Balboa Park History January – June 1916

Note: Because of the large size of the section for 1916, it has been subdivided into two parts.

January to June, 1916 ~ July to December, 1916

January, 1916, California Garden, Vol. 7, No. 7. Monthly Excursion Through Exposition Grounds, by G. R. Gorton.

Adjoining the Southern California Counties’ Building on the north is a replica of an old English formal garden — not of any one in particular, but nevertheless of the type. However, the designer, Captain Gray, says that when he planted the grass strips which form a part of the borders of each flower bed, he had in mind the grass walks in the famous Kew Gardens. Here the grass walks would not be practicable, so the idea was adapted to fit the changed environment.

The symmetrical boxed cypress placed at regular intervals throughout the garden, the formally pruned borders of Crimson Rambler Roses and ofMyrtus communis, the latter suggested the box borders of the old world, together with the Dracaena indivisa set exactly in the center of things, all intensify the formality of design.

The two beds nearest the building are almost entirely of shrubbery, including masses of Hypericum grandiflorum, conspicuous for its clusters of small yellow flowers, now coming into bloom. Salvia splendens is used to furnish a note of bright color in both beds. Besides these two, shrubbery has been used in each of the flower beds to lend a bit of variety.

On the side of the garden is a colorful bed of Penstemon in mixed colors, combined with Blue AgeratumAgathaea coelestis (the tiny blue African daisy). The shrubbery group of this bed contains the variegated form of Veronica Purple QueenDuranta plumieri, the Golden variegated Euonymous, and Arbutus unedo, the Strawberry tree. The bed next adjoining is of Blue Ageratum and Poinsettias, and Alyssum Little Gem, the shrubbery used being Raphiolepsis ovata, the Japanese hawthorn, which, true to its native home, is to other Southern California shrubbery as the Japanese dwarfed Cypress is to the Monterey Cypress.

The last bed on this side contains Zinnias and Dahlias in many colors, later on to be supplemented or succeeded, as the case may be, by Gladiolus,Mrs. Francis King — one of the best. Leptospermum laevigatumVeronica imperialis and Pittosporum viridiflorum occupy the corner of the bed. On the east is a bed of Gertrude Pearson Geraniums, with a similar group of shrubbery. In season, this bed will blossom forth with Gladiolus America. Another bed of Penstemons and Agathaeas adjoins this, varied with a Ficus Australis and the variegated Veronica Purple Queen.

Next south are Gaillardias, the Indian Blanket Flowers, edged with Pyretherum aureum (Golden Feather). This bed will also contain Gladiolus Mrs. King when their time comes.

Again to the south, the bed of Petunias and Shasta Daises will, at Easter time, be augmented by a fine mass of Easter Lilies. This is rather far to look ahead, but it offers the pleasure of anticipation. A large Musa graces the corner, and relieves the planting from being too flat.

A bed nearby is carpeted with Lemon Gazania, well-named Peacock Flower; not that Peacocks are yellow, but because the markings on the base of the petals suggest those on the peacock’s plumage. Grouped around the Phoenix canariensis at the corner of the bed are Veronicas, both the Purple Queen and Imperialis.

The rose beds on the east and partly on the north side of the garden contribute on inconsiderable part to the charm of the whole, and even now make quite a respectable show of bloom, suggestive of what they will be when the warmer months come.

Conifers have been quite extensively used throughout the entire landscaping of the grounds surrounding the building, and there will be found many different species to delight the lovers of this great order of trees.

Under some Cedrus deodara (the Himalayan or Mountain Cedar), Casuarinas, etc., at the northeast corner of the building, the ornamental strawberry (Fragaria repens) has been quite successfully used as a ground cover.

The open court which overlooks the garden is itself a beauty spot. In the corners are grouped Muehlenbeckia platyclados (against the building), flanked with Begonia ororataMme. De Lesseps and others, combined with such ferns as Woodwardia, Pteris tremula, the well-known Nephrolepis tuberosa, etc. The charm of the place is further enhanced by hanging baskets of Asparagus Sprengeri and vases of Rhapis humilis guard the entrance to the building proper.

If the visitor is a lover of gardens, we assume that he has visited this one before entering the building, so he is now ready regretfully to leave the court and proceed to view the marvels of the English walnut elephants and creamery butter cows, prodigiously large fruits, vegetables and stories, together with the other wonders which are there displayed. When, in due time, he leaves by the south entrance, he passes through another court or patio, much larger than the first and distinguished, to the mind of the horticulturists, by the masses of Chorizema illicifolia, which surround each of the Chamaerops excelsa (the most dwarf of all fan palms, by the way), which occupy the corners of the patio. This place is further distinguished by that fact that the last exhibition of the Floral Association was held there. Baskets of Asparagus Sprengeri hang from the arches, and form a pleasing contract to the white stucco.

