schieded can make, also how the Cyromiums Falcatum andRochfordianum or holly ferns like to be out in the ground and with root space. Hunt up these ferns and also Cymnogramma Sulphurea and Blechnum Occidentale and see if you would not like a specimen. There are one or two very good Aralia Elegantissima and Aralia Chabrierii.

It is by no means uncommon to see plants in the ground in lath houses doing much less development that ought to be the case and this is frequently due to a lack of moisture that is not apparent on the surface. The owner will say, “I water every day,” and probably does so, sprinkling by hand and getting a beautiful wet all around. This hand sprinkling is a delusion and a snare unless freely interspersed with a good soaking and this soaking is only possible in sandy, loose soil, unless the ground is periodically loosened down. Where the natural soil is of a heavy or easily compacted quality it would pay to haul in a more kindly medium, such as leaf mold, sandy loam and sharp sand in equal parts; this superimposed on a heavier soil will give good results with ferns and begonias and kindred growths. Drainage must be good and a sprinkling of charcoal added to above mixture might be a wise precaution.

Where growths are crowded, as is almost always the case in lath houses, frequent fertilizer should be given. If incorporated in the soil, it must be of non-heating kind, such as old cow manure, though liquid fertilizer seems to suit ferns. It cannot be too strongly emphasized that a lath house merely provides certain conditions of modified climate and not plant food and that the kind of things we plant therein require more water than ordinary outside residents of a garden.

Lath house evolution is proceeding rapidly, architecturally. It has gone from a chicken coop to a palace. In usage it has passed from a housing of nursery stock to a semi-tropical garden and now comes the lath house landscaping.

Though the Garden did not succeed in getting a lath house covering acres which could have been built for the cost of the elaborate Horticultural Building, such a one is bound some day to be in Balboa Park. It will have groupings of shrubs and plants, ferny nooks and fragrant arbors and the visitor to our city shall find it a place to walk and a place to talk, a garden with sunshine tempered to order, wind changed to a whispering zephyr, a garden of Eden without a serpent.

Let us be thankful for our Horticultural Building. With that title it could hardly be a true lath house, but let us think of ten acres under a lathed-in pergola, partly on the flat, partly going in steps down into a canyon, lighted cunningly as with fireflies, and let us think hard enough to bring the reality before some other place seizes the idea and reaps the reward of originality.

July, 1915, California Garden, 12.

Picking and Peckings by the Early Bird: Ask the visitor wherein lies the charm of our Exposition, and the unfailing answer pays tribute to the harmonious building and planting scheme. To wander around among the things that are pre-eminently fit has a charm that all feel and acknowledge, and our Exposition should do for San Diego what years of tears and prayers could never have done, demonstrate the commercial value of just beauty and harmony. Beautiful as the Exposition is, it is only one and a small one of San Diego’s diadem of jewels.

July, 1915, California’s Magazine (San Francisco, Calif.), Vol. 1, No. 1. “The Panama-California Exposition,” by Mark S. Watson.

July 26, 1915, Independent Magazine. “California’s County Fair,” by Geddes Smith.

There is just one place in the world where a cow carved from butter, a mermaid of _____ , a beeswax bear are entirely at _____. That is at a county fair. At the Panama-California Exposition at San Diego, they are all on duty — perfectly at home. Some of them have been famous at other expositions, but they were never so continually placed as here.

For this big fair — or small exposition — is redolent of the land, and particularly of California land. It is indigenous to an extent not at all approached by the Jewel City at San Francisco. Six hundred and fifteen acres are devoted almost wholly to a demonstration of the fact that if the world doesn’t revolve around Southern California, it ought to.

But you must not conclude that the men who built the Panama-California Exposition has an easy or a circumscribed task. It is no light undertaking to paint the portrait of Paradise and a Paradise — suitably advertised, to be sure — Southern California certainly is. The ____ rises easily to the lips of the western traveler and is, as one might expect, officially confirmed by such real ____ “literature” as this:

Paradise! What is it? It is man’s ultimate hope. His ideal of the place in which he shall spend eternity. . . . That he may enjoy it before death, the average man never even suspects. He would reject the idea, presented to him, with scorn; yet, in spite of this, we will offer a picture, not of some mystical land in the dim distance of eternity, but of a very material land in the sunlight of the present. When we have given this picture, you will have . . . Lemon Grove . . . The population of the Grove is 800.

But even shorn of its celestial attributes. Southern California is preeminently the land of out-of-doors, and it is natural to find the Exposition at San Diego, distinctly an out-of-doors affair. And since ____ reality there means a _____ of flowers, the Fair is a ____ of great beauty of a sort ____ at all traditional in exposition technique.

Buildings of creamy concrete, all of that Spanish-Colonial type which begins with a bare white wall, sweeten it with a rounded arch, ___ as it develops more and ____ luxuriously adds ornate carving to windows and doors and cornices, though always with a reserve of simplicity where the solid surface remains unbroken; roofs of red tile; heavy curtains of dully green or blue or orange dropping from upper windows; bougainvillea clinging to the white walls and carrying its green leaves and crimson blossoms to the very cornices; and filling every vista, between and around and behind the buildings, gardens and lawns and riotous flower-filled hollows crowded with splendid color — that is the San Diego Exposition.

Between the palms of the Prado and the inner walls of the exhibit halls, cool cloisters show the way through the heart of the Exposition. Shaded from the hot Southern sun by day, softly lighted by reflection from the concrete walls by night, their rounded archways half-filled with palm branches, they make even that tedious pilgrimage by which one “does” an exposition, a pleasure. There was probably never a fair that offered so many alluring places just to sit and vegetate. Charming patios offer their unmatched blending of a cool porch, bright patches of greenery, and a courtyard filled with brilliant sunshine must far enough from your lazy chair so that you imagine rather than feel its warmth. Unconsciously your mind builds up a delightful concept of Southern California — false enough, probably — as a place where you sit on the edge of the sunlight and watch things grow.

If you wait long enough at any point of vantage some one will provide the music that alone is lacking. In one courtyard, dark-skinned Hawaiian lads, with purple sashes over their cloths of tropical white, will be strumming their ukuleles. Here and there about the Plaza de Panama or beside the Lagoon of Flowers (San Diego, of course, calls it La Laguna de las Flores) or down the Prado strolls a band of Mexican boys and girls who sing and dance and tweak their mandolins and guitars and then — just as the knot of watchers is most eager for more — wander on and away. It was odd to see them leading the way into the Home Economic Building — “La Bella Sevilla and her troupe” does not sound particularly domestic — but you may be sure they did not more than circle the booths and lead the way out again.

Why should anyone stay indoors? I was talking with a mild-mannered “booster” about the small compass of California’s ubiquitous bungalows. “But you don’t need many rooms,” he insisted. “I just can’t keep my wife indoors. She’ll lock the door and get out in the garden as soon as she can, and stay there.” And so at San Diego there is not a great deal to tempt the visitor out of the sunlight. As expositions go, there is little to be seen indoors, and what there is might be more effectively displayed. Compared with the profuse evidences of mechanical ingenuity at San Francisco, the showing here is a little monotonous. There are not many industrial exhibits, and only Japan among foreign countries is largely represented. Few of the county or state displays are sufficiently artful to make a distinct impression: Utah, with a big relief map and interesting statistical displays prepared by the State Agricultural College, is a leader in this respect. Some of the other exhibitors, after piling up their fruits and vegetables, go no further than to inform the public by placard that this county has domestic animals worth $2,000,000, while that has 428,417 grape vines in bearing — true and useful facts, but like many true and useful facts not especially amusing. And whatever may be the morals of the matter, people who go to expositions will persist in looking out for amusement and letting education take care of itself. More effective work is done by the moving pictures, which generously reinforce the story of the promoter.

It is the Southern California Counties Building, naturally, that most completely develops the county fair motif for which the butter-sculpture strikes the characteristic note. Here one finds the familiar little show-cases with the stubby compositions and squatty baskets of the Fourth Grade, Eureka District School; and Mrs. Ann Anderson’s china painting and Mrs. Betty Bacon’s hemstitched aprons (for sale); and the inlaid table made out of 2,866 pieces of wood by a fine old craftsman of seventy-eight years — all the things that link up the drifting, indifferent public with the few who care so tremendously and anchor the whole Exposition to the folks of Southern California.

One field the Exposition has filled particularly well. You hardly expect to find a community which has its eyes so firmly fixed on the future lingering over its history, but archaeology and ethnology have the place of honor here. The whole Fair is a record of Spanish architecture in the New World. Half a dozen types are shown. With admirable taste, the paintings gathered at the Exposition are hung in a building of the utmost simplicity, a reproduction of the fine primitive mission, with only the color of the roof and the sturdy grace of the round arch to save it from stark barrenness. The San Joaquin Valley Building, loaded with ornament, is a type of the municipal palace of Spanish America. The California Building, whose campanile and dome, pranked with yellow and blue, dominate the ground, is a Latin-American cathedral. Here at the host building one finds Central American antiquities — monuments and models for the Maya cities — and surprisingly beautiful photographs of the American Indian. In the Indian Arts Building, together with a little of that exploitation of native crafts with which the traveler through the Southwest is soon surfeited, there are more significant exhibits, such as a fine series of diagrams illustrating Indian symbolism.

San Diego has a double hold on Spanish and Indian tradition. It was the first of the Franciscan missions out of which California grew, and its position almost on the international boundary makes it the first United States port as you come up from Panama and the last American city of any importance as you go down the coast to Mexico. Indeed, Mexico is so near that law-abiding American citizens who wish to investigate contemporary antiquities have only to consult the billboards and slip over the line to Tia Juana, where bullfights and cockfights may be had almost for the asking.

It is natural that the Fair should borrow local color from these sources. On the “Isthmus,” small brother to the “Zone,” one of the largest concessions is the “Painted Desert,” where families from half a dozen Indian tribes may be seen busy at their primitive crafts in their primitive houses, and probably unconscious, during business hours, of the steamer trunks and kitchen clocks which somewhat mitigate their surroundings.

Between these adobe huts and the comfortable bungalow on the model five-acre ranch lies the whole history of the Southwest. Indeed the bungalow is rather prophetic than historic; such convenience and beauty can hardly be typical yet. This display, part of the exhibit of the Southern Counties, is aimed confessedly at the back-to-the-land city man. Five acres have been under cultivation since March, 1913, and now the fruit trees and vegetables and hen-yard and rose-hedges, all well established and under constant care, drive home in a more concrete form the message of salvation by real estate which California preaches in season and out of season.

But it was not t sell five-acre irrigated ranches that San Diego invested in this all-year show. The Exposition has a definite part to play in the city’s program. Indeed it is one of the five counts on which San Diego assures itself that she is “destined to become the greatest commercial city of the new southwest.” Of course, its advertising value is rather enhanced than lessened by the fact that San Francisco has another and a bigger fair at the same time. San Diego alone might not disturb the public imagination, but San Diego running a rival attraction to the metropolis of the coast piques one’s curiosity, and insures a degree of publicity not to be measured by attendance figures alone.

San Diego needs advertising. Her bid for greatness is a fairly recent affair. With a history dating from 1769 she has accumulated only 2,637 inhabitants by 1880, and had already lived through two booms and two relapses. The Santa Fe reached the city in 1884, and in that decade the population increased five hundred percent. The ten years from 1900 to 1910 saw the city more than double its size, and against its 39,578 at the last census, San Diego now claims 100,000. But all good Californians answer in terms of the census of 1920 or later when you ask them about population, and the truth probably lies between that and the census estimate for July 1, 1915 of 51,115. (This is based on the rate of growth from 1900 to 1910.) The increase in now phenomenally rapid, but that is true of Southern California as a whole, and Los Angeles, with its 400,000 and more, has rather cast its smaller neighbor into the shade.

“Los” has people and railroads, but a poor harbor even if it did push its city limits nearly twenty miles to the coast, like Athens with the Piraeus, to get it. San Diego has a fine harbor; the people are coming; but she lacks railroads from her back country. The rivalry between the cities somewhat hampers the smaller in getting steamship facilities. Los Angeles merchants prefer to ship through San Pedro, their own port, though equally low rates can be had through San Diego. Even on the street corner, you feel the clash of destinies; rival newsboys, brandishing headlines against each other, thrust the San Diego Union and the Los Angeles Examiner at you simultaneously in shrill competition.

Beside the Fair, San Diego pins her faith to the Canal (she is the nearest Pacific port on American soil), the “Harbor of the Sun,” her remarkable climate, and the S. D. & A. R. R. The harbor is the best on the Californian coast after San Francisco, and the city has already put a million dollars into docks and bulkheads. The climate is undeniably fine. The mean winter temperature of sixty is only eight degrees below the summer average, and only twice a year may the thermometer be expected to show ninety degrees.

The S. D. & A. R. R. may not sound familiar. At the close of the last fiscal year its rolling stock consisted of two locomotives and ninety-eight cars, and its total earnings for the year had been $11,828. But San Diego has no particular interest in the present. The San Diego and Arizona Railroad is intended to connect the coast with the Southern Pacific system at Seeley, California, in the Imperial Valley, and when that is accomplished it will be the shortest route to the Pacific and the cheapest route to the East (via the Canal) for a rapidly developing section of the Southwest. Forty-five of its 138 miles in the mountains are still to be built, and this project, like thousands of others, waits for peace. There are other railroad connections projected or rumored, but it is this which holds most hope for San Diego, which now has only a single track spur of the Santa Fe running down from Los Angeles.

Paradoxically, it is the desert which will enrich the city when the road is finished. It taps the Imperial Valley, in the southwestern corner of California, that miracle of irrigation which was utterly barren fourteen years ago, and now shows an assessed property valuation of $36,600,000. Cotton, first grown there in 1909, was in 1912 showing the highest yield per acre in the country, and the short-staple cotton raised in the valley took the prize cup at the American Land and Irrigation Exposition in 1911 as the best in the United States. Dates and melons can be grown well, and there are also alfalfa, barley, oats, wheat, corn, grapes, apricots, olives, and citrus fruits. To the south, in Mexico, and further east, lies land of the same sort waiting for development.

San Diego expects, of course, to ship from much wider areas than this, and in fact aspires to turn her location and California’s abundant fuel, petroleum, to account as a great manufacturing center. It is carefully explained in the official Exposition publication that “the prime object of the San Diego Exposition was not to help the city of San Diego by direct methods, as had been the case with previous world’s fairs, but first to the interest of the Western states on whose good feeling San Diego is, of course, dependent for future prosperity.” So Kansas, Utah, Montana, New Mexico, Nevada and Washington are guests at San Diego, with separate buildings which, one hopes, are substations of “good feeling.”

At least San Diego has put a most attractive portrait of herself on exhibition. IF the city’s expectations seem somewhat disproportionate to her present importance, one must remember the California habit of growing incontinently. The state claimed from twenty-first place to twelfth between 1900 and 1910, with a sixty percent increase in population, and still has only half as many people to the square mile as the average for the United States. The San Joaquin Valley — the great central garden of the state — is about the size of Italy; it holds 300,000 people to Italy’s 35,000,000. California can afford to draw on her future — even if her real estate operators have already discounted it pretty generously — for the cost of two big fairs, and San Diego’s investment in the garden city on the mesa is good business for a forward-looking seaport.

July, 1915, Santa Fe Magazine, Vol. 9, No. 8. 36-39. San Diego Exposition Jottings.

Stolid red men and women from all sections of the Southwest, inhabitants of the Santa Fe’s “Painted Desert” on the Isthmus, gathered in wonderment in the Indian Arts Building and listened intently to the voice of the Great White Father. They heard President Wilson’s message to the American Indian given through a Columbia phonograph record, in which form the message was carried to every Indian reservation in the country by the Wanamaker expedition.

One of the visitors to San Diego is Mrs. Isa Maude Ilsen, a warm admirer of Thomas Edison. When she found that in San Diego there were Indians who were not on their reservations at the time of the expedition she gained permission to send the record here.

The message is significant, being an appeal to the redmen to take full advantage of their educational and industrial opportunities, and to consider themselves “not as children, but as brothers of the white man.”

Attracting much attention in the entertainment of distinguished visitors to the San Diego Exposition is O. J. Stough, San Diego’s ninety-seven year-old young man. Probably no person in San Diego takes more delight in entertaining visitors than does Mr. Stough, a retired capitalist. He has appointed himself a committee of one on entertainment. Each morning he makes a round of the leading hotels in his automobile, becomes acquainted with visitors and either takes them to the exposition or places his car at their disposal. When the New Mexico Building was dedicated this youthful nonagenarian was a loyal New Mexican. When Missouri Day was celebrated he transferred his affections to this state and entertained visitors from there. When Governor Goldsborough and the Maryland party were here, Stough was a Marylander.

Important additions to the comprehensive display at the San Diego Exposition have been placed in the last few days in the form of thirty wall charts prepared by the United States National Museum to supplement the big collection of anthropological studies in the Science of Man Building.

With the placing of these charts there has been issued a pamphlet written by Dr. Alex Hrdlicka of the museum, one of the foremost anthropologists of the world, under whose personal supervision were collected and arranged the specimens from all parts of the universe. He features this display as the most complete in existence and calls attention to the fact that many of the most important features have never before been presented, even in part. The expeditions send out by the exposition and the museum for the specimens touched every continent.

Particular attention is directed to this display as the most important single feature for the exposition summer school which opened on July 5 for a six-week session in which educators from all parts of country are enrolled as students. The faculty is made up of specialists in many fields of education, and the courses consist largely of lectures based on the exhibits of a scientific nature. There are enlisted also the skill of the Indians, used to demonstrate the existing arts and crafts of the Indian Southwest, supplement the display of old-time arts and crafts as practiced by Incas, Mayas, Aztecs, long before the coming of white men.

Side by side in the room devoted to the history of the yellow-brown race, in which Dr. Hrdlicka classifies the Indians, are panels of the ______ found in southern Siberia. Stripped of their characteristic ornaments, the figures are identical. The juxtaposition calls attention of the probable oriental original of the American Indian.

How near San Diego came to ______ its commercial upbuilding to the exertions of the common people has been brought out in documents uncovered by the United States ____ Commission and the Daughters of the Mormon Battalion, in the arrangement _____ for the celebration on July 17, 1915 of Utah Day.

On this date it appears that the Mormon Battalion of five hundred men and women tramped overland from Fort Leavenworth to San Diego in 1846-1847 for participation in the Mexican War and after terrifying hardships in the _____, they remained in San Diego for several months. It is said that they built the courthouse, the first schoolhouse, the first cement paving, dug the first _____ wells and, in other ways, so won the admiration of the Spanish people here that when the regiment was mustered out, there was a request that they remain at San Diego. Part of the battalion went on to Utah, by way of the Sacramento Valley and is said to have discovered the first gold at Sutter Creek. In these and other ways the battalion contributed importantly to western development. It is worth mentioning that the inspiration for irrigation work was ____ by examination of the famous irrigation project at the old mission of San Diego de Alcala, built shortly after the arrival of the padres in 1769 — the first project of this sort in the country, and still being capable of operation. The Mormons did a good deal of work in this line in San Diego and on their arrival in Utah simply transplanted the idea, thus developing many thousands of acres in that new territory which, without irrigation, would have remained quite hopeless for agriculture.

The record kept by Chief Yeoman Pitkin, in charge of the United States Navy exhibit, shows that in one day there registered at his display visitors from forty-one states and a score of foreign countries.

Arrangements are being made for a visit by a big delegation of Indians from Glacier National Park, who wish to hold a pow-wow at the San Diego Exposition as a part of their stay on the coast.

San Diego already has the giant display of southwest Indian life in the “Painted Desert,” and also in demonstration work in the Indian Arts Building. But there is nothing in the permanent exhibits pertaining to Indian life of the northwest. With a view to filling this gap the exposition is cooperating with the Glacier National Park management in bringing the display to San Diego.

Attractiveness of the San Diego Exposition and the realization of the benefits to be derived from exhibiting at it are the reasons why a plan has been launched to place an immense Chinese exhibit at the exposition. This exhibit will be made by the Chinese government. Interested in it are a number of influential Chinese merchants and government officials who recently visited here.

The scheme which these proposed was to have shipped here a great quantity of exhibit material originally intended for the San Francisco exposition but which was not placed for lack of room. The exhibits coming here will be about half as comprehensive as those at the northern fair, yet the whole will be featured in a manner which will make the completed display compare favorably to any ever seen at any exposition.

“San Diego’s Sixty-One, are ______. For two brief days these bachelors occupied the highest pinnacle, being used as escorts for the sixty-one American beauties who were brought to the San Diego exposition direct from Union City, the mecca of their journey on the Santa Fe last month as guests of Universal Film Manufacturing Company. For two days they were _____. But on the next they were jeered at not only by unsuccessful rivals but also by the beauties of San Diego.

“We’re going to organize a male beauty contest,” says the Bachelor Girls Protective Association. “If eligible young women are brought in to compete with us, we will retaliate by importing eligible young men.”

Across the bay from San Diego is the beautiful island of Coronado. Here congregate many people from all over the United States to spend the summer at the famous Hotel Del Coronado. . . . About half a mile from the hotel lies the great Coronado Tent City, wherein accommodations for thousands are afforded in spacious, clean tents and individual cottages with their comfortable equipment.

July 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:6, San Diegans plan to keep exhibits; museum association organized for preservation of displays in Exposition.

July 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:1. People’s Chorus (200 voices) under direction of Willibald Lehmann will give a concert as the concluding feature of Christian Endeavor Day with the Spreckels Organ tonight.

July 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:1. Aerial fireworks purchased by Fair; elaborate pyrotechnic displays to be shown July 3-5: Contracts signed yesterday between the Panama-California Exposition and the Wilison-Los Angeles Fireworks Company, provide what will probably prove the greatest program of aerial fireworks entertainment ever attempted in Southern California.

Both daylight and evening displays have been arranged for the afternoon and night of July 3, and the afternoon and evening program of July 5. The afternoon programs are replete with spectacular pieces and will prove quite as entertaining as those to be used in the evening, according to officers of the fireworks concern.

At 8 o’clock Saturday night the tower of the California Building, the tallest in the city, will blaze forth in light and color for a period of twenty-five minutes. Another feature will be the lighting of the entire grounds by a set piece with a series of the brightest lights known to the ingenuity of man. The entire center of the Exposition will be lighted as though the sun were at the noon-day position.

“War,” represented by an immense modern siege gun firing shells at a fort which finally falls under the tremendous fire, is another of the big events prominent for Saturday night. Festoons of jewels will be suspended from the sky, American eagles will spread their wings in the air, Niagara Falls with a torrent of silvery fire will fall from somewhere above and the evening will end with a representation of the opening of the Panama Canal.

Monday afternoon, another program of daylight fireworks will be given and Monday night another great pyrotechnic display will be given. Waterfalls, Jacob’s ladder, mystic wheel, butterflies and roses, an aerial thunderstorm, a fan fire which will cover an acre of territory in the sky, silver ______ and many other equally spectacular sights will be shown.

July 1, 1915, San Diego Herald, 1:5. Exposition Notes: The largest crow which the San Diego Exposition has entertained since the opening night New Year’s Eve surged through the tree gates to the Fair on a balmy evening of last week and crammed every available inch in the Plaza de Panama and the Plaza de los Estados, to hear the first of the summer evening recitals by Mme. Ernestine Schumann-Heink, the great contralto whose country place lies just east of the city of San Diego.

Mme. Schumann-Heink is extremely popular in Southern California, where she has lived for a good part of the time during recent years, and was accorded a great reception by the schoolchildren of the city early in the spring on her first visit to the Exposition. At that time she assured them that she would be back in June and would give a full evening’s concert for them. When her arrangements were completed she informed the Exposition that she was asking only one favor, namely, that every child under sixteen be admitted to the grounds free. The request was granted and the youngsters made up fully twenty percent of the enormous crowd which attended the recital.

In addition to the people seated in the Plaza de los Estados on benches and along the curbs of the Esplanade and standing on lawns and pavements, the roofs of the nearby buildings, even of the peristyles of the organ itself, were loaded down with people.

July 1, 1915, San Diego Sun, 14:4. La Jolla playground to open Saturday.

July 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 19:1. Odd Fellows due tomorrow for three days fun.

July 2, 1915. Board of Park Commissioners, Minutes: Secretary to advise Order of Panama that mounted cavalry would not be permitted on Stadium field, as such exhibitions will tear up the field.

Commissioner Ferris said Board did not have sufficient funds to purchase the animals at Wonderland Zoo, but said Board would accept the animals, or any part of them, if the cost of moving them to the park and one year’s maintenance should be included; Recommendation accepted.

July 2, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:3-6. 5:7-8. Three-day celebration of Independence Day, Saturday, Sunday and Monday; 3 p.m. Saturday – display of fireworks at north end of Alameda, spectators to be in tractor field; 8 p.m. – polytechnic illumination of tower of California Building; 9 p.m. – night fireworks; Sunday, July 4, 3 p.m. – Tiny Broadwick leaps from an aeroplane at an altitude of 3,000 feet and alights in tractor field; Monday, July 5, 2 p.m. – Children’s “Spirit of ‘76” parade from Pepper Grove to Plaza de Panama; 3 p.m. – Tiny Broadwick makes leap; 8 p.m. – grand illumination of El Prado, Calle Cristobal, Alameda, Calle Colon and Isthmus; 8:30 p.m. – fireworks, north end of Isthmus.

July 2, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:6. One million persons visited Exposition in the first six months; during June, 166,135, a daily average of 5,537 persons.

July 2, 1915, San Diego Union,, 6:2. Tiny Broadwick to leap from sky: Interest which the public displays in aeronautical events, particularly when one is fraught with an unusually spectacular feature, was established yesterday when the Exposition was besieged with inquiries regarding the time at which Miss Tiny Broadwick, the daring young aviator, will give her demonstration of the aerial life preserver invented by Charles Broadwick, her father.

Conferring with the Exposition yesterday, Miss Broadwick announced her willingness to make these demonstrations at any time of the day or night, again expressing implicit faith in her father’s invention to carry her safely to the ground after she leaps from the aeroplane at a high altitude. Considering that this feat can be seen better by visitors during the day, the two demonstrations were set for 2 o’clock Sunday afternoon and 2 o’clock Monday afternoon. Each will be held on the big tractor field around which there is a great amount of space where spectators can stand and get a good view of the performance.

Oscar A. Brindley, government Aero instructor at North Island, will pilot the aeroplane from which Miss Broadwick will leap.

Miss Broadwick does not appear worried or concerned about the hazardous feats confronting her at the Exposition Sunday and Monday afternoons. As she discussed the workings of this aerial life preserver yesterday, not a word which might indicate fear was in her conversation.

“To tell the truth,” said the daring young woman, “I feel just as much at home jumping out of an aeroplane with my father’s life preserver as I would if sitting on the front steps. Of course, one must understand aeronautics to a certain extent to perform such a feat successfully, but I have had experience, and I know it is impossible for the device to fail. The exhibitions which I gave at North Island for army officers convinced me thoroughly of the dependability of the preserver.

“In the demonstrations of Sunday and Monday, I intend to jump from a much greater distance than I have ever done before, as I want to demonstrate thoroughly to the public that the dangers of aviation will be greatly reduced through use of this device.”

July 2, 1915, San Diego Union,, 8:1. 2,000 Odd Fellows ready to parade tomorrow.

July 2, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:3. Diamond Jim Brady here to see Exposition; New York bachelor rose from messenger boy to millionaire.

July 2, 1915, San Diego Union,, 9:2. Christian Endeavor delegates hold sport events at Fair and listen to People’s Chorus.

July 2, 1915, San Diego Union, 11.7. Governor Samuel Ralston of Indiana to visit Fair today.

San Diego Sun, July 3, 1915, 9:1 and July 7, 1915, 12:1-4. $180,000 gift of Miss Ellen Scripps includes community house, tennis courts, swimming pool.


July 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:5-6. Exposition to shatter attendance mark today; thousands of Odd Fellows, Imperial Valley delegates and others will invade Fair grounds as July 4th celebration begins.

With the arrival of about 3,000 Southern California Odd Fellows, several hundred members of the National Editorial Association, a large delegation from Imperial Valley for the celebration of Imperial Valley County Day and the beginning of the festivities in honor of the Fourth of July, it is predicted the Exposition will set a new attendance record.

One of the biggest events of today’s celebration will be the parade of Odd Fellows which will form at Lower Broadway and march to the Laurel Street entrance of the Fair via Sixth Street. The parade will be led by the Pacific Electric band, which has been engaged for the three-day’s celebration, the Pomona band, and the Santa Ana band. At the Plaza de Panama, Mayor E. M. Capps will welcome the visitors to the city and President G. A. Davidson will welcome them to the Exposition.

The next event of importance will be at noon at the Southern California Counties Building, where 20,000 cantaloupes will be given away as an advertisement for Imperial Valley. At noon the Cristobal Café will be crowded, for the members of the National Editorial Association will be guests of the Exposition at luncheon, and scores of Odd Fellows and their friends have reserved tables.

Between 1:20 and 5:00 in the afternoon the Pacific Electric and Pomona bands will entertain with concerts at the Plaza de Panama. The usual organ recital by Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart will also be given.

All Southern California cantons of Odd Fellows have entered the competitive drill contests, which will be held during the afternoon at the Plaza de Panama, and which will be judged by U.S. Army officers. At 3:00 p.m. a display of daylight fireworks will be given at the north end of the Alameda. Provision has been made for spectators on the tractor field.

The feature of the evening’s entertainment will be a great open-air ball to be held at the Plaza de Panama. Some time during the event President Davidson will present the winning drill team of Odd Fellows with its prize. Band concerts will be held on the Isthmus between 7:30 and midnight.

At 8:00 p.m. the pyrotechnic illumination of the tower of the California Building will be given, after which a display of fireworks will be given at the north end of the Alameda. A feature of the fireworks program will be a cruise of the warship San Diego to the first port of call. This spectacular piece is 500 ft. in length and the makers claim it will prove one of the most stupendous undertakings of the kind ever attempted.

Today’s program includes amusements of every kind, and members of the special events committee believe they have formulated one of the best programs of the year.

As is well known, the Independence Day festivities extend over a period of three days — today, Sunday and Monday. The biggest feature of the Sunday afternoon program will be the leap from an aeroplane at an altitude of 3,000 feet by Miss Tiny Broadwick in her aerial alighting device. At 4:00 p.m., Ellen Beach Yaw will be the soloist at the daily organ recital. She will give another concert at 8:00 p.m.

Monday, Miss Tiny Broadwick will repeat her trick from an aeroplane, a children’s parade of the “Sprit of ‘76” will be held on the grounds of the Exposition; there will be the usual band concerts and organ recitals, the day to be concluded with another but entirely different program of fireworks.

Visitors are flocking to the city from all parts of the West and it is predicted that by tonight every hotel in the downtown district will be crowded.

July 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:1. 2,000 schoolchildren will participate in Spirit of ’76 parade tomorrow; $150 in currency offered in prizes; free admission to Exposition promised for children in costume; hundreds of youngsters selected as bearers of huge American flag; parade leaves Pepper Grove at 2 p.m. and marches to the Plaza de Panama where it will be reviewed by society women of city standing on steps on Sacramento Valley Building.

July 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:4. Governor Samuel E. Ralston of Indiana was guest of Exposition.

July 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 16:1. 400 editors here to see Fair and southland.

July 4, 1915, Los Angeles Times, III, 4:1-4. Susie and Alma at San Diego: They see the adorable army of Adonises, the Spanish dancers and the Fair, by Alma Whitaker.

July 4, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3, 6:2-4. Multitude celebrates at Exposition; 20,000 valley melons melt before clamorous throng; distributed in patio of Southern California Counties Building; celebration started with parade by more than 3,000 Odd Fellows from Lower Broadway to Exposition site; more than 15,000 persons passed through gates last night to see the first display of fireworks at the tractor field.

July 4, 1915, San Diego Union,, 7:1. Exposition to honor Charles Wakefield Cadman on Tuesday.

July 4, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 15:1-2. 20,000 Imperial Valley cantaloupes were given away at Exposition in honor of Independence Day celebration.

July 5, 1915, San Diego Sun, 3:1-2. What is “propaganda” Park Board asked; open forum members address letter to public; want to know how those in charge will make ruling if such men as Bryan or Roosevelt should want to speak at amphitheater; controversy is on; at meeting last Friday the Park Board ruled that there should be “no propaganda” in the Stadium.

July 5, 1915, San Diego Sun, 3:3. Crowds leaving after holiday; yesterday’s attendance estimated at 25,000.

July 5, 1915, San Diego Sun, 9:5. Cadman Day tomorrow in honor of Charles Wakefield Cadman, American composer; Princess Tsianina, American Indian princess, will sing his songs.

July 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:5-6, 2:4. Million mark passed in Fair attendance; great crowd surges through Exposition gates without cessation; attendance estimated about 17,000; day started with Spanish troupe program; band concert at Plaza de Panama by Fourth Regiment U.S. Marine Corps at 10 a.m. and 1:30 p.m.; Tiny Broadwick leaped from aeroplane at an altitude of 2,500 feet at 2:30 p.m. at tractor field; Ellen Beach Yaw gave recital at organ pavilion at 4 p.m. and another recital in the evening.

July 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:5. Summer school will open at Exposition; development of South American republics to be shown; Spanish courses planned; Professor P. A. Martin of Stanford University to lecture on South American history.

July 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:1. Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce Board due in San Diego July 15 to visit Fair.

July 6, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:4. Attendance at Exposition is 61,434 in three days; Saturday, 14,975; Sunday, 19,037, the biggest days since opening when 27,422 passed through turnstiles.

July 6, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:8, 7:2-3. 25,000 people celebrate holiday at Exposition; children’s parade draws crowd; girl leaps from aeroplane to safety, 3,000 ft., while throng watches performance; daylight fireworks prove big novelty.

July 6, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:2-3. 1,000 people from Escondido join throngs at Exposition; Judge Daney speaks in glowing terms of Sun-Kist-Vale opportunities and accomplishments; boosters wear Grape Day Button replicas.

July 6, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:1. Stream of trains bear thousands from city; Santa Fe incoming passengers for three days estimated at 19,000; ships bring 1500 visitors to celebration.

July 6, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:2. Fair will honor Charles Wakefield Cadman today.

July 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:4. Brazilian exhibit opened; description of products; vast resources shown; tireless efforts of Dr. Eugenio Dahne obtain coffee, rubber and other products; animals and birds procured; drinks given away

A Brazilian exhibit in the Commerce and Industries Building, at the Panama-California Exposition, has been opened under the direction of Dr. Eugenio Dahne, who as been a tireless worker in his country for an exhibit at San Diego’s Fair.

Dr. Dahne came to San Diego several years ago with Brazilian commissioners and for a time prospects seemed good for a Brazilian building at the Fair. This was later given up, and since that time Dr. Dahne has been trying to get an exhibit here. He has finally succeeded, and a large space in the Commerce and Industries Building has been devoted to Brazilian products, pictures, birds, live animals peculiar to that country, manufactured goods and matter pertaining to a country in which at the present time there is a great interest by Americans. The exhibit was open for the first time Monday and will continue, with Dr. Dahne in charge, until the close of the Fair.

Brazil is not represented at the San Francisco Exposition, and that it is represented at all at the San Diego Exposition is due entirely to the energy and perseverance of Dr. Eugenio Dahne, the former commissioner-general, representing the ministerium of agriculture, industry and commerce of Brazil in the United States and Canada.

War Hampers Plans

When the Brazilian congress last year decided that on account of the severe financial crisis and the failure to raise the loan the government was negotiating in Europe, on account of the outbreak of the war, Brazil could not afford at the time to be represented at either of the California Expositions, Dr. Eugenio Dahne, who had been working hard for several years to arrange for that representation, resigned from office and set to work to arrange a private Brazilian exhibit.

For this purpose he left for Brazil, via New York, on January 3 and returned a month ago. He succeeded in getting the government of the state of Sao Paulo to contribute a certain quantity of its best coffee free. The government of Parana contributed about two tons of mate, the great Brazilian health tea. The rubber states of Para, Ohyaronas, Matto Grorro contributed a quantity of rubber, and Rio Grande de Sul its products. Other products, curios, skins and live birds and animals Dr. Dahne brought on his own account to make his show more interesting..

Thus the Brazilian exhibit is not by any means an official government exhibit, nor does it represent but a small percentage of Brazil’s enormous natural resources. It is entirely a private undertaking and an exhibit of a collection of interesting things from Brazil which Dr. Dahne was able to gather together in the shortness of time. Every praise is accorded to Dr. Dahne by the Exposition for his temerity and perseverance.

Great thought and taste was given to the arrangement of the exhibits, the fundamental idea being to impress the visitor with the manifold resources of Brazil, the great importance of some of them, and the interesting features and beauty of the country.

Thus, commencing in the north, there is the Amazon district, with its important rubber industry. One sees a wild jungle scene on the Amazon river, with a rubber-gatherer’s two-story hut, the “Roosevelt cabin,” covered with hunters’ trophies and animals. There is a collection of the different kinds of rubber produced in Brazil, and photographs showing the processes of extracting and preparing the same.

Next is a collection of samples of fine cabinet woods, from the hardest to the softest, some of them beautifully grained.

This is complemented by a collection of nuts and fruit from the different palms and trees, bark and leaves. A miniature coconut plantation shows how the cocoa palms propagate and grow. A native basket, with great ground nuts, shows how the Brazil nuts grow in clusters inside the same. The most interesting, however, is the spaucai nut, a huge fruit containing about a dozen nuts. When green, a lid closes the bottom tight and holds the nuts in place. When the fruit is ripe, the lid dries up, contracts and falls out, allowing the nuts to fall to the ground.

Coffee Section Represented

The central part of Brazil, the “coffee” section, is represented by the state of Sao Paulo, which produces four-fifths of the coffee grown in Brazil and supplies two-thirds of the coffee consumed in the world. Large panels on the wall show how the coffee is grown, how it is picked, and how it is shipped, while all along the front of the counter and along the background stand long lines of the original bags with coffee as they were shipped at Santos.

On a neat little “deer” roaster, the original Santos coffee, pure, without blending, will be roasted fresh every day and served free every day, prepared Brazilian fashion over the counter from 2 to 5 o’clock p.m. every day. The same coffee, roast and ground, will be sold in packages to those who wish to take some home or send some to their friends. Over the coffee counter sits a pair of beautifully plumaged birds, the trogan or “coffee bird,” which feeds on coffee berries and says that Sao Paulo coffee tastes best.

Next is the “mate” counter. Mate is the tea prepared from the leaves of a tree, the ilex paraguavenases. The only place in the world where this tree grows is in the states of Parania and Rio Grande de Sul and Paraguay. It is an exceedingly refreshing drink, not a stimulant like coffee or tea, but a clamant and an excellent tonic for indigestion and weak stomachs.

Drink Served Free

The Indians and the Gauchos, or cowboys of Southern Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina and Chile ,use no other drink. And to judge by the fine, healthy-looking figure of the Gaucho in full Rio Grandiose cowboy costume, with rich silver trappings, that stands inside the counter, it certainly must be invigorating and health giving. Mate will also be served free in cups to visitors every afternoon from 2 to 5 o’clock and sold in small packages.

Above the Gaucho hang several of the beautiful ponchos or shawls made in Rio Grande de Sul, and at his side stands a table made of the beautiful cabinet woods of Brazil.

Next to the mate are samples of cocoa and of the cocoa bean, grown extensively in the states of Bahia and Para, Brazil, the latter producing some of the finest quality.

Another most interesting product of the Ohuaron forest, as yet unknown in this country, is the guarana. The guarana is a bean or nut which grows, like the vanilla, on a creeper. The Indians collect and roast these beans and pound them into a pulp, mixed with water. Of the thick pulp they mold sticks which they let dry hard in the sun. To uses it they grate with the rough bony tongue of the pirarcucu fish, about a spoonful of the stick into a gourd of water, which they drink.

It is a wonderful tonic to the system and no Indian goes without his stick of guarana, which enables him to endure the greatest fatigue. A firm in Para has lately undertaken to make an excellent effervescent drink from the guarana, very much in taste like tonic water, bottles of which are also on exhibit.

Above the guarana hands a cigar of plug tobacco, about four feet long, wound around with fibers and bearing this card: “Cigar of plug tobacco made by the Indians of the Ohuaron and presented to Colonel D. C. Collier by his Brazilian friends in remembrance of the time when he smoked his way through Brazil.” Suspended from the cigar are the little black clay pipes in which Indians smoke this tobacco.

Next are the foodstuffs, the most interesting of which is the maniok flour, one of the most important foodstuffs in Brazil. The maniok is a cultivated root, somewhat like a sweet potato, however with a very poisonous juice, containing much prussic acid. To remove this the roots are grated into a pulp, which is filled into long basket tubes. By pulling these, they contract and force out the juice. The pulp is then dried in hot pans and put into conical baskets. The maniok flour contains much starch and is very nourishing.

There are samples of arrowroot and of tapioca. Also of macaroni, vermicelli and noodles and cakes of fine chocolate made in Para.

An extensive collection of curios of all kinds, photographs, maps and books on Brazil, and live tropical birds and monkeys completes the exhibit, which is one of the most interesting and instructive in the grounds and does credit to its organizer, Dr. Eugenio Dahne.

July 7, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:1. Councilman Schmidt wants city hall built in park facing Date Street: “We get the site for nothing and the location is the best in the City.”; Assistant City Manager Bacon has drawn up plans for Mission-style building with court in center; Schmidt says erecting buildings would give employment to a number of men who are now idle.

July 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:2-6. Indian princess sings Charles Wakefield Cadman’s compositions of tribal songs at recital, both were guests of Exposition, by W. B. Seymour.

July 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:6. Hotels overflow; homes opened to visitors; merrymakers spend $250,000 during big celebration, estimate.

July 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Motion pictures of Exposition were taken and sealed in a copper box to be held by the San Diego History Center for 50 years unopened when they will be shown as a reminder of the 1915 Exposition; motion pictures taken today under the direction of Lyman H. Howe, the largest producer of travelogue motion pictures in the country..

July 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:2. 61,414 pass through Exposition turnstiles during three-day celebration; July 5th has highest attendance with 27,422.

July 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:2. Hamlin Hunt of Plymouth Church, Minneapolis, Minn., will give organ recital today at Spreckels Organ.

July 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:2. Bishop Thomas J. Conaty of Los Angeles, who was a visitor at the Exposition yesterday, gave to the San Diego County Historical Society a square foot floor tile and burned bricks from the Mission San Diego de Alcala.

July 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:3. Governor Henry C. Stuart of Virginia was guest of Exposition.

July 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:3. Wendell Phillips Dodge, editor of The Strand Magazine, a British publication, will be in San Diego within a few days to visit Exposition; will carry an illustrated article on Exposition in August or September number.

July 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:3. Tourists from South pour into San Diego; scores of New Englanders arrive to visit Fair.

July 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:3. Twenty-three tourists, traveling under the auspices of the Geographic Society of Chicago, arrived in the city yesterday.

July 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:3. The U.S. cruiser Chattanooga arrived in the port last night from San Francisco to take on 450 tons of coal before she steams to Mexican waters, Friday.

July 8, 1915, San Diego Herald, 2:2. At the Exposition.

July 8, 1915, San Diego Herald, 2. EDITORIAL: The Exposition: The Exposition, from the standpoint of beauty, attractiveness and uniqueness, is all that could be desired. During the first six months it did not draw the crowds that it was reasonable to expect and which its excellence justified. However, the last few days showed a marked improvement in the attendance, and while the original expectations will not be fulfilled, the Fair will be a greater success than the first months indicated.

Due credit should be given to the management for the successful manner in which the original plans for the Exposition were carried to a perfection never before attained at an Exposition. But it should not be forgotten that the stockholders, the men and women who furnished the money, are also entitled t consideration for the most important part they performed in furnishing the millions necessary to pay for work, material and supervision of the work during the time of construction.

The Exposition has already done wonders for San Diego by making it known in every hamlet of the nation, and from the publicity received the city has grown much faster than it would otherwise have done. This benefit has been general — which the shareholders paid for and from which they derive no benefit such as shareholders in other enterprises are supposed to enjoy. As Expositions are for the community benefit, it places a burden on the shareholders which is out of proportion to their benefit.

Many of these shareholders are men and women who, to meet their payments, have deprived themselves of many comforts and some have even sacrificed the necessities. Would it not be a matter of justice that these shareholders should get some slight benefit from their investments? Some of them have been so heavily taxed during these hard times they cannot afford the expense to enjoy a visit to the beautiful Exposition which their money made possible.

In this connection, we wish to suggest that passes ought to be issued to all shareholders for the balance of the Exposition year. No doubt, many of the shareholders, in addition to paying for their stock, have bought season tickets, but more of them have not because they could not afford it. None of the shareholders expect any dividends from their investment, and all would appreciate such courtesies as was extended to them in recognition of what they had done for the Exposition.

Of course, this courtesy would be most appreciated by those who cannot afford the cost of attending the Exposition as often as they desire. But even those who can afford the expense and have already bought their season tickets, would feel that it was a recognition of what they had done for the Exposition. It has been the policy of the management to discourage the given of passes, and, perhaps, wisely so. But furnishing season tickets to the shareholders is only furnishing them what they have dearly paid for.

Besides doing justice to the shareholders, it will really benefit the Exposition, as these shareholders will naturally induce some of their friends to go with them. And, as a crowd always attracts, the presence of so many people would induce others to attend the Fair, and all these people would spend more or less money with the concessionaires.

The Order of Panama has also done good work for the Exposition and members of the Order have borne all the expense of their part of the work. It seems to use that the Exposition management should also show its appreciation of this work by furnishing season tickets to all members of the Order of Panama. Not that they have done as much as the shareholders, but they have certainly done enough to be given recognition.

The management was no doubt right in preventing a flood of passes to be issued. But it is right to discriminate between those who have earned recognition and those who have not. The shareholders have no reason to hope for a return of any great part of the money they contributed to the building of the beautiful Exposition, so they are entitled to his much and even more.

July 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:2-3. Fair pictures to be shown in 50 years; San Diego children caught by camera; thousands throughout United States will see vies of Panama Canal and San Diego’s marvelous city on hill; movies made under direction of Lyman H. Howe, producer of travelogue motion pictures.

July 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:5. Yuma Indian band of Fort Yuma, Arizona to give concert in Plaza de Panama tomorrow afternoon; boys in band will camp on grounds near marine barracks.

July 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:2. Richmond Light Infantry Blues will visit city and Fair July 15: The Richmond Light Infantry Blues Battalion, which will visit this city and the Fair, and will parade here 200 strong, is 124 years old and has a distinguished history. The famous organization will arrive July 15.

It took part in the War of 1812, in various insurrection excitements in quelling the John Brown raid, in the war between the states, and in the Spanish American War. It’s distinctive full-dress uniform is admired everywhere. Major E. W. Bowles is in command. . . .

The uniform worn today consists of blue coat with white front shield buttoned on and wide cuffs and wide white stripes on the trousers.

The enlisted men wear white sheep tails and the officers have epaulets..

July 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:1. Marcella Craft, soprano, appeared in concert at Exposition; a Riverside girl; the day was designated “Marcella Craft Day.”

July 9, 1915, San Diego Sun, 11:1. Mayor Capps studying question of whether the Stadium should be used for public meetings as well as athletic events.

July 9, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:2. Madame Montessori to speak at Exposition July 12: Dr. Maria Montessori, P. P. Claxton, U.S. Commissioner of Education and others well known in the world of education will speak at the Spreckels Organ Pavilion, July 12, which has been designated Education Day at the Exposition.

The famous originator of the system of education which bears her name will speak in Italian and will be translated to the audience as she speaks. Claxton is one of the biggest figures in educational matters in this country..

July 9, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:1. Dixie Rotary Club will visit Exposition July 16.

July 9, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:1. Magazines laud San Diego’s Exposition; Elk’s publication uses articles and pictures boosting Fair; St. LouisJuvenile Paper gives Magic City space in two issues; Sunset has article in July issue by Walter V. Woelke; National Magazine, published in Boston, has a six-page article in June number, headed “San Diego’s Dream City, The Exposition Located in the Harbor of the Sun” by Joe N. Chappie;National Elk’s Horn of St. Louis, June Souvenir Edition, contains article about Exposition by Norman Maynard Vaughn, publisher; article in California Edition of the Pacific Coast Elks, Los Angeles; article in June issue of Photo Era by Harold A. Taylor; article in June issue of Agent’s Bulletin, issued by traffic department of Missouri Pacific-Iron Mountains; articles in four consecutive issues of The Round Table, a paper for boys, published at Saint Louis.

July 10, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:3. Theodore Roosevelt to speak at Exposition; wires President Davidson he will be here July 26.

July 10, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:1. Noted Utah choir coming to Fair next week; Mormons raise $20,000 for 200 singers’ expenses on trip; 300 cadet expected; official says State will send 1,000 boosters on Exposition Day.

July 10, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:1. Warren D. Allen, Dean of Conservatory of Music, College of the Pacific, San Jose, California, will give first of his series of concerts at Organ Pavilion this afternoon at 4 o’clock.

July 11, 1915, Los Angeles Times, II, 2:4. San Diego to welcome herd; Friday to be Elks’ Day at the Exposition; Program includes music, drills and parade; Mormon choir and Salt Lake City cadets to be attractions; San Diego delegation will don Spanish garb.

July 11, 1915, San Diego Union, 10:1. Samuel Travers Clover writes in praise of San Diego Fair in Los Angeles Graphic, a weekly publication: “With the exception of about twelve miles, the state highway is practically completed to the San Diego line, making the motor ride a joy, and one long to be remembered.”

July 12, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:1. Great week is begun; Madame Montessori and P. P. Clayton, U.S. Commissioner of Education, to speak today; July 13 is Virginia Day and Universalist’s Day; July 14 is City of Buffalo Day; July 15 marks arrival of 400 Salt Lake City High school cadets; July 16 is Elk’s Day and the Mormon Tabernacle Choir of Ogden, Utah arrives to give the first in a series of concerts; July 17 is Utah Day and Rexall Day in honor of 500 druggists from Boston.

Five hundred Universalists will arrive in the morning from the Pasadena convention and be entertained by members of the local Unitarian church and Pastor H. B. Bard.

July 12, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:2. Mayor Capps signs new jitney bus ordinance requiring owners of jitney buses to carry insurance.

July 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:1. Hospitality wins visiting Elks to San Diego.

July 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:6. Gilbert H. Grosvenor, editor of National Geographic Magazine, charmed by Exposition: “I hope the people of San Diego and California will carry out their intention of maintaining permanently the wondrous gardens and artistic buildings of the Exposition. . . . It has been my good fortune to see all the artistic and famous places in Europe, the gardens of Italy, and all the more noted triumphs of architecture on that continent and I have no hesitation in saying that the beauties of art and landscape shown in San Diego are unequaled.”

July 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:1. Four banner days at Fair plan of Utahans; Ogden Mormon Tabernacle Choir to sing with Spreckels Organ; school cadets coming; thousand will accompany governor on San Diego Exposition trip.

July 13, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4. Dr. Montessori and other noted educators spoke at Exposition; Philander P. Claxton, Federal Commissioner, reviewed U.S. educational progress.

July 13, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:5. A daily average of 12,162 is the attendance record established at the Exposition July 4 to July 10, according to the report made yesterday by the auditing committee.

July 13, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:6. Fair will honor Virginians today; Governor Henry C. Stuart here; 500 Universalists also t be guests at Exposition.

July 13, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:3-4. Host of Elks coming Friday; teams will drill for Exposition trophies.

July 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:5-6, 4:6. Governor Stuart of Virginia thrilled by Exposition: “I had imagined the whole state of California to be a veritable land of fruits and flowers and it wasn’t until I reached San Diego and stepped into Balboa Park that my pictured dream of California came true.”

July 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:4. Utah boys due tomorrow; camp site selected on tractor field along the Alameda; 400 cadets and 30-piece band; nation’s highest ranking high school military organization; three-day encampment.

July 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:3. Yuma Band pleases Exposition visitors; will be at Exposition until end of month; afternoon and evening concerts scheduled.; Indians listed to “white father’s” voice; phonograph bears President Wilson’s message.

July 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:5. Moose multitude to assemble at Fair July 22; more than 20,000 members expected; Vice President Marshall, Bryan and Governors Convention Attractions..

July 15, 1915, San Diego Herald, 1:1-2. The Great Moose Convention and What It Means for San Diego.

July 15, 1915, San Diego Herald, 1:6. The Brazilian Exhibit is Interesting Feature. Birds of beautiful plumage, alive and mounted, mounted butterflies, jewelry made from brilliantly hued beetles, vessels made from gourds, and painted and specimens of varied handicraft of the Brazilians are mingled with the bright yellow and green oriental colors in an attractive appeal to the eye.

July 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:1. Marcella Craft heard by 5,000 at Fair; handicap of nervousness soon disappeared before inspiring throng; reputation sustained; organ and piano accompaniment add to recital’s excellence, by W. B. Seymour.

July 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:3. Governor William Spry, Utah governor, to arrive this morning.

July 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:3. At a meeting of the executive committee of the Exposition yesterday it was decided to make the admission price of children under 12 years of age 10 cents in the evening.

July 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:5. Tourists filling San Diego hotels.