The planting across the front of the building contains several specimens of interest. On the east of the entrance, almost concealed by a group ofAcacia verticillataGrevillea thelemannianaCasuarina stricta, etc., a specimen of Lawson’s cypress trees tries to be seen. A large Melaleuca is an interesting feature of the group. West of the entrance there is more Acacia verticillata and Grevillea thelemanniana, a fine specimen of Crataegus lalandi, a little past its best, but still good. Very conspicuous and striking are the Wigandias occupying the center of the group, two species of this genus being represented. There are what Professor Stevens would call “accent plants,” which is a very apt way of classifying this type of subjects.

The southwest corner of the building is embellished by a good specimen of Ficus Australis.

The Botanical Building is still in holiday attire. Poinsettias greet one everywhere from out of the foliage of other plants. Azaleas, particularly the much admired Niobo, and excellent white, Star CinerariasPrimula obconica, Cyclamen in many colors — in fact, all the plants which one expects to see at holiday time were there at that time, and are still worth seeing.

Pansies, blue, yellow and white, have succeeded the border of Vernon begonias on the esplanade facing the Music Pavilion, and the cannas north of the California Building have had to give place to stocks, planted in solid colors, which ought to make a gorgeous effect when their time to bloom arrives.

January, 1916, California Garden, Vol. 7. No. 7. Pickings and Peckings, by the Early Bird.

Like many another bird, I am distinctly pleased that our Exposition is to be maintained another year and hope that readers of this magazine will take the unique opportunity of studying the wonderful vegetation there displayed, and that the powers that be will see their way to having color slides make of the most striking things. Economy is our present day fetish, coming a little like locking of the door after the horse was gone, for it is undoubtedly born of rather light pocketbooks, and is a necessity, but it is to be hoped that means will be forthcoming to accentuate the wonderful out-of-doors side of the Fair.

I cannot refrain from asking what is being done about a Californian wildflower display; something really compelling that will just make our visitors gasp? It could be planted this month and would have all the better chance as the first crop of weeds would be killed. What is going in the canna beds back of the California building? Would not it be very appropriate if these were filled with our own flowers? Would not that plot look better with low growing stuff? I like cannas but I understand that back east they have them for breakfast, dinner and tea and then decorate ballrooms with them. The Sweet Pea is peculiarly California; the seed is grown here for the world, and at San Francisco some wonderful ones were grown by our specialist Morse. Are we going to have a big show of these? Why not get some of the seed men to make an annual display?

Of course, it is too late for lots of things and we don’t want lots of others, but there is time enough to do a whole lot. Probably our most efficient Park Board with their ubiquitous Superintendent Morley have thought of all this and much besides. (I hope Mr. Morley will understand that the ubiquitous is intended to be complimentary.) There is quite a decent handful of use now who want to be Californian so badly that it almost hurts, and to those who have not reached that stage let it be said that strangers expect us to be so and are sorrowful when we are not. We did not have any display of our marvelous Matilija poppy, one of the marvels of the West that is treasured elsewhere as beyond the value of orchids. It is hard to start, some say, but surely that does not excuse our Balboa Park with its thousands of odd acres not having an acre or two of them. In the course of conversation lately the canyon on Sixth street, whose mutilation was to make us all rich, and its future treatment came up, and it was suggested that the Matilija poppy should be planted freely in the bottom and that the sides should be filled with Ceanothus and Rhuses, and as time went on native bulbs, the Calchortus and Fritillarias, and vines like the Lathyrus splendens and wild clematis should be added. It the bottom could be kept real damp the Cardinal Lobelia would be gorgeous and the various mimulus and penstemon offer wonderful possibilities.

Considering the progress made in the Park the last few years almost anybody ought to be satisfied, and this is in no sense criticism, only following the intense desire to be Californian. We have pines and cypress, eucalyptus and acacia till you cannot rest, but these are the things one sees in every Pacific park where climate allow, and under and among them grow the omnipresent shrubbery. Do we have to have these everywhere? The question is asked in all humility because I have seen the Herculean labor involved in getting ready for planting, and perhaps it does seem extravagant to plant a native shrub in a hole that cost a barrel of giant powder, but I would like to be able to say to the stranger whose ears I had filled with fleets of merchant men sailing away with cargoes of back country products, “Now let’s both have a rest and walk four blocks and see with futile loveliness was here before those elegant structures covered it up.” The stranger might not always be impressed, but then he could be told how the street was cut through in spite of the opposition of some cranks and a right about face would disclose some pleasing smokestacks.

Of course, I think that someday the city offices will be up there in the Park, and others think they should be but are timid about saying so. I am outspoken because no one pays any attention to me and I cannot d any harm even if I do no good. I like to shut my eyes and see a white group of buildings on that hill, looking like Temples, approached by graceful curves, a center and an eminence. One day I was talking to a quite sensible person, not given to fits at all, and I mentioned this notion and he said to my intense surprise, “I have often thought of that but there is not room for the proper treatment in front, the city must buy the blocks on Fifth street.” Since then I have adopted his vision and someday it will be a reality, then ships coming into the bay will see a monument worthy of the superbly unique situation, and know that the city must be somewhat worthwhile.

A long way ahead you think? Not a bit of it. The city that dug up millions for an Exposition to run a year, the following year was a happy afterthought, could do wonders for a permanent and equally unique civic center if it wanted to. When the Exposition is over, what then? Are we going to sit still and pose as the one city that kept an exposition running two years? We shall tackle something else big, and there are signs that the big thoughts of cities tend towards civic centers and the like. San Francisco is putting millions into one, and when citizens generally identify themselves with their city they will want it to have of the best, just the spirit in any well-ordered family. Oh, yes, we want sewers and paving and a host of little things, besides the ever agitated water question. They will all come, and now, at the New Year, it is just as well to stir the taxpayer into protest at a distant prospect, so that he gets used to the idea by degrees, and one day he will make a slip and talk of our new civic center and then he can never go back to the same position of objecting again. Further, it is only fair to the occupants of the blocks between Sixth and Fifth that will be taken over to give them plenty of notice to seek other locations.

January 1, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:8. 7:1-4. Joyous throng welcomes 1916; attendance not the equal of last year’s; celebration centered on Isthmus attractions; 100 newsboys staged a comedy-burlesque on north band stand of Isthmus at 9 p.m.

“We’ve had a good year in San Diego,” Davidson said. “The new year is going to be more successful. San Diego’s exposition is international in scope now. It has long been the most beautiful, it is now the most complete exposition in the world.”

WELCOME 1916! While great bursts of aerial artillery flashed across the sky, sirens blew, horns tooted, and a pandemonium of noise awoke the echoes of the California night, the great throng of merrymakers that had packed and jammed its way onto the Isthmus at the Panama-California exposition lifted its voice at midnight last night, in one great resounding cheer for the passing of the old year and the coming of the new.

Three bands crashed simultaneously into life, and the air they played was humanity’s song of friendship the world over, “Auld Lang Syne.”

Although attendance at the exposition was not the equal of the celebration last year, the gay festivities that marked the opening of the second and greater year of San Diego’s fair set a record here in point of enthusiasm.

From early in the evening, when the crowds gathered on downtown streets amid a deafening din, until 1916 had been welcomed in at the exposition, at the cafes, and on the downtown streets, one glad, happy thought was foremost in every mind. This thought was of the wonderful opportunities made possible to the city by the Harbor of the Sun by the immense international scope of the exposition that was born in 1916.

And last night at the exposition, while the wonderful buildings of San Diego’s Spanish Dream City, lit by the radiance of one of the most elaborate displays of fireworks ever attempted, echoed with the shouts and laughter of thousands, practically every man, woman and child in San Diego felt in their hearts that the new year is to be one of the most prosperous and successful in the history of the city.

It was a New Year’s celebration long to be remembered.

Last night, for the first time during the year, every attraction on the Isthmus was free to all. That this fact was known to just about every boy and girl in the city, and to grown folks too, made itself evident early in the evening. Hundreds of happy families came in early in order to avoid the rush, only to find that the crowds were already assembled. There was room for all, however, and before the night was very old, youngsters who couldn’t stay too late to view the celebration had the time of their lives riding the merry-go-round, speeding around the Figure 8, hitting at the baseballs, wandering through the gem mine, and otherwise having the time of their lives.

The preliminary program began at 3:45 o’clock in the afternoon, the cavalry, coast artillery and marine corps, Uncle Sam’s defenders whose presence through the exposition year had meant so much to San Diego, paraded on the plaza. In recognition of the hearty cooperation of the military branches of the service during 1915, President Davidson of the Exposition presented the commanding officers of the various branches with diplomas. The presentation was preceded by a short speech, in which Davidson thanked the boys in blue and khaki for their generous assistance.

Promptly at 6 o’clock, a din of whistles and sirens announced the formal opening of the festivities. With the music of three bands to put joy into the hearts of the carefree throngs, the march to the Isthmus was started.

Aerial bombs and fireworks early in the evening notified all San Diego that the celebration of the passing of the old year had begun in earnest and it wasn’t long after dinnertime before the crowds began jamming the gates.