July 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:5. Elks will parade to San Diego Fair from lower Broadway at 10 a.m.; day of music, joy and oratory set for July 16; band concert by 13th Band of the Coast Artillery Corps, V. F. Safranek conducting; exhibition at 11 a.m. by crack Cook Drum Corps of Denver; another concert by Coast Artillery Corps at 2 p.m.; daily concert of Yuma Indian Band at 3 p.m.; Warren D. Allen to give organ recital at 4 p.m.; drill competition between teams from various lodges for cups at 5 p.m.; first appearance of Ogden Tabernacle Choir of 500 voices in afternoon (July 16 or 17?); William Jennings Bryan to give speech at Organ Pavilion at 4 p.m. July 17 and Elks will have a serpentine battle on Isthmus in the evening; over 1,000 packages of serpentine and noisemakers will be given to Elks from a booth on the Isthmus.

July 16, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:3-6. William Jennings Bryan reaches city; speaks tomorrow.

July 16, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:1. Madame Katherine Tingley has charge of Exposition observance of International Parliament of Peace next Tuesday, July 20.

July 16, 1915, San Diego Sun, 3:4. Salt Lake High School Cadets parade at Exposition; have established a model camp on tractor field.

July 16, 1915, San Diego Sun, 10:1-2. Tomorrow a speech by William Jennings Bryan and an Elk’s serpentine dance down the Isthmus; Utah Day, Sacramento Valley Day, Nebraska Day, and Apricot Day will be observed; free distribution of apricots at Alameda County Building; reception of Governor Spry at Utah Building; Utah Day exercises at Organ Pavilion, selections by Mormon Tabernacle Choir.

July 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:2. William Jennings Bryan arrived in San Diego; to speak at Exposition tomorrow.

July 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3-5. 20,000 Elks parade streets; 200-member San Diego branch wins applause.

July 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:5. Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce members view Fair.

July 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:4. Order of Panama, 500 strong, to invade Mexico; excursionists will enjoy barbecue, Spanish games at Tecate; will make trip on San Diego & Arizona Eastern Railway.

July 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:2. Richmond Blues, a crack military organization of Virginia, visited the Exposition; guests of Zlac Rowing Club girls on Bay yacht trip.

July 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:4. Governor Spry of Utah says teach boys to shoot straight; drill and review of Salt Lake City High School cadets furnished the feature of the first day of the three-day visit of the Governor yesterday.

July 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:2. Ogden Mormon Tabernacle Choir will give its first free concert tonight at 8 o’clock.

July 17, 1915, Los Angeles Times, II, 3:4-5. Exposition is taken over by Elks; great herd as a jolly day in San Diego; informal festivities great round of gaiety; Salt Lake people are there; more fun today.

July 17, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:6-7. William Jennings Bryan to speak at 4:30 p.m. this afternoon at Organ Pavilion.

July 17, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:8. International Convention of Moose opens Monday in city.

July 17, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:6. Continued discussion of suggestion made some time ago by transportation men and others that San Diego Exposition be kept open at least part of next year; Los Angeles Record urges Los Angeles guarantee a sum to keep Exposition open next year.

July 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3, 4:6-7. First drill prize won by Denver team; Elk’s Day at Exposition replete with fun-making; antlered tribesmen to gambol on Isthmus tonight; carnival scheduled.

July 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Memorable Day at the Exposition with comment on speech by William Jennings Bryan.

July 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:3. Washington State boosters arrive; two Exposition commissioners came to inspect exhibit at Fair.

July 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:4. Mayor William Hale Thompson of Chicago due at Fair this month.

July 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:1. Exposition President Davidson says High School drill was inspiring; Salt Lake City boys repeat performance on Plaza de Panama; another review today; Governor Spry of Utah and staff given sightseeing trip by State society.

July 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Texas Rotarians captivated by San Diego; Lone Star State men loud in praise of Exposition; G. A. Martin, editor of the El Paso Herald, remains over.

July 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:2. The Ogden Tabernacle Choir of Utah with 200 voices sang at Exposition; organization sustains reputation for excellence of work; enunciation distinct; “I Love You California” given by singers, greeted with cheers, by W. B. Seymour.

July 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:1. Record day for Fair crowds pledge; thousands of Elks, convention delegates by hundreds, Utah host and Sacramento Valley residents fill San Diego; crowd to hear William Jennings Bryan expected in afternoon; free apricots at Sacramento Valley Building; big serpentine battle on Isthmus; organ recital; Governor Spry banquet among Exposition attractions.

July 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:3. ’49 Camp evidence search to cost County $1,000; suppers, beer and incidentals included on expense bills; items declared legal; warrants for charges cashed by banks; $142.55 largest claim.

July 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:3. Tabernacle Choir to be heard tonight; Ogden Choir arranges second concert at Fair pavilion.

July 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:3. Newspaper writers obtain photographs of Exposition for illustrated articles.

July 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:4. Old Japanese prints will be exhibited today and from 1 to 5 p.m. tomorrow in the southeast corner of the California Quadrangle; library is maintained by the San Diego Women’s Press Club.

July 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:4. Move to continue Fair into 1916 gains support; proposal made at Chicago by Southern Pacific and Santa Fe Railroads; plan rapidly winning support of businessmen.

July 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:2-5, 4:3-5. William Jennings Bryan, guest at Exposition, spoke to audience estimated at 6,000 on “The Causeless War.”

Before an audience estimated at 6,000 persons, William Jennings Bryan yesterday delivered his now widely-known lecture on “The Causeless War” from the platform of the Spreckels Organ. The address was an effort to show that the present European conflict is without cause and without justification. It was also a plea for peace and a warning to the United States to keep out of the struggle at almost any cost in order that this country, the greatest of the neutral powers, should be in a position to act as a mediator when the belligerents are ready to listen to overtures for peace.

On the platform were many of San Diego’s prominent citizens and when President Davidson, in introducing Colonel Fred Jewell as chairman of the meeting, referred to Bryan as the great apostle of peace whose presence was an honor to the Exposition, there were rounds of wild applause. Jewell added to the enthusiasm when he declared that Bryan had more friends and acquaintances than any man in the United States.

The great Commoner wore a black alpaca coat, similar t the one he made famous in the 1896 campaign, and during his talk of nearly two hours yesterday he kept on his head a gray silk cap, complaining that the sun of California has demonstrated its powers on his head on one occasion and he did not care to give it another chance.

Just before beginning his address a pitcher of grape juice was placed before the speaker, and the great crowd was pleased when he drank a glass of the beverage. Praising San Diego for its progressiveness and its hospitality, Bryan lamented the fact that the beautiful Exposition should be destroyed at the end of the year and expressed his wish that it might be perpetuated for many years to come to the delight of thousands of visitors who will come to San Diego after the end of the year.

Upon his arrival at President Davidson’s office in the morning, an impromptu reception was tendered the former secretary of stage and a performance by the Spanish dancers and singers was given in the president’s office for his benefit. After a tour of the Exposition in company with Mrs. Bryan and a luncheon at the Cristobal Café as the guests of President Davidson, Bryan expressed himself as astonished at the beauty of the buildings and the arrangement of the grounds. The Bryan party left last night on the midnight train after a banquet at the Cristobal.

(From his introductory remarks)

“I have enjoyed the Exposition today. I don’t know how you feel about it, but it seems to me that it will be a great sacrifice not only to your interests, but to the pleasure of those who are coming to San Diego in the future, to let your Exposition terminate this year.” (Applause.)

“These buildings are too beautiful to be torn down when twelve months have passed, and I hope that you will find it possible to allow them to adorn this magnificent park and be a permanent attraction to your already attractive city.” (Applause.)

July 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3. Two tons of fruit given away at Sacramento Valley Building and Alameda-Santa Clara County Building.

July 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:6, 4:2. Lid clamped on Isthmus ’49 Camp by Marsh; citizens condemn closing unique concession display depicting Old California.

July 18, 1915, San Diego Union,, 3:2-6. Utah Day at Exposition; Governor William Spry visited Exposition.

July 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:3. 2,000 typographers coming to Fair August 14-16; San Diego Union members prepare program.

July 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:1. King Joy crowned by Elks host on Isthmus; great crowd throngs carnival street: One of the biggest and merriest crowds which every attended an Exposition jollification, swarmed the Isthmus last night when thousands of Elks from every part of the country held their joy carnival. Fun began early and lasted until late and the jolly members of the antlered tribe turned the joy way into a whirl of gaiety.

The great crowd, which has earlier in the day attended the Utah celebration at the Organ Pavilion and later heard William Jennings Bryan, was augmented last night by thousands of amusement seekers intent on having a good time. The half mile of light never blazed more brilliantly and never was the carnival spirit more pronounced. The good-natured crowd rambled from one amusement place to another, taking them all in and then going back for a second trip through those which had proven most attractive.

As early as 6 p.m. Isthmus eating places were filled to capacity. The rush was maintained throughout the evening, scores awaiting in line, in many instances to gain admission.

The Cristobal Café, always a popular resort, was the scene of two dinners last night, several hundred in attendance at each one — the Utah dinner and the William Jennings Bryan dinner. The Utah people occupied one section of the café and the Bryan admirers the other.

July 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:2-3. Annual convention of Loyal Order of Moose to begin tomorrow morning; great military and fraternal parade Thursday.

July 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:4. Exposition offers varied musical program today; Mormon Tabernacle singers will give final concert at Fair; Yuma Indians to play; Ernest Douglas, Los Angeles organist, scheduled for recital this afternoon.

July 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:2-3. Week’s Exposition calendar filled with stirring events; Moose Day, International Peace Parliament, Tom Thumb wedding among attractions; Illinois delegation; Bay State governor coming.

July 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:3. Colonel and Mrs. J. H. Pendleton gave a reception for Major General George Barnett, commandant of U.S. marines, and Mrs. Barnett at the Exposition’s Japanese tea garden yesterday afternoon.

July 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:4. 60,021 see Exposition during week; estimate for Saturday 15,000.

July 19, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:1. William Jennings Bryan gave address, “The Causeless War,” at the Exposition Saturday: “Should American citizens go to places where they are endangered and where they risk involving this country in an awful war? No! And if they are patriotic citizens they will not. . . . It seems a shame that these beautiful buildings may be torn down after a twelve month. I hope they will be permanent. This is a wonderful place.”

July 19, 1915, San Diego Sun, 12:1. Saturday, July 24, designated as Shriners’ Day; tomorrow is International Parliament of Peace Day.

July 19, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:6. ’49 Camp runs without games; pretty cowgirls and exhibits of picturesque pioneer days remain.

July 19, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:7. Saturday attendance at Exposition was 18,263, record for July.

July 19, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:1. Choir and cadets win plaudits at Fair.

July 20, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:3. Downtown and Exposition ’49 Camp remains under edict issued by Sheriff Conklin; gaming devices at Exposition can be used as demonstrating devices but not for public play.

July 20, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:3. Tomorrow will be Chicago Day; drill of First Regiment on Plaza de Panama at 3:30 p.m.; ancient legend of Vedstena will be enacted at Organ Pavilion at 8:00 p.m. by International Parliament of Peace; Ford Day with be August 9; Ford Motor Band will arrive in San Diego, August 8, and give concerts that day and the next.

July 20, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4-5, 2:2. Exposition visitors deplored stunning blow to ’49 Camp; demonstrations of games at Isthmus lack interest.

July 20, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:1. Peace Parliament celebration at Fair tonight at Spreckels Organ; exercises will open with pageant depicting ancient legend of Vedstena, a prophecy of permanent peace arising in a meeting of seven kings from seven kingdoms; chorus of girls to sing; program arranged by Madame Katherine Tingley and Dr. Edgar L. Hewett.

The seven mimic kings will head the pageant on horseback, students of the Raja Yoga College academy and school will participate, as will members of the men’s and women’s International Theosophical Leagues, members of the college faculty and students and workers of the International Theosophical Homestead.

July 20, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:2. 450 Shriners from Philadelphia visited Exposition; $150,000 spent on tour.

July 20, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:2. 3,000 passengers arrive daily at Santa Fe station.

July 21, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:1. Mayor William Hale Thompson of Chicago Exposition guest.

July 21, 1915, San Diego Sun, 3:1-2. Moose to have day at Exposition tomorrow.

July 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:2. Tot to take bride at San Diego Fair this afternoon at 2 o’clock at the Organ Pavilion.

July 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:5-6. Peace Day at Fair arouses resentment against war.

July 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: What the Expositions are Doing.

July 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:2-3. President Wilson will receive beautiful invitation to San Diego’s Fair.

July 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:1. 1,000 Chicago visitors to celebrate at Fair today; 720 members Illinois National Guard coming.

July 22, 1915, San Diego Herald, 1:5. La Jolla playground is great attraction.

July 22, 1915, San Diego Herald, 2:2. Preserve the Exposition Buildings: There is talk of having the Exposition through another year. The idea is an excellent one. Whether it is done or not, the buildings which adorn the grounds should be taken over by the city and kept as long as they can be preserved in good condition. The Santa Fe exhibit should be kept as it is, an attractive feature of any park.

Many of the buildings can be devoted to educational purposes and nothing invites to a city a better class of people than great educational institutions. A Pan-American university, as suggested by Judge Glidden, would be of incalculable benefit, by its effect on the South American republics, and by drawing us into closer relations to them. Other educational institutions would also be of value.

These buildings, if sold for scrap, will bring little value. The city by becoming the purchaser, could have, at a nominal cost, what would be worth almost as much as the original cost of the buildings. Besides, their value for educational purposes, they would be an attraction which would bring many visitors to the city. Will the Mayor and Council give consideration to this suggestion?

July 22, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:4. Moose parade to mark gala night of entire week.

July 22, 1915, San Diego Sun, 14:3. Governors of Massachusetts and Kansas to be guests at Exposition tomorrow (Note: Governor of Massachusetts did not show up.)

July 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:2-3, 3:2. Mayor Thompson says Chicago paying debt to West; Exposition visited by 850 Illinois National Guardsmen.

July 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2. Mayor William Hale Thompson of Chicago was guest at Exposition.

July 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Moose will own Exposition today; “Alce Americanus” offered big prizes for competitive drills; Cristobal Café will be crowded with diners and dancers.

July 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:1. Wedding bells for tiny folk ring at Fair; just like grown ups, children go through familiar ceremony; mock marriage pleases: In the presence of several thousand people who gathered in front of the Spreckels organ at the Exposition yesterday afternoon little Marjorie Barter became the make-believe bride of Billy Mason at a children’s or Tom Thumb wedding ceremony in which all the actors were children. . . . Billy Gilmore made an excellent minister. . . . Pathe Company made films of the ceremony.

July 23, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:2-3. First suit is started to collect Exposition funds.

July 23, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:1. Shriners’ Day tomorrow; Ellen Beach Yaw to sing at Organ Pavilion at 8:00 p.m.

July 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2. Eight armored auto cars excite interest; fighting machines end 5,000-mile run to Exposition; trip from Lake Geneva, Wisconsin made by 29 cadets of Northwestern Military and Naval Academy.

July 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:2. Moose given keys to Fair; great parade begins night’s gaiety; 2,000 in line of march through business district to west entrance of Fair; State delegations, bands, military bodies, San Diegans in pageant.

July 24, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:1. Today is Equal Suffrage Day, Shriners’ Day and Minnesota Day.

July 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3. Shriners will spiel tonight; nobles eager to bark for “September Morn” concession.

July 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Give the Exposition Its Due . . . approves move of Exposition management to resort to courts to collect what is due from delinquent subscribers.

July 24, 1915, 7:1. Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, supervising architect during construction of the Panama-California Exposition, was guest of honor at a luncheon given at the Cristobal Café for prominent San Diegans and members of the Board of Directors of the Exposition.

Goodhue has not been seen in San Diego for more than a year and he expressed himself as pleased with the architecture and landscape of the Fair.

During the first years of construction Goodhue furnished plans from which the finished product is the result. More definite plans were furnished by Carleton M. Winslow, who was sent West by Goodhue, to superintend the construction work. Goodhue expressed himself as pleased with the work accomplished by Winslow.

The New York man passed two days at the Exposition and will leave tonight for the East, promising to bring his family West for a longer visit before many weeks.

Those in attendance at the luncheon were Bertram G. Goodhue, Dr. Edgar L. Hewett, E. C. White, R. C. Allen, George W. Marston, Thomas O’Hallaran, Carl Forward, John Forward, Jr., George Burnham, W. A. Sloane, D. C. Collier, Julius Wangenheim, Reverent Willard B. Thorp, W. J. Bailey, Carleton M. Winslow.

July 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:1. Arthur Capper, Kansas governor, entertained at Exposition.

July 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:1. Today will be Equal Suffrage Day at Exposition; Reverend Olympia Brown of Wisconsin, president of Federal Suffrage Association, to speak at Organ Pavilion at 3:30 this afternoon.

July 24, 1915, 7:2. The newsboys of San Diego and inmates of the Children’s Home will be special guests of the Exposition tonight at the Ellen Beach Yaw concert to be given at the Organ Pavilion at 8 o’clock.

July 24, 1915, 9:2-3. Fraternal Ad Union’s Day at Fair set for July 30; 800 members expected.

July 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:4. Unpaid Exposition subscription stock to be collected through the courts; $2,000 due from John Johnson, Jr., a wealthy property owner of this city and Escondido; unpaid subscriptions nearly $350,000 pledged in 1909; there is still a debt of approximately $150,000 contracted before the opening of the Exposition; payment of big sum will make dividend possible; this would be the first Fair in history to return a dividend.

July 25, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:2-3. Shriners storm Exposition Joy Way; nobles as spielers enrich show places.

July 25, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:1-3. Indian sacred festival pictures were stolen from New Mexico Building.

A forced bolt on a rear window, a rifled strong-box, and a rudely sprawled note of explanation, in primitive halting English, were the revelations of loss which confronted Waldo C. Twitchell, assistant manager of the New Mexico building, when he returned to his office last night about 8:30 to complete some work “on hand” after dining at the Cristobal.

Evidence of a hurried search and quick work were observed by Twitchell as he unlocked the door and glanced hastily around to see if anything among the exhibits had been purloined, but when his search led him to the tower room, where the films of the motion pictures given daily at the building are stored, it became evident what had been desired by the intruders.

The note lying on the floor told it all — a reel of films had been taken because they depicted a phase of life among the Taos Indians in New Mexico which they considered too sacred to be thrown upon a screen for the entertainment of unbelievers and had been taken secretly and contrary to the laws of the tribe.

The film in question was one taken at the Fiesta of San Geronimo of Taos, New Mexico — a harvest festival, held usually on September 30 and October 1, of which some of the features are considered too sacred for reproduction by unauthorized persons. A quaint blending of the religious with something to amuse occurs in the ceremonial, among others, a relay race, the winner of which has the privilege of naming the governor of the tribe for the ensuing year.

The note, which bore evidence of the education received from the white man, combined with Indian cunning, read as follows:

“Bad mediceen – indians have bad luck – all sick. Pichers of race must burn – indians all get weel.”

This explained the whole thing. The Indians learned that a picture of the festival had been taken including the forbidden features, and their superstitious nature led them to attribute sickness and ill fortune which visited the pueblo this year to the “jinx” cast on them by the picture.

Governor Unpopular

Among other things, the governor chosen by the winner of the race had proved unpopular, and this misfortune could have come only because the taking of the picture was “bad mediceen.”

A number of the Taos Indians are among those at the “Painted Desert” concession of the Santa Fe Railway on the Isthmus, and all of them have been made welcome at the New Mexico building. When the building was dedicated, May 3, many of the Indians gave characteristic dances in the patio, and were allowed to use the tower room, where the films were stored, as a dressing room.

This was the opportunity which the ultra-religionists among them had waited for patiently, with the cunning of their race, and they evidently improved it well, to get a knowledge of the room and where the profaning pictures were kept.

Belief Is Building Was Watched

Since that night it is believed they have watched the building and studied the habits of those in charge until last night the opportunity presented itself, in the early hours of darkness, during Twitchell’s absence, to obtain possession of the “wicked” device of the white man which they believed had cast an evil spell upon the pueblo.

Satisfied that in all probability the over-zealous and superstitious Indians had taken the film, and that in their anxiety to turn bad medicine into good medicine, they would immediately destroy the picture — doubtless had done so — Twitchell did some quick thinking. He recalled that the negative and one spare print of the film were safely stored in the vault of the state museum at Santa Fe and he immediately sent a letter to Paul A. F. Walter, in charge of the museum, explaining the details and asking that the spare film be sent at once, and at the same time suggesting redoubled vigilance over the negative.

Walter is expected to ship the reel today, so that no interruption, or only a slight one, will result in place of what promised to be delay, and would have been if no duplicate had been obtainable.

Indians Gave Warning

Some of the Indians of the Painted Desert, whom Twitchell had known for years in Santa Fe, warned him sometime ago that the Taos Indians were wrought over the fact that pictures of one of their sacred religious rites had been made and that these pictures were being exhibited daily for the entertainment of scoffers, thereby offending the denizens of the spirit world, especially those of evil intent.

Twitchell thought his friends were unduly nervous and apprehensive and paid little attention to the warning, beyond making sure that everything was secure about the building when it was closed in the evening.

Much sickness and bad luck had visited the Taos Pueblo, four miles distant from the town of Taos, New Mexico. The governor of the tribe had been unpopular, and things generally seem to have been at “sixes and sevens,” all of which the Indians laid at the door of the paleface’s pictures, taken in spite of watchfulness and against their time-honored laws.

Film Believed Destroyed

Indian friends had told Twitchell that the film would be destroyed if the Indians succeeded in getting possession of it, and this prophecy no doubt came true last night, within a short time after the building had been entered and the reel taken. The destruction of the “jinx” inhabiting the film probably was accompanied with ceremonial incantations and religious rites to exorcise the evil spirits and restore health, peace and happiness to the troubled pueblo of Taos.

Members of the Painted Desert were absolutely true to all traditions of Indian stoicism when seen last night and did not betray by so much as a twitch of an eyelash that they knew anything of the theft of the film from the New Mexico building. Even those who had given friendly warning were silent. But by a process of elimination, reinforced by a note found by Twitchell on the floor of the film room, it seems indisputable that no other elements than religious superstition and zeal entered into the quiet, but effective work accomplished amid the shadows of the first hours of darkness last night.

Duplicate Due Soon

The work was ineffective, however, in that the duplicate film will be on its way to San Diego within a few hours and the daily program at the New Mexico building will be interrupted by scarcely a ripple of delay. Twitchell felt assured on this point last night.

The pictures shown on the purloined film are considered wonderful and are the first and only ones of their kind ever made. Likewise, they probably will be the last, so long as Indian superstition remains, for eternal vigilance has been the watchword of the Taos ever since the fiesta of last autumn, when the pictures were secured in a remarkable way.

What thousands of dollars had proven an insufficient lure to obtain came easily at the touch of friendship and a few trifling baubles and sweetmeats. A large motion picture corporation has offered $5,000 the year previous for the privilege of filming the fiesta of San Geronimo, but the offer was refused promptly and firmly on account of religious scruples.

Friendship Wins Way

While securing material for the New Mexico exhibit at the Panama-California Exposition, the Board of Education Managers for the Sunshine state cast covetous glances on the characteristic dances of the Taos Indians, realizing what an important asset such an attraction would make in presenting a passing phase of the life of the redmen.

Here friendship came into play and a generous supply of grease paint, seen now as part of the personal adornment of the dancers in the film, was given out judiciously where it would do the most good. Anything which pleases the eye of the spectacle-loving aborigine, appeals to his vanity and that which tickles his palate also has an appeal to the primitive mind. Realizing this, the ambassadors from the New Mexico Board of Exposition Managers were lavish in gifts of watermelon, soda water and flattery. Lucullus proved strong where Crossus had been impotent.

Caution Necessary

When the time came during the festival for filming the display, great caution and vigilance were necessary as the ultra-superstitious might at any time smash the camera, destroy the film and inflict injury upon the “profaners of the temple.”

An experienced Connecticut Yankee, who knew the Indians and their customs as well as the camera gam, was secured as an operator and succeeded in filming the events of the fiesta without interference until the sacred relay race was started, when a watchful Indian discovered the camera and put a tin cap over the lens.

The resourceful camera man obtained another can, out of which the bottom was cut, and secretly substituted it for the other, then moved away from the camera to divert suspicion, first asking a white woman visitor to turn the crank of the machine without attracting attention.

Screen “Scoop” Obtained

In this manner the picture was obtained, in the face of great obstacles, but at a small outlay of cash, scoring a decided scoop on the motion picture people who had offered a small fortune — a big one to an Indian — for the privilege. This latter fact may have worked upon the cupidity of some of the tribe, when they realized the wealth they had within their grasp, and instead has sold the privilege of a mess of grease paint.

Among the revelers at this feast of the Taos are the Koshare, or Chiffonetti, representing the spirits of the departed, who indulge in rough pranks and horseplay, such as tossing a man in a blanket, and other ministrations. On this day when the pictures were made the Chiffonetti were gaily daubed with the paint generously donated by the Board of Exposition Managers. Nevertheless, if they had fully realized that the evil spirits were to be angered by the white man’s intrusion, their horseplay would have been diverted toward the camera and its operator in deadly earnest.

Truth Like Fiction

“The story of securing that reel of films reads like a romance,” said Twitchell last night. “But it was a pretty serious business at the critical moments. The films never have been shown anywhere but in our chapel up to the present time. We did not dare to run them in New Mexico, much as it would have helped us in our work of arousing interest in the state’s exhibit at the Panama-California Exposition, for fear of stirring up the simple-minded and superstitious Indians to a frenzy of religious reprisal. We have four other reels of Indian life and customs, but not including anything placed under the ban, as is the stolen film. These were undamaged, showing how thoroughly the Indians had made themselves familiar with their ‘plant’ before beginning their work, and how they limited themselves strictly to the removal of the forbidden thing. I have do doubt that Paul Walton will have the spare film here in time for our next Wednesday program.”

July 25, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Governor W. S. Hammond of Minnesota was guest at Exposition.

July 25, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:2. Ellen Beach Yaw to sing at the Exposition today.

July 25, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:2-3. Anthony Comstock to speak at Fair tonight; noted purist will discuss conditions in San Diego, belief.

July 26, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:5. Theodore Roosevelt is San Diego’s guest today; luncheon at 12:30 p.m. tomorrow at Cristobal Café; dinner at Cristobal Café at 6:30 p.m.; Colonel Collier will introduce Roosevelt at Organ Pavilion at 8:00 p.m.

July 26, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:5. Anthony Comstock, enemy of vice, visited San Diego; spoke last night at an Open Forum at Organ Pavilion: “The three main sources of corruption are intemperance, gambling and evil reading.”

July 26, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:2. Anthony Comstock said the Exposition was the most magnificent thing he had ever seen. “There is nothing, absolutely nothing about the Exposition to offend the fastidious.”

July 26, 1915, San Diego Sun, _:3. Boys’ Day takes many to Exposition; 50 boys of Columbia Park Club of San Francisco gave a band concert and vaudeville show at 2:00 p.m. on the Plaza de Panama; marched down coast 610 miles to see the Exposition.

July 26, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:5-6. Theodore Roosevelt to arrive today.

July 26. 1915, San Diego Union, 2:5. Shriners departing singing praises of San Diego.

July 26, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:8. Comstock fails to put brand on San Diego; “fire and brimstone” absent from the reformer’s address; spoke last night at Organ Pavilion; said “world growing better”; drink, gambling and evil reading chief sources of corruption.

July 26, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:1. Fair attractions pack Tijuana with tourists; more than seven thousand cross boundary line in day; festive spirit reigns; rapidly growing Mexican town taking on aspects of city.

July 26, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:5. Ellen Beach Yaw charms multitude at Exposition Saturday night and yesterday afternoon: After “The Skylark,” her own composition, Madame Yaw, as an encore, sang unaccompanied “Nearer My God to Thee.”

July 26, 1915, San Diego Union, 12:1. Fifty six of Columbia Park Boys’ Club to have day at San Diego Exposition; tramped 610 miles from San Francisco; visitors go into camp at tractor field; prepare for show, concerts.

July 27, 1915, San Diego Sun, 3:4. Pythian Day at Exposition on August 21; Los Angeles knights to come to San Diego in large numbers.

July 27, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:1. Japanese Day at Exposition Saturday; lanterns will hang along all the Exposition thoroughfares and on tower of California Building; lantern procession at 9:00 p.m. on tractor field.

July 27, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:2. Annapolis Day, Illinois Day, and International Rotary Club Day tomorrow; grand open-air ball on Plaza de Panama at 8:00 p.m.

July 27, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3-7, 2:2. Theodore Roosevelt beams delight as cheering thousands greet arrival; old friends and admirers clamor to extend welcoming hand; party met at Del Mar.

July 27, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:1-4. Colonel Roosevelt had his first glimpse of the Panama-California Exposition last night when with President G. A. Davidson, Dr. E. L. Hewett, George W. Marston, chairman of the entertainment committee, Colonel D. C. Collier, R. C. Allen — an old college friend, Miss Alice Lee and a small party of friends he was taken through the California Building, the old mission in the California Quadrangle, the Indian Arts Building and the Science of Man Building.

The trip of the former president was arranged in the early evening and only those who were to be members of the party were notified. It was a peculiar feature of yesterday that Roosevelt began his day at 6 p.m. in Los Angeles with a trip to the La Brea oil fields where the bones of prehistoric animals were found and ended it last night studying prehistoric man in the Science of Man Building at the Exposition.

Enthusiasm Displayed

Interested in everything shown him and enthusiastic over the beauty of the Fair, Roosevelt stopped short many times when on his way to the different buildings to call the attention of Mrs. Roosevelt to parts of the grounds which he thought might escape her. He was lavish in his praise of the style of architecture, the landscape schemes and the gardens. “What a place for a modern Rome and Juliet,” he exclaimed while walking through the formal gardens.

“Beauty is an asset and can be made into money,” he reflected. “San Diego is a remarkable city and the Exposition is more beautiful and pleasing to the eye than one could imagine. I hope they will make it a permanent park. It will make San Diego, the Mecca of America when it comes to winter business. I had only a glimpse of your harbor but I want to suggest that the waterline be made as beautiful as this park. Beautiful surroundings are pleasing to everybody and with them and your climatic conditions San Diego will undergo a tremendous growth. I hope you will advance as much in the future as you have in the past. The improvements in this park are little short of marvelous and when you tell me you had to blast pieces to set the trees and when you tell me the short time it has taken to transform this plot of ground to such a riot of blooms, it proves almost beyond understanding.

Save Exhibits Urged

“San Diego is the first port of call on the Pacific coast and I am going to talk on the Panama Canal in my speech at the Exposition tomorrow night. The Exposition is truly wonderful. Your buildings and grounds are so harmonious, everything seems to be in such exquisite taste.

“If you save these wonderful exhibits,” referring to those in the Indian Arts building and the Science of Man building, “people of culture will visit you year after year. They will come here to study things which they do not have at home. The Fair in the one year will gain for San Diego many new residents, but all cannot come in one year and it could be kept open a longer time or if the body of it could be saved it would prove a permanent asset.”

With characteristic bluntness of speech, Roosevelt kept Dr. Hewett busy explaining objects in the buildings through which he was shown. He was interested in it all and seemed disappointed he could not pass a longer time at the Fair.

July 27, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Fifty two members of Columbia Park Boys’ Club of San Francisco give show at Exposition.

July 27, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Governor Lister of Washington due August 16.

July 28, 1915, Los Angeles Times, II, 7:3. Roosevelt sees the Exposition; greets Broncho Bill and other Rough Riders of the old days.

July 28, 1915, Los Angeles Times, II, 7:3. Colonel Roosevelt again scores peace talkers; is heard by thirty thousand; fondles colors of Old Rough Rider Regiment, enjoys Exposition and says, “We should be prepared for war”; is to return to Los Angeles today.

July 28, 1915, San Diego Sun, 9:1-2. Theodore Roosevelt cheered as he addressed crowd, former President spoke on “War and Peace,” and urged United States to be prepared; told what out Mexico policy should be and scored “old women of both sexes who continually talk arbitration.”

In advising the people of San Diego to keep the Exposition open another year at least, Roosevelt laid great stress upon the actual advantages, commercial and otherwise, of beauty to a city.

“Do not neglect to continue to build your city along lines of beauty. Keep your waterfront open and develop it so that it may add beauty to your city. Do not let a number of private citizens usurp it and make it hideous with buildings your children will have to pay an exorbitant sum to tear down.”

July 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:2-6, 3:3-4. . Colonel Theodore Roosevelt spoke to thousands at Exposition; Enforce peace in Mexico! America’s duty, say T.R; show of force safeguard against war, he tells audience.

In an address delivered before a crowd estimated at 20,000 at the Spreckels music pavilion at the Panama-California Exposition last night, former President Theodore Roosevelt ridiculed the nation’s foreign policy, poked fun at those who argue peace at any cost, told of the history of the building of the Panama canal, praised the Exposition, and announced the best plan for permanent peace is the permanent preparedness for war.

It was an address of tremendous seriousness, punctuated liberally with flashes of wit and humor. He swayed the sympathies of his audience at will, painting in word pictures what he believes true Americanism means and sending his hearers into _______ of delight when he changed his voice and in true vaudeville fashion brought forth witty passages in describing the attitude of America towards other nations.

For nearly two hours Roosevelt held the interest of the largest and most enthusiastic audience which has ever assembled at the Plaza de los Estados. It greeted him with volumes of applause and ending with ringing cheers.

Like Political Meeting

At times the great gathering resembled an old-fashioned political meeting, for patriotic utterances were frequently signals for wild enthusiasm While talking of the policy of the American government and telling of the forty-two ultimatums sent to Mexico and the taking of Vera Cruz and the coming back of American troops without the flag having been saluted, a man in the audience broke in, shouting: “Do you believe in war with Mexico?”

Quick as a flash, Roosevelt singled out the man and answered, “I believe in enforcing peace in Mexico,” an utterance which brought forth thunderous applause. “I believe in doing what we did in Cuba. I believe it is our duty to make peace in Mexico and leave that nation as prosperous as we have made Cuba. Unless we establish peace some other nation will humiliate us by stepping in and doing it for us. An army of 150,000 men, trained soldiers, could be used in organizing a party of peace and order.

“Mexico needs a democracy of right and unless the people are sensible enough to establish it, it will become our duty to do it for them just as we did in Cuba. And we promised Cuba that when that sort of an organization had taken place, she would be free to go her own way, and it was my pleasure to keep that promise for the American people.”

Colonel Roosevelt proved as good a comedian as he is an orator for with slants at the pacifists and dabs at what he called “old women of both sexes,” meaning those who hold conferences for universal peace, ” at which nothing takes place but conversation,” he kept his audience in continual good humor.

“These people should make their official song “I Didn’t Raise My Boy to Be a Soldier,” and that companion piece, “I Didn’t Raise My Daughter to Be a Mother,” should be equally popular. Both seem to be equally sensible.

Domesticated He Says

“We would not be here today had peace been bought at any price. If we have lost the spirit of Washington and Sherman and Grant and Lee, we have lost that true spirit of Americanism which has been at the foundation of our government ever since that government was organized.

“There are those who say I want war. That isn’t true. I am a thoroughly domesticated person and I would rather be at home with the members of my family than almost anywhere else. But if war did come, I would expect to have a part in it, and I should expect to send four sons. At this minute two of them are in camp learning what their duty might be in case they might be called upon to defend their flag. But war for the United States, in view of present conditions, would not be healthy. We need to be better prepared for war to maintain our peace.

“I am not neutral between right and wrong when right and wrong is a question between individuals or nations. Not a rifle was discharged by the United States at a foreign foe during the seven and one-half years of my administration.

“As the net result of the Vera Cruz incident — of our policy of waging peace with Mexico — we came home without having our flag saluted. Public men should not make statements they do not back up with action. Words should be transmitted to deeds. There are some people who believe fine words will carry any situation, but I am not one of them.

“In 1907 we sent the battleships around the world as a message of peace, but there was a dual purpose in that action, and it was to show our readiness. While we wanted to show friendliness, we also wanted nations to know that it would behoove them to treat us nicely. When we sent the battleships around the world, or rather when the announcement was made, I thought the Eastern coast was going to have epilepsy. No one had thought much about the value of the fleet up to that time, but when they found it was going to leave, everybody seemed to want it kept at home.

“A man who lives in Maine told me I couldn’t send the fleet around the world because congress wouldn’t give me the money. I told him I would send it half-way around the world, and after it arrived in the Pacific it would be up to the gentleman from Maine to get it back again. I believe the fleet should be kept together, and that it should maneuver in the Pacific at times each year, as well as in the Atlantic.

Gives History of Canal

“No nation can hope to keep out of trouble by encouraging the contempt of other nations. China has tried it, and today one-half of that country is in the possession of England, Russia and France. China thought like a good many of the people of the United States think of the Panama canal — no one would be wicked enough to seize it. China thought she could afford to pay others to fight her battles, but she found it wouldn’t work. People who tell you that the worst place is better than the best war are dangerous to the community in which they live. If our people want to sit timid and helpless, we cannot expect respect abroad.”

Roosevelt then told of the history of the Panama canal. “The building of the canal to make a short route between the Atlantic and the Pacific has been talked of for centuries, or ever since Balboa discovered the Pacific. If we had continued the conversation, you in San Diego would not this evening be holding an Exposition.” The Colonel then told of the difficulties with Columbia; how what had been called a republic was not a republic, but was in the hands of a dictator who has usurped the government; of how the sending of the fleet to Columbia was necessary to prevent the blackmail of the French company which had undertaken to dig the canal and the holding up of Uncle Sam. “The stand I took against Columbia is, I believe, the policy we should now adopt toward other nations.”

Arbitration Criticized

“Old women of both sexes who advocate the settlement of all controversies by arbitration, are, by a stretch of my imagination, worthy and well-meaning people. To those who think that treaties will protect us, I call attention to what happened to the Belgians.

“If when J. P. Morgan was attacked in his home by a hyphenated American, the butler had stood quietly by and remarked he didn’t believe in violence and that he was neutral, Mr. Morgan might not have been alive today. But the butler didn’t attempt to be neutral; he seized the nearest substance that was hard and angular, which happened to be a chunk of coal. If we in America are at a point where we can discontinue our police organizations, then why not disband the army and navy?

“We must prepare the youth of our land to defend the nation if occasion demands. We have no room for hyphenated Americans; no room for Irish-Americans, German-Americans, nor even a native American if he is not giving his undivided allegiance to one flag.

Allegiance Demanded

“The native may be as bad as any. If they cannot give us their whole allegiance, all their patriotism, there is no room for them here. If the foreigner wants to serve another country, let him go back to that country, for we will not tolerate him here. Foreign countries are not harmed by the faces we make at them, and I do not consider making faces a dignified occupation, anyway. We want to be able to defend ourselves.

“A regular army of 200,000 men is what we need, and that would not be as big relatively as the New York police force. All young Americans should be trained for self defense. We should not permit the triumph of wrong over right. This nation must not be tramped under the foot of some other country, and we can save ourselves humiliation if we will prepare in time of peace for any condition which might arise.”

In opening his address, Roosevelt said of the Exposition:

Exposition Praised

In opening his address, Roosevelt said of the Exposition, “You have made a most beautiful Exposition in a place beautiful by nature and made more beautiful by art, one of the most beautiful that I have ever seen. It is literally astounding for a city which we hope in the lifetime of some of you present will reach a half million population, but which doesn’t quote come up to that mark now. (Laughter)

“It is so beautiful that I wish to make an earnest plea that you will keep the Exposition going for another year. Last year was a hard one for most of the land, and you naturally have not had quite the crowds that you expected. I hope that not only will you keep the Exposition running for another year, but you will keep the buildings of rare phenomenal taste and beauty permanently where they are.

“I feel that you are doing an immense amount from an educational standpoint for the United States in the way you are developing the old California architecture and the architecture of the Presidio, and I want especially to congratulate New Mexico on having adopted and developed the American form of architecture by taking the Indian buildings and adapting them to the Exposition.

“It is unwise ever slavishly to copy anything from another civilization, but it is still more unwise not to copy anything that is of use from an alien civilization and then adapt and develop it to your own uses. It is an admirable thing to have taken both the old Spanish and the pueblo Indian styles of architecture and adapt and develop them in the typical and characteristic American fashion as you have done here.

“I hope that you of San Diego, whose city is just entering on the great period of development, will recognize what so many old communities have failed to recognize, that beauty is not only worth while for its own sake, but that it is valuable commercially. Keep your waterfront and develop it so that it may add to the beauty of your city, and do not let a number of private individuals usurp it and make it hideous with buildings and then force your children to pay them an exorbitant sum to get rid of the ugliness they have created.

“I am more struck than I can say by what you have accomplished in San Diego and I hope to see you continue to be your masters and teachers and to have your lessons taught to and appreciated by all the people of the United States.”

Introduced by Collier

Colonel Roosevelt was introduced by Colonel D. C. Collier, who said he is the only man under whom Americans have been respected abroad as well as at home. “German and English citizens are protected no matter where they are, and it has come to pass that a dirty sheet receives more consideration over the home or the property of an American abroad than the American flag.”

Colonel Collier was introduced by President G. A. Davidson of the Exposition, who evidenced his pleasure in words of welcome to Colonel Roosevelt, whom Davidson called “America’s foremost citizen.”

People went to the Plaza de los Estados as early as 2 p.m. yesterday and made themselves comfortable, to await for Roosevelt’s speech. Before 6 o’clock last night every available seat was taken and hundreds were coming over Cabrillo Bridge, carrying everything which might be used as a seat, from kitchen chairs to soap boxes. At 8 o’clock when Roosevelt mounted the platform, the plaza was a swarming mass of eager humanity and the crowds extended on both sides of the grass plot to the Plaza de Panama.

Tour, Continuous Ovation

The Colonel’s tour of the Exposition yesterday was a continuous ovation. Hundreds of people crowded the U. S. Grant Hotel and surrounding streets t get a glimpse of him when he left the hotel under the escort of officers of the Exposition and officers and men of the First Cavalry. Hundreds lined the streets of the residential section, cheering him as he passed in President Davidson’s automobile.

At the entrance of the Exposition, there were other hundreds and the Colonel’s face was wreathed in perpetual smiles as he doffed his hat to the crowds. At President Davidson’s office a large crowd had assembled to get a close view of the former president.

The troupe of Spanish troubadours never played before a more appreciative audience than Roosevelt. They were awaiting him in the office of President Davidson, and after they had given their program, the Colonel insisted on three additional Spanish pieces.

Film Delights T.R.

From the President’s office, Roosevelt was taken to the New Mexico building, where Miss Elizabeth Garrett of Las Cruces, daughter of Pat Garrett, famous New Mexico sheriff, appointed by Roosevelt some years ago as collector of customs at El Paso, sang “Fair New Mexico,” a song of which she is the author. Then slides made from pictures of Roosevelt’s Rough Riders were shown and the former president was thrown on the screen.

In the placita of the New Mexico building had been hung the flag under which the New Mexico Rough Riders had been recruited. It was later taken to Cuba and was used over the quarters of Colonel Roosevelt. With Lieutenant J. W. Green, formerly of Gallup, New Mexico, now of San Diego and owner of the famous relic, and several other former Rough Riders, Roosevelt posed for newspaper and movie cameras.

Given Lincoln Picture

  1. K. Dewein of the Hearst-Selig pictorial service, who took pictures of Roosevelt under the

flag for use on his news service, presented Colonel Roosevelt with a heretofore unpublished picture of Abraham Lincoln, taken at Peoria, Illinois, in 1858. Dewein had made copies of the original picture, one of which he gave to the Colonel who seemed to be greatly pleased.

In the number who crowded about Colonel Roosevelt after the pictures had been taken was a woman who told Colonel Roosevelt she is the mother of five boys. “That’s good!,” exclaimed the former president. “Are they fighters?”

“My word, how those boys can fight,” answered the woman.

“That’s good,” said the Colonel. “Boys are no good unless they can fight. They wouldn’t be fit to live in the glorious United States unless they had some fight in them. Teach them patriotism and what they owe to their country. Teach them to love that flag and impress them that it would be their duty to fight for it.”

After the trip to the New Mexico building, Colonel Roosevelt left the Exposition grounds for a few minutes to go to the home of Lieutenant J. W. Green, where he met and talked with his old friends, the Rough Riders, who are now residents of San Diego. He promised to be back at the Cristobal café promptly at 1 p.m. for luncheon and he was punctual.

On the chance that Roosevelt would speak at the café, hundreds crowded the room at the luncheon hour. The Exposition was host to the Roosevelt party, there being about seventy-five at the official table. No speeches were made.

Directly after luncheon, Roosevelt was taken to the Seven Southern California Counties building where he made the only talk of the day, outside the longer one at the Spreckels music pavilion last night. He was introduced to those present by Mrs. Florence Collins Porter, who was a delegate to the Republican national convention at Chicago in 1912 from California.

Mrs. Porter Sought

Mrs. Porter later represented the Progressives and is an old friend of Roosevelt. He had asked about her several times and warned those in charge of his entertainment that he must see Mrs. Porter. She represents Los Angeles County at the Seven Southern California Counties building. She was the first woman to cast a vote in a national convention. Later as a representative of California Progressives, she voted for Roosevelt and Governor Hiram Johnson.

The Colonel lavishly praised the Exposition, the courage and ingenuity of Californians and suggested forcibly that the Exposition be kept permanently open. He said, “It would be opening up new grounds and would be of tremendous impact in the future greatness of the ‘First Port of Call.”

Scores of people had presents as souvenirs of Southern California which they wanted to give to the Colonel. A girl, representing the Doll House on the Isthmus, had dressed a kewpie as a Rough Rider and presented it to him after pushing her way breathlessly through the crowd. He accepted it with pleasure and gave it to an aide who was already loaded down with souvenirs.

Snapped by Camera

While he was leaving the Seven Southern California Counties Building, a woman stepped abruptly in front of the Colonel and holding her kodak at arm’s length and within a few inches of his face, snapped the shutter. “Woof,” cried Roosevelt, “mercy me, I’m shot.” He slapped his hands, and the woman who had not been timid until that minute merged into the crowd.

He insisted on making a rapid tour of the building which is representative of Southern California and left to see the remainder of the California exhibit, the model farm on the Alameda. With this he was immensely pleased and expressed his pleasure with many exclamations of surprise and wonderment.

At 4 p.m. he was taken to the Spreckels music pavilion where he heard William J. Gomph play several numbers on the outdoor organ after which he visited the women’s headquarters in the California building, where he and Mrs. Roosevelt were guests of honor at a reception.

Drinks Nine Cups of Tea

At the reception Roosevelt established a record for tea drinking, taking according to close observers and those considered good at mathematics a total of nine cups. “The tea was deliciously good and I was very thirsty,” he said when leaving the building.

A feature of the day’s program came unexpectedly at the Painted Desert when the Colonel was asked to christen the weekend baby of Mary Trujilo, an Acoma Indian woman. She requested that he name the lad “Theodore Roosevelt Trujilo,” which he did in the presence of several hundred persons.

“I’ve enjoyed the Painted Desert and I find no race suicide here,” he said. He had met several of the Indians in Arizona and New Mexico and these he called by name. In their shy manner they all evidenced their pleasure at meeting him again. With some of them he talked at length, discussing their schools and their work. The Indians had dressed more carefully than on any other occasion for their visit with Roosevelt, some of the women having taken the entire afternoon to don their best clothes and their paint.

The dance of the Acomas, the Buffalo dance by the Hopis, and a Navajo dance were given for the Roosevelt party after which they visited with the Indians at work and in their homes. The former president was intensely interested in the Santa Fe exhibit and regretted that he could pass so little time there. After visiting with the Indians, Roosevelt rested an hour before going to dinner at the Cristobal café. He had been on the jump since early morning and he admitted that San Diegans had given him a mighty strenuous day.

Roosevelt will review the Annapolis cadets this morning at 11:30 at the Plaza de Panama and probably will leave the city on an afternoon train. During his tour of the grounds yesterday afternoon he met many old friends. Some of them he had not seen in years and members of the party marveled at his remarkable memory. He was pleased with his entertainment in San Diego and could not say enough for the beauty and inspiration of the Panama-California Exposition.

July 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:4. Balboa Guardsman Given Rough Rider Badge by Roosevelt at Exposition: Captain C. P. Wright of the Balboa Guards at the Exposition was proudly displaying last night a Rough Rider badge which Roosevelt had given him during the day. Wright was an office in the Second Illinois Infantry in the Spanish-American War, during which time Roosevelt became acquainted with him.

When Roosevelt heard that Wright was at the Exposition, he sent for him to come over to the New Mexico building yesterday afternoon where the Colonel was speaking. After talking over old times with Wright, Roosevelt took a Rough Rider badge, which was pinned on his own coat, wrote his name on it, and pinned it on the Captain’s breast.

July 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 3. Rooseveltisms: Speaking of Mexico reminded Roosevelt of an anecdote which he related as follows:

“A man said to his assistant, ‘You have stepped on my feet, you have tweaked my nose, you have spat in my face. Beware, do not go to far, lest you rouse the lion in me.”

July 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:4. Death of martyr looms before organist at Fair when Roosevelt speaks: William J. Gomph, organist at the Exposition, played yesterday afternoon just before Roosevelt spoke for the first time.

“It gave me a peculiar sensation of fear,” said Gomph last night, “for I played the organ at the Exposition in Buffalo when McKinley was shot. I couldn’t help watching in fear and trembling. Every man looked suspicious to me, and, of course, I imagined many who were absolutely harmless to be suspicious. I was glad when it was over safely.”

July 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:3. Exposition Spanish troupe to present a Spanish operetta for midshipmen visiting Exposition during open-air ball in Plaza de Panama; synopsis given.

July 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:6. Middies to enter San Diego port his morning; open-air ball tonight; Roosevelt will review future U.S. Navy officers at Plaza de Panama this morning at 10:30.

July 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:2:3. James Hugh Allen, baritone and former San Diegan, to sing at Exposition Friday evening.

July 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:4. Two more suits filed on Fair subscriptions; signers of $100 subscriptions refused to pay when the demand was presented to them.

July 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:3-5. Bee Gee Players ready for Middies; Fast baseball game billed for Stadium today.

July 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:3. Tijuana sets aside day for Midshipmen; naval battle in miniature will be staged by Mexican fair.

July 28, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:2-5. Tag Day crusaders win $1,000 for cause; tireless girls showed with praise by Committee; Workers pin numerous badges on Roosevelt’s coat as Colonel makes donation; campaign planned as annual city charity event.

July 29, 1915, Los Angeles Times, II, 9:4. Middies head long parade; three battleships reach port of San Diego; Roosevelt reviews troops and sailors; Governor of Illinois visits the Exposition.

July 29, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:7-8. The Sun thinks if would be a mighty fine things to have a Collier Day as soon as it is convenient.

July 29, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:1. Alia Nazimova, Russian actress, will present her company in her timely play, “War Brides,” at Organ Pavilion, August 5-7.

July 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:2, 2:1-2. First, second and third classes of Annapolis midshipmen, San Diego and Exposition guests; future defenders of nation reviewed by former President; first battleship squadron consisting of Missouri, Ohio and Wisconsin to anchor in Man-o’-War Row here; first battleship squadron ever to enter the harbor and drop anchor.

July 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3. Former President William Howard Taft will visit fair September 19.

July 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3-4. Twelve-oared cutter race for James Gordon Bennett Cup to feature Shipmen’s visit today.

July 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:4-5. Middies entertained at Fair; future admirals praise city; hundreds dance as thousands assemble to greet Annapolis boys: A portion of the Plaza de Panama was roped off early in the evening, benches were brought from the Plaza de los Estados, and the dancing portion was given a special treatment which made dancing easy.

July 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:1-2. Boys’ City in Balboa Park plan for former juvenile head, visiting Fair: Judge Willis Brown, formerly head of the Salt Lake City, Utah, juvenile court, who is traveling about the United States investigating sites for the location of a Boys’ City, visited the Panama-California Exposition yesterday.

Judge Brown thinks the grounds of the Exposition would be an excellent place for the location of Boys’ City. He talked with President Davidson of the scheme yesterday. Later the matter may be taken up with the Board of Directors and Judge Brown may try to get a portion of Balboa Park. With the boys coming from all parts of the country and the great amount of publicity as a result, he thinks San Diego would prove a year-round Mecca for the tourist.

Judge Brown left last night for the East but promised to return to talk over the establishment of his Boys’ City with the directors of the Exposition..

July 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 18:1. Spirit of Japan will mark fete at Exposition; Customs old and new among exhibit features planned; Coins to drop from sky; Banquet to honor Fair officials arranged by Nipponese Committee.

In faraway Japan there are century-old customs teeming with the spirit of celebration. Long has the flowery land been known for its observances. A festivity, or special day, in Japan means something more than mere speaking of the name.

So when “Japan Day” is celebrated at the Exposition Saturday, throughout the Exposition grounds there will be a Nipponese atmosphere, probably never before seen in a Pacific coast festival.

The program, to be contributed largely by Japanese, will set forth the customs and everyday life of Japan; it will show the people at work and play.

Combined with the memories of old Japan, when it was known as the “Island Kingdom” or the “Flowery Kingdom,” will be features made possible by the new order of things. Japan’s new regime is progressive. It is Americanizing more and more every day, and the combination of old and new will be exemplified in a program beginning at 10 o’clock in the morning and continuing late at night with a long lantern parade over the Puente Cabrillo.