The fun was well underway at 9 o’clock when the crowds made a sudden break for the north bandstand of the Isthmus. Here more than 100 newsboys, with the assistance of scores of their friends, had made all arrangements to stage a grand comedy-burlesque boxing tournament. The earnest, eager spirit of the newsies as the put on their entertainment soon became the spirit of the crowd that was watching them. Applause was generous, laughter was spontaneous, and everybody enjoyed the bill immensely.

And when the newsies were through, back trooped the gay, happy throngs to the Isthmus concessions.

It took a Sun man several hours to try to determine just which amusement enterprise was the most enjoyed by folks last night. And at the end of that time he was forced to give it up as hopeless.

Everybody, it seemed last night, had heard of the wonders of Hawaiian village, of the sweet-voiced singers from the sunny isle of the Pacific, and of the plaintive music of their native instruments. The line in front of the Hawaiian village concession was a long one and the singers within sang and played as they had never sung nor played before.

Then there were the wonders of the Cawston ostrich farm. Lots of folks who thought they knew all there was to know about the strange, old, long-legged bird visited the exhibit and found out how little of the ostrich industry in California they really knew.

As a hush suddenly fell upon the great crowd a few minutes before midnight, the costly display of fireworks redoubled its splendors in the midnight skies. Aerial bombs sounded. And then cheers arose as 1915 slipped into eternity.

At that hour of celebration probably not a single person on the exposition grounds was happier than G. A. Davidson, president of the exposition and one of the main factors in the exposition’s success.

What Davidson saw, and what every loyal son and daughter of San Diego saw, too, was a greater, more magnificent, more splendid, and more marvelous exposition rising at the stroke of midnight, from the ashes of the old.

The noise and merrymaking, the fireworks and siren blasts at midnight carried a single meaning to all. Men and women who cheered the old year out saw in their mind’s eye the thousands of visitors who will pass through the exposition city in the new year. Everyone at the exposition last night was thinking of the numerous exhibits from the exposition in San Francisco that will charm all who pass through the gates here during 1916.

“We’ve had a good year in San Diego,” Davidson said. “The new year is going to be more successful. San Diego’s exposition is international in its scope now. It has long been the most beautiful, it is now the most complete exposition in the world.”

And Davidson’s words, in spirit, were taken up and cheered by thousands while the bands played “Auld Lang Syne” last night.

While the New Year was being welcomed on the Isthmus, folks who could afford to plunk down $5 a seat were enjoying music, gayety and revelry at the Café Cristobal on the exposition grounds. With the dining room elaborately decorated with lanterns, streamers and pennants, the café presented a lively scene. Wine flowed freely; care was banished, for the time being at least, and dancing was the order of the night.

A feature of the entertainment at the Cristobal was the Broadway Follies, a chorus of young women especially imported from the north for the occasion.

Outside of the exposition grounds, too, New Year’s festivities were observed in many of the downtown cafes, many of the merrymakers taking dinner downtown and later visiting the exposition.

Downtown streets were noisy and merry with holiday crowds until the rain started falling about midnight.

While San Diego’s New Year’s celebration last night was voted on all sides today as the most successful ever held here, hundreds of out-of-town visitors, who came here for the celebration, were still in the city today. Hotel lobbies were crowded at noon and many of the visitors had announced their intention of spending some time giving San Diego and the exposition the “once-over.”

“It was a great celebration,” said everybody who took part last night.

“And judging from the number of tourists already coming to San Diego, it’s going to be a great 1916,” echoed all loyal San Diegans today.

January 1, 1916, San Diego Sun, 2:1. Thousands of San Diegans celebrating the first day of the New Year were to hear Madame Schumann-Heink and Ellen Beach Yaw sing at the Organ Pavilion at 3 p.m.; all seats to be free; military parade from center of town to Exposition beginning at 10:30 a.m.

January 1, 1916, San Diego Union, Annual Edition (The annual edition is in several sections which are not classified by number or name and, therefore, they bear the same page numbers. The only way to check which pages belongs to which section is by reading the original.)

1:1. Opened midnight, December 31, 1914 and closed December 31, 1915; attendance for year about 2 million; record by months given; highest attendance for any one month was 301,937 for July.

1:1-7, 2:4. Finest exhibits of northern Exposition secured; Committee overwhelmed with offers, selects best collections only.

Visitors to the Panama-California International Exposition at San Diego during the year 1916 will see the cream of the exhibits that were at San Francisco last year — new exhibits that were at neither of the expositions, and an entirely new arrangement of some of the exhibits that were shown at the San Diego Exposition in 1915.