The Japanese Association of Southern California has been working on Saturday’s program for the last two months. Its members raised a liberal purse for expenses, and money has been expended lavishly in providing entertainment for Exposition visitors Saturday. More than 10,000 Japanese lanterns will swing on all the main thoroughfares at the Exposition and the lofty tower of the California Building will be made doubly gay by a special arrangement of lanterns. A big shipment of these, for decoration of the California building, was received a few days ago from Nagasaki, Japan. As visitors enter the gates during the day, they will be presented with Japanese souvenirs. There will be pieces of bric-a-brac and art work. Aside from this, the Japanese will distribute to visitors 20,000 Japanese and Exposition badges of quaint Oriental design.

After the grand entrance of all Japanese to the grounds at 10 o’clock Saturday morning, mile-high entertainment will be furnished by J. Asakawa and Professor O. Nakamura, Japanese aviators. These intrepid man-birds will fly over the grounds at an altitude of 5,000 feet, and, in their flight, will distribute old Japanese coins, wrapped in tissue paper. Here will be demonstrated the ingenuity of the Japanese, for there will be attached to each package of coins a tiny parachute, allowing the packages to float gracefully to the ground. Those finding the coins will be permitted to keep them as souvenirs. The aviators will also drop balloons and fancy figures of Japanese design.

At 11:30 all with gather at the Sacramento Valley building where President G. A. Davidson of the Exposition will deliver an address. M. Kondo is acting chairman of the exercises. G. Oyama, Japanese consul from San Francisco, will read a message to the Japanese people from Baron Chinda, Japanese ambassador at Washington. A short address by G. Yuoosa, president of the Japanese Association of Southern California, will conclude the exercises. Immediately after this, the Exposition Spanish troupe will give a special program in the Plaza de Panama.

The afternoon program will be started at 1:30 with a display of daylight fireworks. These will be discharged on the tractor field, at the north end of the Alameda.

What is expected to prove one of the best features of the day is the athletic program to begin at 2:15. Five contests probably will be held on the Plaza de Panama. One a fencing battle royal, will be engaged in by fifty persons, twenty-five contestants on each side. All of the events will serve to demonstrate the athletic prowess of the Japanese, and, for the first time, the public will be given a keen insight into Japanese athletics.

The Japanese Day committee will preside at a banquet given the directors of the Exposition and other well-known San Diegans at the Cristobal at 7 o’clock. Several short talks will be given during the dinner.

If the First Regiment Band of the University of Wisconsin arrives on time, it will give a concert in the Plaza from 8 to 10. The Yuma Indian Band will play on the Isthmus between these hours.

Bringing the celebration to a grand climax will be the lantern procession from the Laurel Street entrance. This parade, in which several thousand Japanese will engage, will move over the Puente Cabrillo, and pass the Plaza de Panama, where all in line will give a “bonzai” (good cheering) for the success of the Exposition. The parade will then proceed to the Alameda, and thence to the tractor field where there will be a second display of fireworks and night aviation feats.

Adding life to the procession with be the section of participants appearing in Japanese kimonos. All nationalities, creeds, sizes, cages and colors are expected to take part. Liberal cash prizes will be awarded for the best kimono costume.

The program has been prepared with great care and, it is expected, will draw liberally from all of Southern California and thus contribute one of the best days the Exposition has had.

July 30, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:4-5. Collier Day idea is given hearty praise; date may be set soon.

July 30, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:1. Billy Sunday date at Fair sought by officials; famous evangelist expected to make speech August 9.

July 30, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:2-4. Japanese to celebrate at Fair tomorrow; 10,000 lanterns will glow during night; unusual athletic events on program; flights in air scheduled.

July 30, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:6. Fraternal, Ad, Union and Delta, Delta Sorority Day to be celebrated at Exposition today.

July 30, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:5. Art Smith to fly at Fair, August 11 and 12.

July 30, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:3-4. Japanese to celebrate at Fair tomorrow; 10,000 lanterns will glow during night.

July 30, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:2. Japanese celebrated at Exposition; 10,000 lanterns decorated buildings.

July 31, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:4. Japanese Day is celebrated; kimono and lantern parade along El Prado to Alameda and Isthmus; fireworks on tractor field; Professors Nakanura and Asakawa, Japanese aviators, will perform night stunts in their aeroplanes in the midst of the fireworks; Exposition has contacted Art Smith, 21-year old aviator, to give his loops-the-loop, August 11 and 12.

July 31, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3, 3:5. Airmen to fly over Exposition tonight; Japanese fireworks display in afternoon.

July 31, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3-6, 2:3. Japan Fair Day program varied; airmen to fly over Exposition tonight; souvenirs to be dropped; athletic events arranged; kimonos and lantern parade; many Japanese expected

July 31, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:5-6. Art Smith, master of air, sought by Fair; asked to fly over Exposition: It seems almost incredible that an aviator by mastering an aeroplane can swing it around at a mile high altitude, make it do all sorts of twists, curves and contortions so that in the end the trail of fire in its wake spells: “Art Smith,” yet this is the feat which the reckless man bird has been doing at the northern exhibition.

July 31, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:6. Thousand will march in parade, feature of Printers’ Convention to be held in Los Angeles, August 9 to 14.

July 31, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:6. James Hugh Allen, baritone, wins ovation at Exposition, by W. B. Seymour: Allen is a brilliant singer with a warm and ingratiating personality which is reflected in his voice..

July 31, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:6. Duplicate of Fiesta of San Geronimo pictures shown at New Mexico Building.

July 31, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:1. The armored cruiser Colorado, with the 25th, 26th and 28th companies of marines, arrived from Guaymas, Tobari Bay, and Ensenada at noon yesterday. . . . Yesterday marked the first time in the history of the port of San Diego where a flagship of the Pacific fleet and a flagship of an Atlantic squadron (the Missouri) have anchored and exchanged salutes in the harbor.

July 31, 1915, San Diego Union, 10:1. Fair seen by 600 Fraternal Aid delegates; two bands with visitors.

July 31, 1915, San Diego Union, 16:1. 200 Sorority members view Exposition.

July 31, 1915, San Diego Union, 16:4. Charles H. Akers, publisher Arizona Gazette, San Diego visitor.

August, 1915, The California Garden, Vol. 7, No. 1.

The sentiment to maintain the Exposition for another year seems to be gathering force. Every visitor, whether prominent or not, adds his much or little to it in spite of the fact that the chief problems to be solved in so doing are not within his ken. We are not objecting to this universal advice distribution, especially as we have a little to scatter ourselves, but instead of keeping things in status quo, why not accentuate the proven attractions and let go of the others.

The garden side of the Exposition, the out of doors, is its big thing. If it is to continue through 1916, why not arrange for the unique floral display that our conditions make possible: The nursery and seeds men have put much into San Francisco in a location lacking every advantage, why cannot they be induced t move to San Diego for 1916? What hinders the carrying out of a big horticultural competition along the lines laid down by this Magazine when the Fair was in embryo? If the fiasco of the $1,000 rose contest cannot be satisfactorily explained it could be palliated by an ample and suitable apology and this time contestants would be in charge of their own exhibits. A committee of local nursery fold and flower lovers could get up a premium list fitted to local conditions and covering the whole year successively. Flowerpots could replace the Isthmus Concessions. Countries could be invited to make typical gardens, and all without a very great expenditure. The expensive framework is up, the exposition is built, this is a minor change of detail along lines that experience has indicated. A tentative campaign among nursery folks ought to be made for a few hundred dollars and this would show whether further expenditure were justified.

Along such lines a permanent exhibit would easily grow. The Government would surely add an experiment station, possibly a branch of its plant importing bureau, and anyone can figure out a hundred legitimate features not touched upon here. And then we might have that ten-acre lath house that is going to be built somewhere in Southern California — we do hope in San Diego.

As we are furnishing the idea we may certainly go a bit further and say that this is a job for a gardening expert with local knowledge. Of course a competent landscape artist should be consulted for surface plans, but local garden experience must fill it in. Shall we say to the East, “You liked our Exposition in 1915, you wandered in its gardens and loved its arbors, that was just a beginning, the framework, now we have filled in the picture and the veritable Garden of Allah awaits.

When in 1916 the heat of summer or the pinch of winter makes the Easterners think of traveling, he will more than likely turn again to California. Why not see that the pull of San Diego shall be stronger than ever, when the big Fair at San Francisco is no longer a rival.

It is an idea, think it over.

August, 1915, The California Garden, Vol. 7, No. 2. Monthly Excursion Through Exposition Grounds, by G. R. Gorton

The aquatics in front of the Botanical Building have benefited by the warm weather of July and August, and are definitely on show. The water lilies in La Lagunita de Las Flores, as the smaller pool is fancifully termed, present a veritable rainbow of color — reds, pinks, blues, creams, yellows in many shades. The dainty Pygmaea helvola, the Chinese dwarf lily, perfect in miniature, and suitable for an “aquatic garden” is as small a compass as a washtub, is an interesting type, and it is a far cry from this to the immense deep blue Nymphaea Pennsylvania, or the showy red Nymphaea Gloriosa. The Nelumbiums, one in each of the corners of the south side of the pool are at their best. The rich blue of the Water Hyacinth (Eichornia azurea and Eichonria Speciosa) contrasts pleasingly with the gold of the Watter Poppy (Limnocharis Humboldtil),

Within, the Botanical Building presents a somewhat altered appearance. The Strelitzias in the lath house, which a month or so ago were often mistaken by the uninitiated for bananas, have reduced the possibility of error to a minimum, for while their relative might bear a leaf very similar, no banana could ever bear such a flower. The common name of the Bird of Paradise flower is very apt, as the flower surely does resemble some strange tropical bird of gaudy plumage rather than a member of the vegetable kingdom. Adjoining this, and elsewhere in the house are groups of Tiger Lilies, Gold Banded Lilies, and the type known as L. lancifolium — all quite decorative. The tuberous Bigonias still continue to attract much favorable comment. There are several small groups of Primula obconica, which help to furnish color. The dainty little Exacum affine, from the island of Socotra, wherever that is, is also scattered in like fashion throughout the two buildings. The plant is a dwarf herb with light blue flowers of a peculiar but quite pleasing odor, and is sometimes mistaken for Saintpaulia, by reason of the similarity of the flower. Inside the glass house, on the east wall, is a specimen of Hoya carnosa. Here again a common name is very descriptive, for so much does the appearance of the flowers of the Wax Flower Vine belie a natural origin, that it is almost impossible to believe that they are not the kind that were wont to inhabit glass jars in our grandmothers’ parlors, together with the hair wreath, etc. However the flower of the Hoya is delicately tinted, and is quire attractive.

Recently the collection has been increased by the addition of some Amorphophallus Rivieri, which bears a very suggestive name of “Snake Palm,” possibly because of the markings of the leaves and stem, which may resemble the markings upon some species of snake. I cannot say, certainly, just which one it resembles, as I try to keep my acquaintance with such reptiles down to a minimum. The left is quite tropical in appearance and the flower, when it is borne, will resemble that of the Calla, but is rosy in color and has a disagreeable odor.

In the bulbous planting just east of the Botanical Building, the Ismene calathina, or Peruvian Daffodil, is demonstrating its usefulness as a summer flower. The leaves are almost identical with those of the Amaryllis, and the flower is just tinted with pink and very fragrant, with a sort of tuberose odor. In this same bulbous planting is a group of Gnaphalium lanatum, not bulbous, however, but interesting because of its relationship to the famous “Edelweiss,” which is Gnaphalium Leontopodium. The former is grown mainly for its silver gray foliage, although the clusters of cream-colored flowers, which it is now bearing, are not unattractive when massed. In the background of the planting is a group of the Canna Wyoming, with a rich bronze foliage and deep orange bloom.

The familiar tiny blue flowers of Duranta plumieri may be seen in many spots throughout the grounds. One good group is on the edge of the canyon near the southwest corner of the Commerce and Industries Building. Another is east of the same building, also on the edge of the canyon, but a different canyon. Across the walk from this last group and extending along the entire east wall of the building, the mixed planting of ferns, begonias, fuchsias, etc. is a pleasant surprise to the visitor who tires of the paved Prado and the heavier and more formal plantings. This planting is bordered by an edging of Carissa edulis, an edible plum from Natal, its clean, fresh appearance being occasionally supplemented by single white flowers of the odor of orange blossoms, and resembling them in habit.

Iochroma tubulosa is now in full flower, its clusters of tubular, bluish purple flowers being decidedly showy.

The promised bloom of the “False Artichokes” (someone please tell use the Botanical names) have come forth and are quite equal to our expectations. The planting in the rear of the Sacramento Building contains several good specimens. It is somewhat tropical in appearance, growing upwards of five or six feet, evidently, its silver gray thistle-like foliage surmounted by rich heliotrope-blue, thistle-like flowers. Along the same walk, but in the rear of the California Building, is the Canna exhibit of Conrad and Jones, and is, of course, resplendent with bloom, excepting our namesake, the new Canna, San Diego, which was shopped too late to come into bloom with the others, but will be along later. Directly west of the Cristobal Café is a bed of cannas containing Vaughan’s gorgeous new introduction, combined with King Humbert, which is similar in habit and color of flower, but different in foliage.

Part of the tribute which was offered to Mme. Schumann-Heink, not long ago, was in the form of the Lobelia-Ageratum border surrounding the lawn in front of the organ. The immense crowd overflowed the walks and trampled it completely out of existence. A substitute was found in Vernon Begonias, edged with Santolina.

There are no large Eucalyptus ficifolia on the grounds, but the youngsters which are there are making a brave show of bloom, and it is real scarlet bloom, not old rose. One especially attractive specimen may be seen on the west side of Cabrillo canyon, south of the bridge. It seems almost superfluous to direct the attention of the visitor to the Nelumbiums (and Nymphaeas, although the latter are pretty far away to be appreciated) now in bloom in the lagoon at the bottom of this same canyon, under the bridge, but for one who might enter at the east gate and leave the same way, mention is made. It is rather interesting to note that the Nymphaeas and Nelumbiums in this lagoon are subjected to somewhat the same conditions as in the East and North, in that because of some frost in the canyon bottom, they go entirely dormant in the winter, and then, also because they are in the canyon bottom, receive the benefit of a quicker, hotter growing season than on the mesa, and the resultant growth is all that could be desired.

August, 1915, The California Garden, Vol. 7. No. 2. Children’s Playgrounds by the Early Bird.

With the Playground movement so much in the air, what wonder that it should direct my flight to the Children’s peculiar department of that wonderful demonstration of what man working with nature can accomplish — Golden Gate Park in San Francisco. The city of the north can have its bay, its fair, its hills and all its other delights and no stir of envy comes to me, but when I think of its Park, and more particularly its Children’s Playground, I feel that they ought to be in a climate where their enjoyment need not be so strenuous, and that indicates San Diego, of course. This is written to connect Balboa Park and a real Playground for our southern tots in the minds of the few with whom will be the burden of implanting it in the minds of the many. The city playground of bare earth bearing up swings and bars, is only acceptable where nothing else is possible. Our future citizen should play in an atmosphere of grass and trees and flowering things, rather than in one of chicken fencing. Comparisons are odious, therefore, let us to our destination.

With my young hopeful, aged six, I walked between giant trees upon which creepers ran, by beds of flowers where bees worked, over lawns of velvet green. We called on the black swan that has shown his pink beak and ruffled wings to a million children, and, through a leafy tunnel, descended into the place of the realization of all the healthy dreams of young children.

Snugly packed away in a sheltered hollow is a merry-go-round without the nerve-racking machine music. Swings of all caliber, meadows that are almost human in their adaptability, donkeys that are qualified children’s nurses, goats that never built lawns upon which to roll, trees to climb, and not on “Don’t” on the whole place.

I sat me on a seat for parents and let loose my daughter, after we had lunched appropriately upon sandwiches, cookies, cake and milk topped off with a cornucopia. All these things and many others, coffee, etc. are procurable on the grounds at a reasonable price and of excellent quality. One gets them in a tray and eats then were one pleases, sprawled upon the lawn, under the spreading oaks, or in horrid customary comfort at a table. Never did I so thoroughly appreciate the supreme fitness of the cornucopia as now, while it slowly revolved, so to speak, inside my daughter, as he sat upon the arm of a bench and absorbed it. A tot of fourteen months waddled across to watch is absorption. He had a pink dress, yellow hair, blue eyes and seven teeth. God bless his mother that she let me give him a cookie, for if she had been strictly hygienic it would have been a flaw in the perfect day and I should have lost the consoling demonstration for my second childhood that c hard cookie can be masticated with seven quite small teeth. A larger boy in blue with fat socked legs succeeded. He scorned all provender and only wanted to stare me out of countenance and succeeded passing well.

Though it was the children’s land, I felt no more out of element than at the circus. I am morally certain there were other grownups there whose excuse was less than mine, for I felt in my bones they brought borrowed kiddies.

For a nickel we got three tickets that admitted to anything and patronage was first bestowed on the merry-go-round. I don’t ride on these contrivances, for there is a portion of me that always gets behind in the movement and — well, I don’t like them — so Miss unattended mounted a muddy bay steed with anxious eye, which was hotly pursued by a vicious black mare bestridden by a full-blooded Indian in the latest in war paint. As the parade circled I noticed all the horses had a worried expression. Perhaps they were thinking of the Ford automobile or the European war. What a perennial joy is the merry-go-round. The infant rides in a boat, quickly graduating to a quiet horse and thence boldly mounting a bucking Broncho. A small boy go up beside my daughter on the second round and shamelessly eloped with her. From the round-abouts we essayed the donkeys and, after a long wait, while those in the saddle rode out all their tickets, got a venerable ass, who marched with measured tread and slow around a course proscribed by a wire fence. Four times the course was covered with delightful seriousness. At every turn an attendant wheeled the steeds into line and started them in anther heat with affectionate adjuration. Billy was invited to “Get along” and Emma implored to “Move up.” Though the riders far outnumbered the ridden, absolute good nature prevailed and children, grown-ups and donkeys mixed in a jumble at the end of every heart, that melted into order as if by magic. I had almost forgotten the goats. They go to sulkies and one drives when weary of riding. There is a tub of water for the animals, and when any of them get thirsty they go and take a drink, perfectly oblivious of rider and driver. Should they get weary or hot on the course they stop in the shade of the trees and scratch flies off one leg with the other one, till the pressure behind makes them move on. If I could not be a child in this Playground, I would not mind being a donkey or a goat.

Of course we tried all kinds of swings, but my daughter would not venture down the slide. It was here I noticed that definite fashions belong in the playground. For the slides black stockings and lingerie, also black and clamped to the leg with elastic, are absolutely essential. My girl had the stocking but not the rest, so perhaps that is why she did not slide, for the merry-go-round never slip garters, and short sleeves for the swings. Hats are permissible, but not enregle bows, medium and worn to one side, hair long if curly, but bobbed if straight. Even these children knew that it was a women’s age. Small girls wear pants as to the manner born and small boys wear skirts without a blush.

I took my child to that Playground so that she might have a good time. She did and so did I. When I was permitted, I sat in an atmosphere of childish joy, the Simon pure article unadulterated with grown-up stimulants, while the trees and shrubs made a living wall that held back all those things we would rather our children never knew. Outside was the strife for power and place and across the water men were being fed to cannon. Yes! Playgrounds are a good thing and a hopeful sign. Perhaps after all play, just play, is an important factor in evolution.

San Diego has a most efficient Playground Commission doing great work and this is not to even suggest anything to the contrary, being mere whispers of the trees and flowers that the right setting for a Playground is in a garden and that a playground for children may prove also splendid mental recreation for grown-ups.

August, 1915, Technical World, Vol. 23, 712-18. The Battle for the Gate Receipts, by Walter V. Woehlke.

An exposition is like the Associated Charities. The contributors don’t expect their money back. No matter how many millions it costs to build an exposition, the moment the gates are opened the emotionally donated capital investment is written off to profit and loss, to advertising, to the greater glory of the directors, to the benefit of mankind, to any convenient account covering a large, very empty hole in the ground. The only expectation of the stockholders is that there be no assessment. An in this expectation they are often disappointed.

Fifty percent of all expositions have been financial failures, have gone broke, have not made running expenses. Considering the donated, non-returnable capital, few lines of business enterprise can show so dismal a record as the big fairs.

Take a reminiscent look at recent exposition history. Chicago, greatest of them all, did wonderfully well. The White City paid operating expenses and left enough to give the stockholders about $47,000 of the twenty millions they had donated. The State of New York had the honor of paying the deficit when the gates of Buffalo’s exposition closed. St. Louis developed an early and lasting deficit; the federal government had to use the financial pulmotor at Jamestown. Seattle and Portland succeeded in breaking even. And Omaha, large because its capital stock consisting of contributions totaling only $292,000, accomplished a miracle. When its fair closed, the directors found enough money in the treasury to enable them to pay the stockholders 98 percent of their donations. But the directors did not. Carried away by enthusiasm, they kept the exposition intact and reopened it the following spring. Still, wisdom had not entirely surrendered her throne. They kept the fair open the second season only until the first season’s profit was all gone. Then they abruptly banged the gates.

An exposition has two sources of revenue, to wit: gate receipts and percentages on the takings of the concessionaires. This leaves out of consideration the cash bonus paid by many concessionaires for the exclusive privilege of selling a certain article on the grounds. It is in these cash bonuses that the hope which springs eternal in the human breast shows itself at its springiest. In that delirious period before an exposition opens, when everybody in the exposition city devises an infallible scheme to herd the visitors’ dollars into his own corral, when the natives move to cheaper quarters to escape the rising rents, and wholesalers cannot fill the demand for cots and extra blankets, in this glorious period the prospective profit to be derived from the exclusive sale of peanuts, portraits, pennants, programs, or poodle pups, gives and increases like the Petrograd reports of the latest Russian victory. Men grow wild with the hope of sudden exposition wealth; they bid against one another, offer every penny their friends can spare for a golden monopoly. The peanut and ice cream concessions at the comparatively small San Diego Exposition, for instance, brought a bonus of $10,000 cash plus a quarter of the concessionaire’s gross receipts. The view book and postcard concession at San Francisco is said to have been sold for $15,000 and a share of the revenue. The privilege of selling the “hot dogs” of street commerce at San Diego brought $5,000 plus a percentage.

Still, not every golden opportunity is recognized by the exposition treasure seekers. The San Diego Exposition is enlivened by large swarms of pigeons. Six months prior to the opening a man was hired to tame these pigeons, to induce them to alight on his shoulders and arms, to feed out of his hand. He succeeded, but the exposition found no one willing to sell pigeon feed on commission. The exposition today is itself selling pigeon feed, small quantities of grain at a nickel a bag, and the monthly profit has been averaging $300.

However, by no means do all of the concessionaires realize their dreams so fully. Most of them find the grass rather short and the pulling hard.

Having paid the cash bonus, having induced members of the numerous tribe whose birthrate is one a minute to supply the bulk of the capital to install the concession, the concessionaire is confronted by the necessity of getting is money back in ten or twelve weeks. The exposition may last from five to twelve months, but in the early and late months of the exposition period all hands tighten the belt and go without breakfast to cut expenses. In three short summer months the average big attraction must take in enough to repay the investment, show a profit and pay the exposition from 20 to 40 percent of the gross income besides.

Out of this situation arises the Great Percentage War.

Suppose a show rakes in $500 a day. At the usual rate it will have to pay the Exposition $125. Of course, the showman hates to part with a quarter of his earnings. Therefore, he tries to get a reduction in the percentage. He goes and seeks the director of concessions, taking along a hard-luck story that would lure a quarter out of the pocked of a Russell Sage. If he operates at a loss, he multiplies the deficit by five; if he is making a profit, he trebles his ostensible operating expenses. He begs, pleads, cries, threatens to close up, storms, rants, and prays. If the chief of the concessions department knows his and the showman’s business, if his granite heart remains flinty, the concessionaire departs to try another tack.

He practices the gentle heart of stalling. When settlement day arrives and the collector calls for the exposition’s share, the concessionaire has no cash, but a most excellent excuse. No matter how often the collector calls, the showman’s supply of brand new reasons for not paying never grows less, especially when he really intends to close up and light out. When the Chicago Exposition closed, there stood on its books the sum of $572,000 in unpaid concessionaires’ percentages. It is still standing there. At the Seattle Exposition the management at first collected the percentages once a week. It might have known better, but unfortunately every exposition is operated by men who have never run a fair before. However, the Seattle management learned rapidly. Before long it was collecting twice a week; early in summer it allowed the showmen to retain the money along twenty-four hours, and long before the fair closed, it insisted upon a daily settlement at 9 a.m.

Stalling, though, is but one feature of the Percentage Way. Many concessionaires firmly believe that laws, treaties, contracts are mere scraps of paper on the grounds of an international exposition. They do not hesitate to doctor their books, to bribe cashiers and ticket takers, to tamper with turnstiles and cash registers, if thereby the can seemingly reduce their gross income and the exposition’s share.

At San Francisco the concessionaire and showman cannot stall. Unless he pays a flat rate — in advance — for doing business on the grounds, he does not take in a single penny. Be it a restaurant, a side show, a novelty counter, or a thrilling ride, employees of the exposition, not of the concessionaire, received al the money. Every night it is carted over to exposition headquarters, the exposition percentage is deducted and the balance turned over to the owner the next morning. The San Francisco Exposition now employs four hundred cashiers trained and instructed in a special school, whose salaries are deducted from the daily receipts along with the exposition’s percentage. And these four hundred cashiers are shifted every day.

It is exceedingly difficult to provide an adequate check upon the daily receipts, for instance, of the peanut vendors, the ice cream cone peddlers, and other hawkers. To be absolutely certain of its percentage, the management of the San Diego Exposition built a large warehouse into which all commodities to be sold on a percentage basis have to be delivered. From this warehouse the concessionaires draw their daily supplies, paying the exposition’s share of the receipts before the goods are sold. The San Diego Exposition makes and prints its own peanut bags. Without this precaution bags smaller than the stipulated size might be substituted, thereby depriving the exposition of its full pound of flesh. Even the ice cream cones and the skins of the frankfurters-to-be are carefully counted out to the concessionaires that no part of a single nickel may escape the exposition officials.

The ceaseless struggle for the percentage, though, is tame and colorless compared with the ingenuity displayed by the opposing forces in the daily Battle for the Gate Receipts.

The “gate” is the exposition’s most important source of revenue. Usually the admission money constitutes two-thirds of the total income. And the gatemen’s idea that an exposition is a profit-sharing institution has cause enormous losses in the past. It is estimated that almost a million dollars went into unauthorized pockets at Chicago; St. Louis claims that more than half a million fell by the gate side, and at smaller fairs the loss has been in proportion.

Of course, no exposition has surrendered the booty without a fight. Elaborate systems of checking and supervision were installed. In the past the double check, or two-man system, was the most popular. One man sold the ticket from the roll and the second man saw that it was dropped into the box on the turnstile, which automatically registered one admission with every quarter turn.

This system was easy to beat. An understanding between ticket seller and ticket taker, a knowledge of crowd psychology — and the tick was turned. The gateman had no trouble in obtaining all the tickets he wanted from the box. To keep the turnstile record straight, he waited until a crowd swarmed toward the gate and manipulated the turnstile so that two persons instead of one were squeezed into the space between the revolving arms. The public never noticed the trick, nor did a slim man care if the turnstile jammed and he had to squeeze his way between the end of an arm and the wall, thus reducing the number of registered admissions by one.

For the ticket seller and the change maker with a hankering for the unearned increment, it was ridiculously easy to satisfy this hankering even without the ticker taker’s cooperation. For the experienced hand it is child’s play to shortchange distracted numbers of a pushing crowd. At one gate of the San Francisco Exposition on a dull morning, I saw in half an hour three women put down five-dollar gold pieces at the change maker’s booth and rush off without their silver. When there are four of five people in a party and one man, anxious to join the others waiting at the gate, asks for change, he will rarely stop to count the money he receives. And when there are clamorous children along, when the family has to divide and march through separate gates, when the parent’s attention is concentrated anxiously upon the devious paths of the little ones, the shortchange artist must feel ashamed to take the easy money.

Some of the St. Louis ticket sellers were ambitious. An extra profit of $10 or $20 a day did not satisfy them. They aspired to be financiers. So they established connections with someone having access to the storeroom in which the supply of tickets was kept. When the management after the close of the exposition, investigated the left-over supply, it was discovered that scores of rolls had their hearts cut out; the shell remained, but two-thirds of the tickets had been neatly extracted from the inside. Someone had made thousands of dollars.

Seattle decided to make sure of victory before the Battle of the Gate began. So the management did away with tickets altogether and equipped gates with an electro-magnetic and mechanical triple check. The visitor dropped his half dollar into a slot; descending, the coin at a certain place closed an electric circuit which allowed the guard to throw a lever, thereby making it possible for the turnstile to revolve; and an automatic register in the shaft of the turnstile recorded the number of admissions as indicted by the revolutions.

At first the contraption baffled (Continued on page 804) . . . .

August 1, 1915, Los Angeles Times, IV, 11:7. Chapin named to direct Fair; takes place of Davis, who resigned recently; has four years’ experience as the assistant; Japanese day draws great crowd of Nipponese

San Diego, July 31. — Directors of the Panama-California Exposition today appointed E. J. Chapin of San Diego director-general to succeed H. O. Davis, whose resignation given July 1, is effective tomorrow.

Chapin has been acting director-general for the last month. Previous to this he was assistant to Director-General Davis.

Chapin has been employed as director of exhibits and director of transportation for about four years, entering the employ of the exposition when construction was started.


Japan’s flag of a white field and a red sun, 10,000 Japanese lanterns strung from the buildings and festoons of Nipponese designs furnished the decorations today at the Panama-California Exposition, where Japan Day was celebrated with much success.

Diversity was the keynote of the program which began early this morning with the entrance of 5,000 Japanese to the grounds and ended tonight with a kimono parade dinner and aeroplane exhibition.

The Japanese were welcomed at noon by Exposition President G. A. Davidson. Prominent members of the Japanese Association of Southern California, which had charge of the program, responded. This afternoon an athletic program on the Plaza de Panama was engaged in by Japanese and American contestants.

Tonight the association gave a dinner on the grounds to exposition directors and prominent local citizens. Among the Japanese who spoke were U. Oyama, vice-consul at San Francisco, and G. Yuasa, president of the association.

August 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:2. Exposition signs Art Smith to make two flights in afternoon and two in evening of August 11 and 12.

Smith’s contract provides that he shall not fly anywhere on the coast this season after his engagement in San Francisco, except at San Diego. At the directors’ meeting yesterday there was considerable discussion as to the advisability of increasing the price of admission on the evenings of Smith’s appearance, the attraction being of such an expensive nature that some of the directors thought it justifiable. This was voted down, however, and the usual price of 25 cents will prevail.

August 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2. Japanese day at Exposition, a red letter day.

Among the events of the day were exhibition flights by two Japanese aviators, games and athletic contests in Plaza de Panama, daylight fireworks in, in the evening, a kimono parade and lantern procession and a banquet at Café Cristobal.

  1. Yuasa, president of the Japanese Association of Southern California, said at the banquet: “No matter what criticism may be made, no matter what racial prejudice may exist, no matter what anti-alien land law may be passed by the crooked politicians, no matter what color of hair, skin or eyes, we are just as loyal to this country and just as sincere boosters of Southern California as you gentlemen.”

August 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:5. Play “War Brides” to be given at Exposition Pavilion next Thursday, Friday and Saturday nights; peace play written by Marion Craig Wentworth.

August 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:2. Six hundred Harvard men on way to San Diego on liner Finland.

August 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:1. Old Chinese and Satsuma ware art given to Park Board by Mrs. Helen Tilden shown at Exposition.

August 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 10:4. E. J. Chapin to assume office of Director-General today.

August 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 11:3. About 1,000 members of Wisconsin and Indiana state societies celebrated jointly their day at Exposition yesterday with a reception in the afternoon at the New Mexico building and a basket picnic last night in the Pepper Grove.

August 1, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 2:2. Millionaire Henry Thaw and party to visit Exposition.

August 1, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 3:2. James Hugh Allen, baritone, sang at Exposition Friday night; will sing again this afternoon at William J. Gomph organ recital.

August 1, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 4:1. “Roosevelt Cabin” in Amazon Forest, part of Brazilian exhibit at Exposition, seed by Teddy Roosevelt on Fair tour.

August 1, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 4:3. Teddy Roosevelt received pictures of self and daughter when he visited the naval exhibit at the Exposition the other day; presented by Miss. Helen Pitkin, daughter of Chief Yeoman George F. Pitkin, who is in charge of exhibit.

August 2, 1915, Los Angeles Times, 5:3. San Diego Fair draws crows; July broke all attendance records since Exposition was opened.

San Diego, August 1. — July furnished crowds which broke all monthly attendance records at the Panama-California Exposition, according to official figures made public today by the bureau of admissions. The July attendance was 301,987, a daily average of 3,740. Attendance since the opening to August 1 totals 1,265, 513.

A statement issued by Exposition President G. A. Davidson, which accompanied the report of the bureau of admissions, declared that bookings of large delegations with the natural influx of visitors for August will give this month a total to exceed that of July. With the increase in attendance the statement says that there has been a corresponding increase in patronage of the concessions.

August 2, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:1-8. City Council to consider plan to let Uncle Sam have tideland property for aviation school and submarine station.

August 2, 1915, San Diego Sun, 3:7. President Davidson announced today that a jury of awards on exhibits at the Fair will sit August 9 and remain in session for a number of weeks.

August 2, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:2. 301,937 persons visited Exposition in July.

August 2, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:2. “War Brides” to be staged at Exposition for three days; horror of war in home depicted.

August 2, 1915, San Diego Union, 13:6. C. V. Crandall, San Diegan, writing for “The People’s Forum” favors Bryan over Roosevelt.

August 2, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:2. V. F. Safranek led concert by 13th Coast Artillery Corps Band in the Plaza de Panama yesterday afternoon and evening.

August 3, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:5. Billy Sunday is coming to speak at Exposition; Monday is to be “Sunday day: at Exposition.

August 3, 1915, San Diego Sun, 8:1:2. Dr. Eugenio Dahne, in charge of Brazilian exhibit, urges Fair be kept open in 1916 and that Colonel Collier be honored: “It was my admiration of the energy and perseverance with which he preached ‘San Diego Exposition’ during the six-month tour he made with me through Brazil and through Uruguay, and during the frequent occasions we were together in New York and Washington, that made me have faith in the success of the San Diego exposition.”

August 3, 1915, San Diego Sun, 11:1. Haydn Choral Society of Chicago to sing at Exposition tonight.

August 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:5-6. City will offer 500 acres tidelands for naval base; area valued at $10 million; Councilman Fay originates plan.

August 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:6. Exposition employee sued for $10,000 because of false arrest.

August 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:3-4. Chicago Haydn Choral Society, 146 strong, will sing with Spreckels Organ at Exposition tonight; special train due this morning from San Francisco.

August 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:5. Exposition award jury to convene August 9.

August 3, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:1. Nazimova makes “War Brides” scenes real; actress fitted to enact death scene of slain soldier’s wife.

August 4, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:5-6. Louis J. Wilde urges special day for Colonel D. C. Collier; exposition directors voted in special session that no special days be held for persons connected at any time with the exposition project.

August 4, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:3. F. Weber Benton writes letter supporting Collier day.

August 4, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:2-4. Article on Art Smith who will write his name on the sky at Exposition August 11 and 12.

August 4, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:3. Pretty Wyoming, Colorado girls charmed with Exposition; prize winners in newspaper popularity contest.

August 4, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:1. Chicago singers charm big crowd at Exposition, by W. B. Seymour.

The concert last night was given under conditions that were not of the best. Probably because of atmospheric peculiarities the tones failed to carry as far as is usual and whirring electriquettes, shouting children and crying babies had no small part in spoiling the effect of otherwise effect pianissimo passages.

August 4, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:3. Typographers coming today; San Diegans to entertain officials of International Typographical Union; main body will arrive in San Diego August 14 for a three-day stay.

August 4, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:3. Pythians to have day at Exposition August 21; crowd of Angelenos coming.

August 4, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:4. Ford day to attract throng; factory band will come from Detroit for celebration Monday.

August 4, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:2-3. City right to give tidelands for naval base declared legal.

August 4, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:2. Thirteenth Coast Artillery Band moves from Fort Rosecrans to Exposition where members will camp at tractor field; they will give afternoon and evening concerts everyday except Monday.

August 4, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:2-3. “War Brides” stirs interest; drama to open tomorrow.

August 5, 1915, San Diego Herald, 2. EDITORIAL: Collier Day

The suggestion made by the Sun that one day at the Exposition shall be designated “Collier Day” is meeting with hearty approval by the people generally who feel that Charlie Collier did more to make the Exposition a success than any other man. Other men have done noble work for the Exposition, but none sacrificed so much, and none got so little in return.

Men are too often measured by their personal success, but the generous man finds the cozy corner in the hearts of his fellow men. D. C. Collier in his work for the Exposition did it for the public good, like L. J. Wilde did in boosting San Diego. Neither of these men did their work for a selfish purpose, and the result is that they have more warm personal friends than any other two men in the city.

By all means let us have a “Collier Day” at the Exposition.

August 5, 1915, San Diego Herald, 1:2. Exposition Notes

With heavy influx and liberal patronage on the Isthmus the San Diego Exposition has just enjoyed another profitable month for attendance figures for July show that the Exposition was visited by 300,980 persons during the month. This is by far the biggest monthly attendance since the Exposition was opened January 1. With such heavy attendance and liberal spending of money the Exposition was able at the end of July to have a big balance on the profit side of the ledger. Including July 1, 264.561 people have visited the Exposition.

July’s average daily attendance was 9,707 — a much higher daily average than any previous month. The total for July exceeds that recorded in January, the previous high month, by just 120,710. This excess is almost equal to the total attendance of February. The attendance by months since opening is as follows:

January, 180,270; February, 133,168; March, 153,042; April, 151,148; May, 179,818; June, 166,135; July, 300,980.

While the month was featured by several special events which drew crowds the attendance for the days immediately following the celebration days was heavy, thus indicating to Exposition officials that there was an influx of visitors continuing. The Exposition information bureau has just compiled statistics which show that visitors are remaining longer in San Diego than they did during the first months of the Exposition. The average visit of early sightseers was two days, but in June and July the average visit was lengthened to four days.

One of the most spectacular events of the San Diego Exposition year is promised Exposition visitors August 25, 26, 27 and 28 when the Pala Indian tribe from its reservation in San Diego county will hold its annual fiesta on the grounds of the Exposition.

The entire tribe of about 100 aged Indians and 400 younger braves and squaws and children will be transported by automobiles and motor trucks to the fair and there go into camp about their fiesta allotment of space. Here throughout the four days and nights they will celebrate beginning August 26, in memory of the anniversary of their patron saint, Father San Luis Rey.

The elders will deck themselves in full gorgeous costume and engage in their ancient dances and rites and many of the younger braves also will join though scores of them have so felt the influences of civilization that they confine their activities more generally to the athletic game of Pelote and the all-night gambling game of Peon.

Combined with their celebration, a number of their craftswomen will demonstrate their method of making fine lace, a handicraft in which the women of the tribe excel those of any other Indian women. Basket weaving and pottery making also are important handiworks of these women.

The Delta Delta Delta National Collegiate Sorority had its day at the San Diego Exposition July 30, with 160 of the sorority girls arriving by special train to observe the day. They were elaborately entertained, the San Diego chapter having this in charge.

August 5, 1915, San Diego Herald, 2:1. Naval headquarters.

August 5, 1915, San Diego Herald, 2:3. D. C. Collier Day.

August 5, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:4-5. Chamber of Commerce directors or Collier day.

August 5, 1915, San Diego Sun, 12:1. Veterans will gather at Exposition August 13, the 17th anniversary of the surrender of Manila; parade from foot of Broadway to Exposition grounds; Ford day, Monday; parade of Ford cars from foot of Broadway; appearance of Ford band; also Billy Sunday day and Manhattan day (in honor of president of borough of Manhattan).

August 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:6. Cyrus McCormick, Harvester king, at Hotel del Coronado for three days; will visit Exposition.

August 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:1. Nazimova to play “War Brides” tonight.

August 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Lieutenant Governor de Baca of New Mexico, visitor at Exposition.

August 5, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:1. City Council will offer Navy 500 acres of tidelands.

August 6, 1915, San Diego Sun, 9:3. Saturday, August 7, program: Nazimova day; Marian Craig Wentworth, author of “War Brides,” to give address; Commercial Law League of American day; Children’s day.

August 6, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2. Four students of University of Minnesota busy at Exposition yesterday taking motion pictures; pupils paid for trip by lecturing on the way.

August 6, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:2. Famous Indian dances will feature close of “War Brides” Saturday; Red Men from Painted Desert to entertain crowds at Exposition.

Through the courtesy of manager D. E. Smith of the Painted Desert, Indian ceremonial dances will be given at the Isthmus band stand Saturday evening after the performance of “War Brides” by Madame Alla Nazimova. The Indian dances will be free.

The dances will consist of part of the Rain Dance by the Navajos, part of the Eagle Dance by the Acomas, and a part of the famous Buffalo Dance by the Hopis. The Buffalo Dance will be the same as that given in honor of Colonel Theodore Roosevelt on his recent visit to the Exposition. The entire company of Indians of the village will partake in the different dances. The performance will take about thirty minutes.

This will be the first time the entire troupe of Indians at the Santa Fe exhibit will have given a complete free performance of the various dances used in their ceremonials.

August 6, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:5. Dr. Humphrey Stewart will return Wednesday.

August 6, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:2-3. Skirtless girls dance at Indian Fiesta at Pauma Indian Reservation; “Um No Good” maids stopped.

August 6, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:3. Open Forum Fair day scheduled August 15. George W. Coleman, acting mayor of Boston, will speak at the meeting which will be called to order at the organ pavilion at 4 p.m. His topic will be “An Experimental Democracy.”

August 6, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:4. Tragedy of war at home shown in drama; heartbreaking part borne by women depicted at Exposition; thousands view play.

Mme. Alla Nazimova and her company opened their engagement at the Panama-California Exposition last night in “War Brides” before an audience of at least 5,000 persons who gathered at the Spreckels pavilion to hear and see the great Russian actress. “War Brides” will be repeated tonight and tomorrow night.

August 6, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:1-2. Ford Company promises City factory branch; big day at Exposition planned; Ford cars will be admitted free.

August 6, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:3. Charlie Collier to introduce Billy Sunday tomorrow at 2:30 p.m. during charity game at stadium.

August 6, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:3. Professor Alvin Martin of Stanford University gave lecture on Brazil yesterday afternoon in auditorium of New Mexico building.

August 7, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:1. Twenty seven legislators and their wives see Exposition; George Burnham, exposition vice president, tenders reception.

August 7, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:1. Solons see Exposition; National Rivers and Harbors Committee entertained at San Diego today.

August 7, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:4. Ford day to draw crowd; 55-piece band, every member a Ford worker; Fords admitted free, owners must pay.

August 7, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:1. Nine college heads as Exposition judges; will convene Monday.

August 7, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:3. Harvard day, August 16; about 300 Harvard men, wives, sweethearts and friends due August 15 on arrival of liner Finland from New York.

August 7, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:3. Ceremonial dancers of Indian tribes offered tonight at north Isthmus band stand; arranged by Superintendent D. E. Smith of the Painted Desert; Navajo rain dance, Acoma eagle dance, Hopi buffalo dance.

August 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:5, 2:4-5. Billy Sunday has arrived to speak at Exposition; “Butterfly Chasers” Exposition theme

August 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:2, 2:1. Congressional party of Rivers and Harbors Committee arrived in San Diego last night; William Kettner came with party.

August 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2. Exposition boost car on northern trip; party will advertise Fair in Idaho, Washington and Oregon.

August 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:3. EDITORIAL: San Diego Growing.

The registration for San Diego county as officially announced at Sacramento are especially gratifying. The county has now 50,000 registered voters, as against 42,753 a year ago, a gain of 7247. The very natural explanation of this great increase is not that old residents of San Diego have suddenly become alive to civic duty, although possibly some have, but rather that of the great throng of newcomers during the past few months, many have decided to here permanently, and have registered so as to be able to do their part as citizens. The large gain in registration, too, strongly suggests that the latest estimates of the city’s population — from 90,000 to 100,000 — have substantial basis. When the voting list thus grows by leaps and bounds, the gain means more people here for good. It looks very much as if the Exposition, which was expected to attract transient visitors only, were proving a town builder.

August 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:2. Play Ball! Billy Sunday’s order today; Cuyamacas and Banders ready for diamond battle; marine band will head parade of teams on way to stadium.

August 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:2. Harvard men plan to greet visitors; liner Finland will arrive with University party August 15.

August 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:4. Fair will honor Nazimova today; another big crowd witnessed “War Brides” performance at Exposition; Mrs. Marion Craig Wentworth, the Santa Barbara woman who wrote the play, will give a short talk before the performance.

August 7, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:1. New Mexico to observe educational days at Exposition August 11, 12 and 13.

August 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3, 4:7-8. Bankers humble Cuyamacas; umpire Billy Sunday quits field of errors; charity aided by ball game.

August 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:5-6. Congressman S. M. Sparkman says Harbor of Sun to get funds required to improve harbor.

August 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:1. Jury of awards will pass on Fair exhibits.

August 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2. Art Smith refuses appeal to join Allies; birdman will circle tower of California building every flight.

August 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:2-4. “Acoma Rock” twin at Fair, New Mexico building unique.

New Mexico’s building at the Panama-California Exposition is unique. Among the buildings of mission architecture it owes nothing to California. It is typically a New Mexico mission, a blending of Spanish colonial and Indian types. The prototype of the building was the old mission on the rock at Acoma, and it is more than 100 years older than San Diego mission, the first founded in California, which Father Serra established in 1769.

The structure is of adobe, covered with concrete. It probably will endure for centuries and it is the intention of the New Mexico commission to leave it to the people of San Diego to use as they wish, if proper use for it can be found.

The building faces the rising sun, just as the old pueblos of New Mexico do. It has two wings, connected by a loggia, which is entered first. The wings have two stories, the loggia one. With a wall in the rear they inclose a patio, where California flowering blooms. The rear of the building is seen from Puente de Cabrillo, the great bridge spanning Cabrillo canyon, which leads from the Laurel street entrance to the Exposition grounds.

With the exception of a second-story exterior portico and doors and windows to relieve the severity of the facade, the building is a faithful and exact reproduction of the mission of Acoma. Two bell towers on the south wing inclose another portico. The added portico is on the north side of the building. It is modeled on the old mission of Cochiti. Between the two wings, above the loggia, there is an open balcony. Both porticos and the balcony are fitted for visitors who wish to enjoy the view of the city, bay, Coronado, Point Loma, the Coronado islands and the ridges of mountains rising in serried terraces far into Mexico.

The New Mexico building is New Mexican thoroughly. Graceful arches and shadowy colonnades of California mission architecture are lacking. Lines are crude and blunt, even where an effort has been made to round them into something approaching grace. This is due, of course, to the faithful following of the Acoma model. The bell towers leave the impression of blindness; they lack the expression of similar towers on California missions.

Projecting from the concrete are the blunt ends of ceiling beams, whose naked brown inside the building gives a peculiar distinction to the interior. In this projection the building follows the Indian pueblo plan. Were the tree trunks cut off sharply with the adobe, rain and wind would find crevices to enter the walls and eat away the soft brick. When the beams set their shoulders through the walls they give added strength.

One enters the building from La Via de los Estados, which also reaches the other state buildings of the group. The loggia receives the visitor.

It contains four exhibit cases, filled with specimens of New Mexico minerals. Too large for any case, a great block of copper-bearing porphyry stands directly in front of the door. The native metal runs in ruddy veins through the tawny rock. There are numerous other forms of copper, some of volcanic origin in gnarled forms.

There are hundreds of striking color effects among the minerals. Gold, gleaming and dull; white silver; orange and red iron pyrites; black coal; purples and grays; white meerschaum; turquoise gems. There are multitudes of specimens, every commercial mineral found in the state being shown. There is one large block of coal, weighing 3,000 pounds, which is reputed to be the largest ever taken from the ground. It is in the patio of the building.

The loggia flashes with other colors too. There are striking Navajo rugs, which visitors often inquire if they are genuine, chimayo as hangings, Indian plaques, woven of brilliant straws in strange designs, Indian pottery. There are many photographs of New Mexico scenes on the walls and in the offices of the building, which are on the right as one enters, are other rugs, hangings, pottery, Indian bows and arrows and striking paintings of scenes of the state.

A passage leads from the loggia to the right, past the offices to the reception rooms, where all visitors are asked to register. Women guests find here all conveniences, with music if they wish it. These rooms also are decorated with Navajo rugs and hangings.

Occupying the major portion of the north wing of the building downstairs is the hall of governors, so named because the portraits of many rulers of New Mexico, Spanish, Mexican and American, look down from the walls. Among them is General Lew Wallace, who wrote portions of “Ben Hur” in the Palace of the Governors in Santa Fe, when he was governor of the territory.

In the Hall of Governors are six models, strikingly exact and true to detail. The ancient pueblo of Quarai and its mission church; the pueblo of Pecos and mission; the old church of San Miguel at Santa Fe, reputed to be the oldest church in the United States still used for religious purposes. Bent’s fort on the Santa Fe trail, built by that adventurer in the early days; the mansion of Lucius B. Maxwell, early land king who was host to many who passed down the trail to Santa Fe seventy-five years ago, and a Spanish torreon or fort built at Santa Fita to confine the convicts of the copper mines and to guard the bullion while it was awaiting shipment.

On the second floor, above the Hall of Governors, is the old exhibit of the United States forestry service at the Exposition. A deputy superintendent is in charge, being stationed there to explain the exhibits and work of the forestry service. The walls are decorated with photographs of New Mexico scenes, principally of forests. There are cross and longitudinal sections of trees.

There are several models. One depicts the effects of deforestation. On one side, water falls through foliage, leaving the soil unharmed when it flows way, and bringing no destruction to the farms and dwellings below; on the other, it strikes the denuded hillside, erodes the soil and brings floods to the valley.

There also is a model forest preserve in miniature, showing irrigated farms, standing timber, telephone lines, trails, fire lookout stations, hill and canyon and stream. A model of a lookout tower of the rangers, supplied and tools furnished the men, a full-size platform of a tower and other things connected with the service are on exhibition. The operation of the heliograph and the method of locating a fire exactly through observations from different stations are interesting phases of the exhibit.

The exhibit is designed to make the public acquainted with and in sympathy with the work of the departments and to get in touch with prospective timber buyers and others having business relations with the government.

An automatic stereopticon machine shows slides throughout the day, each bearing on forestry, and each carrying an accompanying text which drives the lesson home.

Returning downstairs and crossing the loggia to the south wing of the building, the visitor enters the auditorium. This is a severe little chapel. At one end is the alcove; at the other a balcony for the motion picture machine and operator. On the floor are seats for visitors.

In this auditorium are given many lectures and motion picture shows daily. The subjects range from the operations in the Santa Rita copper district to the annual fair of the Navajo Indians at Ship Rock, New Mexico; from coal mining to views of the educational institutions of the state; from pueblos and missions to agricultural activities; from artesian wells and irrigation to views of modern towns in New Mexico; from lectures on the different counties of the state and their resources and opportunities to sacred dances of the Indians. A total of 20,000 feet of film and 3,000 slides are used in connection with the lectures.

The chapel is a faithful reproduction of that of the old Acoma mission. Its ceiling is the usual brown-timbered one of the building. Its walls are the usual white; but they are relieved by many oil paintings, some very old church paintings, and water colors. Some of the oils are large, they are of the ruins of New Mexico, such as the pueblos of Quarai and Grand Quivira. Others are three striking ones of Acoma. The rocky path, a stairway of cyclopean size, leading to the summit; the top of the rock, showing the dim outlines of the mission and pueblo; and the mission itself. The work of many artists is represented.

There also are many water colors of buildings of old Santa Fe, having an architectural as well as a picturesque interest. The New Mexico building is well worth the visit of both tourists and residents.

August 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Exposition will observe Admission Day anniversary.

August 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 10:4. Catholics to have day at Exposition, September 19.

August 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 11:1. Ford Motor Band to play at Fair today and tomorrow; 13th Band Coast Artillery will play on Plaza de Panama this evening.

August 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 11:4. Ford day at Exposition; all Ford cars admitted free.

So many Fords are expected at the grounds that to avoid misunderstandings or accidents several regulations have been set down by Exposition executives.

August 8, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:2. Five hundred tribesmen from all parts of Southern California to hold powwow at Fair August 25 – 29; Miss Salvadora Venezuella of Pala will act as quartermaster during stay of Indians.

August 9, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:2. Lincoln Beachly did utmost in aerial stunts at San Diego Exposition and finished safely; Will Art Smith be as fortunate?; will fly Wednesday and Thursday at 4:00 p.m. and 9:00 p.m.; says machine is of his own design and engine specially constructed.

August 9, 1915, San Diego Sun, 9:1. President Emma Wooley of Mount Holyoke College, Massachusetts, guest of honor tomorrow; will lecture on education at Public Service Hall in Science of Man building at 11:00 a.m.; Mayor Capps on Saturday will select San Diego’s 25 most beautiful women; acting Mayor George l. Coleman of Boston will be guest of Exposition on Sunday and will speak at Organ Pavilion at 4:00 p.m. in Open Forum day program.

August 9, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:2-3. Famous little automobile, spectacular evangelist and Manhattan day, Fair lures; Billy Sunday to drop bombs of denunciation on sinners who traverse rosy trail; Fords will be admitted free.