First in importance and extent are the United States government exhibits — they covered 197,000 square feet of space at San Francisco. More than a week was spent by the San Diego exhibits committee in going over this great exhibit, scattered as it was through all the buildings of the Exposition — in an effort to make a selection of those things that best suit the needs here and are most interesting from the visitor’s point of view. Such a selection was made.

From the navy department are some of the most interesting guns — new models of field pieces like those now used in the European war — models of famous ships and the wonderful panorama that so excited Secretary Daniels, a revolving perspective — a lighted model frame containing every ship that ever flew the American flag as a vessel of war. The Bonhomme Richard, flagship of John Paul Jones leads, and from her are inclined all the ships down to the very latest, the wonderful California super dreadnought. Spectators stand before it and with apparent ease pick out this and that famous ship, even to our own good cruiser San Diego. There is a large amount of extremely interesting material in this section. Supplementing this exhibit, the old battleship Oregon will be anchored in the bay probably most of the year.

Federal Progress Shown 

Treasury exhibits include those showing the mints and the progress in the care of public health; those from the war department, the most approved methods of destroying life by military operations. The war department exhibit will include a new six-inch howitzer, made in the United States, an exact counterpart of the deadly guns so much used in Germany; a great tank showing submarine mines and the method of blowing up a ship; tanks showing the dry docks and the method of docking vessels; shells of all sizes; solid shot and armor plate with holes punched clean through it; working models of the great dredges and docks at Pearl Harbor and elsewhere; wonderful lighted panoramas of famous battles; and last, but by no means least, a complete cartridge-making plant, one that turns our cartridges as fast as two men can pack them.

From the department of commerce come the different styles of wonderful lighthouse lenses, all operated by electricity. The first light ever shown on the Pacific coast, the latest wonder that is to be installed at Galveston are in this collection and the two gun, such as are used in life saving, and a number of other most interesting exhibits are included.

Indian Work Displayed 

The department of the interior sends a wealth of material pertaining to the management of Uncle Sam’s vast domain, not the least interesting of which is a complete arts and crafts section showing the work of boys and girls in Indian schools of the country, and giving opportunity to see the progress of the Indian race by comparing this exhibit with the archaeological exhibit already installed at our Exposition.

Agricultural department exhibits include the absorbing weather bureau apparatus — the new forestry department, the great collection of harmful patent medicines with their analyses, to say nothing of the complete results of Dr. Wylie’s quarter century of work and investigation; the soil investigations of the department, the plant investigations, all the bugs ever heard or dreamed of, and their use and disuse are shown; the animal industry section, the biological survey — in fact, so many things of an interesting character are included that it is impossible to enumerate them.

Each of the government departments contributes the most interesting features of its departmental work — selected by the committee — so that the visitor in 1916 will not be compelled to go over the whole of the Exposition to see it all, nor to see it all in hunting those things most interesting to him.

Roads Exhibit Promised 

As a feature, Professor Bramson-Scribner, chairman of the government exhibit board, is bringing the wonderful good roads exhibit, with its models showing roads from the famous old Appian Way to the boulevards of San Diego County and the other paved roads of California. Another wonderful feature is the fisheries’ exhibit, which, if the fishes can be gathered again, will be installed here.

Chief among the foreign exhibits is the big Canadian display — a collection that has been brought together by years of effort and has been shown in nearly every quarter of the world. All embracing, it covers the Dominion of Canada from Saint Johns, N. F., to Price Rupert, from the Arctic Ocean to Winnipeg. Nothing has been unimportant and nothing too important for the use of this exhibit. It occupied one of the largest buildings at the San Francisco Exposition, and will be housed here in the great Commerce and Industries Building.

Next in magnitude to the Canadian exhibit is that of France.

This exhibit is a wonderful collection of art works, relics of famous French men, personal things they used — tapestries of the wonderful Gobelin weave, paintings, sculptures, and all the wonderfully beautiful things the most artistic nation in the world could gather in one exhibit to be shipped out of the country. The United States government sent a war vessel to carry this exhibit from France to the United States, and will return it to France in like manner. If the complete exhibit comes here, it will be housed in the California and the Fine Arts Buildings. The value of the tapestries and relics, art works and specimens is estimated at more then 7,000,000 francs.

Art Works Wonderful 

The Italian exhibit will consist almost entirely of art works, sculptures and paintings, beautiful marbles, most exquisite carvings, gold, silver and silk work, bronzes and plasters. The catalogue of one exhibitor who is coming here is a large book in itself, the illustrations in which are works of art. Other Italian exhibits are from the Turin and Rome expositions of 1911 and are very complete and interesting.