August 9, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2. Marcus M. Marks, president of the Borough of Manhattan, Exposition guest.

August 9, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:1. Ford Motor Band of Detroit gave two concerts at Exposition today in Plaza de Panama..

Henry Ford’s band, like his cars, like his spirit of philanthropy, is for the common people. It is devoid of frills, but it’s sturdy, and above all its programs are appreciated. Liberal applause at each number testifies to this.

August 10, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:1. Art Smith will arrive tonight; will give exhibitions of “aerial insanity” Wednesday and Thursday; will lecture on aviation and explain his machine at all performances.

August 10, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:1-2. Billy Sunday talked to thousands, one and one-half hours, in front of organ yesterday afternoon; his friends say Sunday did not really warm up; he lost his cap several times on account of his exertions; he writhed, danced, twisted, jumped, perspired, spit and howled, but persons who has seen him in the mist of a hard campaign said, “You have not seen the real Billy Sunday.”

August 10, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:1. Idle rich hubbies pet dogs’ rivals, Sunday says; Painter’s colic lurks on average girl’s cheek, throng at Fair told; “Learn to praise wife”; “bachelor thinks he knows more about raising kids than did Brigham Young.”

Billy Sunday made his first evangelistic address to a San Diego audience yesterday afternoon when he spoke to 5,000 persons from the platform of the Spreckels music pavilion at the Panama-California Exposition.

Sunday took as his subject “Butterfly Chasing,” but he frequently digressed from his theme to relate some stories of his baseball days. The evangelist was introduced by George Burnham, vice president of the Exposition, who characterized Sunday as the world’s greatest human dynamo.

Before ascending the platform Sunday criticize the height of the speaker’s desk and made the carpenter saw two feet off the legs before nodding his approval. In greeting the newspapermen he was asked if he would replay to Doctor Aked upon his arrival at San Francisco Thursday.

“I’ll pay as much attention to Doctor Aked as I would to a saloonkeeper or dive owner,” said Sunday.

The evangelist flayed the idle rich and their methods of living, especially the women. “Some of these rich women know more about gambling, poker chips and wine than they do about the decent things of life. Others pass their time hugging and kissing a brindle-nosed bulldog and then wonder why their husbands pass all their time at the club. No man cares to play second fiddle to a pug-nosed bulldog.

“The average girl is fast becoming a pagan. Kiss some of these girls and a fellow would dies of painter’s colic. All they know about music is sitting down at the piano and batting out ‘Does Spearmint Lose Its Flavor on the Bedpost Over Night?’ They flirt with the first simp that comes along and turn their homes into third-class booze joints.

“There are some women who pay $25 for a taxi ride and then go home and borrow 25 cents from the hired girl to start the gas meter. If some of you women took the false hair off your head you would look like a humming bird in a rainstorm.

:I don’t think there is anything worse than the brute who does not know how to treat his wife. If some men would talk to a waiter like they do to their wives they would be toothless in less time that it would take to tell about it.

“I want you husbands to praise your wives at home, even if it does frighten her for the first time. If you want your wife to be an angel, treat her like an angel. Love is something that you can’t quarantine. It may strike any place at any time. There is not such thing as an old maid. They are merely ladies in waiting. It is far better that they remain ladies in waiting them to become the wife of some whiskey-soaked old jug handle. All some men marry for is to have someone to sew buttons on their ‘britches; or cook a beefsteak. Give your wife a fair spending account. It’s a safe bet she will have money to lean you when you are on the hog.

“Many a man saved his money to buy a rosewood casket for his wife when it should have been spent in employing a hired girl. It is the women who have baked all the sponge cake, who, in fact, have kept the church steeples in this country from falling down. They have taught us men how to sing, to pray, to live.

“If there is any woman in the mire, some man has pushed her there. A man who destroys the virtue of a woman should be shot on the spot. He is not fit to live.

“I believe women should dress neatly, but sanely. Some wives go around the house looking like a feather mattress with a string tied around it, and then wonder why their husbands don’t stay at home.

“Some people know too much, others too little. For instance, a bachelor thinks he knows more about raising kids than did Brigham Young.

“Be firm in your purpose, in your opinions. I know some men who are Methodists at noon, Baptists at 2, Episcopalians at 4 and go to bed a howling infant at 8. The worst bankrupt in the world is the man or woman with a bankrupt character. Better wear corns on the march to heaven than to trod carefree the primrose path to hell. I expect that a lot of you mollycoddles, four-flushers and hangers-on are sore at what I say. Come up here and I’ll pay your admittance fee.”

Concluding his address, Sunday spoke of his conversion 28 years ago and of his meeting and subsequent marriage to Mrs. Sunday.

“How long ago was that, Ma?” asked the evangelist, turning with a smile to his wife and two boys who sat behind him.

“Twenty seven years,” said Ma, and the crowd shouted its approval.

“I’ve been on Ma’s trail ever since,” said Billy, which again brought forth a shout of amusement.

“I want you fellows to cut out cigarette smoking,” said Sunday, as he spotted a man in the crowd smoking a pill. “If you don’t cut out the cigarettes you will wake up some day with your brains on the pillow. Smoke a pipe or cigar, if you wish, but cut out the cigarette.”

Sunday will leave at noon for Portland, stopping at San Francisco for a two-day stay. From Portland he will do direct to Omaha.

August 10, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:2. Miss Frances de Villa, concert pianist, was heard in recital in Exposition Public Service Hall.

August 10, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:1. President Marks spoke, New Yorkers entertained at Manhattan day celebration at Exposition.

August 10, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:1. Manhattan folk hold celebration at Fair.

August 10, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:2. Miss Francis de Villa will give piano concert in public service hall of Science of Man building this afternoon.

August 10, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:5. Ford car parade Fair day feature.

August 10, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:5. Exposition files $1,000 suit against Rex B. Clark of Julian who failed to pay for stock; Exposition’s third action.

August 11, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:4-5, 2:4-5. Smith says aviators should learn loop-the-loop.

August 11, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:3. Archaeological Institute of America to hold session at Fair; Professor F. W. Shipley, president of Institute, to give talk on Roman portrait sculpture at 8 p.m., Thursday, in Science and Education building Assembly Hall.

August 11, 1915, San Diego Sun, 9:1. The Park Board today closed to vehicles West Land Avenue in Balboa park from Quince to Juniper to prevent congestion and destruction of lawns and shrubbery by automobiles during Art Smith’s flights this afternoon, tonight and tomorrow; obstructions will be removed early Friday; John Forward declared that automobiles running upon the lawns and into the flower gardens when Lincoln Beachly flew and on Schumann-Heink night did damage amounting to $1,000; “There is not a ‘keep off the grass’ sign anywhere in the park, and now that we have one of the finest parks in the United States, we want the people to use it. Picnic parties are always welcome and we want all the children of San Diego to play on the lawns in the groves and to visit the gardens. It is a park for the people, but we do not, of course, want automobiles to destroy the work we have done, and to inconvenience people who are not in automobiles on crowded days and nights.”

August 11, 1915, San Diego Sun, 9:1. Marine barracks at Exposition will resume its drills on Plaza de Panama and Marine Band will again give concerts; Forth Regiment back from Mexican waters where they were carried aboard the flagship Colorado to induce the Yaqui Indians to respect Americans.

August 11, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2. Art Smith to write “San Diego” in sky; birdman will try record smashing loops.

August 11, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:2. Second Battalion, Fourth Regiment, U.S. Marines, returns to Fair grounds.

The Second battalion, Fourth regiment, marines, Major W. N. McKelvey, commanding, which returned from the west coast of Mexico a few days ago and remained aboard the Colorado awaiting disembarkation orders from Washington came ashore yesterday evening and settled down to the old routine at the marine barracks in the Exposition grounds. The parades on the Plaza de Panama, which have been a big attraction for visitors, will be held on Thursdays, Fridays, Mondays and Tuesdays.

The marines will resume their old duties at the barracks, but Admiral Howard is vested with authority by the Navy Department to take them aboard the Colorado again in case he is called upon to make a quick dash to Mexico.

The battalion has received two four-ton auto trucks, which hereafter will be part of the regiment’s equipment, and they were first used yesterday in hauling implements back to camp from the wharf. In addition to capacity load, each truck towed two three-inch rapid fire guns.

The companies composing the battalion returning to the barracks are the 25th (artillery); 28th (automatic rifle). Captain E. E. Miller, who joined the regiment since the marines departed for the late expeditionary duty, has assumed command of the 28th company.

Lieutenant R. E. Davis of the 25th company has been appointed by headquarters at Washington to act as marine corps aide to President G. A. Davidson of the Panama-California Exposition.

August 11, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:1. Archaeological body to open sessions at Exposition today; Professor F. W. Shipley, president, arrives for two-day meeting of organization; Rome lecture, feature; George Hempi of Stanford will discuss research work in Mediterranean.

The California meeting, divided between the Expositions in San Francisco and San Diego, is the first to be held by the Archaeological Institute of America west of Chicago, and marks the period of rapid extension of the work of the national organization over the Pacific coast. It is through this organization that the Exposition exhibits in the Science of Man, Indian Arts, Ancient America and fine arts were prepared for the San Diego Exposition, the Institute having detailed its director of American archaeology to the Exposition for four years for that purpose.

August 11, 1915, San Diego Union, 14. Charles Brown, wealthy property owner, was made defendant yesterday in a suit brought by the Panama-California Exposition to recover $500 alleged to be due as a subscription for stock in the Fair.

August 11, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:4. New Mexico educators due at San Diego Fair; special meeting of visitors will continue for several days.

August 12, 1915, San Diego Herald, 1. Sunday Open Forum Day at the Expo; the most democratic meeting which has ever been held at the Exposition: The Open Forum had its rise at Cooper Union, New York. . . . The chief thing about the Open Forum is to make it a people’s meeting. There is always a chief speaker, but the audience has a comeback. That is the reason for the questions from the floor.

August 12, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:1-2. Is Art Smith crazy? That word doesn’t express it; tempts death hundreds of ways in air.

August 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2. Doctor C. J. Hexamer of Philadelphia, president of German-American Alliance, visits Exposition.

August 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:1. Spanish veterans will celebrate at Exposition; General Wankonski, department commander, to appear in parade today; music, oratory, program; camp luncheon; organ recital; features planned for big day.

August 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:3. “Beauty Carnival” to be held on Isthmus Saturday evening; Mayor Capps to test skill as “sweet girl” judge.

August 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:2. Educational work in New Mexico described; Miss Albright sings.

August 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 16:1. Caroline M. Lowe from Cleveland will give a recital at Spreckels organ this afternoon.

August 12, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:1. Educators meet at New Mexico building; half of county school superintendents attend gathering; music program given; public lecture series will be Exposition feature today.

August 12, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:2. H. W. Wilcox was the defendant named yesterday in the daily suits being filed by the Panama-California Exposition Company to collect on subscriptions alleged to be due on stock in the Fair; thousand dollars due Fair Company, claim.

August 12, 1915, San Diego Union, II,1:2-6. Art Smith, aviator, did stunt and night flying at Exposition; Indiana aviator’s night flying declared marvelous; spectators hear talk.

August 13, 1915, San Diego Sun, 13:5. City is “broke”; funds depleted; Councilmen puzzled; may cut own salaries.

August 13, 1915, San Diego Sun, 14:1. Admission Day to be observed September 9; Native Sons and Daughters of California and Pioneer Society of San Diego County planning event.

August 13, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Educational work in New Mexico described; schools of nations to be under one board predicts Dean Frank Caroon of the New Mexico Normal School; Miss Claude Albright, contralto, sings; normal institutions reach high mark, declaration at Exposition.

August 13, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:1. Veterans of Spanish-America war to celebrate; military parade to begin exercises; free dinner arranged.

August 13, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:3. Birdman repeats “aerial insanity” at Exposition; mother prevents girl from flying with Art Smith; fourteen loops made.

August 13, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:2. Organist at Fair returns today.

August 14, 1915, San Diego Sun, 3:1. George W. Coleman to speak tomorrow at Exposition organ at 4 p.m. on “An Experiment with Democracy.”

August 14, 1915, San Diego Sun, 9:2. Monday, August 16, Washington State Day, International Union Typographical Union Day; Mrs. Elizabeth Towne to lecture on “New Thought and World Peace” at organ at 8 p.m.

August 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:5-6. Liberty Bell coming; H. V. Darnell of Philadelphia, the man who will bring the Liberty Bell to San Diego; Special agent of Pennsylvania Railroad who brought Independence memento to Pacific coast, renews old friendships in San Diego.

August 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:2. Spanish-American War Veterans celebrate 17th anniversary of surrender at Manila.

Veterans of the Spanish-American war celebrated yesterday with a parade, a patriotic meeting at the Spreckels music pavilion and a luncheon was served the veterans at the marine barracks at the Exposition.

The parade of the veterans, augmented by city police, a battalion of the national guard of California, a battalion of the coast artillery corps, sailors from the cruiser Colorado, U.S. marines and officers and men of the First Cavalry, was the feature of the day. The military pageant was viewed by thousands on its way to the Exposition and was given an ovation all along the line. Colonel J. H. Pendleton acted as grand marshal and Captain C. H. Lyman was his chief of staff.

Admiral Thomas Benton Howard and his staff officers, Commodore Guy Brown, Admiral H. M. Manner, Captain A. A. Ackerman, acting President George Burnham of the Exposition, O. C. Wilson, department judge advocate, U.S.W.V.; R. H. Harris, commander of the Bennington camp; D. P. Storm, past supreme officer and aide-de-camp on the staff of the commander-in-chief, reviewed the parade from the steps of the Sacramento building at the Plaza de Panama.

Following the disbanding of the parade at the Plaza de los Estados a meeting of which the features were patriotic addresses and music was held. Doctor Humphrey J. Stewart, official organist of the Fair, had promised the veterans he would be home in time to play for them and he was true to his word. The great organ was made to give forth patriotic pieces of all kinds and Doctor Stewart was given hearty applause by the men.

Orators vied with one another in outbursts of patriotism. And each reference to the flag was the signal for cheers. Acting president George Burnham of the Exposition delivered the address of welcome. Hundreds of veterans from different parts of the country were present to help their San Diego brothers celebrate and he made them feel at home.

(Burnham’s speech follows.)

Colonel R. V. Dodge acted as chairman of the meeting. He responded to the welcome of Burnham, thanking him for the veterans and then calling on Captain S. W. Bell, who praised the men of the last war for their patriotism and said he knew that many of them would be ready again for the service of their country if occasion arises.

  1. C. Wilson, San Francisco judge advocate of the department of California, U.S.W.V., was the next speaker. The keynote of his speech was preparedness. “We must be prepared for any emergency and we have a right to ask our government for the protection of our wives and children,” he said.

After the meeting the veterans visited at marine barracks where the marines had prepared an army luncheon for them. Beans proved most popular on the bill of fare and the veterans said they tasted just as they had in camp years ago. It was the first time some of them had tasted beans cooked in the army style and that they enjoyed their luncheon was proved by the many times they asked to have their plates refilled.

August 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2-3. Prettiest girls to be picked tonight; city executive and three women aids will select 25 of San Diego’s “sweetest maids: from throng on Exposition Joy Street.

August 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:4. George W. Coleman, president of the Boston Council, reaches San Diego; Open Forum director and YMCA worker to address Ad Club Monday.

August 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:4. A print maker’s exhibit was installed yesterday in the library maintained by the San Diego Women’s Press Club in the upper balcony of the California Quadrangle at the Exposition.

August 14, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:2-3. Henry L. Vibbard, head of music department of Syracuse University, will give recital at Spreckels organ this afternoon.

August 14, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:2. Harry F. McGarvie made director of department of exploitation yesterday; seeks new attractions for Fair.

August 15, 1915, Los Angeles Times, 8:5. Jury awards grand prizes; exhibits at San Diego Fair judged for points of quality.

August 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:1. Jury judged exhibits at Exposition, giving New Mexico building big first point with Montana next; award given to Brazilian exhibit.

The jury of awards, which has been in session several days at the Panama-California Exposition, judging exhibits, yesterday awarded a gold medal to the New Mexico building and its exhibits, a grand prize to the Montana building, a silver medal to the Nevada building and a gold medal to the Washington building. The Kansas and Utah buildings have not yet been awarded this prize.

The New Mexico building scored ninety-five points, the Montana building ninety points and the Washington building eighty-five points. The exhibits in each of the buildings are widely different, some consisting of only agricultural products and others of agricultural and mining products. Each building was judged by itself and was not compared with other buildings, this being impossible because of the difference in the kinds of exhibits.

The copper exhibit in the New Mexico building was given ninety-five points and a gold medal, the special coal exhibit was given ninety-five points and a gold medal, the U.S. forestry exhibit received eighty-five points and a gold medal, the mineral exhibit ninety points and a grand prize. Only the agricultural exhibit in the Montana building was judged. It was given ninety points and a grand prize.

Work of Nevada students in manual training was given ninety-four points. The display of oat varieties in the Nevada building was given eighty-five points and a gold medal, the display of wheat varieties was given ninety-five points and a grand prize, the display of barley varieties was given ninety-five points and a grand prize.

In recognition of his efforts in assembling the Brazilian exhibit, the jury of awards recommended yesterday that Doctor Eugenio Dahne be awarded a gold medal. His display of the products and the animal and bird life of the southern republic is much admired by visitors.

In brief, the exhibits recognized as par excellence, may be described as follows: Grand prize to the government of Sao Paulo for its coffee. This state produces sixty percent of the world’s coffee supply. Officials of Sao Paulo backed Doctor Dahne in placing the Brazilian exhibit here.

Grand prize to the minister of agriculture of Brazil for the fine collection of crude rubber donated by him. Rubber in all its forms and various articles manufactured therefrom are on exhibition, together with sets of large photographs portraying the making of rubber from the time the latter is drawn from the tree.

Gold medal to the government of Parana for its mate, or Brazilian tea, donated by them. Twenty million people in South America drink mate, it being to them what tea is to the European, the Mongolian and people of North America. Mate is a blood purifier, and its action is stomachic and laxative, it is claimed.

Silver medal to Jorge Correa and Company, Para, for their cocoa, chocolate and other products. In the state of Bahia there are some 8 million cacao (cocoa) trees, some trees producing as high as thirty-two pounds of dried beans in one year. The supply of cacao is less than the demand.

Silver medal to Olivera Sunoea and Company, Para, for guarana nuts and effervescent drink. Guarana grows wild in many sections of Brazil. The plant is a climber with yellow fruit and a black seed. Seeds are crushed, made into a paste, rolled into sticks and dried. A small piece is ground into a fine powder and a spoonful is mixed into one of sugar and taken in a glass of cold water. A prohibition drink with a “kick.”

Silver medal to Richard Mardock of Para for collection of Brazilian cabinet woods. In the forest of the Amazon are hundreds of different kinds of hard and soft woods.

Silver medal to Borge Irrao, Rio de Janeiro, for tobacco and cigarettes.

Other awards probably will be made public by the jury of awards Monday.

August 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:1. Caroline M. Lowe gave recital at Spreckels Organ.

August 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2. Twenty five beauties picked at Fair; thirteen San Diego maids made winners in contest on Isthmus. . . . After the selections had been made the girls were taken to the north end of the Isthmus, where gaily-decorated electriquettes were waiting to carry them to the Cristobal café for an elaborate dinner.

August 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:5. Printers invade San Diego; Nearly 600 members of the International Typographical Union arrived in San Diego yesterday and were put through a strenuous first day by members of the local union.

August 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:1. Jury of awards judges exhibits at Exposition.

August 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:2. Daily band concerts at Exposition assured; Coast artillery and marine corps organizations will give programs.

Band music has been assured for every day of the week at the Panama-California Exposition since the return of the Fourth Regiment, United States Marine Corps band, of which William R. Borreson is conductor.

The Thirteenth Band of the Coast Artillery Corps, V. F. Safranek, conductor, will play Sunday, Monday, Wednesday, Friday and Saturday at the Plaza de Panama at 2:30 p.m. and 7 p.m.

The Fourth Regiment Band, U.S.M.C., will play at the Plaza de Panama at 2:30 p.m. Tuesday and Wednesday. Under this arrangement there will be band concerts at the Plaza de Panama, sometimes twice daily.

Both musical organizations are well known to local patrons at the Fair grounds and both have their admirers. They are excellent bands and have proved willing at all times to help out in emergencies. That they will furnish the band music at the Exposition will please the large following of the military bands.

August 15, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:3. Elizabeth Towne, head of Nautilus magazine, to speak at Spreckels music pavilion tomorrow evening on “New Thoughts and World Peace.”

August 15, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 3:1. Miss Caroline Lowe of Cleveland to give organ recital tonight.

August 15, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 5:2. George W. Coleman, president of Boston City Council, to speak today at Spreckels music pavilion as feature of Open Forum day.

August 15, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 8:1. Three events to draw big crowds at Fair tomorrow; Washington State governor and party will be visitors; printers on program; Elizabeth Towne day arranged as greeting for magazine editor.

August 15, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 8:4. One hundred and twenty five banking institute members to see Fair; San Diego members will entertain visiting party tomorrow.

August 16, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:3. Boston councilman George W. Coleman pleaded for better understanding between warring elements of society and for higher appreciation on the part of citizens of their duties in citizenship at an Open Forum meeting.

August 16, 1915, San Diego Sun, 9:2. Tent City Day to be observed Wednesday, August 18; open-air ball on Plaza de Panama at night.

August 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:6. Nearly 100 in party from Chicago Examiner arrived yesterday to see Exposition.

August 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:5. George W. Coleman, president Boston City Council, addressed Open Forum at Exposition yesterday; plea for fellowship and understanding between society’s social strata.

August 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:2. H. L. Vibbard, musical department University of Syracuse, gave recital at Spreckels organ yesterday afternoon.

August 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:1. One hundred newspaper contest winners from Canada and New England arrived in San Diego yesterday to see Exposition.

August 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:3. Plans for Admission Day celebration.

August 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4. Governor Ernest Lister of Washington was guest at Exposition.

The Washington building has been improved during the last two weeks, new exhibits and new decorations have been installed. Governor’s party escorted to Laurel street entrance by officers and men of First cavalry; at gate officers and men of marine barracks escorted party to Plaza de Panama where a review was held for the governor; later party was taken to lunch at the Cristobal Café; informal reception at Washington building in afternoon and later another reception at headquarters of women’s board at Southern California Counties building; sightseeing tour arranged; organ recital by Doctor Humphrey J. Stewart; concert by Thirteenth Band of Coast Artillery Corps and entertainment by Spanish troubadours; formal reception at Washington building in evening.

August 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2. Typographers observe Exposition day; short meeting held on platform of Sacramento building; welcomed by William Mountain, secretary to President G. A. Davidson; James M. Lynch, former president of the organization, spoke of purpose of labor unions.

August 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. About 250 banking institute members guests at luncheon at Cristobal yesterday; visiting cashiers, tellers and bookkeepers on way to convention at San Francisco.

August 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:2. Tomorrow designated “Tent City Day” at Exposition; ball in evening at Plaza de Panama planned by Coronado campers; bathing costumes may be worn.

August 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:2-3. Christian Science exhibit installed in north balcony of Foreign and Domestic Arts building.

There has been installed in the north balcony of the Foreign and Domestic Arts building at the Exposition and exhibit, the sign over the entrance to which reads: “The Christian Science Publishing Society, USA” Leading up to the balcony are gracefully arranged stairs, bountifully covered in the soft-toned brown carpet so familiar to the Christian Scientist. Upon entering one is greeted by the same color scheme in beautiful Wilton rugs and rattan chairs. In necessary cases the works of Mary Baker Eddy are exhibited; also Bibles and hymnals, and, likewise, “Life of Mrs. Eddy,” by Sybil Wilbur. There are wall-folders (or books on hinges) for the Christian Science Monitor, where every page can be read with ease and comfort and in a way that gives the visitor a splendid idea of the paper. In a corresponding niche are two other wall-folders with views of many of the Christian Science churches throughout England, Canada and the United States; also on the walls are pictures of Mrs. Eddy and the Mother Church. At the opposite point from the stairway is a table where attendants answer questions and arrange for the sending of literature to persons interested and where visitors are registered. At one end of the balcony is a bookcase containing complete files of the Christian Science Sentinel and Der Herold and theChristian Science Journal from Volume 3. All of the windows are curtained and draped in gold and violet. Gold or orange streamers or curtains are hung in Spanish style on the outside of the windows. Inside the glass is covered with a pretty white net shaded with soft violet material. High up in the wall in the immediate center of the space is a small round window through which the sun bursts, bringing about the resemblance of a halo, a glorious light resting everywhere, causing a sense of rest and peace. Visiting Christian Scientists are grateful for this haven — this quiet little nook — and it is proving a veritable “upper chamber” to many. The exhibit is in charge of a local representative and two women assistants.

Co-relative is the Christian Science reading tent, located south of the Fair buildings, attached to the United States marine barracks, Major W. N. McKelvey, commanding. This was designed for the use of the marines, is well furnished with tables, desks, chairs, electric light, telephone and writing materials. All the Christian Science literature is provided and there are notices in the tent which inform the visitor that it was equipped and is maintained by the joint Christian Science literature distribution committee of San Diego. The place is cared for by the soldiers and that it is appreciated is evidenced by the fact that many a letter here penned reaches home and mother.

August 18, 1915, Los Angeles Times, II, 5:3-6. Dream City’s call heard; Saturday to be Los Angeles Day at the Fair; Pythians too, will be feted at San Diego; Mayor Sebastian and Police Chief Snively as special guests.

August 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:1. City of San Diego expenses cut in July; cost of running departments under operations manager $49,057.92 for month; office force reductions planned.

August 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:4. Angelenos to visit Exposition; Los Angeles police band will give concert on Pythian day; visitors bringing a drill team of 100 members who will give an exhibition drill at Plaza de Panama Saturday afternoon.

August 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:2-3. Tent City folk to hold sway at Fair today; night dance will be feature; music by Pallma’s band; drill team of 24 Coronado girls to give exhibition of fancy drills at Plaza de Panama at 2:30 and 9:00 p.m.

August 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:1. Big Indian fiesta set for next week at Fair; La Jolla, Rincon, Pauma, Pechanga, Pala reservations to take part; Exposition will send automobiles to different reservations for the Indians; Indians will live in a big ramada to be erected on tractor field; program of dancing arranged for each day of fiesta.

August 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:1. Labor Day plans at Fair outlined; Fraternal Brotherhood members, thousands strong, coming to San Diego, September 6; big delegation expected from Los Angeles; special railroad rates arranged; competitive drill on Plaza de Panama in afternoon; parade from lower Broadway to Laurel street entrance in morning; banquet in Cristobal Café in evening.

August 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:2. Senator Theodore E. Burton, Republican, of Ohio coming to Fair; presidential possibility in 1916.

August 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:2. John Barrett, Pan-American Union head, will visit Fair about August 27.

San Diego Herald, August 19, 1915, 1:5-6. Exposition Notes

Early September at the San Diego Exposition will be enlivened by two important celebrations to be held, Labor Day, September 6, and Admission Day, September 9. The Labor Day celebration will extend over three days, beginning the fourth and taking in the fifth and sixth. Labor unions throughout Southern California are rallying to the support of the celebration, and it will see a vast gathering of the sons of toil.

A big feature of the celebration will be the participation of five thousand members of the Fraternal Brotherhood. These will come form the Southwestern states with their uniformed ranks and give a series of competitive drills at the Exposition during the three days. Labor will be represented by a great outpouring of the rank and file, and included in the three-day program are parades, picnics, open-air balls and athletic events.

Just three days later will follow the celebration of Admission Day, the exercise to commemorate the sixty-fifth anniversary of California’s admission to the Union. Pageants depicting various periods of California’s history have been arranged.

All the activities will center at the Exposition, where the halcyon gold rush days of ’49 will be portrayed with reality smacking of historical correctness. Already fifty of the forty-niners have entered the gold-days section of the parade. Some of these will ride in an old stage coach which was operated on the line between San Diego and the Colorado river long before railroads were built in this section. At the head of the pioneer section will ride Chief Iodine who, despite the weight of eighty-nine years, rides a bronco with the skill of youth as he did in 1846, when he acted as a scout for John C. Fremont, when this gallant young Southerner entered California just before the outbreak of the Mexican war.

With the closing of the summer resort season in many parts of the country, September 1, the San Diego Exposition intends to add a number of important attractions to the Isthmus, which is the Exposition’s Joy Street. Harry F. McGarvie, a veteran showman, has been engaged for the purpose and is given a free hand to book features never before exhibited at an Exposition.

The plan of increasing the size and attractiveness of the Isthmus indicates that the San Diego Exposition considers that the last half of its year will be greater than the first part. This opinion is based on reports from transcontinental railroads, which declare that with the gathering of the harvests travel westward will be unprecedented. The plan for enlarging the Isthmus enterprises at the Exposition also forecasts the determination that the San Diego Exposition shall be kept open until December 31, the time originally set for its closing.

August 19, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:3. Los Angeles day; Knights of Pythias day and Children’s day; Pythian parade in afternoon; “Tacky” carnival on Isthmus in evening.

August 19, 1915, San Diego Sun, 14:1. Five thousand members of Fraternal Brotherhood to participate in Labor Day celebration September 6.

August 19, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:1. Tent City folk celebrate day at Exposition.

August 19, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 9:1. Los Angeles host to celebrate at Fair Saturday; northern city mayor declares holiday for Exposition visit; “Tacky Party” planned on Isthmus; persons in costume will be admitted by gatemen without charge.

August 19, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 14:1. U.S. Board of Engineers to visit San Diego Fair and harbor.

August 20, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:1. Congressman William Kettner and members of U.S. Board of Army Engineers here on visit.

August 20, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:7-8, 3:2. Liner Finland in Port of Sun this morning; 165 will land; members of Harvard football team of 1890 on craft.

August 20, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:1. Last year’s suits Exposition style tomorrow; night of merriment in store for “Tacky Party: participants; Angeleno host coming; Knights of Pythias parade of be feature.

August 20, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Engineers arrived on western trip of inspection yesterday evening; Commerce Chamber delegates meet Army board members at station; informal dinner at Cristobal; reception today at office of President G. A. Davidson at 2:15 p.m. followed by a similar function at headquarters of women’s board; informal dinner at Cristobal at 7:00 p.m.

August 20, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:2-3. Cavalry troops B and M, under command of Captain Van Horn Mosely, to leave Exposition this morning for Calexico where they will do duty on the border; two troops now stationed at Calexico will leave for San Diego where they will remain for further orders; two troops left at camp just outside Exposition grounds.

August 20, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:2. Molly Byerly Wilson, California contralto, to sing at Spreckels organ tomorrow at 4 p.m.

August 20, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 9:2. General Emiliano Chamorro, Nicaragua minister, San Diego visitor.

August 20, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 9:3. Four thousand woodmen expected to meet at Fair on Labor Day; will camp on tractor field.

August 21, 1915, San Diego Sun, 8:1. Indians of back country will hold fiesta on tractor field Wednesday through Saturday; scores to flock here for gala event; will reenact ceremonies dating back before coming of white man; peon game to be played; Father George D. Doyle of Pala completing arrangements; will be first time an Indian fiesta has been held in the city.

August 21, 1915, San Diego Sun, 9:2. Jury of awards gives New Mexico building grand prize among state buildings, a gold medal for coal exhibit, a grand prize for mineral exhibit, grand prize for copper exhibit, gold medal for U.S. forestry exhibit; state of Nevada wins grand prize for display of wheat and barley varieties, silver medal for state resources; state of Montana, grand prize for agricultural exhibit; state of Washington, gold medal for general resources.

August 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:2-3. Angelenos to storm Fair today; Mayor Sebastian and big delegation arrive with police band; host coming on stream of special trains and automobiles.

August 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:1. Pythian Knights streaming into San Diego; parade to Exposition will start at 2 p.m.; cut drill feature.

August 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2. Liner Finland stops at first Port of Call; 218 passengers disembark from big craft; vessel’s stay short; San Diegans give Harvard men welcome; Harvard men bound for annual gathering of Association of Harvard Clubs which is being held in San Francisco.

August 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:1. U.S. Engineers see need for harbor work funding.

August 22, 1915, Los Angeles Times, 11:3. Thousands go to San Diego; Los Angeles Day at Fair; Mayor heads large party on official visit; policemen’s band parades.

August 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:2. Los Angeles and Knights of Pythias day at Exposition; 500 Los Angelenos attend.

August 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4, 2:5. Knights of Pythias drill at Exposition; San Diego uniform tank team again Royer Cup winner; 5,000 Los Angelenos attend celebration; officials review big parade.

August 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:1. District Attorney Schuermeyer blocks ’49 camp opening; prohibition writ given concession manager modified for Marsh’s assistant; official threatens raid; order from Judge Rector ample protection, says F. H. Couden, attraction operator.

August 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2. Police seize Pythian man resisting initiation; Springdale, California man put in jail for two hours; “bailed out.”

August 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:5. About 600 telephone operators and manufacturers to visit San Diego Fair; convention of Independent Telephone Association of America to convene in San Francisco.

August 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:1. Indians prepared for big festival at Exposition; automobiles to bring Redskins from reservations Wednesday; peon games on program; celebration will end Saturday night; annual gathering in San Diego, aim.

August 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:2-3. Los Angeles Silver Star Band at Exposition yesterday afternoon drowned out recital by Doctor Humphrey J. Stewart and singing by contralto Miss Molly Byerly Wilson; Knights of Pythias parade and drill began while organ recital was in progress; Miss Wilson to give recital tomorrow in blue room of Southern California Counties building.

August 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Tacky Party prize winner at Fair aided by baby; father of woman victor in costume contest given trophy for men.

August 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:2-3. Map of southern national highway, Washington to San Diego; Colonel Ed Fletcher wants U.S. Government to obtain data on proposed highway.

August 22, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:2. Catholic day set for September 19.

August 22, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:2-3. Party of 65 people from Kentucky visiting Fair.

August 22, 1915, San Diego Union, Entertainment, 7:3. The Painted Desert has been fortunate in securing for the season nine members of the Pueblo Isleta tribe from the town on Isleta, New Mexico. The Painted Desert now has representative of the Apache, Acoma, Tiwa, Hopi, Supai, Navajo and Isleta tribes living in their regular ways the same as on the reservations.

August 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Burton to speak at Exposition Tuesday; “Greater America” will be topic of Ohio senator; presidential possibility.

August 23, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:7-8. Anti Jitney Law is passed; 300 car men watch Council.

August 23, 1915, San Diego Sun, 3:4. Games feature Indian fiesta; all tribes of county to take part in Exposition program.

August 23, 1915, San Diego Sun, 3:4. Mother’s Pension day, September 8; in honor of Judge Henry Neil of Illinois, father of mother’s pensions.

August 23, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:5. Motion Picture day, Saturday, September 11.

August 23, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:6. Invitation to President in show window of Barbour’s confectionery store, 1060 Fifth street; will be printed on parchment and bound in the copy of “Semi Tropic California” which is to accompany it.

August 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:1. Florencio Constantino, rival of Caruso, to sing at Fair Wednesday.

August 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:3-4. Doctor William Carl of New York will play the organ recital at the Exposition Wednesday.

August 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:1. Indian chieftains to take part in fiesta; A-Mi-Qut-A-Quo, aged leader, has never known clothes or a haircut.

August 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:2. Book describing California’s beauties will be given to President Wilson; signatures; portraits of San Diegans in expensive gift.

August 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:5. Molly Byerly Wilson, contralto, to give recital in blue room of Southern California Counties building this afternoon.

August 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:6. Celebration of Mass plan of Indians at Exposition; to be held on aviation field by Father Doyle of Pala; Miss Eleanor Patterson of New York, contralto, to sing at Spreckels music pavilion tomorrow afternoon; Thirteenth Artillery Band to give two concerts before Sunday audiences.

August 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:8. Senator Burton to speak at Fair tomorrow.

August 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 12:1. Stars of film land to shine at Fair September 11.

August 24, 1915, San Diego Sun, 3:3. Senator Theodore Elijah Burton of Ohio, presidential possibility, to speak at Exposition at 5 p.m. on “Greater America.”

August 24, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:4-5. Florencio Constantino, famous tenor, to sing tomorrow night at organ pavilion at 8 p.m.; will sing Spanish and Basque songs in honor of Franciscan fathers; tickets 25 and 50 cents, in addition to 25 cent admission.

August 24, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:5. Back County day at Ramona; Collier Park to be dedicated; Carl Heilbron and D. C. Collier to speak.

August 24, 1915, San Diego Sun, 9:1. Indian fiesta is next at Exposition; red men will show their dances and games for four days; Rincon, Pala, Pauma, Pechanga and La Jolla tribes to convene; other tribes invited.

August 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:1. Theodore E. Burton, former U.S. senator from Ohio, to speak today.

August 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:2-3. Golden-voice tenor here; Constantino to sing at Spreckels organ tomorrow night.

August 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:3. Miss Eleanor Patterson of New York to give program at Spreckels organ.

August 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:5. One hundred members of American Association of Park Superintendents expected tomorrow evening or Thursday morning; coming from convention at San Francisco.

August 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Iowa businessman, Carl F. Kuehnie, in governor race, visits Fair.

August 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Labor celebration to last three days; Tiny Broadwick will perform.

August 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:2. Indians opened a four-day festival at Exposition; tribesmen assembled from San Diego County, August 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 18:1. Labor celebration to last three days.

White tents dot the tractor field at the Exposition and in them are housed Indians from the Pala and Rincon reservations, who will inaugurate today their fiesta of San Luis Rey, named in honor of the Spanish padre of the old mission days.

The Indians, including members of about 100 families, came in from the reservations last night and took possession of the camp.

All day yesterday Senora Salvadora Valenzuela of the Pala reservation, who is acting as quartermaster for the camp, was preparing for the hauling of rations and supplies to those who came for the fiesta.

Mass will be celebrated this morning at 10 o’clock at the ramada. The music for the mass will be sung by the choir of Saint Joseph’s Church, directed by Doctor H. J. Stewart. A platform has been erected on which an organ has been placed and where the choir will sit. The Sanctus will be sung by the Indians in an old chant setting.

The girls of the Pala reservation are expert in the making of lace, in weaving baskets, and as pottery makers and some of their handiwork will be in evidence during the fiesta.

Characteristic games and dances will mark the fiesta, and many of the older Indians, who have come familiar features to visitors to the reservations, will be in attendance.

It is expected that Yellow Sky, said to be the oldest of them all and whose age is only a conjecture, will be one of the number. He is said to be certainly more than 90, and some estimates are as high as 103. He is from Capitan Grande reservation, situated between Lakeside and the diverting dam.

This is said to be the first time a fiesta of this kind has been held amid surroundings of modern civilization. Heretofore they have been held within the reservations or close to them. The fiesta will continue four days, August 25-29 inclusive.

One of the most interesting games of the Indians is the peon game, played by four on a side, and is a great favorite with them as well as with visitors.

A peon game will be played by the Indian women this afternoon at 2:30, the men’s game to be started in the morning at 9:30. Half an hour before that time all the Indians will take part in a war dance around the camp fires.

Tomorrow afternoon at 2 there will be a game of pelota played by young bucks. This is another interesting diversion of the Indians and is said to be exciting. A half-mile foot race will be run at 3.

The fiesta will close with an elaborate program Saturday night, details of which will be announced later. The younger Indians will remain until Sunday to play a game of ball on the marine barracks grounds with the Y.M.I. team.

August 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:4. Mother’s Pension day to be celebrated at Fair September 8; Judge Henry Neil of Oak Park, Illinois to be principal speaker.

August 24, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 9:2. General George W. Goethals to arrive September 11; plan to have Goethals’ day at Exposition abandoned in compliance with Colonel’s request; wants quiet visit.

August 25, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:4, 3:4. Indians here to play kneel devoutly before Father Doyle who says “Play, my people. Play happily in this great Magic City that the white man has built.” Today’s games, today’s ceremonies were all mostly remnants of another day. They are all that the Indian has left of his former self — little customs with which he has been loath to part.

August 25, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:5-6. Miss Eleanor Patterson of New York sings operatic arias and “Star Spangled Banner” at Exposition; voice has three octaves.

August 25, 1915, San Diego Sun, 12:1. Tiny Broadwick drops to Exposition grounds twice daily, September 5 and 6, using chutes of silk and linen; Oscar Brindley, civilian instructor at North Island, will take girl aloft; Modern Woodmen of America will encamp at Exposition, September 4, 5 and 6 and Fraternal Brotherhood will be represented by hundreds on same days.

August 25, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3, 3:1. Former senator Theodore E. Burton sounded call for “Greater America” at Fair yesterday afternoon; waved flag as Miss Eleanor Patterson, New York contralto, sang “Star Spangled Banner.”

August 25, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:8. Park superintendent delegates due Friday.

August 25, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:2. Indians arrive for fiesta; fete to open today.

August 25, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:1. Constantino will sing revered songs at Exposition; tickets sell rapidly; words which cheered padres will be heard again tonight.

August 26, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:2. President Taft to arrive in San Diego September 16; he will speak at Exposition.

August 26, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:8. Mayor signs jitney laws.

August 26, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:3. Constantino gets ovation, by R. M. Dennen . . . There wasn’t any doubt in the minds of any there that this singer was accorded the greatest ovation given any artist that has visited San Diego for years.

August 26, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:5. “El [sic] Cantina Madrid” to take place of “Dance of the Divided Dime” on Isthmus; Spanish singers, chorus and five-piece orchestra engaged; big electric organ.

August 26, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:2. Mrs. Armand J. Jessop of San Francisco and San Diego Expositions: They have a whole set of beautiful dishes at San Francisco, but at San Diego we have the most beautiful piece of China ever made.

August 26, 1915, San Diego Sun, 9:3-4. Mme. Alys Larreyne, French prima donna, to sing at Exposition organ September 1.

August 26, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:6. Mysterious French singer to give concert at Exposition next week.

August 26, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:6. Artillery band gains in favor.

August 26, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2. Indians worship at Fair; priests advocate citizenship for red men; music of mass composed by Doctor Humphrey J. Stewart; sung by choir of Saint Joseph’s church; Indians sang “Sanctus.”

August 26, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:3. Votes come fast for movie stars; Exposition contest brings out candidates; Blanch Sweet leads for queen and Francis X. Bushman for king of Motion Picture day, September 11.

August 26, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:1. ’49 Camp funds attached at bank; constable fails to find gambling paraphernalia on concession grounds; hearing proves futile; proceedings initiated by Judge Torrance to collect $250 attorney’s fees.

August 26, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:2. Indian games feature program today; pelota, original football, to be played at Exposition this afternoon at 2:00; dance by older women at ramada at 3:15; eager feather dance at 8:00; game of peon at 8:20.

August 25, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:2-3. Constantino, Spanish tenor, wins host at Fair, by W. B. Seymour.

Five thousand shouting, applauding, some of them wildly gesticulating persons greeted Florencio Constantino, the great Spanish tenor when he walked out on the platform of the Spreckels organ pavilion last night to give his concert. The singer, who his admirers say is greater than Caruso, beamed on his audience with all the vivacity characteristic of his nationality, throwing out his arms to welcome in true grand opera tenor fashion.

Every seat was taken, while the peristyles of the pavilion and all the available space in the Plaza de los Estados was black with music lovers who had come to hear the great singer. Down near the front were the Spanish singers who entertain daily at the Exposition. They probably enjoyed the concert more than any other persons within the sound of Constantino’s voice. There greeting and applause were vociferous to the extreme and during the singing of each number their rapt attention was almost childlike in its simplicity. There was one exception to this. Once when the great tenor sang a high sustained pianissimo, the joy of one of the troupe was beyond containing, and he let out a shout that almost drowned the sound of Constantino’s voice, but the latter took the incident as the sincere tribute to his art which it was and smiled his appreciation.

At the close of the concert Constantino, in broken English, expressed his great pleasure at being allowed to sing at the Exposition and voiced the hope that he would be able to sing here again before the big show closes its gates.

“I would like to see grand opera give here in these grounds,” said he. “Just one week of grand opera. Ah, it would be beautiful!”

Constantino declared he experienced no difficulty in singing in the open air. “I missed what you call acoustics, at first,” he said. “Everything is far away and no come back like in a building.”

At the close of the concert, the Spanish troupe gathered outside the west door of the music pavilion and serenaded Constantino as he walked to his automobile. The singer made a brief speech in Spanish whereat they showed their uproarious delight. He then was drive to the Café Cristobal where he was entertained by prominent San Diegans.

Constantino’s first number was the famous “Cielo del Mar” aria from Ponchielli’s “La Gioconda,” wherein Enzo sings of the quiet sea and his love for the gentle Laura. This was followed by a habanera, “La Nina Pancho,” after which came the well-known “La Paloma.” All of them aroused much enthusiasm, but the crowd went wild when as an encore the tenor gave them “In questa quella” from Verdi’s “Rigoletto.”

An aria from Meyerbeer’s “L’Africaine” opened the second part of the program, being followed by a group of old Basque mission songs which were sun in San Diego by the old Spanish friars who founded it, after which Constantino say “No te oviedo.” His final number and encore was the beautiful “La donna e mobile” from “Rigoletto.” Both of the “Rigoletto” arias have been favorites of Constantino during his long operatic career and the role of the duke is one of his best operatic characterizations.

Of Constantino’s voice, it is almost needless to speak. The sweetness of his tones, his wonderful breath control, his remarkable phrasing, his dramatic interpretations, and his clean-cut enunciation have been praised by years by authorities in matters musical. Although few of his hearers understood what the singer was singing, they could not fail to be charmed by his voice, his artistry and his personality.

Senor Mario Hediger was the accompanist. He also played two solo numbers, a Spanish dance and an Exposition march. Hediger was greatly handicapped at the beginning by the gentle breezes which insisted upon blowing his music off the rack. He finally secured one of the Spanish singers to turn the music.

August 26, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 9:1. Doctor William C. Carl, eastern organist, scores triumph at Exposition.

August 26, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 9:2. H. E. Van Surdam, lyric tenor, to sing with Spreckels organ at 4 p.m. today.

August 27, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 9:1. State Admission Day will be observed; Governor Johnson invited; twenty-nine societies to line up for patriotic event.

August 27, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 9:2. Gala week planned for Exposition to begin with Labor Day, include Admission Day and end with Motion Picture Day.

August 27, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:1. Latin Americans to meet Yankees at Exposition; John Barrett, organizer, business genius, will speak; big reception planned next Wednesday.

The only foreign exhibit at the San Diego Exposition is that of Brazil. It had been planned to construct here a Brazilian palace, costing $200,000, but financial difficulties intervened and the project fell through.

August 27, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:1. Judge E. S. Torrance filed suit yesterday in the justice court to recover $250 attorney fees from F. M. Souden, one of the managers of the Exposition ’49 Camp. Of an account in the name of the concession in a local bank, $300 was attached by the constable Wednesday to meet the bill.

August 27, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:4. Committee arranging for Brotherhood Day September 6; three-day celebration will be held by Fraternity next month.

August 28, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:1. Catholic day will be observed September 19; high military mass at 10:30 a.m. at Spreckels organ with chorus of 100 voices; bugles are sounded in place of ringing of bells at the elevation of the Host and troops present arms.

August 28, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:5. “Indian Night” will be celebrated at Exposition this evening and prizes awarded for best costumes; Indians encamped on tractor field will give “eagle feather dance” on Isthmus at 9 p.m.; peon will be next attraction; game will begin at 9 and will be finished before 9 tomorrow morning when red skins say Mass prior to departure for their homes in the mountains; everybody in Indian costume will be admitted free to Exposition grounds this evening.

August 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4. Indian “rags” style for tonight; palefaces and red men to revel on Isthmus.

August 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:2. San Francisco Call praises San Diego Exposition.

The following appreciation of San Diego’s Exposition appeared in a recent issue of the San Francisco Call:

Five hundred miles south lies San Diego with its Exposition Beautiful.

Here in San Francisco we see the splendor of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, but great as is that splendor it does not dim the glory of the Magic City of Old Spain which has been created in the sightliest spot of Southern California. The beauty of either one, being entirely different, emphasizes the beauty of the other.

The San Diego Exposition is unique in a dozen ways. Many of the buildings are permanent, but as lasting as they are, overpoweringly beautiful are the surroundings, the work of nature in nature’s fairest garden.

Get in mind the picture of an old Spanish city of mission and cathedral and palace, peopled by conquistadors and dancing girls, such as lived in the misty days when Spain ruled with lavish hand in the new world.

Cover the walls with rose or jasmine and bougainvillea. Line the Prado and plazas with trees and shrubs and flowers, the walks with lawn and trailing vine. Let the peacock strut past the fountains and myriads of pigeons flutter about the Campanile.

And from the city of Castile, beneath the clear blue sky, look across the canyons and hills to the great Pacific and back to the snow-capped Sierras. Be glad that you are alive. Be glad that you can see Southern California and the San Diego Exposition — see with your eyes for a little time and with your memory for the rest of your lifetime. Today you see San Francisco. And tomorrow, see the Exposition Beautiful.

August 28, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 9:1. Indians in fettle for fast pelota game today; two teams will grapple on tractor field for supremacy; squaws to chant weird [sic] music while bucks wage strenuous battle.

The Indians, who have been holding a four-day fiesta at their grounds on the tractor field at the Exposition, will play a nice, gentle fame called pelota this afternoon.

Advance notices of this game seem to have omitted some of the ginger which rightfully belongs to any description of the sport. Later advice would indicate that London prize ring rules look like a prescription for absent treatment in comparison with some of the strenuous treatment permitted in pelota, which, from the nature of it, bars any mollycoddle from any of the teams engaged.

About the only form of death which cannot be meted out to an opponent in a game of pelota is by striking him with a club or a fist. Strangulation, suffocation, and dislocation of the vertebrae are considered the regulation process of elimination.

Six Men on Team

Six men composing a team face six others on the opposing team across a dead line in the center of the field. Somewhere along that line a wooden ball is planted at a spot unknown to any of the players. At a given signal, all the players begin to dig frantically in the earth with stout “shinny” sticks, two and a half feet long, which form part of the equipment. When the ball is found, it is in play and each side strives to drive it across the goal on the opposing side’s field.

When two goals are scored by either team, the game is won. As the field is sometimes from a half to three-quarters of a mile long, a game of pelota often lasts several hours. Today’s game will not be so long as the tractor field is much less than a half-mile long.

The pelota game will be preceded by an archery contest among the Indians at 3 o’clock.

Peon Game Scheduled

An eagle feather dance on the Isthmus at 9 o’clock by all Indians promises to be interesting, as also the game of peon at 9:45 o’clock, a much less deadly game than pelota, and in which the immobility of a “poker face” seems to be necessary in order to prevent an adversary from knowing what one has in his hand. The game, it is said, must be seen to be appreciated.

During the progress of the game, while men are playing it, the women stand or sit around and gave a weird chant.

Camp will be broken tomorrow morning, low mass to be said at 8 o’clock, after which the elder Indians will depart for their homes in the Pala, Rincon and Pechanga reservations.

The younger Indians will remain until the afternoon to pay a game of baseball with the team of the Y.M.I. of San Diego on the diamond at the marine barracks in the Exposition grounds.

August 28, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 9:2-4. Back county day draws 5,000; oratory rings at Collier Park dedication in Ramona.

August 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:1. Ritualistic pomp to characterize Catholic day; Bishop Conaty expected.

August 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:2-3. Awards for exhibits made at Southern California Counties building; grand prizes, gold, silver, bronze medals given out by Exposition; prizes for olives and olive oil, wines, beer and malt, pottery, minerals, canned goods, gems, dates, fruits, cotton, nuts, applied arts.

August 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:1. Park heads won by San Diego and Exposition; Herman W. Merkel, superintendent of Central Park, New York City, said San Diego’s beauty and that of Exposition surpassed anything he had seen elsewhere in California.

August 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:1. Earl Meeker, baritone, to sing at Exposition today.

August 29, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 2:2. Madame Alys Larreyne, Parisian prima donna and favorite of late King Edward, to make her America debut at Panama-California Exposition open-air organ on evening of September 1.

August 29, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 3:1. Utah won five medals at Fair; gold medals for agricultural exhibits: beet sugar exhibit, apple exhibit, bas-relief map made by State agricultural college, and experimental agricultural exhibit.

August 29, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 8:1. Ohio beauties to invade Fair September 10.

August 29, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 8:2-3. Prize-winning art works at Exposition show skill of Southern Californians; among winners are Maurice Brawn and Charles A. Fries.

Visitors to the Panama-California Exposition frequently express surprise when they stroll into the Southern California Counties building and find on the second floor a fine arts gallery, sixty-five feet by fifty feet in size, with a wall space of 1,700 square feet, an indirect lighting system of excellent quality, and a collection of paintings and other works of art which a consensus of opinion has declared to be 90 percent good.

August 29, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 8:4. Today’s concert at 2:30 p.m. in the Plaza de Panama by the Thirteenth band, Coast Artillery Corps, V. F. Safranek, conductor, contains Safranek’s suite on the subject of “Atlantic, the Lost Continent.” This number had remarkable success throughout the country last year.

August 30, 1915, San Diego Sun, 9:1. Labor Day plans are completed.

August 30, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:1. Labor Day throngs expected.

August 30, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:4. John Barrett to speak on Pan-American day.

August 30, 1915, San Diego Union, 12:1. Madame Alys Larreyne to charm Fair patrons; seats on sale at the Thearle music store on Broadway.