Netherlands will send a very complete exhibit, including paintings and the quaint Dutch forms of art that have been preserved through hundreds of years of changing fashions and conceptions of art work in other countries. Netherlands made a very complete horticultural exhibit at San Francisco, the flowers of which will come here.

In point of size, the Pan-Pacific exhibit comes next. This includes material from Australian, New Zealand, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, the islands of Oceanica, the Philippines, China, Japan, Hawaii and all the other great nations living on the shores of the Pacific Ocean. The wonderful fisheries exhibit of Hawaii will be included. For variety of exhibits, the Pan-Pacific group is unsurpassed by any single exhibiting nation.

Cutlery to be Exhibited 

Germany will be here with a very comprehensive exhibit of manufactures, textiles and metals, including the wonderful Haenkel cutlery exhibit.

Among others are Russia, Switzerland, some Japanese and Chinese art exhibits, Mexico, Spain — with a wonderful collection of art and manufactures — and several of the countries of Central and South America. Dr. Dahne has just returned from Brazil with an enlarged exhibit.

Half a dozen commissioners of foreign countries are awaiting permission from their respective governments to come, they having recommended that their exhibits be shown here.

As to the domestic or so-called commercial exhibits, the committee made a selection of less than 20 from the entire San Francisco Exposition, the idea being to invite only moving or process exhibits to take part this year. Among these are Ridgeway’s Tea Company, Simmons Hardware Company, with its wonderfully complex cutlery exhibit, Herter Looms Company, with its silk weaving machinery, Niagara Maid Company, the Gantner-Matter silk thread reeling machinery and weaving looms, the Fearn Company, with its silk-weaving machinery, Oregon City Woolen Mills Company, Belding Brothers silk culture, Baker’s Cocoa, Quaker Oats Company, Stollwerk Company, Lyon and Raas glace [sic] fruit exhibit, Rosenblatt Brothers, with their wine fountain, Standard Felt Company, Cadillac Motor Car Company, Ford Motor Car Company, with an assembling plant, and _______ of like interest.

Poor Exhibits Excluded 

The problem has not been to secure exhibits, but to keep from taking a lot of exhibits that would prove uninteresting. Some of the old exhibitors will stay will newly arranged exhibits, and the commercial section of the Exposition, simply will be more interesting than at San Francisco or any other exposition.

Some of the foreign exhibits already have arrived and are warehouses, some are en route, and some are being packed for shipment. The great government exhibit was brought here on the collier Mars, which vessel is carrying the United States government exhibit to Panama.

President Davidson, Secretary Penfold, Mayor Capps, and I. G. Lewis passed many days in San Francisco selecting the exhibits wanted and arranging for their transportation here and, if interest by spectators as shown at San Francisco is any criterion, when assembled the exhibits will surpass anything shown in this country. As an evidence of the care taken in this selection, it may be stated that from the entire Zone at San Francisco, only three concessions were invited to come here, and from the great manufactures building only three exhibitors were invited.

1:7-8, 6:4. Twin celebrations usher in New Year and 1916 Exposition; trains and boats pour visitors into city; plans for coming 12 months assure great prosperity of Harbor of the Sun.

Combining two great civic celebrations — that of opening the Panama-California International Exposition and the festivities always in force New Year’s Eve — thousands of San Diegans and their visitors crowded the Isthmus and its amusement places and Exposition cafes last night.

Hardly less auspicious than the opening of the Fair a year ago, the celebration of last night was another of those highlights in San Diego history by which future time will be marked.

A happy, carefree crowd roamed over the grounds, giving vent to their enthusiasm for the continuance of out Exposition in countless ways.

More than 2,000,000 visitors came to San Diego during 1915. An equal number is expected in 1916. Popular demand and the hearty support of all Southern Californians conspired to keep the Exposition open an additional year. The first year’s Exposition has been held, records have been broken, and San Diego accomplished it practically unaided. It will be the first time in history that an Exposition has been open to the public every day and every evening for two years.

Fair Grounds Alive With Light and Color 

As The Union went to press for the annual edition, one great purpose of which is to direct the attention of the nation to the continuance of the Panama-California International Exposition and the future possibilities of Southern California, as well as the more concrete facts of what has been accomplished in the past, the Exposition grounds were alive with light and color. San Diegans and their visitors — many thousands of them — were celebrating the passing of the old year and the welcoming of the new — which gives promise of being the greatest since Balboa landed on the glittering sand of a newly-found empire.

For several days past trains and boats to San Diego have again carried record-breaking loads of passengers. Hotels are filled. A greater number have come from Los Angeles, San Francisco and smaller cities of the state to help San Diegans celebrate the continuation of the Fair. It was largely due to the hearty support and cooperation of these Californians that the continuation of the Exposition was made possible.