August 31, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:1-2. Labor Day program is sure to draw crowds; three-day celebration.

Saturday: music program, camp fire of Modern Woodmen of America and electriquette parade in evening.

Sunday: all exhibit buildings open (the 3rd Sunday on which this has been true); Tiny Broadwick to attempt double parachute drop from an aeroplane beginning at 3,000 feet.

Monday (Labor Day): grand parade to grounds; Tiny Broadwick to do her double drop and Hampton (Negro) Quarter to make their initial appearance.

August 31, 1915, San Diego Sun, 9:1. Director John Barrett to speak at Exposition tomorrow afternoon; And Alys Larreyne, Parisian prima donna, will sing at organ.

August 31, 1931, San Diego Sun, 9:4. Panama Exposition will reunite friends.

Panama City, August 31. With the opening date little more than two months distant, the national exposition of Panama is certain to be ready. The exposition does not celebrate the opening of the Panama canal, notwithstanding the fact that the presence of this new highway is counted on to treble the number of visitors that otherwise could have been expected. The most recent event that it celebrates is the resumption of separate government by Panama and the opening date, November 3, was chosen because it is the twelfth anniversary of that event. The official designation of the big undertaking is “The National Exposition of Panama Commemorative of the Discovery of the South Seas.”

The single person most honored will be Balboa, dead these four hundred years.

A plot of ground, 70 acres in extent, in the north part of the city is occupied by the exposition, laying along a slope that overlooks the Pacific. There are to be about eight exhibition buildings, a stadium, a plaza, a grand parkway, and a concourse and patio at the waterside. Most of the buildings are finished. These include the places of agriculture, of fine arts, of government, of commerce and industry, and of administration. The management of the exposition has been occupying the administration building for some time.

Several Prominent Buildings

Early last spring Cuba completed its building. It is a permanent structure.

With an $80,000 building and exhibit, Spain will have an important part. The building will also be permanent. The erection of this building is one of the most significant features of the fair. For many years after Panama’s declaration of independence from Spain, ill feeling existed between the mother country and the new republic, due partly to misunderstanding and partly to the fact that Spain cherished hope of recovering its old possession. The fact now that Spain was the only European country invited to participate in the fair, and that she accepted the invitation, shows how completely this feeling has changed on both sides.

Another permanent building will be that of Venezuela, near those of Cuba and Spain.

The United States government has set aside $25,000 for representation at the fair, but just how that is to be spent has not been announced.

August 31, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:4. Battalion chief J. E. Young of Portland, Oregon says boom to follow Fair; Portland’s experience shows San Diego will benefit from Exposition.

August 31, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:1. Reverend A. C. Hagerman, pastor, First Baptist Church, Winona, Minnesota, praises San Diego Exposition.

August 31, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:4. Film staged at Exposition exhibited by Company; show at New Mexico building yesterday; title “As the Twig Is Bent”; cavalry charge features picture representing Manila scene.

August 31, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:5. Former Governor John W. Slaton of Georgia to arrive next week.

August 31, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 9:3. U.S. Senator Joel Stone from Missouri due at Fair tomorrow.

September, 1915, The California Garden, Vol. 7, No. 3. Monthly Excursion Through Exposition Grounds, by G. R. Gorton.

September might well be called a month of maturity. Comparatively speaking, there are not many plants coming into flower, but, instead, the flowers of many are maturing into fruit, sometimes in the form of bright, showy berries, sometimes in more somber tints.

The Pittosporums generally are in various stages of coming into berry. Pittosporum rhombiflolium (one good group is in front of the Administration Building) is particularly showy with its bright orange-colored berries and its clean, glossy foliage. It might be well to mention two other of the plants in the same group in front of this building, viz. the Leptospermum lanigerum (with foliage somewhat suggested the small-leaved type of Myrtus communis, mentioned later on) planted on either side of the steps. There is nothing especially conspicuous about this shrub except its location, but it is a good shrub, and should be more generally planted. The other plant is the Mesembryanthemum geminiatum used as an edging for the planting ofCecil Brunners, and it is at this writing bearing its masses of diminutive white flowers.

In the “Gardens of Montezuma” nearby (between the Fine Arts and Indian Arts Buildings), where Spanish colors abound, the curious Capsicum lampion has hung out its lanterns of green, yellow and red. This interesting plant grows and trims its own Christmas tree, albeit somewhat previous in the procedure, and the lanterns are hot, as good lanterns should be. The fruits referred to are true peppers, lantern-shaped, as the name lampionsignifies, and as the ripening process continues, are to be seen in the three colors mentioned.

The well-known Jerusalem Cherry is trying its best to resemble a working model of a cherry tree two feet in height and has been quite successful, so far.

The tall African marigolds are present in two varieties, Orange Prince and Lemon Queen, their pompon-like flowers borne on long, strong stems, make them thoroughly deserving of the royal titles they bear. The most modest French marigolds dwarf in type, with tiny single flowers are very attractive in a quiet way. This variety is Legion of Honor.

Amarantus Caudatus is both interesting and ornamental, bearing long, drooping spikes or plumes of red, and is the old-fashioned flower known to our grandmothers as “Love-lies-bleeding.”

Passing out of the Gardens of Montezuma via the southeast exit, past the Heliotrope borders and keeping to the left, one comes to where four walks join, forming several little “points of land.” On two of these Hypericum moserianum (St. John’s Word or Goldflowers) holds forth on another a group of larger shrubs, including some rather large Golden Privet, which is not firm in the faith, but is continually backsliding to the plain green type. Just before this group is reached, on the left is a group of Muehlenbeckia platyclados, or Tape Plant, readily recognizable from the common name, as the leafless branches are flat, about an inch in width. Looking back towards the west for a moment you will observe an edging of Chaenostoma hispida, a very useful plant for this purpose, being dwarf in habit and covered with tiny white flowers.

Resuming progress along the walk leading to the Kern-Tulare Building, your attention will perhaps be attracted by a giant Chilian Rhubarb (Gunnera Chilensis), which is in the sub-tropical group which skirts the edge of Palm Canyon. The Gunnera is a very satisfactory plant for such groupings, bearing, as it does, enormous rough leaves, several feet in length, with spiny petioles. It is not, however, related in any way to the edible Rhubarb, which is to be regretted, as there is no immediate possibility of hybridizing so as to obtain an edible rhubarb with stalks five or six feet in length, as in this so-called Rhubarb. A disappointment indeed.

A short distance to the north, on the arcade east of the Indian Arts Building, is one of the finest effects from Solanum jasminoides (the Potato Vine) which have been obtained anywhere upon the grounds, and the rapidity of growth has been almost phenomenal.

Following again along the path, and winding to the west on “La Avenida de los Estados” (towards the state building, on the right there is a continuous planting of Tecoma ricasolina (Mackenii), with a liberal sprinkling of Pittosporum crassifolium, a pleasing shrub with thick leathery leaves clothed with a silvery down.

North of the esplanade, facing the Organ Pavilion, the combination of Heliotrope with Acacia verticillata is proving to be quite effective, and will be more so when the Acacia are in flower and a blue and gold combination thereby presented.

In the Conrad & Jones canna exhibit, north of the California Building, the new Canna San Diego has brought forth its prominent bloom. The plants are still recovering from the shock of their journey, and will be better later on, but a fairly accurate idea of the bloom may be obtained. The introducers describe the flower as a “Chinese orange or Persian yellow,” the buds as dark bronze, the foliage as golden bronze, and state that it will attain about the same height as the variety Mrs. A. F. Conard. Near this exhibit, across the walk on the east, a specimen of Bauhinia grandiflora is coming into flower. This shrub or small tree bears pure white, butterfly-like flowers which have the interesting habit of unfolding at night. This plant is found in its native state in the Andes, and is sometimes known as Mountain Ebony.

In the Botanical Building the curious Philodendron selloum is commencing to flower. This specimen is to be found on the east side of the glass house, almost to the rear of the building. The leaves of this species are quite similar to those of its close relative, the Monstera deliciosa, excepting that they are deeply cleft, without being perforated, and are somewhat larger than those of the Monstera, being two or three fee in length and about half as broad. The flowers are white, and similar in habit to the flowers of the Monstera. A group of ornamental leaved Caladiums has recently been added to the collection in the lath house. These may be found in almost every imaginable color, variously blotched and striped, but of smaller size than the plain green type.

The Asparagus Sprengeri (up high upon the sides of the lath house) is in flower, and the masses of small feathery white flowers are quite decorative, but the berries will be more so when they are borne.

Outside the Botanical Building, flanking the seats which line the lagoon, the Myrtis communis and Myrtis communis variety microphylla are also in flower. There are many and diversified planted called “Myrtle,” but this is the genuine Myrtle of song and story. The last-named is a small leaved variety of the type, and the flowers are both are white and about the size of a penny.

Muehlenbeckia complexa, variously known as the “Wire Vine, Maiden Hair Vine,” etc., the latter name being best descriptive, is not exactly showy when in bloom, as it is now, the flowers being very small, white and not every numerous, but a closer examination of the individual flower will reveal a beauty unsuspected at a distance. The flowers will be discovered to be of a delicate waxy texture, quite translucent, and with a very black center, which furnishes a striking contrast to the white of the petals. The vine itself is a very useful and graceful subject for many purposes.

Over in the Lipton Tea Garden, many of the tea plants are recovering from their temporary indisposition, although many have gone back to stay gone.

The Singalese gardener, experienced in tea growing, says he is convinced now, after three months of experimentation, that tea culture is practicable in this climate — but twenty-five or thirty miles back from the coast. Not long ago a pineapple grower informed us that, in his opinion, commercial pineapple growing was entirely within the realms of possibility. Why doesn’t some adventuresome spirit take a chance?

Rhus laurina, our native California Sumac, is in bloom all over the canyons and mesas. Right here it might not be out of place to make a plea for our native shrubs. What is the philosophy of cutting out such native shrubs as Rhus laurina, Rhus integrifolia (the “Lemonade Berry”), the various specimens of Ceanothus, etc., and plating in their stead ungrateful exotics which often do not respond to the lavish care, which if bestowed in like degree upon shrubs which are indigenous would transform them from “brush” to ornamental shrubs worthy to grace anyone’s yard.

Apropos of native plants, the exceeding rapid growth of the Monterey cypress on the west slope of Cabrillo Canyon, south of the bridge, has been a matter of much interest to those who know them to be a very scant four years of age from seed. But they have not ceased to perform wonders, inasmuch as they are apparently bearing masses of bright blue flowers. The flowers, however, are the product of some Convolvulus which was planted as a ground cover, and which promises to become a tree cover as well, but just now is very attractive by way of contrast to the mass of green foliage.

The two agaves in the urns on Cabrillo bridge, which have been gradually coming into flower, both further distinguished themselves by blowing over and out of their containers, and having to be rescued and replanted. However, having its roots exposed to the hot sun for a half day or so is a trifling matter for an Agave, and so the flowering process is uninterrupted, and the flowering shoots of twenty-five or thirty feet in height continue to attract visitors, both human and winged, as the flowers seem to be very popular with the humming birds and bees.

September, 1915, Santa Fe Magazine, Vol. 9, No. 10, 39-42. San Diego Notes

With heavy attendance and liberal spending of money the San Diego Exposition was able at the end of July to have a big balance on the profit side of the ledger. Including July, 1,264,561 people visited the exposition, and since then the crowds have been coming thicker than ever.

July’s average daily attendance was 9,709 — a much high daily average than any previous month. The total for July exceeds that recorded in January, the previous high month, by just 120,710. This excess is almost equal to the total attendance of February. The attendance by month since the opening is as follows: January, 180,270; February, 133,168; March, 153,042; April, 151,148; May, 179,818; June, 166,135; July, 300,980.

While the month was featured by several special events which drew large crowds, the attendance for the days immediately following the celebration days was heavy, thus indicating to exposition officials that there was an influx of visitors continuing. The exposition information bureau has just compiled statistics which show that visitors are remaining longer in San Diego than they did during the first months of the exposition. The average visit of early sightseers was two days, but in June and July the average visit was lengthened to four days.

. . . .

Safety First will arrive in San Diego, the first port of call, early in November.”

This is the radiogram which Captain Cosgrove flashed from London, Conn., the other day to President G. A. Davidson of the San Diego Exposition. The message announces what will probably be the most unique water trip on record.

At the wheel of Safety First, a small power schooner which displaces only eleven tons, Captain Cosgrove left the Atlantic seaboard on August 1. When the anchor of Safety First is dropped in San Diego Harbor, Captain Cosgrove will have completed the first important lap of the long trip which will circle the globe before it ends. From San Diego the daring skipper plans to visit the South Seas, Australia, the Orient, and will thence take his good ship through the Suez Canal to the east coast of the United States.

. . . .

Ploughing up the placid Pacific, the flagship Colorado of the Pacific fleet, with Admiral Thomas B. Howard, returned a sea-weary battalion of marines to San Diego and the San Diego Exposition for the rehabilitation of the marine barracks on the exposition ground recently, when the battalion’s daily drills again became a part of the special events.

This, the second battalion, Fourth Regiment, United States Marine Corps, under command of Colonel Pendleton, had been taken to Mexican waters and there held in readiness for weeks to persuade the Yaqui Indians to cease molestation of Americans if necessary. It was not necessary. The Yaqui chiefs had declared war on Germany, Ireland, the United States and about all the other countries they had heard of, but decided if the cruiserColorado was a sample of what might visit them they would call it off.

Admiral Howard since his return has transferred his flag to the big battleship San Diego.

. . . .

An enterprising employee of the San Diego Exposition who loves to delve into statistics and who has a head for “figgers” has just announced that the electriquettes at the exposition have traveled 143,086 miles since the exposition’s opening. This fellow estimates that at the close of the exposition the little sightseeing cars will have saved visitors some thing like 300,000 miles. Although the speed of these cars would prohibit their use in an elopement, they are such a novelty that their popularity continues to increase. The speed, which is limited to two and one-half miles an hour, “under favorable conditions,” urges many burlesque races between visitors.

. . . .

A blind man visited the exposition some months ago and declared he derived as much pleasure from “sightseeing” as a person whose vision had not been destroyed. Now comes the armless man. The strangest part about his visit is that he arrived in an automobile which he had driven from Schenectady, New York. He is Albert Stevens and, when he pulled his machine up in front of the California Building, to receive the congratulations of President Davidson, the speedometer read 5,100 miles. On the run across the country, Stevens was accompanied by his wife, and may side trips were made.

As a result of an accident may years ago Steven’s left arm was amputated at the should and the right one at the elbow. On his car Stevens had the gear-shifting levers and brakes arranged so that he could operate them with his feet. He steers the car with the stub of his right arm, the steering wheel having upright pegs into which the sub fits. Placing this half arm between the pegs, Stevens moves the upper part of his body so that he can steer the machine with ease.

September 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4. Mme. Alys Larreyne, French prima donna, will make her American debut tonight at Spreckels organ.

September 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:5. Doctor Ernesto Nelson, commander of education from Argentina to the San Francisco Exposition, will represent Governor General Anastati today at the Pan-American Day at the San Diego Exposition.

September 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:2. Mary Mason Benizen, dramatic soprano, to sing at Exposition organ Friday afternoon.

September 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:2. John Barrett, president of Pan-American Union, was Exposition guest for celebration of Pan-American day.

September 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:5. Buildings at Exposition to be kept open next Sunday; three-day celebration will start Saturday; rates for tots reduced.

Realizing that for many reasons many San Diegans have been unable to see the exhibits housed in the main buildings, which are closed on Sundays, the Exposition has directed that all main exhibit buildings shall be kept open from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. next Sunday. They all will be open on Labor Day. The managers of most of the state and county buildings favor open-house Sunday; so that practically every building in the Exposition will be open on this day. For Monday every building will be open.

The three-day celebration, which will begin Saturday morning and extend to late Monday night, probably will be the most expensive that the Exposition will stage this year.

Sunday and Monday afternoon . . . daily parachute drops by Tiny Broadwick; Modern Woodmen and Fraternal Brotherhood to conduct competitive drill and parade; Hampton Colored Quarter to sing twice Monday.

September 2, 1915, San Diego Herald, 1:6. Gold medal award by the Exposition.

The Salt Lake Route-Union Pacific building at the Panama-California Exposition has been awarded a gold medal for the unique features of their building and the attractive displays therein.

The structure is known as the Salt Lake Route-Union Pacific building and was erected for the purpose of serving as an international transportation center and to provide information to world travelers and comfort to Exposition visitors. The building contains a rest room for ladies and children, with maid in attendance, information bureau and telephone booths, smoking room for gentlemen and other accommodations. At either end of the main reception room large painted maps of the Salt Lake Route and Yellowstone National Park are shown on the walls with the exact topography of the country tributary. The entire front of the building is of glass transparencies, showing the natural resources of the country traversed by the Salt Lake Route and Union Pacific System.

This is said to be the first building of its kind ever erected at any Exposition for a publicity exhibit. The special rest room provided for the entertainment of visiting railroad men is one of the prominent features.

At the close of the Exposition, the building will probably be donated for use of the Exposition park officials.

September 2, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3. John Barrett delivered address at Fair on closer trade relations between United States and Latin American nations.

September 3, 1915, Minutes of Board of Park Commissioners. C. M. Winslow presented plans for interior decoration of the Aviary at Juniper street.

  1. O. Sessions requested Park Board donate surplus nursery stock to beautify the grounds around the various school buildings.

September 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:1. Alys Larreyne wins audience at Exposition; songs given in French and English; Doctor Stewart played accompaniment, by W. B. Seymour.

September 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:4. Miss Harriett Monroe of Chicago, publisher of Poetry magazine, talked on “new movement in poetry” in the library of the Women’s Press Club, California Quadrangle, yesterday afternoon.

September 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:4. Miss Mary Mason Brenizer, a dramatic soprano trained in the United States, to sing at Fair today.

September 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:3-4. Prominent San Diegans plan Latin America visit; outline of proposed trip drawn at meeting in Chamber of Commerce rooms; delegation will see 20 republics in small parties; plan of John Barrett.

September 4, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:1. Admission Day celebration plans nearing completion.

September 4, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:2. Harold Gregson, English organist, played at Spreckels organ.

September 4, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:3. One thousand Modern Woodmen of America due to arrive today.

September 4, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:4. Labor Day celebration to open tonight at Exposition; electriquette costume parade this evening; air stunt Sunday; barbecue, competitive drills, athletic events scheduled for Monday.

September 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3, 3:5-6. Thousands arrive for Labor Day frolic.

September 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2. Hawaiians win parade first prize; Hopi girls’ electriquette scores hit; 30 motor cars compete in decoration contest at Exposition.

Two Hopi girls in a chair decorated with Indian blankets, the entrant of the Indian Village of Painted Desert, were awarded second prize.

September 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:6. Governor Hiram W. Johnson today named Colonels D. C. Collier and Ed Fletcher as members of a 27 delegation to represent California at an international irrigation congress to meet in cities in California from September 13 through September 20.

September 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:1. Historical Society finds picture of Joshua Sloane, one of founders of Balboa Park; picture was exhibited at Exposition.

September 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:1. Big celebration set at Fair on Admission Day.

September 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:2-3. Exposition arranges pageant to honor Motion Picture day rulers.

September 5, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:6. Las Palomas or “The Romance of the Pigeons,” the music by Jose Amable and words by Juan Antonio Mateos, and dedicated to Mrs. G. A. Davidson, was given for her yesterday by the Spanish troubadours at the president’s office of the Panama-California Exposition.

September 5, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:6. Harold Gregson organ recital delighted music lovers yesterday.

September 6, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:6. Labor Day observed in style.

September 6, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:5-6. Regular Fair attractions draw average of 7,407 per day during August; total of 229,604; July total was 301,937.

September 7, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:1. Labor Day a grand success.

September 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3-4, 3:1-3. Labor King holds sway over Dream City; 15,000 see daring girl’s spectacular leap from sky; parade of fraternities begins stirring program for day; greased pig race; athletic events and drills by organization teams among attractions.

September 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Old Dixie songs charm audience at Exposition; Hampton Institute Quartet gives Southern selections on Isthmus; two concerts today; singers will be heard at Organ Pavilion and Plaza de Panama.

September 8, 1915, San Diego Sun, 3:1-2. Final plans are made for Admission Day pageant tomorrow; parade starting at 11 a.m. at 6th and Laurel with Colonel Pendleton commanding; one battalion U.S. Coast Artillery; one squadron U.S. Cavalry; one battalion U.S. Marine Corps; Coast Artillery Reserves; two companies National Guard of California; 3rd Division Naval Militia of California; automobile sections; exercises at Organ Pavilion at 2 p.m.

September 8, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:1. Admission Day to be observed; pageantry depicting state’s history; anniversary exercises; gymkhana on tractor field double parachute jump from aeroplane by Tiny Broadwick, and open-air ball on Plaza de Panama at night.

Gymkhana events include a potato race, sack race, umbrella race, egg race, animal race, shoe race, and other events.

September 8, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:2. Judge Henry Neil of Oak Park, Illinois, father of the mothers’ pension laws, to speak at Exposition this afternoon.

September 8, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:4. Marston store to close early Admission Day.

September 8, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:4. Catholic Day . . . A choir of 100 voices will sing Stewart’s Mass in D minor to the accompaniment of the great organ under the direction of Doctor Stewart, the official organist.

September 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Big fete aim on Admission Day.

September 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:3. George W. Goethals, Panama Canal builder, will speak at Exposition Monday.

September 9, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:4. Goethals’ Day, Monday; school children of San Diego will be admitted free; Panama-Canal Extravaganza on Isthmus will be free to school children; Major General Goethals to talk at Organ Pavilion at 5 p.m.

September 9, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:3. San Diego film patrons select Francis X. Bushman as King and Beverly Bayne as Queen of Motion Picture Day.

September 9, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:2. Native Sons and Daughters celebrate California’s birthday.

September 9, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:2. Potpourri jar exhibit placed at Exposition; rose-filled souvenirs installed at Varied Industries building; Mrs. Jessie C. Knox prepared jars from roses grown in her rose garden south of Spreckels organ and adjoining Utah building.

September 9, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:2-3. Shrinkage of Exposition gate halts entrance of floats in big Admission Day parade.

September 9, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:3. Tijuana Fair fiesta will include thrills in unique entertainment; wild horses conquering feature.

September 9, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:4. Marine band to play for gymkhana events; program usually given at Plaza switched to tractor field today.

September 9, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:4. The Howlands of San Diego have just returned to the States from Alaska and report that even in the north country there is much inquiry concerning the Exposition.

September 9, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:5. Free admission pledge to children by Fair; young America can enjoy Goethals’ Day at Exposition without cost.

September 9, 1915, 14:5. Free admission pledged to children under 15 during Goethals Day, Monday.

September 9, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:1-3. Celebration of California’s birthday will be observed by native sons and daughters at San Diego Fair today.

September 9, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:4. Attractive organ program promised for those who will pass Admission Day at the Exposition.

September 10, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:5, 3:4. Tomorrow “Movie Day”; royal parade, making of motion pictures, coronation ceremony, dinner at Cristobal, open-air ball in Plaza de Panama, and presentation of loving cups to Queen Beverly Bayne and King Francis X. Bushman.

September 10, 1915, San Diego Sun, 8:1. Between 500 and 700 post office clerks, members of the United Association of Post Office Clerks, will arrive tonight and tomorrow morning to visit the Exposition tomorrow which will be their “day” at the Fair; also Motion Picture day.

September 10, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:1-4. Admission Day celebrated at Fair; stage coach bears forty-niners in spectacular parade.

With a pageant which showed California as she was in 1850 when admitted as the eighteenth state into the Union and which showed her as she is today, the sixty-fifth anniversary of Admission Day was celebrated at the Panama-California Exposition yesterday.

Decorations of floats depicting times of many years ago were typical of that time, pepper boughs and geraniums being used, and those showing the progress of the state were equally typical. There was a quiet dignity about the parade which made it impressive to the hundreds who attended the Exposition events, both to assist in the celebration of Admission Day and to enjoy the varied program.

Three forty-niners were in the parade, men who had crossed the plains and endured the hardships of that time to live in a country which was then the home only of Indians and the gold seeker. The forty-niners are: N. E. Gilson, Silas St. Johns and Amos Weed, all of San Diego and all members of the Pioneer Society. The men rode in the old stage coach entered in the parade by the Wells-Fargo Express Company.

Typical Floats in Parade

Two floats entered by the Pioneer Society attracted much attention. One of them represented the times of 18__ and the other represented the present. In the float representing the old times were San Diego girls dressed as young women dressed long ago. The queen was Miss Martha Wadham, daughter of James E. Wadham, former mayor, and her attendants were Miss Gladys Doddridge and Miss Florence Anderson. The other float was typical of the present time and the mode of dress of the present day. Mrs. T. J. Daley was queen and her attendants were Mrs. Mary S. Skinner and Mrs. Lucy Daniels.

Another float which attracted enthusiastic attention was that which represented California. It was elaborately trimmed with golden poppies. San Diego Parlor Native Daughters had an attractive float with a number of young women riding in it. Dr. Louis Heilbron had planned the decoration and she and Mrs. John N. Flint, past president, and other officers of the organization were the occupants.

The Court of Honor had an attractive float which represented liberty, patriotism and brotherhood. One of the largest United States flags in San Diego floated over the figures and the spectacle brought forth much favorable comment on the work of the Court of Honor.

Thirty-Eight States Represented

Headed by a squadron of city police and with the United States coast artillery corps, first battalion, officers and men of the First Cavalry, officers and men of the marine barracks, coast artillery reserves, two companies of the California National Guard and a company of the state naval militia and with floats representative of organizations and local firms and with thirty-eight states represented by decorated automobiles, the line of parade was several blocks long.

Reception at Pavilion

The Federation of State Societies were represented by a float, as were Daughters of the American Revolution, Fraternal Brotherhood, Frevert Bindsoe Co., Southern Electric Co., Standard Oil Co., Benbough Furniture Co., E. Moulie (?) Perfumery Co., and many others.

In automobiles were Mayor E. M. Capps; George Burnham, vice president of the Exposition; President W. J. Mossholder of the California Society, the society which was host to all the other states in yesterday’s pageant and celebration; Congressman William Kettner and Colonel L. S. McLure.

Mrs. J. C. Needham was chairman of the meeting held in the afternoon at the Spreckels music pavilion, where an attractive program was given by members of the different state societies. A reception and musical was also given at the Southern California Counties building.

Gymkhana Program Given

The chief attraction, at least the most largely attended function of the afternoon, was the gymkhana program, which took pace on the tractor field. As an additional thrill Tiny Broadwick made her double jump from the aeroplane driven by Oscar Brindley. Miss Broadwick jumped from the aeroplane when it was at an altitude of about 2,500 feet and made a perfect landing. It was considered by many the prettiest drop she had made. The young woman landed at the north end of the tractor field, in plain view of the many who had gathered.

All sorts of funny stunts were enacted by the entrants in the gymkhana and the spectators seemed to thoroughly enjoy the novel program of athletic events. In the potato race, Private Goodnight was first and Privates Epperson and Carlton second and third, all of them representing the First Cavalry.

The First Cavalry captured all places in the sack race. Privates Sasnowsky and Fields being first and second. In the wall-scaling contest the team representing the marine barracks was first in 27.3-6 seconds, L troop’s team was second in 32 seconds and D troop was third in 45 seconds.

Horseback Egg Race

The First Cavalry men captured the egg race, it being necessary to carry an egg in a spoon 100 yards while riding on a horse at a gallop. Privates Newland, Carlton and Wilson got first, second and third places in this event. In the three-legged race, Privates Barr and Diamond, representing marine barracks, won. Two teams, Hawkins and Hawkins and Stuhl and Nazareck, both representing marine barracks, tied for second place.

The animal race afforded much amusement. Each entrant was given an animal, which, to win the race, must be drive over a given line first. A sheep, a goose, a duck and a pig were entered, with soldiers behind them to urge them. The sheep came over the line first, the goose was second and the duck third. As the animals persisted in running in a direction opposite to that in which the line had been drawn, the antics of the soldiers and the animals created considerable merriment.

Ball Ends Celebration

The celebration ended last night with an open-air ball, held at the Plaza de Panama, the music for which was furnished by the Thirteenth band of the coast artillery and the marine barracks band.

Several hundred enjoyed the dancing until a late hour. Colored lights were thrown on the dancers, making the scene one of gay beauty. The two bands alternated in furnishing dance music, so that there was almost continual dancing.

The California society members acted as hosts at the party and 28 states were represented by those present, a large number of those who had been on the grounds during the day having stayed for the dance.

September 10, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:4. Miss Lucy Helen Hayes of Chicago, soprano, will give a song recital in the blue room of the Southern California Counties building this afternoon.

September 10, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:4. Big delegation of Catholics due to take part in the observance of Catholic Day, September 19; setting apart of a special day at the Exposition for Catholics has been approved by Bishop Thomas J. Conaty of the Southern California diocese.

September 10, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Film day rulers, screen stars to arrive today; Queen Beverly Bayne and King Francis Bushman will motor from north; pictures at Fair, plan.

September 10, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:4. Chaplain Taylor, USN, arranges entertainment for marines and their friends in New Mexico building tonight; band concert, movies, talk.

September 10, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:2. Foreign airs feature organ recital today’

September 10, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:3. Admission Day gala affair at San Francisco Exposition.

September 10, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:4. Film stars here for naval drama; scenes in serial “Neal of the Navy” to be enacted at Exposition today; Balboa Company is filming patriotic serial for Pathe Freres.

In the staging of a scene of “Neal of the Navy” before the Exposition gates tomorrow, Miss Lillian Lorraine will appear leading an attacking party of United States marines on horseback. Director Harry Harvey has arranged for a lively scene. Another prominent actor here to participate is William Courtleigh, Jr., one of the best-known young juveniles of the stage.

September 11, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:1-2. Motion Picture day to be held; Francis X. Bushman to be king of celebration; Beverly Bayne is queen; parade, coronation, grand night ball, features.

September 11, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:3. Coast Artillery band to play at Fair today.

September 11, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:5. Attractive program prepared for organ; will open with sonata by Rene L. Becker.

September 11, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:2. Former Governor John M. Slaton of Georgia visited Exposition.

September 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:1. Goethals arrives; special honors shunned; canal builder plans own entertainment at Fair today, tomorrow; talk to tots pledged at 3 o’clock tomorrow afternoon on construction of Panama Canal at Panama Canal concession on Isthmus; will give principal address at 5 p.m. at Spreckels organ pavilion.

September 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2-5. Motion Picture Day; movie king, queen crowned at Exposition; When President G. A. Davidson, acting the part of the prime minister of the court of revelry, crowned Francis X. Bushman, king, and Beverly Bayne, queen of Movie Day, at the Panama-California Exposition yesterday afternoon as the climax on the celebration of silent drama stars, someone in the crowd called “Long live the king,” and the cry was taken up immediately by the crowd. When, after Miss Bayne had addressed the audience before the Spreckels music pavilion, someone called “Long live the queen.” The cry was also taken up, and if the well wishers of the people carry any weight, King Francis X. and Queen Beverly will live long and prosper.

Movie Day and the crowning ceremonies at the Exposition brought out some of the biggest daytime crowds of the season.

September 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:6. William Randolph Hearst, who came suddenly to San Diego yesterday afternoon, was found last night on the Isthmus at the Panama-California Exposition carrying two teddy bears, a young dog made of wool and some sawdust with shoe buttons as eyes, a lot of Chinese and Japanese novelties, and a walking stick.

September 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:1. Catholics ready for day at Fair; prizes to be awarded in athletic events put on display.

September 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:7. Exposition day set for marines, Saturday; field events and open-air ball will be features of program.

September 13, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:6. Following a temperamental try-out this morning in which President G. A. Davidson and other officials of the Exposition will sit en banc the Spanish troubadours will resume their popular twanging of guitars, clacking of castanets and singing of airs of old Castile (not meaning soap) in various portions of the Exposition grounds but there probably will be some erstwhile familiar faces missing from the group.

The process of elimination is expected to add to rather than to detract from the finished productions of the Spanish performers, the Exposition authorities state because the reorganized body will work in better spirit of camaraderie, or something like that.

September 13, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:2-4. General Goethals pays two bits to pass turnstiles of Fair Panama Canal made possible.

September 13, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:1. Goethals to tell story of canal at Exposition.

September 13, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2. Judge Elbert Henry Gray, steel corporation head, to visit Exposition.

September 13, 1915, San Diego Union, 12:1. Big day for Taft planned

Roosevelt Day, July 27, attendance was 18,870

Bryan Day (also Utah Day), July 17, attendance was 18,264

September 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4-5, 2:2-3. Goethals told story of Panama Canal at Exposition to 6,000 pupils.

September 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3-6. Winslow in charge of Pacific fleet; tribute paid Howard by officers and men; San Diego to be flagship tomorrow.

September 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:7-8. Army on war footing at border following attack by Mexicans.

September 15, 1915, San Diego Sun, 12:4. Former President Taft comes for visit tomorrow; to speak at Exposition at 5 p.m.; banquet planned at 7:30 p.m.

September 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:1. Taft party due in San Diego tomorrow.

September 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2-3. Congressman Nicholas Longworth and wife (daughter of Theodore Roosevelt) visited Exposition.

September 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:8. Harold Gregson, English organist, pleases at Fair; fourth and final concert produces work far above mediocrity, by W. B. Seymour.

September 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:1. Greeters planning big day at Fair Saturday; bellboy uniform for manager J. H. Holmes of U. S. Grant Hotel; pageant on program; marine and friends to make merry before Spreckels Organ Pavilion.

September 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:2-4. Two gifted dancers join troubadours; butterfly girl, fawn-like youth at Fair; performers come to Exposition direct from Orpheum circuit tours.

September 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:4. Harold Bell Wright, author of “The Wining of Barbara Worth,” to be honored at Exposition today.

September 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:5. Catholics ready for Sunday fete at Exposition.

September 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:1. High tribute paid San Diego Fair by writer; Collier’s Weekly designates Sun City achievement as “Exposition Beautiful”; article by Emily Post; discord notes are lacking; “weather deliciously cool,” says visitor; praises school buildings..

September 16, 1915, San Diego Sun, 5:1. Exposition hostesses entertain many; hospitality at Southern California Counties building makes a favorable impression; hostesses represent the seven counties of Southern California.

September 16, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:2. Roll of Honor plaques show list of visitors at local Exposition; plan to secure signatures of visitors and engrave them upon bronze plaques which will be placed on walls of California and Fine Arts buildings.

September 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4-5, 3:3. San Diego awaiting Taft; reception planned; subject of address is secret; “We are nearer Mexican intervention than ever before because of policy which neither watches nor waits,” says former president in Angel City.

A committee consisting of Lyman J. Gage, U. S. Grant, Jr., M. L. Perrin, Dr. D. Goehenauer, L. J. Wilde, E. Milton Barber, appointed by Eugene Daney, chairman of the reception committee for former President W. H. Taft will meet the Taft party at Oceanside today and escort it to San Diego.

The train, which will bear former President Taft and party to San Diego, will arrive today at 12:50 p.m. It will be met by a committee of 102, appointed some days ago by Eugene Daney, troops of the First Cavalry, officers and men from marine barracks, and officers and men from the coast artillery. The former president will be escorted immediately to the Panama-California Exposition.

After the arrival at the Exposition, former president Taft, with officers of the Exposition, will review the remainder of the parade from the steps of the Sacramento building. An informal luncheon will be given at the Cristobal Café at 1:30 p.m.

Shortly after luncheon the former president will go to the New Mexico building, where several exercises have been prepared. As will be remembered, Mr. Taft, while president, signed the bill which made New Mexico a state. It was thought fitting and appropriate that special exercises be planned for him at the New Mexico building.

At 5 p.m. the distinguished visitor will deliver an address at the Spreckels music pavilion at the Plaza de los Estados. The subject has not been made public, the former president having been given his choice.

Tonight at 7:30 a public banquet will be given at the Cristobal Café under the auspices of the San Diego Bar Association. Tickets may be procured from any member of the reception or banquet committee. Women are especially urged to be present. Former President Taft, it is thought, will deliver an address at the luncheon.

In a telegram to Eugene Daney received yesterday, Taft verified the program which had been prepared for him by the local committee. He asked, however, that nothing be planned for Friday as he desired to rest on that day. A trip to Point Loma and a luncheon and golf game at the Point Loma Country Club had been planned. While here the former president will make his headquarters at the Hotel del Coronado.

Taft will leave San Diego at 3 p.m. Friday for San Francisco and will leave that city Sunday for the East coast, going via the Panama Canal.

“I fear we must act in Mexico,” Taft says to Angel City scribes.

Los Angeles, September 15. Declaring that the United States is nearer intervention in Mexico than need be and that the national administration’s policy of “watchful waiting” was one that neither “watched nor waited,” former President William Howard Taft arrived in Los Angeles today, his fifty-eighth birthday. A large crowd filled the corridors of the railroad station and greeted Judge Taft with cheers and hand-clapping as he stepped from the train and faced a battery of cameras, motion picture machines, newspaper men, the Chamber of Commerce reception committee, and many prominent Republicans.

The first person greeted by the former president was his sister, Mrs. W. A. Edwards, with whom he will celebrate his birthday anniversary.

Shortly after his arrival Judge Taft gave an audience to newspaper men at the Alexandria Hotel.

“We are nearer to intervention in Mexico than we need have ever been before by reason of the policy of ‘watchful waiting.’ We have neither watched nor waited,” he said. “I am not anxious that the United States go to war with Mexico, however,” continued Judge Taft, “as I know what it entrails. But I am afraid we will have to act.”

Asked regarding his views on the German situation, Judge Taft declared the situation has so far failed to shape itself sufficiently to allow him to express an intelligent view, but expressed his approval of the stand President Wilson has taken up to the present.

“We are all behind the President in his desire to keep the United States from becoming involved in the European war,” he declared.

Judge Taft declined to give his views on national defense, saying he expected to discuss the subject at length in his speech to the students of the University of Southern California later in the day.

While he did not say so in so many words, Judge Taft made it plain he is not a candidate for the Republican nomination for president next year.

“I am out of politics,” he said, “but having been in politics, I naturally take considerable interest in what is going on and reserve the right to express my views from time to time.”

Judge Taft laughingly declined to discuss Theodore Roosevelt, but, in reference to him, said:

“If he comes back, it will be as a Republican.

“The Progressives in the East still have a few field marshals, generals and colonels, but so far I have not made a census of the rank and file. I think a Republican will be elected president in 1916.”

Asked if he had read comments of Governor Johnson of California regarding the view he had expressed on the non-partisan act in California, Judge Taft laughed heartily and declined to debate the subject, but recalled his formally expressed opinion that non-partisanship is dangerous to the welfare of the state. Regarding woman suffrage, the judge referred to his article in a current magazine, declaring it fully expressed his views on women’s appeal to congress for recognition.

In the privacy of his rooms, Judge Taft conferred with National Committeeman Stanton.

September 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Taft Day at the Exposition.

It has been San Diego’s privilege this year to have as guests a goodly number of the most distinguished men of the nation. There is no better proof of the success of the Panama-California Exposition than the fact that among those who have come here to see and praise it are citizens who in their several walks of life are deemed the most illustrious of modern times. And the great crowds that have gathered to greet and hear these notable visitors fully attest the warmth of the welcome extended to them.

This city will be honored today by the presence of another of the nation’s greatest men — former President William Howard Taft — and it is not to be doubted that the greeting that will be given him will be as enthusiastic as that extended other Exposition visitors who deservedly stand high in popular admiration and esteem. The Exposition knows no politics and should know none, and men and women of all parties will gladly join in welcoming Mr. Taft because he is recognized as a man of transcendent ability, high ideals, and thoroughly lovable disposition. It is not exaggeration to say that no other man after losing a presidential election every grew so rapidly in popular esteem as has the Republican candidate of 1912. The truth is that since that time the American people have been coming to understand Mr. Taft, and the better they learn what manner of man he really is, the greater is their admiration of him.

During his present tour of the Pacific coast, Mr. Taft has everywhere been received with an enthusiasm that has been equaled only by that displayed toward former President Roosevelt and William J. Bryan. Wherever Mr. Taft has spoken great crowds have assembled to listen to him, and they have been rewarded for doing so by hearing strong speeches that had the true American ring. Nor has the distinguished visitor shaped his addresses merely to capture fickle popular favor. Avoiding personalities, as was always his habit, he has spoken his mind with the utmost freedom on topics of the day. The American people admire frankness and moral courage, and Mr. Taft’s display of those qualities had made friends for him wherever he has gone.

“Taft Day” at the Exposition should be among the most notable of the year. The arrangements for officially welcoming the distinguished guests have been carefully made and probably leave nothing to be desire. It now remains for the people of this city to assemble in Balboa Park this afternoon and give the former president a genuine San Diego greeting.

September 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:1. San Diegans say ’49 Camp booming at Exposition in north; spinning wheels ruling passion on “Zone.”

September 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:2. Exhibitors and concessionaires will have big day at Exposition October 2.

September 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:3. “Barbara Worth” author has day; Harold Bell Wright speaks at Exposition.

September 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:3. Doctor Stewart to play at Exposition today.

September 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:4. Water colors and etchings by Robert Lee Eskridge of Chicago will hang in California Quadrangle today.

September 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:5. Eight prizes offered in Greeters’ contest; public will be allowed to enter competition.

September 17, 1915, Minutes of Board of Park Commissioners. Superintendent reported that unless some additional funds were raised he would be forced to cut out 60 men from the park force, stating that the additional expense of maintaining the Exposition grounds was responsible for going over the budget this year.

September 17, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:2. Marines to have day at Exposition; Greeters come tomorrow.

While the marines stationed at the Exposition grounds are accustomed to having Saturday as a holiday, tomorrow will be the first time they will have a celebration of their own, with the title “Marine Day.” Baseball game at 2:30 p.m.; band concert from 2:30 to 4:30 at parade grounds; military ball on Plaza before the Spreckels Organ Pavilion at night, 1,200 invitations issued.

September 17, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:3. Exposition officials today issued the batting averages of the three most prominent persons who have visited the Exposition this year.

    1. Taft 7,189
    2. Roosevelt 18,870
    3. J. Bryan 18,264

September 17, 1915, San Diego Sun, 8:1. Taft talks on many subjects; defends railroad; hits labor; army and navy should be big enough to guarantee our protection; San Diego is a fine place to live.

September 17, 1915, San Diego Sun, 9:1. Marines to have day at Exposition; Greeters come tomorrow; special events on program.

September 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3. William Howard Taft and party were guests at Exposition; national and state problems discussed in speeches.

Addressing two great audiences at the Panama-California Exposition, the first a great gathering at the Spreckels music pavilion in the afternoon and the second at the banquet of the San Diego Bar Association at the Cristobal Café last night, former President William Howard Taft discussed national and international questions, touching on preparedness for defense, the value of treaties with foreign nations, recommended a large army and a bigger, more efficient navy, rapped laws which frighten and drive capital into seclusion and finally ended by slyly poking fun at California and Californians for the freak legislation passed in the state.

Bringing with him the same wide expansive smile which has proved a blessing to free-lance cartoonists, and turning loose at periods in both speeches an infectious laugh, which pleased the imagination of his hearers, both addresses brought forth volumes of applause. In the afternoon talk he dwelt on war, the possibility of it and what should be done to prevent it.

Labor Leaders Rapped

In the evening he reviewed the progress of the United States from the Civil War period, gave his audience a picture of the sins of railroads and corporations and how their punishments has been carried too far. He rapped labor leaders, whom, he said, had become intoxicated with their own power and recommended that the American people take stock and get back to conservative legislation.

With Mrs. Taft, Miss Helen Taft, Miss Louse Taft, Mrs. W. A. Edwards, and Miss Maria C. Herron, the former president came to San Diego yesterday at noon. From the arrival of the train which brought him to the city until midnight he traveled under the direction of an entertainment committee which saw to it that every minute was filled. That he enjoyed it all was proved by the glowing words of tribute he had for San Diego and her Exposition.

A tremendous crowd assembled at the Exposition yesterday afternoon to hear the visitor. He was introduced by Lyman G. Gage, former secretary of the treasury. When he came forward on the platform, he was greeted by ringing cheers and hand-clapping, which continued several minutes. In introducing the former president, Gage said:

“Upon me has devolved the high duty and the great privilege of introducing to this audience the distinguished man whom you have just welcomed to our city. I wish I could summarize in a single phrase my sense and impart it to you, of the great privilege you as American citizens enjoy today in listening to this distinguished man. I am forbidden to indulge in words of eulogy, but that does not prevent me from stating a few bare, unadorned facts. I state them that they may serve to make you duly acquainted with the personality and character of the man to whom you are to listen.

“In the prime of life now, in the full maturity of his power, he has already served his country twenty years in positions of trust and responsibility. For six years he sat on the federal bench. There he learned the lesson of careful love of truth, which it is necessary for a statesman to possess. Afterwards he was called to the civil government of the Philippines, a situation as complex as perhaps could face any man.

“For three or four years he discharged these duties and brought to this unfortunate island the best he had to give, to the great improvement of that people. Afterwards he served with great distinction as secretary of war and his councils in that capacity to his president were found to be of great value. Appreciated for his labors and his services for the people, he was called to the highest office that any man can enjoy on this earth. (Applause) He discharged those duties without sensationalism, studying only how to administer the law to the end that he might best serve the people of the United States.

“And now in the fullness of time he has laid aside this responsibility and appears to us today simply as a fellow citizen of the United States. It is in that capacity that he speaks to us today and it is in that relationship that he wants to enjoy our respect and our confidence.

“And now, without further words, I shall perform my duty by introducing this speaker by the name which he received at the baptismal font — William Howard Taft.”

Former President Taft said:

“Ladies and Gentlemen of San Diego and those who are fortunate enough to visit San Diego, I thank my friend — if I were not afraid of being misunderstood I should say my old friend — Secretary Gage for his kindly introduction.

“It is a very great pleasure to come to San Diego — a personal one for me. I have known San Diego a good deal better and a good deal more intimately than my two visits, short as they were, would lead you to think. My father and mother and sister lived in San Diego for a number of years. My father was loyal to everything with which or with whom he had to do and he was loyal to San Diego. (Applause) He was a good correspondent and he made me to know somewhat of the sense of injustice that the people of San Diego felt sometimes and of that desire for the expansion which she deserved. In all this loyal feeling I shared deeply because my father wrote fluently and well on what San Diego deserved and want San Diego ought to be. He died here and I came to San Diego at the time of his death.

“I remember climbing over your hills, as we call them in the East — you call them mesas — and it seemed to me, with an eye unaccustomed to scenes like these that father’s enthusiasm was a bit high (laughter). I was here during the dry season and if there is anything that looks God-forsaken in a dry season, it is a mesa that has no water on it. Then I was here again in 1900 on my way to the Philippines, but had no opportunity of seeing what progress had been made.

“Now when I come here, my eye rests on the mesas and on the progress that has been made in the city of San Diego and I feel that I have a right to congratulate you on the strides you have made, on the fine city that you have here. I still share with you the feeling that you should not have been tucked away in this corner, having to be reached through some other city. I feel as if there were a country back of you that should be tapped and that you should have an independent place on the Pacific ocean, and I am glad to hear of the prospect of its being brought about through the enterprise of one of your valued citizens.

“To one who has lived all his life in the East, this country, especially in the dry season, seems most forbidding, but after we have seen what can be done with it and what difference water and work will make with it, there comes over one an overpowering sense of the power of man in dealing with the affairs of nature. Your appreciation of what human effort can do has increased in this western country, far more than it has in the East where irrigation comes from heaven and where the Lord seems to act of himself more than he does here. (Laughter)

“Your Exposition — it is difficult to find words graceful enough to characterize it. It is a gem. I have had in the career that fortune has brought to me much to do with Spanish civilization, with Spanish architecture, and with the Spanish sense of beauty in the new world, and my eye rests upon these buildings with a satisfaction and the sweet reminiscences of what I have seen brings back many pictures. You may feel great satisfaction that you have had the courage in the face of all the obstacles that have presented themselves in the creation of this beautiful city, that you had nerved yourself to go on and have vindicated yourselves before the world against what we may call ill-judged criticism.

“Now I could stop here, because perhaps that is the subject in hand, and I could only paint the lily by going on to dwell upon the scenes of your great Exposition. But Mr. Bryan and Mr. Roosevelt and I — retired statesman — do not like to lose an opportunity to talk to an audience like this. It is throwing away a good thing and as long as we have you here, why should not you hear part of the burden?

“This country is going through a crisis due to the European war. The war has brought many things home to us. It has brought up our own defects. We are pretty close to war. We pick up newspapers everyday that have an intimation that was is possible between us and some one country engaged as belligerents. Of course, we understand our newspapers (Laughter) and we have to give a certain discount for their enthusiastic desire to invite attention to their columns. But making this discount, the situation is serious enough to call to our minds our foreign relations and the situation that might be brought on should we be forced into friction and then war.

“Now I mentioned Mr. Bryan and Mr. Roosevelt, and I am referring to them again for the purpose of stating what my position is in respect to what our desires should be toward this issue and on the subject of our preparation.

“It is always easier for an orator to take one extreme or the other because an orator uses superlatives, and superlatives fit in better to eloquent periods. The man who goes betwixt and between is just an ordinary, prosaic man, and what he has to say is not calculated to arouse feeling. He is only making an effort to arouse our reason (Applause). I think the judicial, or median course, is generally the best, but it is not by any means the most popular.

“I do not agree with Mr. Bryan in his view that we should not have any preparation. It seems to me that we have here a great civilization that is far forward in the ranks of Christianity — that we are trustees for that civilization that has been handed to us and that it is our duty to take such steps as shall protect it from danger or destruction.

“Now Mr. Bryan says (if I understand him) that the way to go is not to prepare at all to defend ourselves, that if we are entirely defenseless, it is the best means of avoiding attack. Well I do not propose to laugh at that position. It is also supported by the view that it is ‘right’ and the natural thing to do. Now I do not propose to call people who have that view mollycoddles or cowards because it really does not help discussion to call names.

“Therefore, let us admit that Mr. Bryan and those who agree with him are sincere. There has been no greater instance of persons who have stood by their convictions than the Society of Friends. When I hear that they support this doctrine and then look back at the number of things they supported that we flouted a generation or so ago, I want to be sure that my judgment against their conclusions is well supported.

“But I think it is an error that a country of 95,000,000 with a civilization to protect should not adopt. It assumes the proposition that no nation will do us an injustice if we only assume that they will not do us an injustice. This is a pretty violent assumption, because nations are only aggregations of men and women and when you assume that every man will do you justice, I admire your faith but not your judgment.

“Therefore, it seems to me that we are endangering ourselves too much to assume, especially in view of what has happened to Europe recently, that no nation will attack any other nation. Therefore, we should be ready. It is not probable, but it is possible. It is just like fire insurance. We could insure against war by a reasonable defense that will cost no more in proportion to the value of that which it will protect than ordinary fire insurance will cost in proportion to the value of the house it protects.

“Mr. Bryan says we are a great people. We are. We admit it. He says we could raise a million men between sunrise and I do not know whether he says sunset or the next sunrise, and put them into the field. Mr. Bryan and I are good friends, but I think he has the fault of an oratorical imagination. We could not organize an army of a million men in less than twelve months, and we would be luck to do it in that time.

“Well, what should we do?

“While I was secretary of war, I studied some of the terms used by men who understand the art of war. They have two lines of defenses which are calculated to improve our defense in our two great oceans.

“Our navy is our first line of defense, and we need a navy adequate to the task of protecting this country from an invasion of three or four or five hundred thousand men. As long as we have a navy strong enough to do this, we will not be attacked. How large a navy is that? Could we have a navy as large as Great Britain’s? Well, I suppose we could, but it would take a very long time and it isn’t necessary. Why isn’t it necessary? Because we have gotten into the habit of settling our troubles with Great Britain by arbitration, and the probability of war with Great Britain is very much less than with any other nation. This is my view, and I think it is the view of the majority of the American people. Of course, I cannot speak for any of them. I confess that since 1912, I venture to express my views on what the American people think on any subject with great hesitation (Laughter).

“A very much more substantial reason why we do not need a navy as great as Great Britain’s is that Great Britain is situated very much as we are in relation to her standing army. Although her army is larger than ours, it has much more territory to cover. It would take Great Britain a long time to prepare an army of sufficient strength to invade the United States. Other nations have greater standing armies than either the United States or Great Britain and, therefore, it behooves us to have a navy equal to the next largest to that of Great Britain. That is Germany’s.

“In 1902 the United States began the program of paralleling Germany’s navy, but it has not been kept up and we are now a number of ships behind her in naval strength, as it is we are short 18,000 men and 900 officers to man the ships we now have.

“The second part of the first great line of defense are the coast fortifications. Some people think coast fortifications are for the purpose of keeping out an invading army. That is not so. The coast fortifications are for the purpose of protecting the great cities of the United States against naval attack. A navy cannot carry an army. It can convoy an army or it might slip by our navy into a harbor and take a city and hold it for ransom, were it not for the coast fortifications. We want coast fortifications that can guard our cities against an invading navy and that will allow our own navy to go out and take the offensive against the invader.

“We have the best equipped coast fortifications in the world, but we are short 10,000 men to man the guns. Did you ever hear of anything so silly? Is there anything so silly as not to have the men to man these guns, the best guns in the world, when all we need to do is train them?