Yesterday afternoon a great review of officers and men of marine barracks, the First cavalry and the coast artillery was held at the Plaza de Panama at the Exposition. The review was featured by the presentation of diplomas given the various branches of the military services stationed at San Diego during 1915. President G. A. Davidson made the presentation speeches and highly complimented the men on their loyalty.

Aerial Bombs Discharged 

Festivities at the Exposition began at 6 p.m. with the discharge of a volley of aerial bombs and the blowing of the world’s largest siren whistle. The sound of the whistle and the discharge of the bombs were scheduled to continue up to midnight, when there was to be a gathering of all the noise-making devices produced by the ingenuity of man. They were all to be turned loosed at a single minute before midnight and continue several minutes after the birth of the new year.

Admission to the Isthmus, the great white way, or the Joy Street of the Fair, was free to all. Every concessionaire on the street had thrown open his show place to the public free. Staid adults, who have paid strict heed to convention in times gone by, were found riding of the Toad-stool and throwing baseballs at “Kelley.” Others were merrily riding over the bumps of the roller coaster or watching hula dancers at the Hawaiian Village.

With all Southern California behind the 1916 venture, with all working as a unit for one purpose — that of eclipsing 1915 records in 1916 — the new year promises much for the prosperity of the Southland.

State Exhibits Continued 

All the state buildings, with the possible exception of Nevada, will continue their exhibits. All of the exhibits will be augmented by the cream of their exhibits which were shown in San Francisco, which makes certain bigger and better displays at San Diego than during 1915.

Railroads have rallied royally in support of the 1916 Fair and have made heavy contributions in cash and have arranged summer transcontinental rates which will make a visit to the Pacific coast look attractive to Easterners and Middle Westerners. Citizens of Los Angeles, anxious to have the Exposition continued, also have given liberal financial and other support. This also is true of the different California counties, whose exhibits without an exception, will be continued.

The great Canadian exhibit, perhaps the best of the kind ever made at any Exposition, is on its way to San Diego from San Francisco. It will be housed in one of the largest of the main exhibit buildings. Russia will exhibit, as will Italy, and several other countries. While a positive statement cannot be made regarding the French exhibit, it is considered that it also will be a feature of the foreign exhibits.

Government Exhibits On Way 

Appropriations from congress, sufficient for the upkeep of the government exhibit shown at San Francisco have been made. The exhibit was packed and shipped several days ago and a great part of it already is here and a corps of workers are busy installing it. The government has also promised to have as many war ships in the harbor during 1916 as possible. The marine camp at the Fair will be continued, as will the cavalry camp, and a camp of infantry is to be established. Each division has its band, which gives promise of many musical treats during the year.

Doctor Humphrey J. Stewart, an organist of fame, brought to San Diego to play the Spreckels open-air pipe organ, the only instrument of its kind in the world, will play daily throughout 1916. The organ was given to the people of San Diego by John D. and A. D. Spreckels.

Shortly after the opening it is expected a new troupe of Spanish troubadours will be engaged, and on every day of the new year the sweet voices of the senoritas and the mellow music of the stringed instruments will be heard in various parts of the grounds. This form of entertainment is conceded to fit perfectly into the romantic Spanish atmosphere of the Exposition, and it elicited as much favorable comment from Eastern visitors as any form of entertainments during the past year.

Many Conventions Secured 

Committees of citizens have been busy for some time lining up conventions for 1916. It now looks as though San Diegans will be hosts to at least twenty large conventions before the passing of a twelve month. San Diegans love to play the role of hosts. During 1915 they made themselves popular with representatives of practically every city in the United States.

The Isthmus, the amusement street of the Fair, will also be continued. A solid mile of amusements, many of which have never been shown at any Exposition, will be ready for the entertainment of the visitor. The Painted Desert, the Indian exhibit of the Santa Fe Railroad, will be continued. This exhibit has become known all over the country for its excellence and probably will prove a larger drawing card in 1916 than in the past.

A full attendance of the new executive board of thirty-one members, representing all Southern California, is expected by President G. A. Davidson today, when official ceremonies will take place. Members of boards of supervisors of the various California counties have announced their intention of being present. Governors of all the western states participating have been invited and will probably attend.

Schumann-Heink To Sing 

The celebration of today will begin at 10:30 a.m. with a grand military parade, which will start from the foot of Broadway. The parade will march through the principal downtown streets and to the Laurel Street entrance of the Exposition. First will come a battalion of the coast artillery corps, then a battalion of sailors, headed by their band, two companies of the marine corps and band, a squadron of cavalry, two companies of coast artillery corps reserves, division of naval reserves, Army and Navy cadets and band. The official formal ceremonies of the day will follow immediately on the arrival of the parade at the Exposition Plaza de Panama.