“Some say we need more 16-inch guns on our vessels. Well, perhaps we do; a few more wouldn’t hurt anything. The greatest fleet the world has ever seen was the fleet that gathered to capture the Dardanelles. The fleet had plenty of big guns and had some of the finest fighting craft that float. Did they take the Dardanelles? No, they did not. They tried for a number of weeks and lost a number of good vessels, and then went back and got a lot of soldiers and landed them because there was nothing to resist the landing. And the Dardanelles forts are not to be compared with ours?”

Taft then explained why coast fortifications are able to resist naval attack because of the greater accuracy in gun fire. He then declared that the United States needs an increase of 30 percent in its naval force, an increase of 10,000 men in the coast artillery forces, an increase in the army to 75,000 men, and a militia of 200,000 men, which, in time of attack, could be raised to half a million men.

Having done with Bryan, Mr. Taft then turned to Roosevelt.

“Mr. Roosevelt, on the other hand,” said he, “is strictly in favor of defense. I do not know whether he agrees with me as to the amount needed or not. I differ with Mr. Roosevelt in his attitude toward the advisability of making treaties. Mr. Roosevelt seems to think that every person who defends the treaties of peace in some way or other has a personal fear of war and he indulges in that kind of argument that does not make any progress in convincing the person to whom it is addressed because it ventures to impeach either his motives or his judgment.

“When this war is over, both the victor and the vanquished will be exhausted, and the people of both sides will realize the awful cost of this struggle and will welcome any machinery by which war shall be made less probable and any occurrence of this disaster shall be made less likely. I state this with care. As long as men are men and human nature is in man, we are likely to have the defects of human nature reflected in all governments. These defects include passion, recklessness, vindictiveness and self-aggrandizement.

“What I think is that we can induce the leading nations of the world to enter into a league of peace — at least we should make the effort — a league of peace that shall have four principles as follows:

“First — An international court to decide all questions arising between any members of the league which are capable of decision on principles of law and equity.

“Second — If the issues are not capable of decision on principles of law and equity, then they shall be submitted to a commission of reconciliation which shall hear them and shall delay action upon the issues and shall recommend as to terms of settlement.

“Third — An agreement by all members of the league that if any member shall attack another member without having submitted the question involved to arbitration — then the members of the league will defend the member unjustly attacked against the member guilty of the breech by attacking that member prematurely and unjustly.

“Fourth — The establishment of an international congress, which shall enact the laws which shall be administered by the international court.

“Of course, treaties have been broken and probably will be broken just as the promissory notes and contracts of our commercial world are broken. But it is no argument that because some promissory notes and contracts are broken, they should be abolished.

“Treaties are broken, but more treaties are kept. Look at the present war. Why is France in it? She had no interest in the Serbian controversy. She is in the war because she made a treaty with Russia whereby she was pledged to stand by that country in case it was attacked. France was the first country attacked and she has risked her entire integrity in order to perform the obligation of that treaty. England had no interest in the Serbian imbroglio. She went into war because under her treaty obligations she was called upon to do so if the neutrality of Belgium was violated.”

Taft declared that treaties are valuable in that they delay hasty action and said that time is the essence of a treaty. He referred to the Lusitania incident and added a few words of praise for President Wilson in his efforts to keep peace with Germany and to bring the European war to an end.

Bar Association Guest

Adam Thompson, president of the Bar Association of San Diego, introduced Toastmaster Eugene Daney at the banquet of the association last night at the Cristobal Café, which was given in honor of Taft. Daney, who is president of the California Bar Association, in turn introduced the former president.

“I feel at home here among you lawyers,” said Taft. “It is as though we were cast from the same mold. I have no regret over political experiences, but it is always good to get back home among those whom we know, those who have the same ideals, those of us who understand one another.”

The former president referred humorously to his experiences as a teacher of law, and cautioned members of the San Diego association against attempting to teach it. “One never realizes how little law one knows until he tries to teach it,” he said.

“I intend to talk tonight on what might be termed the end of an era.” He then traced the history and development of the United States since the time of the Civil War, telling of invention and progress which has brought workingmen of today comforts such as were not enjoyed by kings and queens of other periods. He traced the progress of business in the United States., told how businessmen found they could furnish certain products more cheaply if they controlled their product, and how corporations had been formed and how they had grown into trusts, and finally of how they abused their privileges, and, in turn, how the people, once aroused, saw to it that they received punishment.

“But it is a hard matter,” he said, “to arouse the people of any nation to a point of concentrated action and then stop them at exactly the point they should stop. As a result, they have carried their punishment too far, and I refer particularly to the railroads.

“The railroads have been guilty of many crimes, but railroads are necessities, and we must begin to treat them more fairly. Railroads develop new territory, and there are no new railroads being built. We are now in the aftermath of reform, and we the people are feeling the reaction from excess and unfair legislation. Capitalists must be assured a reasonable return on their money. We must return to a spirit of fairness with them.

“We need the investment of capital, and we are beginning to realize that capital is in a fair position to invest or not, just as it chooses. The railroads should be paid a fair amount for carrying of the parcel post system. Railroads purchase every year about one-fourth of the supplies of the country. If they don’t have sufficient revenue they cannot buy supplies. That weakens business all along the line.

“We must be fair also with labor, but we cannot allow labor to take unfair advantages. It has come to that point, and we must call a halt. We must become conservative in our dealings with these questions. Surely, there is a happy medium on which we can meet and settle all questions in a manner satisfying to all.

“You in California are overburdened with reform. You haven’t stopped to take stock yet, but you will. It is impossible to take away the fundamental principles of government without destroying that liberty and justice which we have a right to expect from a popular government, made by the people and for the protection of the people.”

Taft was met at the Santa Fe station yesterday by an entertainment committee of which Eugene Daney was the chairman. He was at once escorted to the Exposition by members of the committee, the First Cavalry, officers and men from Fort Rosecrans, offices and men of the marine barracks, and sailors from the cruiser San Diego. Taft reviewed the troops from the steps of the Sacramento building as they passed before him at the Plaza de Panama.

Taft was next taken to the Cristobal Café where he was guest of honor at a luncheon. He was then taken to the Plaza de Panama where he reviewed the marines. The Seven Southern California Counties building was the next visited and the former president and his party were the honored guests at a pretty reception.

Later they attended the organ recital by Doctor Humphrey J. Stewart, then attended the reception given by the headquarters of the women’s board at the California building. Before going to the Spreckels music pavilion, where he gave the afternoon address, Taft was taken to the New Mexico building, where entertainment had been prepared for him. It was Taft who signed the bill which made New Mexico a state.

The party will be at the Hotel del Coronado today until 2 p.m. when the members will leave for San Francisco, where they will sail next Sunday for Panama.

September 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:1. Exposition ready to welcome Greeters; high old time at Fair planned by hotel men; many prizes offered; dancing in Isthmus pavilion next Saturday night.

September 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:5. “Roll of Honor” for Fair patrons; bronze plaques on permanent Exposition buildings to bear visitors’ names.

September 18, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:8. Catholic Day at Exposition postponed to October 24 because of death of Bishop Conaty.

September 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:3-4. Senorita Luisita Sagarao of Cuba sings “La Paloma” with Spanish troubadours; visitor’s appearance was unexpected.

September 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:1. Marines to hold celebration at Fair today; outdoor ball on Plaza de los Estados planned for tonight; artillery band engaged; ball game between two corps teams will be afternoon feature.

September 18, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:1. The hotel men of Southern California are going out to the Exposition grounds for the annual frolic of the Greeters, the social organization of the hotelmen; banquet at Alhambra at 6:30 p.m.; masquerade parade upon the Isthmus; Tuesday, September 21, is American Bankers’ Association Day; bankers from all over country arriving.

September 19, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:4. Marines, Greeters make merry at Exposition; brilliant outdoor baseball game by men from barracks; two bands play.

September 20, 1915, San Diego Sun, 5:5. Firemen of San Diego will show visitors what they know about fire fighting on Saturday, October 9, Fireman’s Day.

September 21, 1915, San Diego Sun, 3:4. Four hundred and forty visiting bankers frolic at Exposition.

September 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2. Four hundred and forty bankers will be guests of Dream City today; detachment of First Cavalry riders to perform for visitors this afternoon, the first drill the cavalry has given in several months.

September 22, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:1. Saturday will be Sigmund Lubin Day at Exposition in honor of moving picture producer; he has established one of his companies at Coronado.

September 22, 1915, San Diego Sun, 3:4. Colorado Day announced for Tuesday, September 28; program will be given in New Mexico building.

September 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3. Mrs. William Cummings Storey of Washington, D.C., head of Daughters of American Revolution, was entertained at Exposition; 200 women pay respects at formal reception at 4 p.m. in Seven Southern California Counties building.

September 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:1. Gaiety will rule Sigmund Lubin Day fete, Saturday evening; serpentine battle and vaudeville program planned; banquet at Cristobal; Taft expected to speak.

September 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:1. Bankers say huge crowds due in California; First Cavalry entertains financiers at Fair.

September 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:5. San Diego Museum Association launches plan to preserve exhibits; articles filed.

September 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: A Slam at the Exposition . . . regarding statement in The Organizer, a booklet prepared for the Chicago agency of Mutual Life Insurance of New York: “San Diego is a fine place to go, but if you are in a hurry to get back, don’t take the time to go there. The Exposition at that place is hardly worth the trip. The buildings are very magnificent, but exhibits are few and far between.”

September 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:4-5. H. A. Bodine presented two ant eaters from South America to Park Commissioners; special houses built for them next to bear pit.

September 24, 1915, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners. Mr. G. R. Stewart, Superintendent, Purchasing Dept., granted the use of the powder magazine in Switzer Canyon to store small quantities of powder, etc. for the city.

Property owners on Upas Street between 28th and Oregon Streets granted permission to grade northerly half of Upas Street and to put in curbs and sidewalks between 28th and Oregon Streets.

September 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. D. C. Collier sought as directing chief of South American states body in New at $20,000 year salary.

September 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:2. Admiral Cameron McRae Winslow, commanding officer of the Pacific fleet, inspected Fourth Regiment, U.S. Marine Corps, at Exposition.

September 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:1. Tars of flagship San Diego plan gala dance at Exposition tomorrow night; Admiral Winslow will attend.

September 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:2. Merrymakers will wage thrilling balloon battle on Isthmus tomorrow night as Lubin Day closes.

September 25, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Lubin screen folk will celebrate at Fair today; head of motion picture corporation to be Exposition guest; open-air navy dance tonight at the Plaza de los Estados.

September 25, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:4. A number of local army and navy officers suggest military academy at Fair.

September 25, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:5-6. Gaiety reigns as tribute to Sigmund Lubin.

With one of the largest banquets ever held at the Cristobal café and the balloon and serpentine battle on the Isthmus which followed it, the celebration at the Panama-California Exposition yesterday in honor of Sigmund Lubin, head of the Lubin Motion Picture Company closed after a day of merrymaking by the big crowds in attendance.

Sigmund Lubin, who is familiarly called “Pop” from one coast to another, was at the head of the banquet table, At his right was vice president George Burnham and William Howard Taft and at his left Captain Wilbert Melville, who is in charge of the new picture plant at Coronado.

George Burnham, vice president of the Exposition, made the only address of the evening and his address was short. He welcomed Sigmund Lubin, saying that if there is one thing San Diegans delight in doing it is the welcoming of friends, and Sigmund Lubin has proved his friendship.

At the banquet scores of Lubin balloons were distributed and the banquetters amused themselves by hitting them from one side of the table to another. By request of Lubin, who pleaded that he had never made a speech in his life and did not want to begin, fearing her would talk too long, customary after-dinner talks were not given. When this announcement was made it brought a sigh of satisfaction from the orators who had been worked overtime since the Exposition opened and who silently give Lubin a vote of thanks.

Although no part of the Lubin Day celebration, but an event which the Lubin Day devotees had been invited to attend, the naval ball, given at the Plaza de los Estados last night, was another feature of yesterday’s program at the Fair which was highly successful. Under the lights which made the plaza as light as day and with two bands furnishing snappy dance music, the jackles’ [sic] ball was declared as jolly an event of the kind as has been held at the Exposition.

Another event which a large number of the Lubin enthusiasts enjoyed was the address given at the Spreckels music pavilion yesterday afternoon by Mrs. Daniel Lothrop, author of “A Little Maid of Concord Town,” who spoke on “The Five Little Peppers at the San Diego Exposition.” Hundreds of children were in attendance, the address having been given especially for them.

With Vice President George Burnham and other officers of the Exposition, Sigmund Lubin was escorted to the Exposition yesterday morning and remained there nearly the entire day. Soon after his arrival, he was taken to the marine barracks, where a review of the marines had been planned. Colonel J. H. Pendleton invited Lubin and Burnham to walk with him while he made the inspection. Lubin described the drill of the men as “a beautiful motion picture,” and heartily congratulated Colonel Pendleton on their work.

After the drill Lubin was taken on a tour of inspection of the buildings and grounds with all of which he was more than pleased. “San Diego and her Fair are wonderful and I hope to make it the location of my workshop which will be second only in importance to the bigger and older branch. Eventually we may make it the most important of all. I feel strongly the inspiration for this today,” he said. “I also feel at home here and I promise to return frequently and pass much time in San Diego.”

After the banquet last night 5,000 toy balloons were given to those on the Isthmus and the balloon fight which followed proved fun for a large number. The balloons were thrown into the air and those on each side of the street attempted to hit them to the other. A good many high jumps were made and the balloons were kept bounding back and forth for more than an hour. At one time several hundred gaily colored balloons were kept high in the air for several minutes.

With the balloons were given out 10,000 rolls of serpentine and this paper, strong of all colors, thrown high into the air, added to the amusement on the Joy Street. Wires were hung with serpentine and show entrances were covered with it by the time the crowd had finished.

Sailors from the cruiser San Diego had been busy all day yesterday hanging decorations at the Plaza de los Estados. The flags of the navy were used to advantage in the scheme of decorations. Thousands of flowers had been procured and were given to the guests as souvenirs of the occasion. Several barrels of fun-making toys and devices were also given out. Hundreds tripped the light fantastic to the music of the bands on the platform of the Spreckels music pavilion and there was not an interval in the good time until the hours began to grow small.

(A list of guests at the dance, including William Howard Taft and Sigmund Lubin, follows.)

September 26, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:4. Colorado Day set for Tuesday; New Mexico building to house celebration.

September 26, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Exhibitors at Fair to celebrate; Exposition visitors will obtain variety of donations next Saturday; money gifts provided; souvenirs assured for first 10,000 persons entering grounds.

September 27, 1915, San Diego Sun, 10:1. Director General E. J. Chapin of the Exposition will start a touring car at Tijuana, Mexico, on a trip to Vancouver, British Columbia, tomorrow at 8 a.m.; trip will be made without car’s motor being stopped; Bible Day will be observed next Saturday, the last day of the Methodist-Episcopal conference, which will be held in San Diego; Concessionaires and Exhibitors Day will be celebrated next Saturday.

September 28, 1915, Los Angeles Times, II, 7:6. Museum planned on Fair grounds; San Diego syndicate formed to take over big buildings.

September 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2-3. Miss Claudia Albright, grand opera soprano, will appear in concert at Spreckels organ Thursday night.

September 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:1. Colorado Day at Fair to be observed today in New Mexico building; message from Governor Carlson to be read by President Dana of Colorado state society.

September 29, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:3-4. Miss Claudia Albright, grand opera contralto, will appear in concert at the Exposition tomorrow night.

September 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Colorado Day celebration.

September 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:1. Catholics to fill grounds next month; celebration October 24.

September 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:4. Prize list grows for visitors to Exhibitors and Concessionaires Day at Fair Saturday; $150 in gold offered parade participants; big pageant arranged; Isthmus wedding plan; modern warfare will be demonstrated; balloon ascension on program.

September 30, 1915, San Diego Sun, 10:5. Professor C. W. Holmes engaged to make gas balloon ascension at the tractor field at 5 p.m. next Saturday.

September 30, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:2-3. School children will plead with President Wilson to visit Fairs.

September 30, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The President May Come.

October, 1915, The California Garden, Vol. 7, No. 4. Monthly Excursion Through Exposition Grounds, by G. R. Gorton.

Japan is pretty well represented at the Exposition, even to a tea house and gardens, and it is these last which seemed deserving as one of the Exposition “excursions.” The Japanese pavilion and gardens surrounding are full of symbolism, as is all Japanese architecture. In the first place, the pavilion itself is an exact reproduction (and the only one in the United States) of the Katsura temple, still standing in Kioto [sic], after two thousand years of existence. The original is on nailless construction, so as to better withstand earthquake shocks — to which it is apt to be subjected, and as far as is practicable the reproduction here is carried out in this respect, but not altogether so. Borne aloft on the ridge of the structure are gilded figures of the kind of all fish — Sachi [sic]— a large shark-like fish which is guaranteed to swallow devils of all kinds, and during its spare time understudies the Fire Department, as another of its good qualities is that it is gifted with the ability of extinguishing fires, by the simple process of spouting water from its mouth. Its mouth is now closed — this was an error of the staff worker, as Sachi [sic] should have his mouth open in readiness to swallow devils. However, the Japanese manager, Mr. Watanabe, said to let it stay that way, as in this country we have no need of devil swallowers. I am not so sure, though, but that we could use such a fish to advantage.

Guarding each side of the entrance of the building are figures of the dragon and of the Chinese bird Hoho, both symbolical of long life and happiness.

Not only the design of this tea house, but the construction (which is of a permanent nature) is Japanese, as the erection was carried on by Japanese workmen with Japanese tools.

Out in the garden are carved stone lanterns of various sorts, the taller one at the right of the entrance to the bridge, forming the approach to the pavilion, is of the type ordinarily used for temple ornamentation, the lower, broader type further to the right being the sort used for ornamentation of private grounds.

The steeply arched bridge is both practical and symbolical in design — the first because it is so constructed as to better permit the flood waters to pass safely under, with less opportunity to wash it away, the latter because of the superstition which attaches to it that if one is able to cross its sloping surface without slipping, he is thereby assured of long life — so the bridge is called the Bridge of Long Life, and no temple garden is considered complete without it.

The figures of cranes posed here and there in various attitudes are used as symbols of longevity, as the bird itself is reputed to be the longest lived of all birds.

On the north side of the lagoon, and west of the central bridge, is a venerable specimen of the “Sugi” Pine, nearly 100 years old, and less than three feet in height. There are Japanese Azaleas — “Tsuji” — in many colors — pink, red, white and, of course, there are Wisterias — both white and purple. On the right of the entrance are one of the two Cycas revoluta (Sago “Palms”, so-called), familiar to the eyes of Southern Californians, but nonetheless typically Japanese.

Near the “Sugi” Pine, previously mentioned, are several specimens of dwarfed cedars — tiny spreading midgets of only a few inches in height but fifteen years or so of age. There are of a glaucus color similar to our Cedrus Deodora in this respect. There are good specimens of dwarfed weeping Junipers, of Japanese two-leaved Pines, Maki Pines, and several others, odd Bamboos, also a Japanese dwarfed golden cedar — the Hiba, this last at the southeast corner of the central bridge.

The Korai-shiba grass, which is always used to cover the artificial “mountains: which form a part of all Japanese gardens, is not the solution of the problem of pasture grass in a dry or any other kind of locality, as it costs something like three dollars per square foot. Like Lippia, it does not need to be mowed, although in the quantity in which one would probably plant it, the mowing would not be a serious consideration.

Between the walk and the east half of the tiny lagoon is a tall, sparsely branched shrub or small tree, possibly five or six feet in height, with leaves an inch or so in diameter and in shape somewhat suggesting those of the Maiden Hair Tree (Ginkgo biloba), excepting that they are indented at the tips. This is the sacred Icho, always to be found in gardens surrounding the temples of Buddha — and not supposed to be used elsewhere — so we are transgressing in having it here at our exposition. Scholars who wish to protect the books of their libraries against the ravages of the bookworm — not the human kind — press a few leaves of the Icho between the leaves of the books, and their books are never visited by this pest.

In the extreme northeastern corner of the garden is an Aralia-like shrub, with eight-lobed leaves — which bears the Japanese name of Yatsuda — meaning eight-fingered. Adjoining this is a Laurel-like shrub, called Tsubaki, which bears a mass of pink bloom, but only when it has attained great age.

West of the lagoon and flowing into it is the Izumi fountain, indicating a never failing supply of water. The Japanese manager facetiously informs one that in this case being connected with the city water system helps the unfailing part of it wonderfully. I hope so. The lantern near this fountain is the Yama or mountain lantern, generally carved from stone, this one being an exception to the general rule. If one wishes to inspect these two — at closer range, it is necessary to use stepping stones, and it is advisable to commence with the right foot or there is danger of getting the feet tangled. Try it sometime.

Here and there are familiar plants — especially close to the building, where almost no Japanese plants are used, among the more typically Japanese part of the plantings there are, for instance, Cuphea microphylla, which despite its Mexican origin, fits in with the Japanese plants as if it belonged there. So do the several species of Eleagnus which are scattered throughout the garden.

Apropos of Japanese plants, several of the Aralia papyrifera (Japanese Rice Paper Plant), are in flower in various parts of the grounds. The flower is not striking, but is interesting in its round feathery whiteness. Probably the best specimen is in the Botanical Building, just inside the main entrance to the building. We are told that the rice paper, of which this plant is the source, is used for the manufacture of paper flowers and for drawing purposes, whereas the paper which is made from the rice straw is more generally used for windows in the Japanese houses, such as are in the tea pavilion described above.

Some of the Duranta plumieri is yet in full flower, some has matured its bright yellow berries — depending upon the location, but either in flower or berry it is one of our best shrubs.

In the “Gardens of Montezuma” one of the Yucca pendula in boxes in front of the exedra is in flower, the other is in bud, and soon will display its immense clusters of creamy white flowers.

October, 1915, Santa Fe Magazine, Vol. 9. No. 11. Jottings From San Diego.

The visit of Major-General Goethals was made an event of pronounced importance, centralized in Goethals Day, observed on September 13.

Exposition directors and San Diego officials and citizens combined in an effort to pay the fullest homage to the builder of the Panama Canal, the completion of which undertaking the exposition celebrates and the opening of which faces San Diego in a coveted commercial position as the first United States port of call on the western coast.

The Panama Canal, its history and building were the topics of an address delivered by Major-General Goethals to an immense crowd gathered at the great outdoor organ on the exposition grounds.

A special talk on the canal was granted the schoolchildren of the city in the afternoon, the canal builder addressing them from the top of the Gatun lock in the mammoth reproduction of the canal on the exposition Isthmus, the Panama Canal Extravaganza. The concession admitted schoolchildren free during the afternoon.

The exposition, in its effort to make the day one of educational advantage to the school children, opened its gates to them free of charge during the day.

Motion Picture Day, with a dozen or more playing companies and serious dramas about the grounds, drew an immense crowd and kept it highly amused. Hundreds of non-participating players from studios in Los Angeles and vicinity and San Diego, managers, directors and publicity men looked on.

A feature of the day’s activity was the crowning of Francis X. Bushman and Beverly Bayne, of the Metro-Quality film, king and queen of Movie Day, President Davidson of the exposition performing the ceremony in a scene of regal setting. The king and queen entered the grounds in a motor car at the head of a long parade of machines bearing stars of filmdom. Bushman and Miss Bayne were elected by popular ballot throughout southern California.

The movies stars were tendered an elaborate banquet in the evening, and this was followed by a grand, open-air ball on the Plaza de Panama, King Francis and Queen Beverly leading the grand march in a play of varicolored searchlights.

Of a large number of more noted organists who have appeared at the great $100,000 outdoor organ at the invitation of Dr. Stewart, official organist, Harold Gregson of London is the first of the foreign artists to appear.

Mr. Gregson is now giving a series of recitals at the organ and is thoroughly pleasing large audiences. He is one of the younger men numbered among “celebrated organists” and was a pupil of Sir Walter Parratt, “Master of the King’s Musick,” and has appeared on numerous occasions before British nobility.

The historic Liberty Bell, gloriously possessed and zealously guarded by the city of Philadelphia, will reach San Diego for an exhibition on its western tour early in November. Direct charge of the bell will be in the hands of the city of San Diego, through the city officials, that trust being reposed by the city council of Philadelphia.

Exceeding expectations the August attendance at the Exposition reached a total of 229,604 according to a statement issued by the exposition management. This total represents a daily average attendance of 7,407 for the month.

Of great singers who have appeared at the San Diego Exposition, singing at the $100,000 outdoor organ, none, with the exception of Mme. Ernestine Schumann-Heink, whose home is near San Diego, have so delighted exposition audiences as three who have appeared recently.

Florencio Constantino, whom music critics recently have acclaimed the rival of Caruso an destined to supplant him, sang to an audience that packed the spacious plaza fronting the organ pavilion and received tremendous applause.

Mlle. Alyce Loraine, the Parisian soprano, declared to be the most beautiful woman in France, scored a complete success in a delightfully varied program, proving her voice even in the open-air test is in no wise secondary to her beauty and personal magnetism, and Miss Eleanor Patterson, “America’s genuine Contralto,” of whose “six-feet tall voice,” a tribute inspired by her unusual height, covering three octaves won new laurels under the same test.

Farmers of the Middle West will visit the San Diego Exposition in large numbers during the last half of October and early November, according to officials of the Santa Fe, who are arranging to bring them out in special trains. Three of the trains already are provided for, the first to leave Chicago on October 14.

The farmers from the interior will find much of great interest at the San Diego Exposition, which was designed especially to further agriculture in the Southwest and presents an eloquently silent demonstration of the possibilities in this section of the county by exhibits of growing orchards and gardens and the planting of the grounds, all of which have been brought to perfection in the short space of three years.

October 1, 1915, Minutes of Board of Park Commissioners. San Diego Horsemen’s Association requested building of a race track and county Fair grounds in Balboa Park inside Exposition grounds.

Mr. Forward opposed to allowing City Purchasing Dept. to store explosives in the Powder Magazine in Switzer Canyon.

October 1, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:4. Mr. and Mrs. Clifford A. Sheller of San Diego to be remarried on the Ferris Wheel at the Isthmus at 3:30 tomorrow afternoon.

October 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:1. Davidson plans Washington trip to urge President Wilson to visit Fair; Los Angeles, San Francisco and other cities planning petitions.

October 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:3. Wedding suite by Dubois, organ number; celebrated composition on Doctor Stewart’s Exposition program today.

October 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:4. Miss Claudia Albright, New Mexico contralto, charms an audience of 2,000 with carefully chosen program.

October 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:5. Major McKelvey, commanding the First Battalion, Fourth Regiment, U.S.M.C., to lecture on “Nicaragua Revolution” in New Mexico building tonight.

October 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:5. Coast Artillery band to give concert today.

October 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Councilmen favor U.S. military and agricultural school of Fair grounds; request of J. F. Brookes, Civil War veteran and San Diego resident for 28 years.

October 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:6. One hundred and thirty five Telephone Pioneers of America were in San Diego yesterday to see Exposition.

October 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:1. Churches to hold Bible exercises at Exposition; 10,000 expected to attend celebration tomorrow; parade planned across Laurel Street bridge led by Sunday school pupils; picnic in Pepper Grove; stereopticon exhibition depicting life of Christ on program.

October 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:5. Wedding at top of Ferris wheel planned; romance to enter in Fair exhibitors and concessionaires celebration; souvenir list grows; first ten thousand people to enter grounds will be rewarded.

October 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:1. Music teachers hear splendid program; concert in patio of Seven California Counties building pronounced a success.

October 2, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:3. Call for President Wilson to visit Fair increases; school children sign petitions.

October 2, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:5. San Diego’s stadium described in September 23rd edition of Engineering News; article written by F. A. Rhodes of San Diego, consulting engineer for project.

October 2, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Ten thousand souvenirs free to visitors at Fair today; three cash prizes of $25 each among concessionaires, exhibitors’ donations; paid tickets with souvenir gifts; at 11 a.m. W. E. Roundtree, representative of the Holt Manufacturing Co., will give a demonstration of the methods of modern warfare in relation to the transportation of heavy artillery on the marine grounds.

October 2, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:1. Bible Day celebrated at the Exposition; churchmen and Sunday school students marched into Fair.

October 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:2-5. Joshua L. Bailey, Jr. favors annual Indian fiesta for San Diego; describes dances and games at San Diego celebration.

October 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:2-3. Miss Alice C. Hoffman and Clifford A. Sheller married by Reverent E. L. Lowe on Ferris wheel yesterday afternoon; “Dance of the Nations” given at Isthmus bandstand last night by Indians from the Painted Desert, Hawaiians from the Hawaiian Village, Spanish singers and dancers, and others.

October 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:4. Bible Day at Fair celebrated by more than 4,000 persons yesterday.

October 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:6. More than 2,000 souvenir packages of raisins and almonds distributed to visitors at Kern and Tulare building yesterday.

October 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:3. Holt caterpillar tractor demonstrated.

October 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:3. Exposition buildings will close at 5:30 p.m. instead of 6 p.m. beginning tomorrow.

October 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:4. George Hamlin, American tenor, to sing at Fair October 11.

October 3, 1915, San Diego Union, Entertainment Sect., 8:1. President’s visit urged by 8,000 children; petition bearing 2,000 signatures to be turned in Monday; Mayor Capps issues proclamation.

October 4, 1915, San Diego Sun, 5:5. George Hamlin, grand opera and lieder singer, to give concert at Spreckels organ Monday night at 8 p.m.

October 4, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:2 From January 1 through September 30 a total of 1,653,962 persons saw Fair; September attendance 170,074.

October 4, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:5. Troops ready for dash to Mexico; attack on Americans by Yaquis reported.

October 4, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:1. Davidson will ask President Wilson to visit Exposition.

October 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4-6. School children to greet Liberty Bell November 12; teachers’ convention November 8 to 13.

October 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:4. Santa Clara County representatives arrange for donations of 10,000 packages of prunes at Exposition next Saturday.

October 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Success of the Exposition

There appears reason to believe that the last three months of the year will be marked by even greater success for the Exposition than the first quarter was.

October 6, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:1. When Governor Frank B. Willis of Ohio comes to the Exposition Saturday, he will be the 20th governor to have visited it since the opening; Santa Clara County Prune Day on program Saturday.

October 6, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:1. Three-day fete for Liberty Bell.

October 6, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:2-4. Big automobile show scheduled at Exposition, October 15-16; latest models to be displayed on Plaza de Panama.

October 7, 1915, San Diego Herald, 1:2-3. Exposition Notes.

October 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:2-3. Algy Barnes three-ring animal circus will arrive in San Diego November 16 or 17 to take up winter quarters at Panama-California Exposition at the old aviation field on the Isthmus; will stay until March.

October 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 15:3. Cadillac display arranged; eighths only will be shown on Plaza de Panama, October 15-16.

October 8, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:4. San Diego Day planned for November 9.

October 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4-6. Davidson to see President Wilson Monday.

October 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:4. Local fire department will show San Diegans and visitors efficiency on Exposition grounds tomorrow; ball on Isthmus at night.

October 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Perhaps a Naval Station Here.

October 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:6. Civic and commercial organizations plans San Diego Day at Fair, November 9.

October 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:2. Café in “101 Ranch” and “Streets of Cairo” ordered closed at San Francisco Exposition; gambling has been eliminated from ’49 Camp.

October 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:4. Naval station here advocated; base on Southern California coast request will be made to Congress.

October 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:1. Sailors of U. S. S. San Diego arrange boxing carnival tonight on Isthmus.

October 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:3. Council and mayor favor plan to donate 40 acres of city park to federal government for school.

October 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:4-5. Big auto show entry list continues to grow.

October 9, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:1. Governor Frank B. Willis of Ohio guest at Exposition today.

October 9, 1915, San Diego Union, 16:4. Firemen to rule Exposition today.

October 10, 1911, San Diego Union, 3:3. San Diego’s Fire Department gave exhibit at Fair; fire alarm cut short demonstration which was given at the Plaza de Panama yesterday.

October 10, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:1. Delegations representing industries and lines of business are scheduled to visit the Exposition this month. The first of these will be members of the National Association of Ice Cream Manufacturers. The next arrivals will be members of the American Electric Railway Association. A third party will comprise 45 members of the American Institute of Architects. W. S. Hebbard, local architect, making arrangements for party.

October 10, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:5. George Hamlin to sing at Spreckels music pavilion tomorrow night.

October 10, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 2:1. Twenty thousand Catholics expected at Fair October 24; celebration postponed by bishop’s death; military mass planned; great parade, picnic in Pepper Grove, athletic events on program.

October 10, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 7:3. Shut-ins to see Fair this week; Thursday will be Invalids’ Day at Exposition; auto donations sought.

October 11, 1915, San Diego Sun, 12:2. Women’s board of Exposition is busy with details of program to be given on Invalid’s Day, October 14.

October 11, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:4. A thousand Aetna Insurance men due in San Diego this morning to see Exposition.

October 12, 1915, San Diego Sun, 12:2. School board will pay a caretaker $60 a month to keep the stadium in first-class condition, and the high school students will have the use of the stadium at all times, provided that due notice of dates is given to the Park board. No charge is to be made to the students for the use of the grounds.

October 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:5. San Diego host to insurance men; more than 800 Aetna Company representatives Exposition visitors.

October 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. George Hamlin recital please hearers at Exposition.

October 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:5. Southwest eager for another year of Exposition according to newspapers.

October 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:3-4. “Speed” promised for Exposition auto show; great crowds will see cars; thirty-five thousand candle power illumination plant being installed; pigeons temporarily evicted from Plaza de Panama; more entries made.

October 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:6. High School given use of stadium at all times at meeting last night; San Diego School board to pay wages of caretaker; must give Park board notice of schedule of games; enrollment of high school and junior college is 1,722.

October 13, 1915, San Diego Sun, 14:5. Already for Invalids’ Day; marines will give a review in Plaza de Panama at 10:30 a.m.; Mme. Gabrielle Chapin-Woodworth, soprano, will sing at the organ at 11 a.m., assisted by Doctor Humphrey Stewart, organist; tomorrow will be National Association of Ice Cream Manufacturers Day; 270 ice cream makers here to see Exposition; 45 architects to visit Exposition Friday, October 15; day designated American Institute of Architects Day; Automobile Club of America Day set for December 3.

October 13, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:5. President Davidson of Exposition visited Washington, D.C., to invite President Wilson to visit Fair; Wilson sent message and regrets to San Diego; cites need to be in East to stay in touch with “the problems that might arise from the present confused and unsettled condition of the world.”

October 13, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:2. Exposition auto show entry list grows; Overland, Willys-Knight and Studebaker lines added to display.

October 13, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:4. Mme. Gabrielle Chapin-Woodworth, grand opera soprano, to donate her services and sing tomorrow at Invalids’ Day at Exposition.

October 14, 1915, San Diego Herald, 1:1-2. The Plaza contingent have interesting ideas, by S. A. Raymond.

October 14, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:6-7. Shut-ins enjoy wonders of Exposition for first time.

October 14, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:5. Mayor Capps favors keeping Exposition going in 1916.

October 14, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:3-4. Transportation Day at Exposition tomorrow; gathering of members of American Electric Railway Association; pack train drill to be given on tractor field at 2 p.m.; put on by civilian packers who are attached to squadron of the First Cavalry which is encamped near the Exposition; exhibition of speed in packing and unpacking mules; Children’s Fair to be held November 12-13 by boys and girls under 16 years.

October 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3-5. Wilson backs big Navy plan; $400,000,000 for defense urged; increase in Army advocated.

October 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:2. National Association of Ice Cream Manufacturers due at Fair today.

October 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:3-4. Pack train drill pledged on tractor field tomorrow during Transportation Day through courtesy of Major William T. Littlebrant, commanding officer of the squadron of the First Cavalry stationed at the Exposition; 200 members of American Electric Railway Association to be in San Diego.

October 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:5. Hotel men of state favor continuing Fair.

October 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:2-4. Auto show will open tomorrow.

October 15, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:1. Colonel D. C. Collier will marry next month; Miss Ruth Everson of Oakland to be bride. Colonel Collier is now in New York City where he is engaged in organizing a large company to be financed by the South-American republics for the furtherance of trade among the republics and with the United States. Collier intends to return to San Diego about the last of this month, and the marriage will probably be performed in Oakland.

After a short wedding trip, it is said Colonel Collier and his bride will go to New York to reside at least for several years.

Mrs. Collier is now in Washington, D.C. The interlocutory decree of divorce will come up in court here about November 5. It is expected that the decree will be made permanent at that time.

October 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3, 11:1. Auto show will open in garden of beauty today; exhibit set for two days.

October 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:3. Automobile show at Exposition; description of models and makers.

October 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 20:1. Shut-ins see Fair, honored guests of women; automobiles loaded with invalids tour Exposition grounds all day; marine drill seen on parade grounds; concert at Spreckels music pavilion; Indian Village attractions applauded.

October 16, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:7-8. Second West Point is planned for Exposition site; Army and Navy officials in Washington, D.C. considering idea; City Council passed a resolution prepared by City Attorney Cosgrove unanimously in favor of plan; would lease part of grounds to federal government for a long term; Admiral Manney, retired and a member of Council, asked Council for speedy action; Council will vote on resolution Monday.

October 16, 1915, San Diego Sun, 3:3. Reverend James A. O’Callahan of Our Lady of Angels Church will baptize two Indian babies the Painted Desert at the Exposition on Catholic Day, October 24, both children are boys. The older one will be christened “San Diego” and the other will be named “Theodore Roosevelt”; military mass at Spreckels organ.

October 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4., 3:5. Transportation Day in honor of telephone officials and electric Railway Association.

October 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4, 4:5. Fair wins street car men; pack train drills and other amusements provided for visitors.

October 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2-4. Description and general view of auto show.

October 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:5-7. Progressives would destroy structure of human liberty builded by rational partisans, by W. W. Bowers.

October 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:5. Robert Stead, prominent architect of Washington, D.C., arrived in San Diego last night; likes local buildings.

October 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:4. Today will be known as American Institute of Architects Day at the Exposition; luncheon at 12:30 p.m. at Cristobal Café; W. E. Hebbard, Walter F. Keller and Carleton M. Winslow arranging entertainment.

October 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2. Fifty architects visit San Diego Exposition; “all of them seemed enthusiastic over what was shown them.”

October 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:8. Army-Navy school in Balboa Park to be invited; Council will encourage establishment of training institution by government; site considered idea; resolution prepared by City Attorney Cosgrove filed with City Clerk yesterday.

October 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:1. Dealers say automobile show was a huge success; Union-Tribune enterprise at Fair drew thousands; many sales made; open-air autumn exhibit called unique; band concerts please.

October 17, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:2. Baptism of Indian babies at Exposition planned for Catholic Day feast; the Reverend James A. O’Callahan of Our Lady of Angels Church will baptize two Indian babies at the Painted Desert, one will be “Theodore Roosevelt,” the other “San Diego”; A. V. Mayrhofer making arrangements.

October 17, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:4. Henry Ford and Thomas Edison expected at Fair; Vice President George Burnham: “It will be interesting to have both Ford and Edison here at the same time, their views on war being so entirely different. Edison says the next war will be one of machines and not men and advocates preparedness, while Ford offered $10 million to save the United States against preparedness, believing preparedness breeds war.”

October 17, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:5. Miss Josephine Eschenbrenner, child labor foe, will speak at public service building at Exposition tomorrow afternoon; will discuss child labor bill that will be introduced into Congress this fall.

October 17, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 2:3. An event of unusual importance will occur at the Painted Desert a week from this afternoon when the Acoma papoose recently christened Theodore Roosevelt will be baptized by Father James A. O’Callahan, rector of the Church of Out Lady of the Angels. The Acoma infant was christened by former president Theodore Roosevelt who picked the infant up in his arms and named it Theodore. A few weeks ago Mrs. Alice Longworth, the former president’s daughter, made a special visit to the Painted Desert to call on the baby.

October 18, 1915, Minutes of Board of Park Commissioners. Board of Education agreed to pay $60 per month toward the expense of maintaining the stadium.

October 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:5. Architects visit San Diego Fair, La Jolla, Coronado and Tijuana; names given.

October 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 12:1. Kilties will play at Exposition Saturday; concerts by famous band arranged for afternoon and night; Caledonian Club making arrangements to entertain the Kilties.

October 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 12:4. Chorus prepares for Catholic Day; military mass to be sung at Fair composed by Doctor Stewart.

October 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 12:4. Foe of child labor to lecture at Fair in public service auditorium of the Science of Man building this afternoon.

October 20, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:3. Kilties due at Exposition next Saturday.

October 20, 1915, San Diego Union, 16:1. The first of the Santa Fe’s “Farmers’ Excursions” will arrive at San Diego Wednesday; 125 wealthy Kansans to visit San Diego Exposition.

October 21, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:7-8. Great 1916 Fair assured; north pledges funds.

October 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3-6, 3:1. Los Angeles will back Fair for 1916; thousands pledged to continue Exposition; Davidson returns with message of optimism.

October 21, 1915, San Diego Weekly Union, 3:1-5. Dutch Flat as Naval base is idea of Spalding.

October 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2-3. Space at San Diego Fair asked for by exhibitors at Northern Exposition.

October 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:4. Military mass to open Catholic Day; choirs of city will furnish 100 voices for chorus.

October 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:1-2. Farmers from many states to see Exposition; Fair’s model ranch makes big hit with visiting agriculturists; nearly 150 representative citizens of East arrive on Santa Fe special.

October 22, 1915. Minutes, Board of Park Commissioners, Friday.

The regular meeting of the Board of Park Commissioners was held in the office of the Board at four o’ clock P.M.

Present: – Commissioners, President Forward, Chandler and Ferris.

Absent: – None

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved.

Mr. G. A. Reed, representing the New Mexico Building Commission, appeared before the Board regarding the disposition of the New Mexico Building. He was advised that the records did not show any agreement whereby his Commission would be permitted to dispose of or remove the building at the end of the Exposition, and unless he could produce such an agreement the Board would be compelled to prohibit the removal of the building. Mr. Reed was advised to confer with President Davidson and Colonel Twitchell regarding the matter and report at a subsequent meeting. Mr. Reed was also advised that it was the earnest desire of this Board to have the State of New Mexico maintain their building during the year of 1916, and hoped it would do so and that he would remain in charge.

Mr. Melville Klauber, member of the Board of Playground Commissioners, appeared before the Board regarding the planting and maintenance of the parkings and grounds of the La Jolla Playground, asking that the Board take over that part of the work at La Jolla. The Superintendent was instructed to investigate and report the amount of work necessary and the cost of same, same to be borne by the Playground Commission.

The Superintendent reported that a new boiler would have to be installed in the Exposition nursery and that same would cost approximately $125, including necessary charges and removal of old boiler, etc. Upon motion duly made and carried he was authorized to have the new boiler installed.

Upon motion, the meeting adjourned.

October 22, 1915, Los Angeles Times, II, 4:2. The San Diego Exposition . . . The obvious thing to do is to fall in line behind the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce and the San Diego directors, and give the movement they are marshaling such an immediate and forceful and irresistible impetus that its success cannot be doubted or delayed.

October 22, 1915, San Diego Sun, 11:2. Kilties band at Spreckels organ tomorrow; Canadian band of 35 pieces; Housewives Day set for October 30.

October 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:6. Angel City astir over San Diego Fair for 1916; newspapers, civic organizations and individuals enlisting for campaign.

October 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:4-5. Davidson bubbles with optimism after trip East; met President Wilson, William Randolph Hearst; Hearst subscribed $5,000 toward $100,000 guarantee fund for continuing Exposition.

October 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:1. Fair accords November 17 for San Diego to rejoice; monster civic demonstration planned.

October 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 10:2. Will C. MacFarlane, Portland, Maine, organist, to play at Fair this afternoon.

October 23, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:5, 9:3. Impressive rites to mark Catholic Day tomorrow.

October 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:7. $25,000 pledged to Fair in Angel City; Santa Fe contributes $10,000; Automobile Club of Southern California busy.

October 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:7. Champ Clark, speaker of House of Representatives, coming to San Diego Friday; trifle more than two hours will be given to sightseeing.

October 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:5. Housewives’ Day at Fair arranged; bread and cake contest will be held October 30.

October 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Canadian Kilties Band of 35 members will play at Exposition this afternoon and tonight; reception for Scots will be held in Commerce and Industries Building; Kilties will drink first tea from Fair plantation.

October 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:3. Record-breaking crowds expected at Catholic Day.

October 23, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 9:2. Will C. MacFarlane proves ability at Spreckels organ.

October 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. Angel City fund for 1916 Fair to be ready Monday.

October 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3-5. Champ Clark, speaker of House of Representatives, and wife pass major portion of brief visit at Fair; says Mexican problem is solved..

October 24,1915, San Diego Union, 3:1. Kilties win way into hearts of Fair visitors; bare-kneed bandsmen liberal with encores, but more demanded; two concerts please.

October 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:3. Catholics to celebrate military mass at Fair; Red Letter Day planned; athletic events will feature program; baptism of two Indian babies from Painted Desert announced.

October 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:6. Housewives’ Day to be observed.

October 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:4. Alonzo E. Horton Day at Exposition; Pioneer Society to make special display; reminiscences on program.

October 25, 1915, San Diego Sun, 12:3. Catholic Day is enjoyed; Doctor Humphrey J. Stewart presided at organ and directed singing of his Mass in D Minor by more than 100 voices.

October 25, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3. Fair in 1916 favored by Angel City pastors.

October 25, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4, 3:1-4. Catholic Day at Exposition yesterday; military mass; parade from west entrance across Cabrillo bridge headed by 13th Band, Coast Artillery Corps, voluntary company from marine barracks, 2,000 laymen, 56 altar boys, 25 clergy; Doctor Stewart’s mass was sung by 100 voices; celebrant was Right Reverent Mgr. John F. McCarthy, V.F, of Fresno; Reverent Paul Dillon of Saint Cecilia’s Church, Los Angeles, preached sermon; picnic in Pepper Grove; athletic sport program.

October 25, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:1. Mayor Doctor G. A. Bading of Milwaukee praises Exposition.

October 25, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:5-6. Teddy’s namesake yells under baptism of holy water on cliff dweller’s home at Fair.

October 26, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:3. Motorists of Southern California are laying plans for the grandest motor celebration early in November. The celebration will be to express their appreciation of the completion of the 140-mile concrete boulevard between San Diego and Los Angeles, which is about completed by the state highway commission.

October 26, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:4. Los Angeles trying to raise $75,000 to assure continuance of San Diego Exposition for another year.

October 26, 1915, San Diego Sun, 12:1. Great carnival for Halloween; goblin parade Saturday will be the opening performance of a sensational free act on the Isthmus; this is Whitaker Brothers bicycle high dive from a 100 foot platform into a tank of fire.

October 26, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:2. Catholic Day; Reverend Paul Dillon preached sermon at military mass; thousands attend.

October 26, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:1. Housewives’ Day arouses interest.

October 26, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:4. Big impetus given Angel City Fair fund boosters; Davidson tells subscribers first profits will replace donations.

October 27, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:1. Exposition fund in Los Angeles passes $37,000; Pacific Mutual and Baron Long each subscribe $1,000.

October 27, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:4. Women’s Christian Temperance Union national officers at Fair.

October 27, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:1. Southern California newspapers endorse plan to keep Fair open.

October 27, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:3-4. Prizes offered for all entrants in Housewives’ baking contest at Fair; exhibits to be auctioned for charity.

October 28, 1915, San Diego Herald, 2:2. Another Exposition year.

October 28, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:4-5. Thomas Alva Edison coming tomorrow; Exposition festival arranged; marines to pass in review in front of Sacramento Valley building.

October 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:2. Automobile dealers of Los Angeles today added $800 to San Diego Exposition fund.

October 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. Thomas A. Edison party to arrive at Hotel del Coronado today.

October 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2. Secrecy cloaks attractive girl who will masquerade as witch at Exposition; Halloween joy time; captor to receive $25 in gold; goblin and costume parade.

October 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:3-4. Chamber of Commerce of Northern San Diego County endorsed Exposition in 1916; favors U.S. military academy in Balboa Park.

October 28, 1915, San Diego Weekly Union, 4:7-8. EDITORIAL: The San Diego Exposition Is Worthy to Be Perpetuated.

San Diego’s exposition is built on San Diego’s acreage; it may be perpetuated if we so desire; and it will be perpetuated if it can be maintained; there is too little genuine beauty in the world that any of it should be wantonly wasted.

October 28, 1915, San Diego Weekly Union, 4:5-6. EDITORIAL: When Imperial Comes to San Diego . . . Soon, however, San Diego and Imperial will be reunited. When the San Diego and Arizona Railroad is completed, the commercial interests of San Diego and Imperial will be identical.

October 28, 1915, San Diego Weekly Union, 7:3. Champ Clark, speak of House of Representatives, and wife pass major portion of brief visit at Fair.

October 28, 1915, San Diego Weekly Union, 7:7. Kilties win way into hearts of Fair visitors; bare-kneed bandsmen liberal with encores.

October 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:1-2. Exposition Housewives’ Day contest draws many entries.

October 29, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1;8, 11:5. City’s latchstring out for Thomas Edison and Henry Ford.

October 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:2-3. Fund for Exposition in 1916 assured by Angeleno workers.

October 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Charity at the Exposition . . . in support of Housewives’ Day sale.

October 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:1-2. Housewives’ Day; women enter baking contest; prize bakery exhibits sold for $1,136; money given to charity.

October 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:5. Thomas Edison to arrive for Exposition visit today; Henry Ford expected.

October 30, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:5-6. Mayor Capps says of Henry Ford: “You may know all about a fliver car, but what do you know about war?”

October 30, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3-4, 2:2-3. Twelve thousand pupils encircle Thomas Edison with a wall of flowers; welcome stirs great inventor’s heart; Ford voices plea for peace, by W. C. Getty.

Happiness which radiated from the kindly face of Thomas Alva Edison, the world’s greatest inventor, penetrated hearts of thousands of San Diegans and visitors at the Panama-California Exposition yesterday afternoon when 12,000 school children nearly buried him from view with an avalanche of fragrant flowers.

It was the welcome of the school children that touched him more deeply than the applause of the thousands of grown ups who had assembled to add their welcome to that of the children. Between Edison and the children there seemed to exist that sympathetic understanding which made each child believe he had been given special notice.

Standing on the platform before the Sacramento building, under a beautiful pergola of green, banked with yellow chrysanthemums, built for the occasion by the San Diego park board, Edison was nearly hidden from view of the crowd after the children had passed and each one had deposited his bouquet. Nearly 4,000 bouquets were taken from the grounds of Balboa Park by members of the park commission. These were also showered on Edison and his party.

Many Seek Vantage Points

The welcome of the children to Edison was one of the prettiest functions of the kind ever given at the Exposition. With flowers strewn about him on every side, with great bunches of them in his arms, he smiled and bowed his pleasure to his young friends.

Long before the time set for the arrival of Edison and Henry Ford, Detroit automobile manufacturer, hundreds crowded the steps of the Sacramento building, many brought their own chairs.

When the automobile bearing Edison and Ford turned into the Plaza de Panama, a thousand voices cried, “Here they come.” And thousands of other voices were raised in ringing cheers. When Edison alighted nimbly from the car, he was met by Norman Hackett Barber, Mary Elizabeth Pendleton and Marjorie Rice, a trio of happy volunteers who had been selected to greet him. They presented great bunches of flowers into his hands and he smiled his thanks. Then came the school children with a ton of flowers which were banked about him and which permeated the air with their fragrance. “I’m solid for children,” said Edison, the only remark he made.

Reception Given Inventor

No more enthusiastic multitude has ever assembled at the San Diego Exposition to welcome and to honor to anyone that that yesterday for Edison. With the possible exception of the reception given Madame Ernestine Schumann-Heink, the gathering yesterday was without precedent in San Diego celebrations of its kind.

When it was all over, when all the children had passed, when the Kodak “fiends” had been satisfied and when all else was accomplished, save that of pressing nearer for a closer view of the great inventor’s face, Edison escaped through the Sacramento building and along the beautiful garden walk behind the buildings to the California building where a tea and reception were awaiting him.

Barely had he started to make his way through the narrow aisle opened through the crowd for him by Captain Charles P. Wright of the Balboa guards when there were calls for Henry Ford. “Ford,” “Ford,” cried the crowd and the modest owner of the biggest automobile factory in the world was forced to step into the crowd, in answer to calls for a speech. Ford held up his hands and followed Edison.

Ford had been standing I the crowd some distance from Edison where he talked freely of his fight against preparedness. He was frequently interrupted by those who rushed through the crowd to shake hands with him.

Edison Shuns Interviews.

One woman, who had bent closely to hear his words against war, extended her hand and said, “God bless you for what you have said.”

Following his custom on his visit to other cities, Edison declined to talk for publication. “I always meet the newspaper boys and talk to them on the last day of my visit in that city,” he said. Asked if he enjoyed his reception in San Diego, he merely swept his arms over the vast assemblage and looked his appreciation, apparently preferring to express it in that manner rather than in words. The anxious group of newspapermen wanted to ask about national defense, his latest inventions, the declaration of Champ Clark that he (Edison) is “nutty” so far as his idea of coast defense is concerned and ever so many other things, but Edison smilingly retreated after saying, “Not today, tomorrow perhaps.”

The trip from Los Angeles over the new coast route of the Edison-Ford party was marked with incidents pleasing to both men. At all the towns along the way, the people turned out to see them and in some places, Santa Ana particularly, school children lined the road for half a mile.

Military Escort Given

When they arrived in San Diego, they were met by President G. A. Davidson, Colonel J. H. Pendleton, Vice President George Burnham and officers and directors of the Fair and taken to the U. S. Grant Hotel where officers and men of the First Cavalry were awaiting to escort them to the Laurel street entrance to the grounds. At the entrance the party was met by officers and men of the marine barracks and escorted across the Cabrillo bridge and into the Plaza de Panama, where the celebration in honor of their coming was held.

“I am about talked out,” said Ford, but he straight way plunged into his favorite hobby, that of his fight against preparedness. He contends that preparedness makes war. He points to Belgium as an example.

“I did not say that I would give $10 million to fight preparedness. I did say, however, that I would give one million dollars in aid in the fight against preparedness and I mean to fight it with all the power I can command. I mean literally that I will put all I have into a fight against it. I have been organizing for some time and the campaign will be systematically conducted. Money makes war; nations have to make money to make war. It is our business to keep money away from them.”

“War Brings Only Woe”

“Look at that crowd,” he said, sweeping his hand toward it, “war brings these people nothing but crepe, hardship, starvation and taxes. I don’t believe in rallying around the flag. I don’t believe in boundaries. I mean to help to direct the attention to other things — farming, for instance. If we exerted more physical effort, our minds would work better. I plan to help make farm life more attractive. I am going to manufacture a light, cheap, economical tractor. It will be low enough in price to make its way into the possession of every farmer. It is still in the experimental stage, but we will eventually manufacture 1,000 of them a day, perhaps more.

“How much of the United States could you protect, even though for the next few years we devoted ourselves to building a navy, erecting forts, increasing the army? A foreign foe could land almost at will on our shore line on either the Atlantic or the Pacific. We couldn’t begin to acquire equipment to protect our coasts. I would rather be with no protection at all.

Hate Declared Needless

Another thing. We must get over this idea of hating. A man who hates someone or something must take time away from his work to do it. It is a needless waste of time and effort. Simply because a man is a German or an Englishman or a Hebrew, or any other nationality, is not reason he should be hated. Class prejudice must be eliminated if we are to continue to expand as Americans. If my factory, twenty-two nationalities are represented. There is no war talk and the men mingle as true American should.

“Business! Business was never better. The factory is 100,000 orders behind and we are making the banks pay us interest on $40 million. Yes, I drive one of my own cars. All the fun in riding is in the driving.”

Ford was enthusiastic about Southern California. The drive from Los Angeles to San Diego over the new highway was greatly enjoyed by all members of the party. It was dusk when the party left the Exposition grounds and although several hours had passed there, little of the grounds was seen by the visitors. The duration of the public reception on the Plaza de Panama and the reception which followed it at the California building had taken more time than had been anticipated.

Visitors To Leave Sunday

As the Edison-Ford party asked that no banquets or luncheons be planned for them and that no functions, save that of yesterday afternoon, be given, today will be passed in resting and sightseeing.

Immediately after tea early last evening, the visitors went to Hotel del Coronado where they will stay until tomorrow evening when they plan to start for the East.

Edison is in his 68th year and yesterday’s activities were almost too much for him. He left Los Angeles early in the morning and many stops were made at points along the route. This, with the reception of yesterday afternoon, tired him and he wished to have today to rest and pass as he wished. Some time today the party members will go on a jaunt over the Exposition grounds and will motor to Point Loma and other points of interest.

Those in the party are Mr. and Mrs. Thomas A. Edison, Henry Ford and son, E. D. Ford, Mrs. and Mrs. D. W. Flint, Miss Grace Miller, D. Wilcox, H. S. Firestone, A. C. Miller, F. D. Fagan.

October 30, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:5-6. Fund for 1916 Fair leaps to $65,281 in Los Angeles.

October 30, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:3-4. Housewives to test skill in great baking contest at Fair for charity today.

October 31 1915, San Diego Union, 3:5-6. Prizes for Housewives; their work aids charity.

October 31, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:4.

Kilties play at Fair today; organ pavilion seats will be free for patrons of performance.

October 31, 1915, San Diego Union, Women’s Section, 5:4. Anthropological Museum plan for San Diego; exhibits prepared under the direction of Doctor Ales Hrdlicka, curator of physical anthropology of the U.S. National Museum, fill five large connecting rooms in the Science of Man building at the Exposition; result of field work and exploration Smithsonian Institution shown; Natural history, human evolution outlined at Exposition.

November, 1915, The California Garden, Vol. 7, No. 5. Monthly Excursion Through Exposition Grounds by G. R. Gorton

It is probably safe to say that more than half of the visitors to the Exposition fail to see and, therefore, to enjoy what is considered b the other half to be one of the most delightful spots on the grounds. This portion of the Exposition, yclept the Pepper Grove, consists of possibly ten or twelve acres of charm.

Two giant urns bearing aloft as many rather tired looking Bougainvillea guard the entrance to the walk which, after wandering along the edge of Spanish Canyon for a few hundred yards, eventually passes under a tiny pergola west of the Exposition hospital and enters a Veronica-bordered path into the Pepper Grove. (The smaller-leaved Veronica forming the border proper is the variety Purple Queen: the large leaved one, scattered here and there along the walk and bearing the almost red flowers is Veronica speciosa var. Imperialis. The botany of these is a little mixed, but the above classification is quite generally accepted.

Turning to the right soon after entering the grove, the border changes to Mesembryanthemum floribundum, the small-leaved, magenta-flowered species which is so satisfactory under terraces and banks generally, besides its usefulness as an edging plant. Under the trees on the left the Mediterranean heath (Erica Mediterranea) furnishes a dense undergrowth, in some cases four or five feet in height. A few steps further brings one to a pergola or outlook which commands a magnificent view back towards the Exposition buildings and of the city and bay to the southwest.Campsidium valdivanum and Tecoma Queen of Sheba adorn this structure.

Everywhere through the grove one encounters the Brazilian Pepper (Dchinus terebinthifolius), bearing coarser and heavier leaves, but very attractive in foliage and habit. It is also a little later, apparently in coming into berry, as it is just now beginning to bring forth its clusters of decorative fruits. Various shrubs and vines have been used as a ground cover underneath the trees, mainly by way of naturalizing. English ivy is used extensively, and has been permitted to clothe the bare trunks of the eucalyptus trees in the south end of the grove. Someday, if we are not careful, their clothes will be the undoing of the Eucalyptus (as is sometimes the case with people) as in time the Ivy will probably kill the trees if permitted to obtain too much of a hold thereon. The Wire Vine or Maiden Hair Vine — both names are descriptive — and Vinca major, a more robust type of the old-fashioned Periwinkle — often bearing the much misused name of Myrtle, which it is not, serve equally well for the desired purpose. There is a hillside at the western extremity of the grove which is covered with Pink Cherokees, a very realistic piece of naturalizing, suggesting the wild roses which some of us remember seeing “Back East.” The Potato Vine, Solanum jasminoides, has in a number of instances ascended to the treetops there to spread out a canopy of snowy white bloom. It bids fair, however, to make a better showing a little later on. Jasminum humile, and Carissa edulis (orgrandiflora, as you prefer) are among the shrubs forming a thicket under the trees. The latter is the Natal Plum, a leathery-leaved, spiny shrub which bears small white flowers, very fragrant with the perfume of orange blossoms. These are followed by fruits about the size of cherries, red and edible.

About this time the visitor is probably lost in the maze of paths which seem to lead nowhere, but they all have a destination and, if one stays with any one of them long enough, he will come out all right.

There is much to interest the children as well as the grownups. For instance, the American Playground Device of Anderson, Ind., maintains an exhibit of their playground apparatus and, of course, being an exhibit, it contains the last word in such equipment — the most up-to-the-minute swings, slides, maypoles, etc.

There are picnic tables for those who care to use them, and sometimes a bright colored pheasant will come up, looking as sociable as he can, in the hope that he will be invited to luncheon. Many pheasants in many varieties roam at will throughout the Pepper Grove, but only the Silver Pheasants are tame enough to come near to be fed. The Golden, Lady Amherst and Reeves varieties are very gaily colored, but keep pretty much under cover, so that a fleeting glimpse is about all that may be expected. The Peafowl are quite tame and quite gorgeous in plumage. On the east side of the grove are some pure white Fantail pigeons confined in a fly until the learn where they belong, when they also will be released. In passing, it might be well to mention that near this fly is a group of the rather rate Eucalyptus globulus var. compacta, which being interpreted, means a compact bushy variety of the well-know blue gums — the compact part being the reason for calling it rare.

For the children there are Guinea pigs — the angora kind — quaint little animals, some light buff and white, some decided brunettes. Your small children will caution you not to pick them up by their tails as the eyes will drop out, and then mention the fact that they haven’t any tails.

Sometime ago Mr. Robinson presented the Exposition with a dozen Jungle Fowl, six gentlemen and five ladies. There are now seventy or more of these tiny fowl, scattered about the grounds. Because of their usefulness in destroying insects without destroying the plants which the insects are infesting, their popularity with the gardeners is in its ascendancy, and the poultry nursery in the Pepper Grove is swamped with requests for these fowl, the requests emanating from the various districts which as yet have not been equipped with the official insect ridders.

In the aforementioned nursery a diminutive Buff Cochin Bantam is mothering a flock of baby chicks, crosses between her kind and the Jungle Fowl. What they will look like when they are grown is a matter of much conjecture.

South and east of the Utah Building and covering several acres with fragrant bloom is what is known as the “Potpourri Rose Garden.” This is largely a commercial enterprise, promulgated and carried to its present state (it is not yet complete) by the energy and perseverance of “The Rose Lady,” as the proprietor is called. She says that she has constructed her garden and built up the business which is its principal reason for being on a capital composed of 99 percent faith and 1 percent of real money, which is one way of saying that she has been ever oppressed by the bugbear of lack of adequate finances, and the garden has had to do without such necessities as fertilizers, etc., but a start has been made notwithstanding.

There are nearly 10,000 plants in about 50 varieties, many of which are as yet small, but show promise of a fine effect later on. There is a very thrifty bed of Cecile Brunner, covered with a mass of its dainty bloom, which is particularly attractive right now. On a little arbor nearby Climbing Testouts are planted, which have made a remarkably rapid growth so far, and already show considerable bloom. Several months’ growth is needed before the arbor is completely covered, and then it will furnish a most inviting retreat in which the Exposition weary may rest and breathe the fragrance of the roses.

As has been previously stated, one of the objects of the rose garden is commercial — namely the manufacture of an article known as “potpourri.” Trusting that the ignorance of the reader on the subject of potpourri is not as abysmal a depth as that of ye scribe some months ago, when he thought that potpourri was something to eat — possibly something Hungarian — and had not the remotest idea how it was pronounced, a word of explanation might not, however, be out of place. Potpourri is pronounced “po-poo-ree,” and means a blend of mixture — sometimes of perfumes, sometimes of music or whatever it happens to be; in this case a blend of odors since many different flowers and aromatic leaves are used in its manufacture. Rose petals, orange blossoms, the old-fashioned lavender, tuberose, mignonette, lemon, verbena and many others, even a pinch of the humble rose geranium — all are utilized in the production of a bouquet of odors which is prepared according to an old colonial formula, although the use of potpourri antedates colonial days by many generations or even centuries — it is difficult to say how many. The perfume of the various flowers is retained and perpetuated with assistance from oils and extracts, and is very pleasing.

One of the many slanders on this fair land of California is that our roses are lacking, either partly or altogether, in fragrance as compared with those of the effete east. There are several thousand answers to this allegation in the form of as many Kaiserin, LaFrance, Prima Conna, General McArthur, My Maryland, Testouts and Grussun Teplitiz — this last numbering upwards of 1,000 roses per day which could be used for their fragrance.

The garden contains other meritorious sorts, some of which are grown principally for their decorative value, rather than for their fragrance, notably the charming Souv. de Guillard. This is a new hybrid tea, which was awarded the Grand Prize at the Bagatelle Gardens at Paris for the best French rose. This was in competition with stock from the best French growers. The color is described as being a “beautiful saffron, shaded with coppery carmine.”

There are many other sorts which would seem to be worthy of trail in our California gardens, and in this connection the idea of adding the growing of flowers for the manufacture of potpourri to the list of our infant industries here in Southern California ought to appeal to someone.

November, 1915, Overland Monthly, Vol. 66, No. 3, 451-455. Panama-California Exposition at San Diego, by Lewis H. Falk.

An all-year visitor to San Diego wrote back East as follows: “The strangest thing here is that electric fans and coal scuttles are passé.”

All of which is a reminder that in building an Exposition Beautiful in a land where climate allows the most extraordinary feats of landscape architecture, the Panama-California Exposition at San Diego has not confined its efforts to passing sensation. It has built its exhibits with a view to presenting in striking form the resources of the American West — resources developed to show what has been down; resources undeveloped to show what remains to be done. This feature, perhaps the most noteworthy from the viewpoint of permanent economic advantage, is set forth in a way that is destined to appeal with gripping force to banker, to manufacturer, to educator, to settler, and even to the casual tourist. The tourist may come for amusement, but is going away with an education.

It was announced soon after work was started on the San Diego Exposition that a new idea would be introduced. There was talk of “processes, not finished products.” There were suggestions of showing progress still to be made. These were slogans. In themselves they conveyed little information, but from these slogans have evolved some ideas which do convey information, ideas which are certain to have a mighty effect on the upbuilding of a Great West.

Statistics have been compiled concerning the hinterland of the West, vast sections of which are entirely undeveloped, waiting for water to make crops possible, and for railroads to make marketing possible. The figures show what can be done in each of these sections, what each valley is best adapted to raise, what the gross products should be, what the initial and what the operating costs will be. There is shown what will be the total expenditure for lumber, for hardware, for roofing, for furniture, for implements.

Hence, the prospective settler can learn:

What it will cost him to get started.

What it will cost him to keep going, whatever his crops.

What his gross returns should be.

What his net, after all deductions, will be.

And the business man will learn:

What will be the probable farming population eventually in a given section.

What will be the value of products shipped out.

What will be the demand for manufacturers of various sorts.

The tabulations are exhaustive, and have not yet been made public, but enough concerning them has been given out to indicate the serious character of their purpose. Detailed analysis of these statistics is deferred. The mention of them is made to show that the Exposition looks to permanent effect.

Capital to develop the land is not the main requirement. More important is the rallying of earnest, active men and women to take up the land, chiefly in small units, to put the projected irrigation systems to use, to furnish long and short haul transportation for the railroads and to become a permanent factor in the West’s development. These men and women are in the East. They know vaguely the farmer is profiting. They wish to go back to the land. They do not know how, however. They do not know what they will find when they get back to the land. They have an idea that the labor is too arduous and that social life must be abandoned. The real state of affairs has been outlined in the magazine articles and set fort in the government land shows — indoors. There have been no offerings of first land impressions.

This is where San Diego is different.

Near the north entrance of the grounds is a large reservation taken by the International Harvester Company. It is not a building in which is standing machinery. It is an open tract, and on that growing tract will be shown the heavy machinery of the Harvester Company in actual operation. Your Eastern city man, who wants to go back to the land but is a bit timid will see the tractor and the motor-driven reapers at work. He will see one man and a machine doing in one-half day as much work as kept the old-timer farmer and five men busy for an entire week. He will see why the progressive farmer does not live in terms of weather changes. He will see why profits and large and expenses light.

His wife, walking through the Home Economy Building, will see that the same mechanical power which saved labor in the meadow also can be put to work in the kitchen and laundry and sewing room to relieve her of the arduous labors she had feared.

Together husband and wife can go to the model small-unit farm, where a model bungalow is set in the center of an intensively cultivated area, where grow fruits and vegetables and cereals and poultry in the narrowest confines. The point is that they can see all this in operation. In a single day they can observe and study the demonstration of facts that no amount of reading would ever make clear; and there is born the irresistible desire to go back to the land.

On the interior wall of each State building is placed a great contour map of the entire commonwealth. The visitor shows an interest in a particular exhibit of barley. A guide shows him on the map exactly where that barley was grown. The guide points out the nearest route to market, whether by highway or railroad. He describes what other crops can be raised with profit in that valley. He locates the nearest water supply, and points out the nearest school and church of the visitor’s denomination. In other words, the visitor can stand before that map and learn everything he can wish to know about any and every section of the State.

This is the economic aspect of San Diego’s Exposition. It is a big message to give the world, and it is being delivered from a gorgeous stage. Picture the impressions of a northern visitor who walks or rides up the slope to the 1,400-acre Balboa Park, in the heart of the city, glides down the lane of acacias, and crosses the great Puente Cabrillo, close to 1,000-feet long, with its arches rising from the pool 135 feet below. He passes the rose trellised gateway, and — presto!

The hum of a thriving American city is gone. He has stepped backward three or four centuries, full into a city of old Spain, sprung by magic, domed, towered, castellated from the top of the mesa. Dancing girls laugh at him from beside the fountains. Somber-clad monks stalk down the colonnades. Gaily-attired caballeros saunter our from sunning prado and cool patio. Pigeons flutter down from an antique tower by the Plaza de Panama in a shower of confetti. Crimson and gold and purple flowers clamber high over the walls of the missions and the palaces, all built in the beautiful style of the Spanish Colonial.

The delicious fragrance of the big citrus orchard, which is a spectacular exhibit of the Southern counties of California, floods the air. From the open plazas can be seen below the canyons filled with cypress and palm and eucalyptus, beyond the rolling hills and in the distance the snow-capped peaks of California and old Mexico. To the west lies the Harbor of the Sun, then Coronado and Point Loma, and still further, the blue Pacific. It is a resplendent stage from which to deliver a great message.

Convention bodies from every industry and profession are rallying in force at the Exposition. Since January 1st it has housed a veritable potpourri of personalities, the layman, the scientist, the scholar, the educator, and continuing on down to and even including the butcher, the baker and candlestick maker.

With Europe’s gates closed on account of the war, the cosmopolite is an everyday visitor, and he declares: “Italy cannot boast of the sunshine; your architecture does not suffer by comparison with that of the old world; your flora is like century-old planting, and in all of this you have associated that restful spirit that rejuvenates the vacationist.” The Exposition, while not international in its scope, touches on the foreign countries sufficiently to furnish the visitor with a comprehensive travelogue in a sort of “vest pocket edition.” He sees Japan, parts of South America, the Hawaiian village, while before him at every hand in science, literature and art is exemplified the history and progress of the United States.

Diversity of the Exposition is one of its most appealing points. It is capable of entertaining a scientist who would determine the psychological effect of music on flowers, and likewise it is interesting to one who would study the military, mining, agriculture or the evolution of man.

It has been written that “nothing succeeds like success,” and this rather homely phrase is found in a receptive mood at San Diego’s Exposition, with its gates thrown open January 1st, marking the beginning of the period in which the first all-year exposition in history will be held. The attendance has reached expectations. The million mark in attendance has long been passed, and the record is reaching out towards two million.

While San Diego takes much pride in its finished product, it derives great satisfaction when it reflects that at the time this Exposition project was launched it was a city of less than 40,000 inhabitants. To be exact, San Diego’s population was 39,578, according to the Government’s 1910 census, and now this city, after building and fostering an Exposition of incomparable beauty and pronounced success, has increased its population to 100,000. Naturally the Exposition — oft-times referred to as the “Exposition Beautiful” or “The Dream City on the Hill,” is the magnet which is drawing thousands each day to the city, which is the farthest southwest in the United States. Yet San Diego has something to offer aside from its big project. Its bathing beaches are among the best on the Pacific Coast; its automobile drives are of boulevarded roads which contourenate through sylvan wilderness. Its land-locked harbor is large enough to anchor the fleets of the world. Its history is associated with the establishment of civilization on the Pacific Coast, and its missions reverently recall the vistas of the good Fra Junipero Serra in 1768 [sic]. Truly, San Diego has a diversified entertainment for its guests. The effete Easterner, the open-handed Westerner, the sentimental Southerner, and the business-going Northerner, gather within its gates and rejoice in the entertainment afforded.

November 1,1915, San Diego Sun, 12:3. Saturday afternoon girls from San Diego High School swimming club, Los Angeles and beach clubs will compete for cuts at a diving contest in the canal locks at the Panama Canal Extravaganza.

November 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:3. Kilties delight throng at Fair.

November 2, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:6. San Diego Day, November 17; attendance of 40,000 expected; parade, western rodeo, Spanish marriage, joyfest at Cristobal Café at night with 25 cabaret entertainers; Saturday, Alameda County Manufacturers’ Day; 250 Alamada County manufacturers expected; Kilties at Exposition today at 4 and 8:30 p.m., will give “Highland Fling” and J. Coates Lockwood will sing “Rose of My Heart” and “Mother McCree.”

November 2, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:3-4. San Diego Day, November 17; parade, rodeo, burro race, wedding, dancing, music planned.

November 3,1915, San Diego Sun, 8:1. School tots to exhibit at Fair November 12 and 13; workmanship is to be shown in unique display.

November 3, 1915, San Diego Sun, 14:1. Auto Festival at Exposition November 25, 26 and 27; arrangement underway to celebrate completion of coast state highway between San Diego and Los Angles; 500 machines will make run sponsored by Automobile Club of Southern California; Automobile Day, Saturday, November 27, will end with an open-air motor ball in Plaza de Panama.

November 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. San Diego girls to sing, dance with Kilties; bare-kneed bandsmen will make last San Diego appearance tonight.

As an added feature of the concert by the Kilties band at the Panama-California Exposition Miss Jean Davidson will give an exhibition of the sailor’s hornpipe dance in kilties at the band’s last San Diego appearance tonight. Miss Jean Souter, a San Diego soloist, will give several Scotch songs. The appearance of the San Diegans was arranged by Secretary Lawrence of the Caledonian Society.

November 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:3. B. H. Burrell, Colonel Ed Fletcher, W. B. Gross and Wilbur Hall left yesterday morning for Washington, D.C. via automobile; will investigate southern route.

November 4, 1915, San Diego Herald, 1:6. Exposition Notes

Twelve thousand San Diego school children showered Thomas A. Edison with flowers and built a bower of blooms about and above him on the occasion of Edison day at the San Diego Exposition, marking the greatest child tribute to any exposition visitor with the possible exception of Madame Ernestine Schumann-Heink.

The beautiful tribute came as a climax to a succession of smaller similar demonstrations paid by the school children of towns along the Pacific coast highway through which the Wizard of Menlo Park traveled by automobile from Los Angeles to San Diego. The noted inventor and chairman of the new naval advisory board was greatly affected.

Closely following the motor car which brought Edison and his party into San Diego was another bearing Henry Ford, Detroit automobile builder and member of the naval advisory board, and Ford shared largely in the demonstration given Edison.

Full military escort honors were paid both Edison and Ford by virtue of their new positions as members of the naval advisory board, under authorization of General George Burnett, commanding officer of the United States Marine Corps at Washington, who advised the commanding officer of the marines here to pay every possible courtesy. The newness of the naval advisory board, and lack of precedent, had caused the local commander to ask for instructions.

Accordingly, a squadron of First United States cavalry met the motor cars bearing Edison and Ford in the city and escorted them to the Exposition grounds. At the entrance, a battalion of the Fourth Regiment, United States Marine Corps, relieved the cavalry and conducted the party across El Puente Cabrillo to the Plaza de Panama, led by the Marine band. The floral demonstration by school children followed on the Plaza.

“This truly is the land of flowers and sunshine and joyousness,” exclaimed Mr. Edison as he stepped from the bower of flowers, the happy children had erected about him. “I can imagine no more beautiful spot than this exposition and no finer paradise in which children may play and grow that your beautiful city.”

Three days time were given by both Edison and Ford to their visit in San Diego and the greater part of their time was devoted to the Exposition. Mr. Ford found peculiar attraction at the exhibit of tractors and the demonstrations there. This was explained by his statement that, in his opposition to preparedness, he plans to divert all attention possible to peaceful pursuits and influence the farmer, in particular, by manufacturing a low-priced, economical farm tractor. He has directed many experiments in this direction already, he stated.

The personnel of the Edison and Ford parties included Mr. and Mrs. Thomas A. Edison, Henry Ford and son, E. D. Ford, Mr. and Mrs. D. W. Flint, Miss Grace Miller, D. Wilcox, H. S. Firestone, A. C. Miller and F. D. Fagan.

Visiting the United States aviation station near the Exposition, at which Uncle Sam is training his military aviators, Edison urged the development of an aerial battle and reconnaissance fleet equal if not greater than any European power as one of the vital units of preparedness.

November 4, 1915, San Diego Herald, 2:1. The Mayor’s Blunder.

It is regrettable that Mayor Capps in his zeal for national preparedness, should forget the courtesy due an honored guest from the chief executive of the city which is entertaining that guest. Last week Thomas A. Edison, the greatest inventive genius of the age, and Henry Ford, the world’s greatest humanitarian and philanthropist, visited our city. While here, these two distinguished gentlemen publicly expressed their opinions on the absorbing topic of the day — national preparedness for war.

Edison, as he has a right to do, favors national preparedness. Ford, with equal ardor, opposes preparedness because he considers war a crime. The special privilege class, the makers of war munitions and the press generally are with Edison. The peace-loving element of the country, those who represent the real patriotism, agree with Mr. Ford. Both men are, no doubt, sincere in their belief, and both have a right to their opinion regardless of which the future may prove to be in error.

Mayor Capps believes in preparedness, which is his right, and he denounces those who believe otherwise, which is not his right. The mayor in an interview in an evening paper, accuses Ford of treason, and spoke of him disparagingly. He said:

“The only real road to peace is a fourteen-inch gun. The best place I know of to sign enduring peace contracts and peace treaties in is the shadow of the most vicious-looking cannon. I see in the morning papers that Henry Ford made another absurd plea for what he calls peace up at the Exposition Friday. Such talk makes my blood boil. HENRY FORD MAY KNOW ALL ABOUT A FLIVER CAR, BUT WHAT DOES HE KNOW ABOUT WAR OR THE NECESSITY OF PREPAREDNESS FOR WAR? Absolutely nothing!”

The mayor has just as much right to believe in preparedness for war as Mr. Ford has to the contrary opinion. However, he had no right to belittle a prominent and patriotic citizen because he differs with him, and particularly is it in bad taste for the mayor to make such criticism while the man criticized is an honored guest of the city.

Of course, it is possible that the newspaper, for sensational reasons, misquoted the mayor, but in the absence of denial on the part of the mayor, we have to accept it as the act of the mayor, which is almost unpardonable. No doubt the great, generous-hearted Mr. Ford will pardon the mayor’s indiscretion, even if the people do not. But, why did the mayor make such a break?

Mayor Capps is an engineer, so is Mr. Ford, but their fields do not conflict so it cannot be rivalry, although it may be envy. Capps has invented a great gun, or one he thinks is. Perhaps too much peace talk will make all guns useless. It is possible that the mayor in his intense patriotism and enthusiasm forgot the courtesy due a guest or he may have thought he was a greater man than Ford, or it may have been just ignorance. At any rate the people feel humiliated and think the mayor blundered.

On behalf of the people of San Diego, many of whom differ with Mr. Ford on preparedness, the Herald tenders to Mr. Ford an humble apology which it feels due a guest particularly so prominent and distinguished a gone, for the indiscretion of the mayor.

November 4, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:5. Liberty Bell comes on November 13; great demonstration is planned.

November 4, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:4. Housewives competition at Exposition last Saturday, October 30, netted $260 for the Associated Charities through the sale of goods.

November 4, 1915, San Diego Sun, 5:5. Kilties secured for three more days of concerts, November 4, 5 and 6.

November 4, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2-4. Bicycle driver risks life to provide thrills at Exposition; leaps from bicycle into tank of water; also leaps into a tank of flaming gasoline.

November 4, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:4. Liberty Bell to arrive November 12.

November 4, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:6. Kilties will remain at Fair for rest of week.

November 4, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:4. Miss Effie Stewart, soprano, gave recital Tuesday afternoon with Doctor Stewart; will sing again today.

November 5, 1915, San Diego Sun, 9:3. Constantino, famous tenor, coming to Exposition again next Thursday afternoon; Canadian Day is planned tomorrow; Colonel William Hutchinson, Canadian exposition commissioner, here to look over Exposition.

November 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:1. Celebration plans for Liberty Bell visit completed; U.S. Senator, Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania, Mayor of Philadelphia due; relic will be guarded; soldiers to keep souvenir hunters away; three festival days picked.

November 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:3. Ripe navel oranges on exhibition at Fair; Sacramento Valley furnishes fruit earlier than any other part of state..

November 5, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:3. Movement to keep Fair open during 1916; Los Angeles pledges $150,000 to fund.

November 6, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:2. Two thousand entries have been made for Children’s Fair which will open at Exposition, Friday, November 12, Parent Teachers’ Day; to be held in Commerce and Industries building; children’s pageant will move through the streets at 2 p.m., Friday; 25 Exposition electriquettes will be decorated by youthful fingers; every school in city will be represented by an electriquette. (See also San Diego Sun, November 9, 1915, 5:3 and November 10, 1915, 8:1.)

November 6, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. $75,000 raised for 1916 Fair in Los Angeles.

November 6, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:6. In honor of Colonel William Hutchinson, Canadian exposition commissioner, today will be Canadian Day at the Exposition; Kilties will give three concerts.

November 6, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:4. A party of nine Japanese newspapermen visit San Diego Exposition; entertained by Shiro Watanabe, principal Japanese concessionaire at Fair.

November 6, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:2-3. Girl’s and men’s diving contests today’s attraction at Isthmus.

November 6, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:2. Alamedans lured Fairward today; $1,500 worth of manufactured goods to be distributed.

November 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3. Funds for 1916 Fair raised; jubilee held; L. A. boosters complete campaign to get $75,000 cash; all but $15,000 of similar guarantee already assured; San Diego Exposition president congratulates committee, cooperation means greater Southwest.

November 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:3. Alameda triumph at Exposition celebrated; 250 northerners attend.

November 8, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:8. Approximately seven thousand teachers of Southern California and friends flock to Exposition; will be here all week.

November 9, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:4-5. Sun urges readers to vote for Liberty Bell queen by sending in voting coupon; write in name of any girl attending a public or private school in San Diego County; coupon good for 100 votes.

November 10, 1915, San Diego Sun, 13:6. Mayor Capps tells of people who have never seen Exposition because they are too poor; suggests Cabrillo Canyon gate should be kept open on San Diego Day; says people holding annual passes could pay on this one day to make up costs.

November 10, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. Convention of California Teachers’ Association t hold first session today at Spreckels music pavilion.

November 10, 1915, San Diego Union, 12:1-2. Shriners to thrill thousands today; spectacular flame battle at stadium will be feature tonight.

November 10, 1915, San Diego Union, 13:3-4. Miss Katherine Stinson, school girl aviator, will perform feats of aerial gymnastics at Exposition November 20.

November 10, 1915, San Diego Union, 18.2. Marguerite Buckler Stevenson, soprano, and Florencio Constantino, tenor, to give concert at Exposition tomorrow afternoon.

November 11, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:6, 3:3. Liberty Bell due tomorrow for stay of three days; arrives at Santa Fe station at 6 a.m. and at Exposition at 7 a.m.; will be placed in north section of Plaza de Panama; Saturday is Liberty Bell Day; exercises on steps of Sacramento Valley building; at 8:30 a.m. tomorrow bells and whistles all over the city will sound for five minutes; school children to be admitted free at west gate tomorrow between 1 and 2; at 2:45 coronation of Sun’s Liberty Bell queen will take place on steps of Sacramento Valley building followed by program of patriotic music and addresses; four detachments of marines to take charge of Liberty Bell.

November 11, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:1-2. Children’s Fair, the first to be held in any Exposition, will present in its array of exhibits a comprehensive idea of the after-school work of boys and girls from kindergarten to high school. It will be an exhibit of their handicraft in agriculture, arts and sciences. It will also display their inventive genius, for they will show present-day toys of their own making. Of the 2,700 entries, 320 exhibits are pets, 85 floral, 53 collections of stamps, coins, etc., 250 woodwork, 325 domestic science and domestic art; 300 toys, 50 mechanical and electrical appliances and 400 arts and crafts.

Exhibits in public service hall of Commerce and Industries building; pets in the Oriental Joy Gardens on the Isthmus. Children will receive prizes donated by merchants.

Tomorrow, an automobile parade of Parent Teachers’ Association from State and Broadway to Exposition; children’s pageant on Exposition grounds at 2 p.m.; music by Florence school orchestra at organ pavilion and songs by High School glee club at 3 p.m.; address by H. J. Francis, superintendent of schools of Los Angeles; music by Brooklyn school orchestra; a number by the Ukulele Club of the High School; address by Will C. Wood, commissioner of secondary education of California.

November 11, 1915, San Diego Sun, 9:4. Los Angeles representatives named to Board of Directors of Panama-California International Exposition.

November 11, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3. 2,500 school children form living flag in afternoon; Shriners’ charity carnival draws throngs to stadium; performances in afternoon and evening.

November 11, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:1-2. Teachers praise stadium; delegates attend Shriners’ charity carnival.

November 11,1915, San Diego Union, 9:1. Nine Los Angeles men on 1916 Fair board.

November 12, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:1-3. Liberty Bell comes for visit here; Miss Jeanette Steibel, 16 years of age, chosen as Sun’s Liberty Bell queen in county-wide contest; pupil at Washington school received 460,000 votes.

November 12, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:4. Local divorce court granted Mrs. Ella Collier final decree of divorce today; temporary order of payment of $100 each month for the support and education of the children of the marriage was made permanent until children are 21 years of age.

November 12, 1915, San Diego Sun, 8:4. Some employers to give employees half-holiday will full pay and the present of a ticket to the San Diego doings at the Exposition; Turner teams of boys, girls, men and women to stage an hour’s show for the entertainment of San Diego crowds on Plaza de Panama next Wednesday; fraternal drill teams, companies of marines and coast artillery planning to participate in parades and drills on the Plaza; Senor Jose Amable and his Spanish senoritas and troubadours will return to Exposition for San Diego Day; Shriners to visit Exposition November 20.

November 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3-5. Liberty Bell due at 1 p.m.; San Diegans to pay homage tomorrow; children will honor relic.

November 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:3. Ten thousand hear Constantino sing in concert at Exposition; strong breeze handicap; singers recalled many times, by W. W. B. Seymour.

November 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:2-3. Veil to lift on Children’s Fair today; lads, lassies eager to display handiwork; juvenile event will begin with parade of decorated automobiles; pageant scheduled in afternoon; variety of exhibits entered.

November 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:6. Doctor Richard D. Hollington will speak on “Liberty Bell Story” at the New Mexico building tonight.

November 13, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:3, 2:5. Great din is welcome for Liberty Bell, whistles and bells all over city sound greeting; festivities today; tomorrow at 5 p.m. U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Cavalry military escort will escort Liberty Bell from Exposition to Santa Fe depot.

November 13, 1915, San Diego Sun, 3:1. Program for San Diego Day, next Wednesday: parade of decorated automobiles at 1:30 p.m.; concert by Raja Yoga orchestra; two baseball games; field concert by Marine Corps band; drills by fraternal organizations; concert by 13th band, Cost Artillery Corps; concerts by High School orchestra and glee club; Spanish wedding and reception; organ recital by Doctor H. J. Stewart; athletic exercises and dances by Turnverein and YMCA; floral showers from aeroplanes; carnival and banquet on the Isthmus; special music; Spanish singers and dancers and entertainers in all parts of grounds in afternoon.

November 13, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:3. Prizes awarded at Children’s Fair.

November 13, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:2-3, 3:3-5. Liberty Bell arrived at Exposition with message of patriotism; exercises for nation’s freedom emblem scheduled today; 12,000 children will pay homage; speeches, songs on program; history of Liberty Bell linked with nation’s life.

November 13, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:5. Los Angeles Exposition Committee settles down to canvass business interests.

The next important move will be the turning over of $75,000 in cash which is to be used in rehabilitating the Exposition grounds and buildings for another year and for expenses incurred in securing the foreign exhibits from San Francisco.

November 13, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:2-3. Great pageant opens Children’s Fair; fairies, pages, characters from fairy tales, flowers, flies, etc. passed in review before judges at the Sacramento building yesterday afternoon.

November 13, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:5. Local Typographical Union votes to furnish tickets to all members next Wednesday for San Diego Day.

November 13, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:3. Mrs. Collier won complete divorce yesterday; former husband must pay $100 per month for support, education of sons; Colonel Collier and Miss Ruth Everson of Oakland are to be married at Oakland next Sunday.

November 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:1-2. Joy to reign San Diego Day when city and county hold revel.

Program San Diego Day at Exposition

Afternoon: Grand parade of decorated floats and automobiles winding about grounds

Raja Yoga College orchestra in concert at Organ Pavilion

Dress parade of United States marine battalion and marine band on Plaza de Panama

Two baseball games on marines barracks field

Concordia Turnverein exhibition of dancing and gymnastics on Plaza de Panama

Aviator’s floral shower from aeroplanes

San Diego High School orchestra and glee club in concert in Botanical Gardens

Thirteenth band, Coast Artillery Corps, concert on Plaza de Panama

Spanish senoritas and troubadours in special entertainments in Plaza de California

Organ recital by Doctor H. J. Stewart

Burro race on Isthmus

Frolics on Isthmus, under management of San Diego Ad Club

Discovery of father of largest family

Evening: Old Spanish court wedding ceremony and reception at Organ Pavilion

San Diego Day dinner — Cabaret, with thirty girl entertainers, and dancing in Café Cristobal

Carnival on Isthmus under auspices of San Diego Ad Club

November 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:3-6. Liberty Bell stirs throng, by W. C. Getty

American history was made, time was marked, when yesterday at the Plaza de Panama, the Panama-California Exposition, thousands with love of country rooted deeply in hearts turned out to do honor to that best loved of all American historical relics, the famous Liberty Bell.

Perhaps never in the history of the Liberty Bell in all its travels from time to time about the country has it occupied a position so harmoniously beautiful as that of yesterday.

It was Liberty Bell Day at the Exposition. San Diegans and their visitors were celebrating the first — and what may be the last — visit of the famous old relic. They had hoped for its coming for months and no festivity had awakened their slumbering patriotism as had the announcement. It was beheld in awe and wonder — an object too sacred to touch.

“Bells mean much to California for mission bells were identified with early California history. They have learned to love these old bells because of the place they occupy in the early days of the padres. Perhaps it was because of this that the Liberty Bell seemed to mean more to them than it had to residents in other places,” said a prominent Exposition official. “Visiting members are quick to realize and speak of the sincerity of the welcome of San Diegans.”

Banked in flowers brought by hundreds of school children, thousands of the blossoms having been picked by childish hands, augmented by beautiful floral offerings by the San Diego park board and individuals, the old bell stood on its platform, the center of thousands of reverent eyes.

When those who chronicle the journeys of the bell will have written its history in 1915, San Diego and the Panama-California Exposition will be an important part of the story, for visitors of yesterday who came with the bell searched their vocabulary for appropriate words to describe the scene. “It is the most exquisitely harmonious setting, the most gorgeous and beautiful environment it has every been my pleasure to be a part of,” said Boies Penrose, United States senator from Pennsylvania, whose admiration and enthusiasm for the Exposition was unrestrained.

Davidson Voices Pride

Thousands of school children opened the exercises when they passed through the Laurel Street entrance to the Plaza and deposited their floral offerings, which were banked high about the bell. It was a ceremony as pretty as it was inspiring. Bystanders lifted some of the smaller ones that they might get a better view of the bell and every flower dropped was quickly gathered up and placed on the platform.

It was a never-to-be-forgotten incident in the lives of the children and in years to come events will be measured by the date of the Liberty Bell at San Diego. Men and women, now children, will tell their children and their children’s children of the time at San Diego when they were part of the Liberty Bell celebration.

Speakers vied with one another to emit the most patriotic utterances. And the particular crowd in attendance needed only the slightest word to touch off their enthusiasm in ringing cheers. Every patriotic outburst was the signal for applause.

President G. A. Davidson was the first speaker. He said:

“The Panama-California Exposition has had the honor of greeting many distinguished guests during this our Exposition year, men representing the great commercial, intellectual and political interests of America, men standing high in the civic life of state and nation, men giving voice to words of business, wisdom, intellectual advancement and national patriotism, all of whom we have considered it a privilege to welcome, but today we are accorded an honor little dreamed of when we opened the gates of this Exposition and we are proud indeed to welcome that grand old relic that proclaimed America’s independence, that grand old relic that made possible that splendid citizenship that we have been heretofore permitted to greet and whose sentiments we have been allowed to listen to — the Liberty Bell.

“We also are permitted to greet and extend a hearty welcome and express out thanks to that splendid body of men of Philadelphia who accompany the bell and made possible its presence here today. We welcome the prominent men of the grand old state of Pennsylvania and are glad of this opportunity of having them presented to you. Truly it is a great day for the Panama-California Exposition.

Marston Speaks

“It is my pleasure to present to you the chairman of the day, a distinguished citizen of San Diego and past president of the San Diego chapter of the Sons of the American Revolution, Mr. George W. Marston.”

George W. Marston, who acted as chairman of the meeting, said:

“It is most fitting and most appropriate that the Liberty Bell should be sent by the citizens of the old city of Philadelphia to the old city of San Diego, the Plymouth Rock of the Pacific coast. The Liberty Bell means life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. It arouses our patriotic sentiment as perhaps no other relic of a time long passed could, and our welcome to the bell and to the committeemen who accompany it is cordial and sincere.”

Mayor E. M. Capps was the next speaker. He defined liberty as the cement which binds together 100,000,000 Americans into one inseparable whole. “It is the cement which binds forty-eight states of this union into one monolithic mass. It is literally the most precious heritage of mankind, and to defend it every American citizen would lay down his life. The birth of liberty was in the Liberty Bell, and its home is still there. God permit, it always will be there. I but wish the bell would remain in San Diego throughout 1916. What true American can look upon this picture — the Liberty Bell smothered in the folds of the Stars and Stripes — and not feel his breast heavy with patriotism? I extend to you a cordial welcome. I thank you for the honor you have conferred upon us, and I hope you will find much of interest to you here, as well as much pleasure during your sojourn with us.”

Joseph P. Gaffney, of the Philadelphia council, referred to Philadelphia as the grandest city in the world, the birthplace of the nation, the home of the Liberty Bell and the savior on more than one occasion of this country. “On July 4, 1776, in the state house of Philadelphia, was penned that important document which will live forever — the Declaration of Independence. On July 8, that year, the old bell rang out American independence.

Bell Inspiration

“But Philadelphia loves her fellow Americans. She is more than patriotic, for she divides her honors. On more than one occasion she has sent the Liberty Bell over the country that it might be an inspiration to all loyal Americans. She sent it through Illinois, Indiana, the prairie states and on into the mountain states, and then to the great Pacific coast to the Golden Gate, and finally to San Diego, the land of the mission bells. Those mission bells taught your Indians to worship the great God, and brought civil as well as religious liberty.

“These days you hear much about preparedness. This old bell has renewed American patriotism in more than one instance. If the government of these United States will see that our harbors are protected and our coasts patrolled, 50,000,000 loyal Americans could be called to arms on short notice by a trip of the bell over the country.”

Lieutenant Governor Frank B. McClain of Pennsylvania called the plaza “an environment of masterly architecture and of horticultural splendor — a veritable fairyland. And under the golden sunlight of a smiling California sun it presents a picture impossible to improve. So long as there are scenes like this and patriotism such as you have shown, there can be no danger to this American union of ours. Stimulate the love of country in the hearts of the future generation. We came by it honestly from our forefathers. They taught it to us, and they expect use to hand it on. To the children I want to ask that the sight of this old bell be a mute reminder that will stimulate patriotism in your hearts and help preserve the greatest government history has ever known. Take inspiration from the deeds of Washington, who made possible all the blessings we enjoy today. May the Stars and Stripes long wave over a government founded by Washington and preserved by Abraham Lincoln.”

Preparedness Urged

“It is an inspiration to be here today,” said Senator Penrose. “It is glorious to bask in your sunshine and share your enthusiasm. Our flag waves over forty-eight states and in Pennsylvania we are a long way from you in California, but we look with pride from that state to you in California because you are a part of our own glorious country. The completion of the Panama canal means great things for the Pacific coast, both from points of commerce and protection. Years ago the Spanish dreamed of a waterway across the Isthmus. Other countries tried to build it, and it cannot help but be satisfying to us to know that Americans overcame all difficulties and finally succeeded. It was a triumph for American engineering, American labor, American physicians.

“Our flag stretches half-way around the world, and the Panama canal brings Pennsylvania and California closer together. By the medium of this great work we will come to you and you to us. It will make us known one another better; it will strengthen our friendship. The canal doubles the force of our navy, and, as Americans, we want a navy to defend our rights and protect our interests.

“Why should we depend on England or any other country for protection of our merchant ships bound for neutral ports? We must have naval and military preparedness. We must maintain commercial and industrial freedom. It was a deplorable error that allowed the murder of American women and the destruction of American property just over the border to which you live so near. That border must be protected, for we will never tolerate an invasion on the part of any nation through Mexico. We stand for peace and for right, not invasion nor assault.

American Melting Pot

“America is the melting pot for all nations. I am glad to notice how quickly the foreigners become Americans and how quickly they acquire our spirit and our patriotism. I am not one of those who believes that if immigration to the United States is not stopped that we will be destroyed from the inside. Those who come to us are glad to stay. They become Americans. Why, on our trip down the state of California, I was told that at 2 a.m. 15,000 residents of a certain town were at the station to catch a glimpse of the Liberty Bell. They had waited patiently for several hours. This is the sort of sentimental patriotism which has made this nation what she is today.”

Led by the San Diego Choral Society, the audience sang “The Star Spangled Banner,” closing the meeting.

November 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:4-5. Throngs expected to visit Liberty Bell today.

The Liberty Bell will be on exhibition in the Plaza de Panama at the Exposition from 8 a.m. to 3 p.m. today. Even though thousands viewed it yesterday, it is expected that a great crowd will see it in its position of state today. The Sunday admission of 25 cents to the Exposition will be in effect all day. This will be the last opportunity to see the cherished relic at the Exposition.

At 3 p.m. a large military escort will form inside the Exposition. In this will be companies from the United States marine corps, troops from the First United States cavalry, companies from the coast artillery corps at Fort Rosecrans, two companies of the coast artillery corps, N.G.C., and Third division naval reserve, N.G.C.

This large military escort will take part in the final honors which San Diego will give the bell. The military companies will escort the relic out the east gate of the Exposition. The line of march will be south of Twelfth street and to Broadway, thence west on Broadway to the Santa Fe station, where the bell will be loaded on a special car. Guarded by the Pennsylvania delegation, which accompanied it here, the relic will leave San Diego at midnight.

November 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:4-5. Nine men were selected to represent Los Angeles on Board of Directors of Exposition during 1916.

November 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 10:1-2. Ingenuity of school children shown in clever exhibits at little folk fair; pet animals, cookery machinery, models of vessel, Cabrillo bridge, electric theater, miniature auto, aeroplane, gas balloon, paintings.

November 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 11:2-4. Mother to watch daughter loop loop; daring girl will fly upside down at fair next Saturday.

November 15, 1915, San Diego Sun, 8:1. Liberty Bell on way to the East. The bell was escorted to the Santa Fe station at 3 yesterday by marines and soldiers. . . . Queen Jeanette Stiebel rode to her coronation in a fine new Franklin car piloted by H. H. Browne, demonstrator for Wilson S. Smith Company, agents for Franklin cars in San Diego County; President Davidson of Exposition presented Jeanette with crown as the representative of the school children of San Diego.

November 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:5. Collier married November 14 in Oakland.

November 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:1. Campaign 1916 Fair fund starts today; San Diego citizens to raise $50,000; Committee of 100 will work hard for success.

November 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:4. One hundred suits planned to collect Fair subscriptions; action against all delinquents will be taken by Exposition; thousands of dollars are outstanding.

November 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:3. Spanish dancers and singers will help celebrate San Diego Day.

November 16, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:7-8, 6:5-6. San Diego Day tomorrow; business and public buildings to close at noon; Mrs. L. L. Rowan will sing at organ recital by Doctor Stewart beginning at 11 a.m.; concert by Raja Yoga orchestra and chorus at organ at 2 p.m.

November 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2-3. Tomorrow is San Diego Day; legal half-holiday scheduled; program of music, gaiety arranged.

November 16,1915, San Diego Union, 8:4-5. Katherine Stinson to loop in air at Fair Saturday, November 20.

November 17, 1915, San Diego Evening Tribune, 5:6. City’s day is going strong everywhere; everything is closed except Exposition; Spanish ceremony is announced; pie stuffing contest feature.

November 17, 1915, San Diego Evening Tribune, 8:1. Free gate for poor is found inadvisable; Mayor Capps explains that too many people would take deliberate advantage of chance to see Fair.

November 17, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:6-7, 2:4. San Diego Day started with a rush.

November 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4, 3:1. Dream City to call San Diegans today; program given.

November 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:7. Entire floor space of Foreign Arts building contract signed in San Francisco yesterday by exhibitors of Italian marble, bronzes, tapestry, wood carving and antiques.

While the exhibit is not made by the Italian government, it is representative of Italy and was installed in the north at great expense. The Foreign Arts building, which it will occupy, has approximately 15,000 square feet of floor space.

November 17,1915, San Diego Union, 1:7. San Diego committee raises $32,500 for Fair; this leaves a balance of $17,500 to raise before noon meeting Thursday.

November 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:4. San Diego Day was celebrated.

November 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: San Diego Day at the Exposition.

All San Diego — and this means the entire county as well as the city — is proud of the Panama-California Exposition and the success it has achieved. Everybody realizes what it has done for this locality and thousands recognize the fact that they have personally benefited from it. That sentiment of appreciation should be give free rein today.

November 18, 1915, San Diego Evening Tribune, 2:4. Attendance at Exposition 16,746 for San Diego Day; crowds have lively time.

November 18, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:7. ’49 Camp to open again tonight under new management; only games permitted by state law will be operated.

November 18, 1915, San Diego Sun, 9:4. San Diego Day enjoyed by all yesterday; uniformed ranks of various orders drilled and paraded and later mingled their lurid and picturesque raiment with that of the crowd; bands played incessantly; there was a potato race for girls, a sack race, a three-legged race, a pie-eating contest, and burlesque prize fight, a dive from a high tower done by a straw dummy that was substituted for a real man at the critical moment; total attendance was 16,746.

November 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3-6. San Diego Day calls thousands to Fair.

It was San Diego Day “all the way” at the Exposition and throughout the city yesterday — San Diego atmosphere, San Diego air, San Diego weather, in the heavens above and on the earth below.

San Diegans started in early to celebrate the day and to show their loyalty to the city by making their way to that part of Balboa Park enclosing the Panama-California Exposition. The streams of visitors poured into the Fair grounds by thousands all day and late into the night.

The program outlined for the day was carried out practically as planned, beginning in the morning with an organ recital by Doctor Humphrey J. Stewart, official organist, as the Spreckels music pavilion. He was assisted by Mrs. L. Rowan, contralto.

Early in the afternoon a parade formed at the north gate, preceded by a band and made up of members of the D.O.O.K. Modern Woodmen of America, letter carriers and gaily decorated automobiles.

The parade was followed by tam drills by members of the Modern Woodmen of America, Camp No. 7255, under Captain J. B. Busch, and a team of the D.O.O.K.; also a dress parade by a battalion from the San Diego Army and Navy Academy.

Concerts were given by the Thirteenth band, coast artillery corps, V. F. Safranek, conductor; the East San Diego band and the band from the Fourth Regiment marines, William B. Borreson, conductor, in various part of the Exposition grounds at different hours of the day.

The regular Wednesday, half-holiday at the marine camp was deferred, and the Second battalion, Major W. N. McKelvey, commanding, gave its parade on the Plaza de Panama at the usual hour.

Turnverein and YMCA athletes gave exhibitions of clever acts on horizontal and parallel bars, and a team of pretty girls in white blouses, blue skirts, and big red bow ties did a number of turns in rope skipping.

The local color of Spanish setting was heightened by the presence of the troubadours, who have been such a popular feature of the Exposition. They sang and danced during the afternoon in all parts of the grounds.

Many dinner parties were given at the Cristobal in the evening, reservations being made by about 900 persons. A cabaret entertainment was a feature. The dining parties came and went until after midnight, every table being occupied and the dining space crowded with dancers who divided their attention between two-stepping and throwing confetti. The dining and dancing crowd was the largest since opening night, New Year’s Eve.

Wedding Take Place

A pretty scene was enacted on the platform of the music pavilion in the evening when a Spanish wedding was enacted by a large group of young people in native costumes. Manuel Madriquel played the role of the embarrassed bridegroom and Miss Concepcion Gonzalez that of the orange-blossom-garlanded and blushing bride. Justice J. Edward Keating performed the ceremony and Otto Jeancon saw that the affair was handled according to the rules made and provided for such occasions.

Miss Edith Duncan Emmet danced the Highland fling and Pipe Major Black performed on the bagpipes.

Sports were not overlooked in the program for the day, two games being played on the diamond at the marine camp, the first between the Cycle and Arms Juniors and the San Diego Juniors, which was won by the former, and the second game between the Anakins and the Bee Gee Juniors, in favor of the first named.

The “1916 finance committee” displayed an enterprising spirit by mounting four large cash registers in front of as many large yellow signs inviting contributions to the guarantee fund for the continuance of the Exposition next year.

Two teams divided the four stations located on the edge of the Plaza de Panama, the teams being known by the physical characteristics of the members, one being called The Fats and the other The Slims. The former proved the advantage of weight, their register showing about $25,000 while that of the latter had rung about $500. The weighty ones were Fred Barbour, C. C. Graves, Sydney Wines and Fred Barnes, and the slender contingent included Gordon Gray, Roy R. Moss, Guy F. Keene, Charles Benton and Fred Spencer. The winning team had two or three subscriptions totaling nearly $2,000, which made them invincible.

Ginger Injected

A lot of ginger was injected into the evening’s entertainment by the Ad Club, which has entire charge of the “jinks” on the Isthmus and put on a number of events in the afternoon. The members of the club were dressed in the grotesque garb affected by sawdust clowns and kept things well stirred up until nearly midnight. Some of their “stunts” would have caused envy on the part of the late Phineas T. Barnum, notably the “great moral lesson — the cigarette fiend,” as the barkers announced.

One of the thrilling events was a high dive from the tower of the Cristobal Café into a blanket held at the four corners by physically capable men. Buddy King was the diver, a straw-filled dummy being substituted for him at the thrilling moment of the plunge.

A potato race for girls was won by Rita Lonan; two others for boys were won by Ron Godley and Wayne McCoy, respectively, Edmund Sear taking second price in the second race.

The sack race prizes were won by Arnold Aillaud, Allan Thomas and Israel Nathan. The winners of the three-legged race were Alvin Thomas and Miller Holzaptel.

The pie-eating contest resulted in favor of Alonzo Jones who was the first to master a full-grown raspberry pie. Robert Neyenesch succeeded in drinking a pint of milk from a nursing bottle in six and a half minutes and winning the prize. Driving two 20-penny spikes into four inches of planking was accomplished by Misses Bertha Gleason, Loraleo Massey and Dorothy Wright, prizes being awarded in the order named.

A burlesque bullfight ended in a decision for Buddy King, who finished off Jack La Marche in four hot rounds.

Isthmus Thronged

The Isthmus was thronged with gay maskers in the afternoon and evening. Prizes offered by the Ad Club were won by Misses Loraleo Massey, Helen Weldon and Fay Wrightman, and by Chester Richards, E. S. Richards and E. F. Pastore.

Large families in San Diego are evidently at a premium. The announcement that a prize of $10 would be awarded the parents who brought the largest number of children to the Sacramento Valley building, met with no response, the committee waiting in vain for a claimant for the prize.

Virginia Ellis, aged 12 years, a talented daughter of the Mormon state, pleased large numbers in the Utah building in the afternoon with her recitations in Italian dialect. The most popular number on her varied program was the “Daisy Field”; one of her own compositions “The Organ Grinder,” “Pap’s Old Saying,” “Guiseppi, the Barber,” and “Beckie Miller” also were recited. Musical numbers on the piano were given by Mrs. Leola Harris during the intermission.

The Raja Yoga orchestra of sixty pieces was encored so often that several numbers on the original program were omitted.

November 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:1. Girl aviator here to dare death in air; visitor at San Diego Fair; big biplane seen by thousands on Isthmus; Miss Stinson dances at Cristobal Café..

November 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:3. San Diego subscribes $44,000 for Fair; Committee confident $50,000 required will be raised by noon.

November 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:4. S. Glenn Andrus, secretary-general of Chamber of Commerce at Sacramento, at meeting of San Diego Chamber of Commerce suggested San Diego Exposition be made permanent.

November 19, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:1-3. Katherine Stinson will be entertained at Cristobal Café today; discusses her Gnome seven-cylinder motor with aviator Oscar Brindley and A. J. Macey, inventor of the Macey Aeroplane Stabilizer.

November 20, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2. Miss Katherine Stinson will defy perils at Exposition today.

November 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2-4. Flying girl amazes throng; rosebuds rained upon spectators from 1,500 feet altitude; looped the loop eight times; two flights in afternoon at 3:15 lasting 17 minutes and at 4:30 lasting 15 minutes.

Miss Stinson flew a tractor biplane of forty-five foot spread. The motor was a seven cylinder of revolving type, a French Gnome brought to America fifteen months ago by Lincoln Beachey.

November 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:4. More than 125 members of the College Women’s Club attended the Exposition in a body yesterday.

November 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:4. Gompers party due at Fair this week; President of American Federation of Labor and other high officials coming.

November 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 12:3-4. William Sterling Hebbard and Carleton Monroe Winslow designed Spanish-style building for University Club.

November 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 12:1. Strawberries ripe on model ranch at Exposition; cotton blooming, vegetables ready for use; gourd crop fills wagons; pumpkin weighing 125 pounds; turkey third as much; fruits and vegetables on exhibit in the display window in the Seven Southern California Counties building..

November 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 10:1. Exposition sues subscribers to Fair stock; $6,888.55 demanded in complaints before Justice Keating’s court.

November 24, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:3. Exposition will open tomorrow, Thanksgiving Day; children’s admission will be ten cents all day; adults fifty cents until 6 p.m., after that twenty-five cents.

November 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4. “San Diego, 1916 Day” celebrated at Panama-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco.

November 25, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:1. Canada to send big exhibit here from San Francisco Exposition.

November 25, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3. The run of the Automobile Club of Southern California from Los Angeles to San Diego today will be biggest event in the history of automobile tours in any part of the world. There will be 285 cars in line. This procession will be joined at various points along the way until from San Juan Capistrano south there will be no less than 400 cars in line.

November 25, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:1. Canadian exhibit at 1916 Fair assured; agriculture department head favors transfer from San Francisco.

November 25, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:5. Walter Handel Thorley is giving the daily recitals in the absence of Doctor H. J. Stewart; was organist of Great Britain at Paris Exposition of 1889.

November 25,1915, San Diego Union, 9:1. Exhibits at Fair open to public all day Wednesday (Thanksgiving Day); children admitted for ten cents; motorists on tour at café tonight; “Motor Day,” Saturday; gymkhana program announced; military bodies contestants.

November 26, 1915, San Diego Sun, 14:1. Motor Day at Fair tomorrow; 500 cars will be in automobile parade starting at 10 a.m. from Front and Broadway.

November 26, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:5. More than 500 autos arrive from north; big parade tomorrow, by J. F. Pendleton.

November 27, 1915, San Diego Sun, 12:6. Motor parade leads the way; visiting autoists flock to Exposition; motor ball there tonight.

November 27, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:1. Railways to keep building at Fair open in 1916; former U.S. Senator William Clark, president of Salt Lake Railroad, announces continuance plans.

November 27, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3. United States to rush Exposition marines south; Colonel Pendleton will command landing forces in Senaloa against pillaging Indians and bandits; 25th and 28th companies to embark upon cruiser San Diego this morning.

November 27, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:2-3. Autoists to storm Exposition today for big celebration; great parade starting from courthouse at 10 this morning will open festival; dance on plaza night’s feature.

November 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:6. Men, guns, stores jam United States cruiser; 1,500 troops rushed south.

November 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Exposition of 1916 expressing hope that Riverside, San Bernardino, Santa Barbara and other California counties will send exhibits.

November 28, 1915, San Diego Union, Automobile Section, 4:1. Motor Day events at Fair please spectators; more than 100 automobiles in parade; gymkhana program interesting.

November 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:5. Panama-Pacific Exposition at San Francisco will pass into history Saturday, December 4.

November 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:1. Destroyers await call to Mexico, but practice.

November 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:1. Panama canal costs more than receipts during month of September; shortage amounts to more then $63,000, Balboa report says.

November 30, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:2. Although Arizona was not represented at the Exposition this year with a state building or an exhibit, it is considered likely the state will exhibit at the 1916 exposition.

November 30, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4-6. Samuel Gompers, chief American Federation of Labor, spoke at Germania Hall last night; visited Exposition yesterday; scorns Labor Party idea.

November 30, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:5-6. Renewed Yaqui raids feared by Americans.

November 30, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. U.S. to land men at Topolobampo, orders show; Admiral Winslow calls for destroyers and mother shipIris; tug Iroquois arrives; marines and bluejackets to be taken from cruiser by smaller craft.

November 30, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:4. Fred B. Gooding, former governor of Idaho, here to visit Fair.

December 1, 1915, 1:6, San Diego Sun, 1:6. Free gate at Exposition December 20, the day Exposition stockholders turn over to the Park Board the equipment and property of the Exposition.

December 1, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:8. Fine exhibits signed for 1916 Fair.

December 1, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:2. Concessionaires and exhibitors have arranged with Exposition this morning to have free admission for the public tomorrow night; special attractions on Isthmus; prizes for best Yama-Yama costume.

December 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:6. Arizona planning 1915 Fair exhibit; meetings held in Yuma and Phoenix; committee named to consider subject.

Arizona is planning to exhibit at the 1916 Panama-California Exposition according to newspaper reports in Arizona.

A movement to participate in the 1916 Fair was first started at Yuma and later a meeting was held and an organization perfected at a meeting held at Phoenix. The Arizona legislature turned down the plan of exhibiting at the 1915 Exposition.

December 2, 1915, San Diego Sun, 5:3. Lady Aberdeen to lecture here in service hall of Exposition next Tuesday; Marchioness of Aberdeen; Marquis of Aberdeen formerly governor-general of Canada and later Viceroy of India; admission will be charged and proceeds given to Aberdeen fund; fund used for civic betterment.

December 2, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:6. Davidson says Canadian, Italian, French, Chinese, Swiss and Russian exhibits will be sent from San Francisco for 1916 Fair; Philippines asked; Honolulu, New Zealand, Australia willing; millions involved.

That a 1916 continuation of the Panama-California Exposition at San Diego is assured, that it will be better from the standpoint of exhibits than during 1915, and that San Diego has the undivided support of the entire state, was the enthusiastic declaration of President G. A. Davidson, who returned last night from San Francisco and Los Angeles, where he transacted business concerning next year’s venture.

“The fact that Los Angeles residents are behind San Diego morally and financially has broadened feeling throughout the state and has brought about that hearty spirit of friendliness which could not have been obtained any other way,” Davidson said. “The action of Los Angeles is the talk of the North and San Francisco and smaller cities of the northern end of the state have joyfully climbed on the wagon, and San Diego’s 1916 Fair is being boosted on every side.

Hearty Reception Everywhere

“Never have I experienced so hearty a reception in my efforts for San Diego. Everybody from high officials to clerks at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, are working to help us land some of the bigger exhibits. Thousands of people will see these exhibits at San Diego next year who were disappointed in not getting to visit San Francisco during 1915. Mayor E. M. Capps, H. L. Penfold, and L. G. Lewis are still in San Francisco, and they are having fine success in lining up exhibits.

“We have landed the Canadian exhibit, one of the best of the kind ever made. We have obtained the great Italian exhibit, which after January 1 will be housed in the Foreign Arts Building at the Panama-California Exposition, occupying that entire structure. Prospects for the French exhibit are rosy, and it is not at all unlikely that this exhibit, which really must be seen to be appreciated, will occupy the California Quadrangle. With these three exhibits, the finest of their kind, and many smaller but equally important ones, our Fair next year will have exhibits better than we could have hoped had it not been for the closing of the San Francisco Exposition and the splendid cooperation of officials of that Fair and of those at the heads of the different government exhibits.

“Another exhibit which we are hoping to obtain is that entered by the Philippine Islands. This is an exhibit we must have if possible. We have asked the Philippine legislature for an appropriation of $30,000, the amount the removal and operation should cost during 1916.

Cooperation Widespread

“What pleases me most of all the successes which have come to San Diego is the new feeling toward the city and the city’s enterprise. Everybody seems tumbling over themselves to help in every way possible, and it was because of this assistance that we have been so successful in getting the exhibits. This new feeling is evidenced in San Francisco as well as Los Angeles.

“The appropriation of $150,000 from Los Angeles is practically subscribed, and, as is well known, $75,000 of this amount is in cash. The nine Los Angeles men who are to act as directors in 1916 will come to San Diego within ten days, and the first meeting of the new organization will be held.

“The board will consist of thirty-one members, nine to be from Los Angeles and the remainder to be San Diegans. We will file our articles of incorporation within a few days, and, as soon as we receive our charter from the state department at Sacramento, we will be in a position to move things along faster than they have moved up to this time.

Exhibits Worth Millions

“Other exhibits practically assured are the Chinese, Swiss, Netherlands and Russian. The exhibits are worth several million dollars. As the time is short, the exhibits will be housed in structures already erected. It is possible that one or more additional buildings will be erected, but not probable.

“Commercial exhibits are being secured easily as manufacturers are realizing that at San Diego during 1916, an excellent opportunity will be presented for advertising. Displays will be made by Honolulu, South Sea Islands, New Zealand and Australia. The California counties now housing exhibits at the Fair will undoubtedly continue them. In each instance they are already planning on removing the best of their 1915 exhibits at San Francisco to San Diego for 1916. These exhibits will be enlarged. Tourists will have an excellent opportunity to study all California by visiting the different county exhibits.

“The railroad and steamship lines have been awaiting the signal for a definite decision, and now that the Fair is assured they are preparing their advertising to gather the 1916 business and also to direct pleasure and home seekers to San Diego. I am unable to praise too strongly the assistance from outside which is coming to San Diego for the new endeavor, and as San Diegans travel about the state from this time on, they will notice the marked change in the attitude of the people.”

Whether Balboa Park is to be under the jurisdiction of the city of San Diego during 1916 is a question to be settled at a meeting of the Exposition stockholders to be held at the California building, December 20 at 10 a.m. The directors at a recent meeting adopted a resolution of conveyance, and the stockholders will be asked to ratify the action.

Care of the buildings and grounds will be vested in the Park Commission, the care of the streets will be left to the Street Department, and control of the grounds will be under the jurisdiction of the Police Department, if the transfer is made.

Resolution To Be Acted Upon

Following is the resolution to be voted on at the stockholders’ meeting:

“Resolved that it is the sense of this corporation that it transfer and convey to the Board of Park Commissioners of the City of San Diego and the inhabitants thereof the equipment, buildings, concessions, nursery stock in the warehouse, stock in store room, stock in the service station, supplies in the hospital, furniture and fixtures, excepting those in the Cristobal Café, and all personal property of which this corporation may be possessed, situated in the Exposition grounds in Balboa Park in said City of San Diego, excepting pro-rata or short-rate insurance, telephone salvage, cash on hand or in bank accounts and notes receivable judgments, ethnology exhibit, archaeology exhibit and anthropology exhibit. And that the consideration for such transfer and conveyance be the water furnished this corporation by the City of San Diego from the date of its incorporation and organization until the 31st day of December 1915, and the services rendered this corporation by the said Board of Park Commissioners of the said City of San Diego; and for the further consideration that the said City of San Diego and the said Board of Park Commissioners of the City of San Diego release and exonerate this corporation from all duty of liability in connection with the removal of any buildings, property or other goods and chattels owned by this corporation, for the removal of which this corporation is now liable, and shall release and exonerate this corporation from any liability which may now or hereafter exist to restore any portion of the grounds within the said Exposition in any manner whatsoever.

“Said transfer and conveyance to be subject to such contracts of occupancy as exist at this time and which shall not be disturbed by the said City of San Diego or the said Board of Park Commissioners of the City of San Diego, and that a special meeting of the stockholders of this corporation be called for Monday, the 29th day of December 1915, at 10 o’clock a.m. of said day at the office and principal place of business in the California building on the Exposition grounds in said Balboa Park in the City of San Diego, California for the purpose of considering and settling upon the matters and things referred to in this resolution and to transact such other business as may lawfully come before the meeting.”

December 2, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:6. Exposition gates open for all tonight; admission free fist time; children admitted without price in afternoon; big celebration planned; Yama-Yama carnival to make Isthmus gay; December 20 free day too.

December 2, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:5-6. Exposition attendance last moth 149,066; since opening 1,936,353; November daily average 4,969; prediction is that 2,000,000 mark will be passed.

December 2, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:6. Exposition flora to be exploited next Saturday, December 4; San Diego Floral Association will act as hosts on special day; rose garden near Laurel Street gate, canna field in the rear of the California building in gorgeous bloom.

December 2, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:6. Fourth contest party at Fair; Denver man escorts winners of Catholic paper competition; 1916 trips plan..

December 3, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:2. Park line to be built by San Diego Electric Company; Clayton so indicates in a letter; asks to abandon University Boulevard line; completion of electric line through city park to El Cajon Avenue and thence to El Cajon held up because of jitney bus competition.

December 3, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:5. City will pay its tribute as San Francisco Exposition ends; whistles to blow; San Diego Electric Railway cars to stop for 60 seconds at noon tomorrow as Fair closes.

December 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2. Home phone company head to leave on business-pleasure trip; pledges Fair boost in East.

December 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:4. Free admission attracts crowd; thousands visit Exposition without paying; Isthmus ruled by gaiety.

December 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:6. Vegetation study at Fair planned for Saturday, December 4; tour of grounds under competent instructors Floral Day feature; children’s fee cut; reception will be held in Women’s Headquarters, California Building.

December 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Utah, New Mexico, Montana and Kansas to make exhibits at 1916 Fair.

December 3, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:4. Free admission attracts crowd.

Several thousand took advantage of free admission to the Panama-California Exposition las night and the cafes and Isthmus concessions enjoyed a thriving business. Concessionaires had engaged a band and it played during the evening on the joy street. A costume parade had been arranged, but there were only a few who appeared.

People began pouring through the gates immediately after 6 p.m. when the free admission began. Children had been admitted free since 1 p.m.

It was one of the largest night crowds in several weeks and everyone seemed to enjoy himself. Concessionaires had arranged a number of interesting free attractions, and the throng distributed itself impartially among the different places of amusement.

December 4, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:2-3. Lady Aberdeen will lecture at 3 p.m., Tuesday, in the public service hall of the Exposition; her subject will be “The Triumph of Civic Awakening”; Lord Aberdeen will also be heard on “Reminiscences of a Viceroy”; admission with be 50 cents.

December 4, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:5. San Joaquin exhibit stays; Monday, December 6, will be “Utah Celery Day,” celery to be given to visitors at Utah building in afternoon.

December 4, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:1. Tribute to Fair in North will be paid; stop street cars, sound whistles, ring bells, Davidson’s request; Wilson toast pledged; celebration of closing of San Francisco Exposition planned today.

December 4, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:2. French government plans 1916 Fair exhibit; representatives make trip to report on situation.

December 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. San Francisco Fair passes into history as bugler sounds taps; 416,000 say farewell.

December 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:6. San Diego shares in celebration of Fair’s close.

December 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:1. Advertising in United States and Canadian newspapers for 1916 Fair; railways ready for launching campaign.

December 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Exposition During 1916.

San Diego is to be congratulated on the successful outcome of the movement to continue the Exposition during the coming year. Arrangements to that end have now been virtually perfected. The financing of the project for 1916 has been accomplished. Plans for making the Exposition far more attractive than the present one have been crowned with success, and all has been achieved without any blowing of trumpets. In fact, the preparations for continuing San Diego as an Exposition City during the coming year have been made so quietly and in so matter-of-fact a manner than it may be doubted that the average citizen realizes the immense advantage than San Diego will derive from the project. To those who will give thought to the subject, however, it will probably be apparent that this city will be in much greater measure the gainer by the Exposition of 1916 than it has be that of the year just drawing to a close.

In the first place, the Exposition of 1916 will have every attraction that the present one has. More than that, it will have many new features that will render it more interesting. Much that is best of the San Francisco World’s Fair that has just closed will be brought to San Diego. Foreign countries that have exhibited so lavishly at the northern Exposition are apparently only too willing to transfer their most beautiful displays to San Diego. As a result, the Exposition here will become officially “international,” a term that could hardly have been applied to it during the past year. In a word, the scope of the San Diego Exposition will be much larger than was originally contemplated. It will be more attractive and in every way better.

Viewed from the attendance and the pleasing comments of the visitors, the Exposition that is soon to close must be regarded as a great success. That which will open on January 1, 1916, will be even more successful, unless present indications are wholly misleading. There are the best of reasons for believing that the tide of travel to the Pacific coast next year will rise higher than ever. Europe is no longer open to the tourist, and promises to be closed for some time to come. Those who seek pleasure by travel will perforce yield to the mandate, “See American first,” and California will appeal irresistibly to these people. Besides, plenty of money always promotes travel. Stupendous fortunes are being made all over the East out of war contracts, and the gains are fairly well distributed. The lion’s share may go to the principal owners of the large industrial plants that are now working night and day. But the stockholders, of whom there are many, will also receive substantial profits. Then there is another source of wealth that has scarcely a precedent — the combination of bumper crops and top prices for farm products. The American agriculturist will be on “East Street” next year — in fact, he is already there. In brief, so far as it is possible to forecast the future from the present, an abundance of ready money will marvelously stimulate travel westward. And those who journey to the coast will visit the San Diego Exposition, which has become a household word the country over.

The decision to keep the Exposition open during 1916 and to add to its attractiveness was a wise one. San Diego and all Southern California will profit enormously thereby.

December 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:7. Description of Bell Telephone exhibit which is coming from San Francisco Fair; Company promises San Diego-New York talks; 600 instruments due; talking motion picture will be among features scheduled for Fair.

December 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:8. Celery will be free at Exposition Monday, December 6; Utah to celebrate triumph in producing bumper crops.

December 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:3-4. Aberdeen’s visit, event; greeting awaits titled pair; reception will be given social workers by Women’s Board at Exposition; society leaders enthusiastic over couple’s coming.

December 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 10:3-4. Thirty in Yama-Yama contest; prize given for costume.

December 6, 1915, San Diego Sun. Just 18,875, 974 saw Panama-Pacific Exposition; Wreckers are busy removing ruins in San Francisco.

December 6, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2. 18,871,857 total attendance at San Francisco Fair.

December 6, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:6. Article in Philadelphia Record says San Diego’s Fair is the most artistic ever arranged; description of Liberty Bell visit.

December 6, 1915, San Diego Sun, 9:4. Just 18,875,974 saw San Francisco Exposition; daily average for ten months was 65,541 according to the Department of Admissions.

December 6, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:6. Philadelphia newspapers give San Diego Exposition a boost; description of visit by Liberty Bell.

December 7, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:7-8, 9:2. Lord and Lady Aberdeen interested in the betterment of the health, morals and industries of Irish people; fought for pure milk and elimination of tuberculosis among Irish people.

December 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:6. San Diego Fair will get entire Canadian exhibit from San Francisco; $100,000 French pavilion, which was a reproduction of the Palace of Honor at Paris, at San Francisco Exposition sold to a wrecking company for $2,000..

December 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:1. A. E. Smith, manager of apple exhibit at Fair, say Northwest citizens will come here in 1916.

December 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:1. Aberdeens in city today.

December 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:3. Celery of Utah given to Exposition visitors yesterday.

December 8, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:3. Council passes resolution today urging Kettner to do everything in his power to induce the government to accept San Diego’s offer of the “Dutch Flats” for a naval base.

December 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3. Lord and Lady Aberdeen were guests of honor at Exposition; laud Exposition, plead for fund to assist Irish children; Lord Aberdeen reminiscences about his public career in lecture.

December 8, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:1. Christmas number of Trolleyman, official organ of San Diego Electric Railway, has article about history of San Diego Exposition..

December 9, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:2, 7:6. Mayor Capps say 1916 Fair to be finest in world; returned to city late yesterday from a two-week sojourn in San Francisco.

December 9, 1915, San Diego Weekly Union, 4:3-4. EDITORIAL: The Exposition of 1916.

December 9, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:4. Fair will be free to all at Christmas; Exposition pledges aid for Shriners during morning of festive day.

December 10, 1915, Minutes of Board of Park Commissioners.

Resolved that ground now used by Fourth Regiment be leased to Navy Department for five years at a yearly rental of one dollar per year.

Similar resolution also adopted regarding the First U.S. Cavalry.

Vote of thanks to the officers and enlisted men of the Fourth Regiment for the manner in which they participated in the San Diego Exposition.

Invitation extended for entire Regiment to encamp on the ground now occupied by the Second Battalion and on such additional ground as may be available for their use during 1916.

Secretary of the Navy requested to continue camp of the Fourth Regiment, U.S. Marines, now located in Balboa Park and to have First Battalion, now in San Francisco, encamped with Second Battalion during 1916.

December 10, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:2. Mayor Capps says best of exhibits to come south; greater portion of United States exhibits at San Francisco Exposition assured.

December 10, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:2. Forester Fair exhibit for San Diego plan.

December 11, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4. Amos Weed, pioneer and forty-niner, presents gold cradle to California Historical Society; exhibited at Fair.

December 11, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:3. Tickets for 1916 Fair ready as gifts for Christmas.

With the title changed to “Panama-California International Exposition,” San Diego’s Dream City will begin its second year one minute after midnight, January 1, 1916, and continue open throughout the year. The rearrangement of old exhibits and the installation of new ones will be accomplished in one building at a time, so that no interruption to the Exposition’s life will occur.

At a meeting yesterday of the special committee appointed by Mayor Capps to plan for the new Exposition, arrangements were made to issue certificates of purchase, representing annual tickets of admission, so that they may be used as Christmas presents and exchanged later, as the engravers have not delivered the tickets for next year.

A scale of prices for the tickets also was fixed, as follows: For adults, $10; for children between the ages of five and sixteen, $5; no charge will be made for children under five years.

It is expected that within a week the list of incorporators will be completed and the new board of directors elected.

It was announced at yesterday’s meeting of the committee that A. H. Ford of Hawaii, representative of the organization back of the Panama-Pacific Exposition at San Francisco, had arrived in San Diego to look over the situation and to arrange for a comprehensive exhibit here in 1916.

The countries included in the organization are Hawaii, a portion of Australia, Japan, China, New South Wales, New Zealand, Queensland, British Columbia, Alaska, the states of Washington, Oregon and California, and some of the Latin American countries on the Pacific coast.

The Philippine Islands are figuring on bringing their exhibit from San Francisco. This exhibit was second only, perhaps, to that of Canada in size and interest. The Philippine legislature has been asked to appropriate $20,000 to remove the exhibit to San Diego.

Those present at the meeting yesterday were Mayor Capps, G. A. Davidson, president of the Panama-California Exposition, H. J. Penfold, secretary, James MacMullen, John F. Forward, Jr., Sam Porter, Carl Ferris, Colonel Fred Jewell, and Charles T. Chandler of the park board.

December 11, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:3. Title of Exposition was changed to Panama-California International Exposition; fair tickets for 1916 are ready.

December 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:2-4. New York will talk to Fair; 1916 invitations awaiting notables; demonstrations of transcontinental telephone service beginning Monday, December 13.

December 13, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:5-6. Mrs. Mary Linck Evans, mezzo-soprano, to sing at Exposition tomorrow and Wednesday afternoons.

December 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4. Chilly New York phones; Mayor Capps tells of balmy San Diego; hundreds hear wire talk; novel telephone conversation feature of day at Exposition.

December 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:6. Duplicates of the jewels which shone on the Tower of Jewels at San Francisco will be purchased to be hung on tower of California Building; electric scintillator to illuminate tower at night according to Irvin G. Lewis.

December 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:1. Annual tickets for 1916 were cut to half price; Mayor declares move will double Exposition attendance next year; low price will induce hundreds to purchase all over South; adult $5.00 and children $2.50 for annual tickets.

December 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:6. Kettner to press exhibit measure; balance of San Francisco appropriation amounting to $86,868.51 sought for San Diego Fair.

December 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:1. “Rainmaker” gets contract from city to fill Morena reservoir for $10,000.

December 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:4. Carols to float over Fair at night; three quartets will sing Christmas songs for hour; organists will aid.

December 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:1. Davidson to announce 1916 Fair plans at Chamber of Commerce luncheon today.

December 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:6. United States Fair exhibit to start south next week; Weather Bureau display of government also will be shown here.

December 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:3. Mrs. Mary Linck Evans, Alhambra woman, gave recital at Organ Pavilion between showers; will sing again today.

December 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:2-3. President Davidson tells plans for 1916 Exposition to Chamber of Commerce.

“A word as to the exhibits coming here from the San Francisco Exposition. The Canadian exhibit, probably is the finest ever constructed and is the result of 15 years of exhibit building, Canada having displayed her products at every international or other great fair wherever possible. Colonel Hutchinson, who is in charge of Canada’s exhibit, was brought to San Diego and when he went away he was a booster of this city. The entire Canadian exhibit will be displayed here during the next year.

“The exhibit from France is priceless, including the rich treasures from the Luxembourg exhibit, and was the greatest from an artistic standpoint at the San Francisco Fair. The matter of sending it to San Diego is now up to the government officials in Paris. The French Exposition commissioners are unanimously in favor of its coming and I consider the chances most excellent.

“The fine exhibit of Italian art, consisting of marbles, bronzes and tapestries, will occupy an entire building, and the delegation from the Pan-Pacific countries asks for another building.

“We are also assured of the splendid Netherlands exhibit of pottery, and Russia asked for an entire building to display the 50 or 60 cases which arrived too late for installation at San Francisco and have been stored over since they arrived. It has been found impossible to comply with the request, and an arrangement probably will be made to house the exhibit of Russia, Switzerland and Spain under one roof.

“Central and South American countries — Brazil, Argentina and Guatemala — will be represented, including the Marimba ban from the latter country.

“I am anxious to have the Philippine exhibit, which was next to Canada’s in point of interest, and will include the constabulary band. The Philippine legislature, now in session, has been asked for an appropriation of $30,000 to defray the expenses of removing and maintaining the exhibit, including a four-month’s stay of the band. Secretary of War Garrison is in favor of having the exhibit come here.

“The U.S. Government had the finest display from its various departments — navy, fisheries, weather bureau, war, commerce and industry, and interior departments it has ever made, and all this will be removed to San Diego, probably coming on the Mars, which sails about December 20.”

December 16, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:3-4. Davidson announces plans; loud bang will open Exposition for 1916; naval pageant on San Diego bay in which the U.S. cruiser San Diego, the Oregon, other ships of the Pacific fleet, torpedo boats, submarines, etc. will take part; fireworks; speech by Governor Hiram Johnson; music by half a dozen bands; concert; carnival.

December 16, 1915, San Diego Herald, 1:2. Exposition Christmas.

December 16, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:3-4. Loud bang will open Exposition for 1916.

December 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:4. Cross-country phone at Exposition popular.

December 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:5. French Fair exhibit commission to arrive; removal of display for 1916 Exposition will be considered today.

December 16, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:6. Reopening of Panama canal in two months predicted; 1,250,000 cubic yards removed monthly from slide in Gaillard cut, says reports.

December 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:2. Commissioner, soon to leave for Paris, favors French exhibit at 1915 Fair.

December 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:3. Fair exhibits bill to be rushed in House; measure transferring government display to San Diego passes Senate.

December 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 16:1. Fair ticket sale to begin tomorrow.

December 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:7. Fair exhibit act passed by House; transfer government display, $80,000 fund here lacks only President’s signature.

December 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:1. City of San Diego budget estimate for 1916 nears 2 million mark; Taxpayers’ Association busy with plans to keep levy down.

December 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:1. Railroad boost for great Fair in 1916 pledged; Southern Pacific behind San Diego.

December 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Mighty welcome to rise at Fair when 1916 dawns.

December 19, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3. Russian exhibits for Fair arrive from Bay City.

December 19, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:3. Stage set for big Christmas tree at Fair; celebration to be given under direction of Women’s Board of Exposition; stage setting at Spreckels Organ Pavilion depicts birth of Christ and coming of wise men.

December 19, 1915, San Diego Union, 12:4-5. Samuel Slack, English gardener, explains secret of blooming roses.

December 19, 1915, San Diego Union, III, 3:2-3. Carnival to ring out old Fair, ring in new.

December 19, 1915, San Diego Union, III, 5:1-2. Contributions for Shriners’ Christmas treat for needy pouring into headquarters; distribution to be made Friday, December 25; kiddies’ celebration at Fair arranged at 10:30 a.m. Christmas day; stocking presents will be given to children at Organ Pavilion and then they will be taken to Isthmus.

December 20, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:5-6. Stockholders’ Day draws big crowds.

December 20, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:2. Sixty-foot pine from Cuyamaca ready for Christmas; difficulties overcome in bringing tree to Fair; will be in front of organ; festivities set for Christmas morning; hundreds of little red stockings containing candy and toys to be given to needy children who will be admitted free to grounds before noon.

December 20, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:1. Warships to aid New Year’s fete if request made; battleship Oregon. Cruisers South Dakota andMilwaukee here.

December 21, 1915, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners

A committee from the San Diego Museum Association, consisting of G. W. Marston, W. T. Johnson, E. F. Smith, R. C. Allen and Dr. Hewett appeared before the Board; exhibits in the Science of Man building and the Indian Arts building had been presented to the Association.

Marston wants Science of Man building set aside for the Association by 1916 Exposition officials; granted; wants use of California and Fine Arts buildings after close of 1916 Exposition; no objection by Board.

Hewett wants New Mexico building, Indian Village and room in California Quadrangle as laboratory of the Anthropological Station at San Diego; no objection by Board if arrangements can be made and no costs to Board; lease to buildings could be granted subject to a vote of the people ratified by the State Legislature.

December 21, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:3-6. Monster Shriners’ tree, 70-feet high, to be placed on Exposition grounds where Santa Claus will give thousands of stocking gifts to San Diego kiddies on Christmas day; admission up to noon will be free to everybody; tree will stand just north of organ; after gifts have been handed out, Shriners’ band will lead kiddies to Isthmus; Christmas carols will be sung and anthems played on organ in afternoon; birth of Christ in the manger will be stage setting at the organ.

December 21, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:3. Exposition to cost city $100,000; that amount is asked in budget for police upkeep and repairs; $64,000 for upkeep of Exposition grounds by the Board of Park Commissioners; $27,000 asked by Police Department; $7,200 for repair of streets.

December 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3-4, 5:2. Debt-free Exposition was turned over to city; stockholders voted to turn their interest in Fair over to city; Davidson and Belcher honored at outdoor meeting of stockholders in California Quadrangle; stockholders agree to give a silver service to Davidson and Belcher.

December 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3-4. Gist of important business transacted by Fair stockholders; $200,000 stock unpaid.

December 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:1. Captain C. P. Wright named assistant Chief of Police.

The Council passed a resolution to the effect that the guardhouse and quarters of the Balboa guards at the Exposition should be turned over to the city police department.

December 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 6:1. Salt-Lake Route Union-Pacific exhibit to be continued here in 1916.

December 21, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 11:1. Friends advise L. J. Wilde to make Congress race; former banker will if all parties combine on him.

December 21, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 11:3. “Free day” lured big crowd to Fair yesterday.

December 21, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 11:4. Council bars jitneys from operating on Fifth Street.

December 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:1. Nine warships to pass Christmas in Port of Sun; navy vessels’ guns will roar greeting as 1916 Exposition is opened.

December 23, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:4. Davidson will be reelected at a meeting of the directors Monday, December 20, it was announced today.

December 23, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:1. District Attorney Marsh issues order to close Spanish cantina dance hall on Isthmus at once; gambling discovered.

December 23, 1915, San Diego Sun, 10:3. New Year’s Eve celebration at Exposition; 500 aerial bombs, costing close to $2,000 will be discharged; three bands to pay on the Isthmus.

December 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:5. Articles filed to incorporate Fair yesterday in County Clerk’s office.

December 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:5. Marines guests today at “War of the Worlds”; Manager John H. Whitaker feels their services and demeanor entitle them to his recognition.

December 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1. Fair Christmas tree branches stripped from one side during move; new branches attached by workmen; tree a gift of San Diego Consolidated Gas & Electric Company; quartets to sing from balconies of Home Economy, Science of Man and Indian Arts buildings from 7 p.m. to 8 p.m. at Exposition, Saturday, December 25.

December 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:4-5. Fair Christmas tree damaged; repaired by branches.

December 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 16:3. Five hundred aerial bombs to explode to make close of 1915 Fair; $7,000 set aside for celebration.

December 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3. Christmas tree put up; Christmas carols sung at celebration.

December 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:3. Miss Edna Forler, San Diego girl, to blow biggest siren whistle in world to usher in New Year’s Eve celebration and opening of 1916 Exposition; whistle will be mounted on standard between Isthmus and Alameda County building.

December 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:1. Stream of Fair exhibits flowing south.

December 25, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:7-8, 2:3. Joyous day is celebrated here.

December 25, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:1. Kettner writes of his work for Fair and citrus growers.

Congressman “Bruder” Bill Kettner is doing his mightiest to obtain a cent on citrus fruits for the growers of his district. The difficulties he has to encounter and the strenuous efforts he is making to protect the industries he represents are revealed in a very touching tone that is heard a moment only in a letter to an intimate friend.

“If only our good citrus people,” he writes, “would put in one-tenth of the time getting me the information I want so I can make a showing before the committee, that is put in abusing me as “a free-trade Democrat,” I have more than a fighting chance to secure the relief they are asking for.”

Before Kettner left for Washington he asked for data and often expressed regrets that clear and convincing facts and figures were hard to obtain, principally because an organized effort was lacking to that end. He was busy entertaining notables in national affairs to make them acquainted with the needs of his district and he often went deep into his own pockets to meet the expenses. He had hardly the time to go into explicit details, which are necessary to meet every argument, and he asked and prayed that growers, who are most concerned, combine to formulate their needs so that he would be prepared with the proper ammunition for the battle in which he was to become engaged.

Expense Too Much

Kettner again declares emphatically in his letter that he will not be a candidate for congress and gives a number of sound business reasons for his decision. The natural goodness in him is so big that it oozes through his prose at times and in his broad, generous way he expresses his gratitude to the people who have honored him by entrusting him with their interests in national affairs, and his hope, too, that he will always be of service to them; but the expense of it all is more than he can bear, and he feels that in justice to himself and his associates in business, he must retire to private life and give more time to the little pewter teapot in which old-fashioned folks hide their savings for their gray-haired years.

Some of the efforts he is putting forth are shown in his homely narrative of the struggles to transfer the remaining $86,000 from the San Francisco Exposition to the San Diego Exposition.

Kettner Tells About It

Kettner’s letter says:

“Now, for a little straight talk. The other day I sent you the bill I had introduced for $86,000 to be transferred from San Francisco to the San Diego Fair. Yesterday at noon the committees were appointed; at 3 o’clock I got hold of the chairman of the committee, Mr. Cantril, and after an hour’s talk, he agreed to call his committee together today at 10:30 and try to get my resolution through the committee. I saw all of the committee last evening and again this morning, and, with the assistance of Charles Curry, of Sacramento, and Will Stephens, of Los Angeles, we finally go eight of the fifteen members, just a quorum.

“After discussing pros and cons, believe me, for a while I thought they were going to turn us down, because $86,000 looks pretty big with the treasury $42,000,000 behind and a “preparedness” budget on our hands, they finally passed it unanimously. I then hiked over to the Senate and asked Senator Phelan if he would not get a move on it over there. He said he would, but there is an old saying, ‘If you want anything done, do it yourself,’ on which I acted.

Did It Himself

“I interviewed every senator on the committee and my old friend Senator Martine, chairman of the committee, whom we entertained last summer, promised me he would try to get the bill out tomorrow. Mr. Underwood, another friend, who is now a senator, Senator Overman and Senator Myers of Montana promised to give it their personal attention, while all of the others stated they saw no objection in passing the bill. Incidentally, it is promised that the bill will be sent over to the house immediately. I can then get our friend, the speaker, Mr. Clark, to hold it on his desk, instead of sending it again t the house committee. He will then recognize me and I will make a motion to substitute the senate resolution for my bill, and in that way I expect to get it through tomorrow or the next day.

His Homely Simile

“If I take my bill up first, I shall have to get unanimous consent and out of 435 members there is always one crank. This is the plan to get quick legislation on this bill. It reminds me of a mule I used to own, when I wanted him to get into the barn, I would have to back him in.

“With kindest regards to you and yours, I am

Yours faithfully,


“PS Hurrah! My plan for the exposition bill has worked like a charm until now. It is on the speaker’s desk waiting for this war emergency bill to be disposed of before he can recognize me.”

December 25, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:2. Theosophical Society buys Kansas building

Madame Katherine Tingley has purchased the Kansas building at the Panama-California Exposition and will establish the 1916 headquarters of the Theosophical Society there, it was announced yesterday by Frank Knoche, her business manager.

The State of Kansas decided a few days ago not to continue its exhibit at the Exposition next year.

The Theosophical exhibit, which is now in the Science of Man building, will be transferred to the new quarters. The exhibit during the coming year will contain a number of paintings and examples of arts and crafts work which could not be exhibited during 1915 because of lack of space.

The interior of the new quarters will be redecorated in a style appropriate to the exhibit.

December 25, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:1. Exhibits sent from San Francisco to San Diego for Fair described.

December 25, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 9:2-4. Mme. Schumann-Heink will lift voice in opening ceremonies at Fair on New Year’s Day; “Lark Ellen” to sing too.

December 26, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3, 3:3. Christmas carols set hearts aglow; thousands listen to old songs at night in San Diego’s Dream City.

December 26, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:3-6. 4,500 children gladdened at Shriners’ Christmas tree on Exposition grounds.

December 27, 1915, San Diego Sun, 12:1. Every show on the Isthmus is going to be free to all New Year’s Eve. There are $3.25 worth of them at regular admissions; day’s admission of 50 cents for adults will be continued at night; cabaret entertainment at Cristobal Café will feature a “Follies” show, quarters, megaphone trio, Spanish singers and dancers, Madame Santone and her orchestra, Oriental dancers, and tableau depicting the passage of the old year and the dawn of 1916.

December 27, 1915, San Diego Sun, 12:5. Famous “Clansmen” shown at Cabrillo.

December 27, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:1. Free night on Isthmus brings hearty approval for farewell 1915 celebration; permits to children, adults “without string,” rides on devices without limit; comedy boxing carnival planned by newsboys.

December 27, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:6-7. Enos Marshall, chairman of the National Parks Commission of the American Civic Association, says 600,000 will urge big park betterment in United States; George W. Marston, San Diego, member National Parks Committee.

December 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:5. State gave charter for Fair yesterday.

December 29, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:3. Davidson elected last night to be president of Exposition in 1916 by unanimous vote.

December 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4. Frank A. Hezelbaker, Montana exposition commissioner, says 1916 Fair will get cream of exhibits.

December 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:6, 4:7. Six out of nine Los Angeles directors are at first session of Board last night; Davidson to head 1916 Fair; other officers selected.

December 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:1-3. Old Fair will honor military bodies at “closing program”; diplomas to be presented to Cavalry, Marines and Coast Artillery Corps in recognition of their service toward making the 1915 Exposition a success; ceremony to be held at 3:45 p.m. in Plaza de Panama on December 31; a salvo of aerial bombs will announce beginning of “free joy” on Isthmus at 6 p.m.; patrons will become owners of dolls that were sold at from $3.00 to $7.75 at the Fair grounds throughout the year at a “doll scramble” arranged for Café Cristobal.

December 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:6. President Davidson praises Women’s Board; last session is held.

December 30, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:8. $40,000 to be asked for Exposition in taxes; special levy proposed by Council; will be submitted soon; money is in addition to $96,000 allowed by charter.

December 30, 1915, San Diego Sun, 9:1. Ready to close Ol’ Man 1915; Exposition plans complete; great crowds expected here.

December 30, 1915, San Diego Sun, 9:2-3. Closing Exposition Program.

December 30, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:3-4. Rush on for Cristobal reservations; “Broadway Follies,” a girl show, to be held; flock of pretty girls to dance at Fair as old year dies.

December 30, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:2. Montana to have big 1916 exhibit; directing commissioner Hazelbaker arrives to arrange farming, mining displays.

December 31, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:7-8, 2:4-6. Howdy, New Year; 1915 Adios; help tear off that lid at Exposition!

December 31, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:4-6. Long before the shrieking of the largest siren whistle in the world and the opening salvo of aerial bombs at 6 o’clock the closing celebration will be underway. At 3:45 p.m., the cavalry, marine corps and Coast Artillery Corps will pass in review in the Plaza de Panama. At 6 o’clock, the din of the big whistle and bombs will announce the opening of the reign of fun and entertainment.

December 31, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:6, 4:8. Merry fete to mark close of 1915 Fair tonight; bombs and big siren will announce celebration opening; elaborate program.

The closing of the Panama-California Exposition tonight will be merely technical. The gates will not be closed until the same date a year in the future, but the Panama-California International Exposition, with new and greater exhibits in the same matchless buildings and grounds will automatically begin as the old one ends.

Elaborate presentations have been made and all is in readiness for the celebration to begin at 6 o’clock p.m. Throughout the day, however, it is expected thousands will pay their last visit to the Exposition as it has been. This is the last day, the last opportunity to go and view the exhibits, more or less familiar, and yet perhaps not wholly known to any one person.

December 31, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:6. Chamber of Commerce praises Fair officials in resolution adopted at meeting.

December 31, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Last Day of the 1915 Exposition.

After a year of success that surpassed the hopes of its most sanguine friends, the Panama-California Exposition comes to an end today, and tomorrow it will be succeeded by the Panama-California International Exposition, which will remain open during the coming year. It is only fitting that the last day of the Exposition of 1915 should be the occasion of festivities that will commemorate the prosperous career of that great enterprise, and an elaborate program to that end has been prepared. It is not doubted that as large and as enthusiastic a throng will be present at the closing ceremonies as was that which witnessed the brilliant opening of the Exposition last New Year’s Day.

The people of San Diego have every reason to entertain kindly sentiments toward the Exposition that is about to close and toward all who have been instrumental in promoting its success. For decades to come there will only be pleasant memories of the great enterprise and of the liberality and courage that made it possible in spite of conditions that were for a time almost disheartening. Of course, it is usual to base on hard commercialism estimates of the success of an enterprise of this sort. Thus regarded, the Panama-California Exposition can be truthfully said to have more than realized the expectations of its promoters. But had the large attendance been many times greater and the receipts correspondingly larger, the pecuniary advantage thus gained would be a small matter in comparison with the great services that the Exposition has rendered to the people of San Diego. It has given them an impressive object lesson of the fact that by working in harmony and courageously surmounting obstacles they can achieve results of which a much larger and wealthier community might well be proud. Scarcely less important has been the service that the Exposition has rendered by making San Diego and its advantages known to tens of thousands of persons who previously, perhaps, scarcely knew how to pronounce the city’s name. They have been here in multitudes during the past year, and there is reason to believe that they were as charmed with San Diego as with the most beautiful Exposition ever held in the United States.

The people of San Diego should be present as a community at Balboa Park today and tonight. The occasion may well be one of the carnival festivities that are planned to celebrate a triumphant success. Tears were shed, it is reported, when the San Francisco World’s Fair closed its doors. There will be none at the passing of the San Diego Exposition of 1915. For it will renew itself under its broader title during the year to come — the same Exposition, but more comprehensive in scope, and, if possible, more beautiful than before.

December 31, 1915, San Diego Union, 5:4. Santa Barbara Chamber of Commerce in favor of sending exhibit to San Diego for 1916 Exposition.


(Sources for the most part unknown.)

Department of Commerce and Labor Bureau of the Census, 13th Census of the United States Taken in the Year 1910, Washington, DC, 1913, p. 63.

San Diego 39,578

Los Angeles 319,198

San Francisco 416,912

Panama-Pacific International Exposition, San Francisco, Calif.

Opened February 20, 1915

Closed December 4, 1915

635 acres

41 nations and 43 states represented

Panama-California (International) Exposition, San Diego, Calif.

Dedication Ceremonies, Midnight, December 31, 1914

Spreckels Organ Dedication, 9:00 p.m.

Cost of organ itself $33,500.

Popular Symphony Orchestra conducted by Chesley Mills.

200-Peoples’ Chorus under direction of Willibalt Lehman sang “The Heavens are Telling” from

Haydn’s The Creation and “Unfold Ye Portals” from Gounod’s Redemption.

Band Concerts by Panama-California Exposition began in Plaza de Panama at 11:00 p.m.

Described as “the only outdoor organ in the world” . . . A big organ at Chautauqua, New York, stood in an open-air pavilion.

Cabrillo Bridge

Work began September 16, 1912

Carpenters, concrete men and steelworkers

Nearly 1,000 feet long, including approaches

40 feet wide with a 24-foot roadway and an 8 foot walk on either side

Highest point above canyon 120 feet


140 acres of main buildings

Alameda and Santa Clara Counties Building

Commerce and Industries (Electric) Building: colored cornice of crimson and gold

Employee cottages: east of Midland Drive.

Fine Arts Building: inlaid wood ceiling on exhibit hall on lower floor.

Indian Village: 10 acres.

International Harvester: 240,000 square feet of space.

Kern and Tulare Counties Building

Mill with a capacity of 8,000 feet of lumber board measurement; built on grounds; equipped with facilities for rip, crosscut, planing and scroll or band sawing; located midway on the grounds.

Nevada Building: cost $40,000 for building and exhibit.

Sacramento Valley Building: imposing pillars along front in back of which was a deep alcove; woodwork within great hall was of burned pine.

Sacramento County










San Joaquin Valley Building

San Joaquin








Southern California Counties Building

Los Angeles

San Bernardino

San Diego




Utah Building: surmounted with two large cupolas in red tile and four smaller pinnacle grouped around them at the corners.


Troops A, B, D and M of First Cavalry occupied a model camp on western slope of Switzer Canyon, east of Isthmus Gate; headquarters, tents, troop streets and stable were located in the vicinity of Indian Village.


Fourth Regiment of U.S. Marines, under command of Colonel J. Pendleton, Jr., stationed in lower plateau; purpose to show the visitor the real life of the American soldier and sailor.


Arizona in 1916 had an exhibit in the Pan-Pacific Building

Australia and New Zealand in 1916 had exhibits in the Pan-Pacific Building

  1. L. Cleveland of Los Angeles exhibited roadgraders, concrete mixers and tractor engines in Tractor Building.

Pioneer Paper Company had exhibit in the Varied Industries Building in which roofing material manufactured by the concern was subjected to intense heat and water to illustrate its lasting qualities under different conditions.

U.S. Forest Service had 600 square foot exhibit in New Mexico Building.


5,000 foot frontage

Captain balloon skyrides, Ferris wheels, merry-go-rounds, roller coasters, Circling the Way, Climbing the Yelps.

Thomas P. Getz – Story of the Missions presented through painted scenery and scenic effects.

Hawaiian Village – native huts, Hawaiian foliage, natives in dress of years ago; women gave the Hula Hula and other dances of the islands; poi, awa and other native drinks and dishes were served; Ernest Kaai, Hawaiian music featured.

New York Motion Picture Studio

Frank Salmon’s Pala Gem Mine – showed how premium stones were found in San Diego County and prepared for market.

West side going north: Alhambra Cafeteria, News Stand and Kelp Goods, Smith & Cowden Candy, Kelly Game, Imperial Art Gallery, Peanuts Pavilion, Exposition Motor Chairs, Neptunes Wonderland, Palaise de Danse, Doll Pavilion, Hawaiian Village, Temple of Mirth, Cider Mill, Carousel, Racing Coaster, Smith & Cowden Candy, Shooting Gallery, Observation Wheel, Panama Canal Extravaganza, Captive Balloon, Painted Desert.

East side going north: War of Worlds, Imperial Concessions Ice Cream, White House Café, Skee Ball, Baseball Game, Cawston Ostrich, Spanish Restaurant, Fresh Fruit, Japanese Street of Joy, German Rotisserie, Gem Mine, California Missions, Panama Film Company, Bean Put, Joy Wheel, Chinatown, Postcard Building, Orange Juice, Cane Pavilion, Motordome, German Rotisserie, Dairy Building, Climbing the Yelps, Deep Sea Diving, Circling Wave.

Grounds & Plants

Brick red bougainvillea clambered up over the arches of the arcades and onto the roof.

Floral rug at lower end of Plaza where at various seasons of the year new blossoms appeared.

Two great cages in Botanical Building from which came the songs of the linnet, the thrush and the canary.

Rows of fig, date, apricot, olive, avocado and apple trees planted in model farm and beneath them rows of

peas, beans, potatoes, artichokes, onions and cabbages.

Acacia baileyana planed in Canyon Espanol.

Nursery: for the large trees a style of box enclosure was devised so one or two sides could be removed easily and the whole box used time and time again; jars and crocks thrown away by hotels and steamship companies were used for small plants.

Farmer and family lived in the model home.

A potpourri rose garden, planted east of the Marine Camp, was in charge of Mrs. Jesse C. Knox.

“Rose trellis” or wire fence surrounded Exposition compound.


Patrolled parking at south and north gates; attendants garbed in a rainbow caballero uniform, assisted in parking and stocked gas and oil while visitors were away.

Only vehicles in grounds – a small motor chair, known as “electriquette,” carried two or three people at a speed of three and a half miles per hour.


Department of Tours of the Chicago, Union Pacific and Northwest Lines operated tours to the California Expositions.

Transcontinental Garage Services Incorporated of San Diego marked highway from San Diego to Kansas City with guideposts directing the tourist to San Diego, arranged for garage and hotel service for motorists along the way, and issued a complete guide along the trail to be available at Kansas City and other places of entry.


Groups of animals scattered throughout Balboa Park

1911 – deer and bear pens located near Cabrillo Bridge on west slopes of Canyon.

1914 – 13 elk kept in a 20-acre enclosure in Canyon running through Howard Tract outside the Exposition grounds

1916 – Group of animals owned by Mission Bay Corporation exhibited opposite Indian Village on Park Boulevard in a series of cages; consisted of lions, tigers, bears and monkeys.


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