Directors of the new Exposition will be hosts to officers of the army and navy at a luncheon to be given at noon at the Cristobal Café. The luncheon will take place immediately after the military and naval pageant. Rear Admiral Fullam, Pacific reserve fleet commander, will review the pageant at the Plaza de Panama with other officers of the army and navy and directors of the Exposition.

Perhaps the greatest appeal of the entire celebration program will be the concert by Mme. Ernestine Schumann-Heink and Mme. Ellen Beach Yaw at the Spreckels Organ Pavilion at 2 o’clock in the afternoon. All seats will be free.

1:1-8, 3:6. Distinguished visits make tourist Mecca of Sun City.

2:1-8, 3:1-8. Nation’s papers spread fame of San Diego; excerpts from articles in The Nation,

National MagazineDayton NewsChristian Science MonitorReview of ReviewsUnited PresbyterianPhoto-EraBuffalo News,Philadelphia InquirerSaturday Evening Post, Boston HeraldEvanston, Illinois IndexPeoria JournalPhiladelphia Public Ledger,Chicago PostBoston JournalDayton JournalPeoria (Illinois) Journal, and other newspapers and magazines (note: microfilm of this article is extremely hard to read).

2:1. Davidson to pilot Fair another year; San Diego welcomes world to Exposition, by

  1. A. Davidson.

2:2-5. Year’s music sets new standard; organ charms thousands; by W. W. B. Seymour.

With the Christmas services at the Exposition as its crowning event, the greatest year of music San Diego has known passed into history last night. This afternoon concerts by Madame Schumann-Heink and Madame Ellen Beach Yaw, two singers whose fame covers both continents, will furnish a noteworthy beginning for the 1916 season.

In quality as well as quantity, the music of the year has set a high-water mark for San Diego activities and the educational result has been evidenced in a demand by local music lovers for performances of greater excellence than ever before.

A glance over the artists who have appeared in this city shows it to be almost of metropolitan pretensions: Schumann-Heink, John McCormack, Fritz Kreisler, Marcella Craft, Efram Zimbalist, Florencio Constantino, Ellen Beach Yaw, Mrs. H. H. A. Beach, Carrie Jacobs Bond, George Hamlin, Charles Wakefield Cadman, Alys Larreyne, Julia Culp, Tina Lerner and Cecil Fanning, all names familiar to followers of music in American and Europe and all standing for the highest in the melodic art.

It is difficult for one to realize without having figures at hand how much music San Diego has heard during the past year. The greatest source of musical enjoyment has been the Spreckels organ at the Exposition where 359 (?) regular recitals were given, in the course of which nearly 3,000 selections were played on the noble instrument. Thirty-three outside soloists and ten San Diego soloists appeared at the organ, either in separate recitals or in connection with organ recitals. These do not include the soloists and singers who appeared at the organ in the four performances by the People’s Chorus for the members of the Popular Symphony Orchestra which played on Dedication Night; the members of the San Diego Symphony Orchestra and the San Diego Choral Society in the Ninth Symphony; the singers in the military mass on Catholic Day; nor those of the Ogden Tabernacle Choir, the Haydn Society of Chicago, or the Chicago Sunday Evening Club Choir.

Six musicians were honored by having days at the Exposition named after them, as follows: Schumann-Heink, March 22; Carrie Jacobs Bond, June 1; Mrs. H. A. Beach, June 23; Charles Wakefield Cadman, July 6; Marcella Craft, July 14; and Ellen Beach Yaw, August 24.

Twenty-three San Diegans were soloists at teas held in the women’s headquarters in the California building.

Numerous concerts were given in the Blue Room in the Southern California Counties building, at which many outside and local artists appeared.

Concerts by the bands of the Fourth Marines, U. S. N., and the First Cavalry, U. S. A., were almost daily occurrences throughout the year, and for many months the Exposition has its own band. Visiting bands were the Creatore (?) band, which played an engagement of two weeks; the Australian Boys’ Band, here on week; the famous Kilties Band, here nearly a week; and the Los Angeles Police Band and the Coronado Tent City Band for one day each only.

Three colored quartets, the Tuskegee Singers, the Dixie Singers, and the Hampton Quartet were among the visiting organizations.

In point of attendance and prominence of the artist, the concert given by Madame Schumann-Heink at the Spreckels organ on the night of June 23 easily has first place in the year’s events. More than 25,000 heard the great diva singer. She was assisted in her program by Toni Hoff, accompanist, Dr. Humphrey Stewart, organist, and Mrs. Frieda Foote Chapman, violinist.. Eight thousand children thronged the Plaza de Panama at the Exposition on the afternoon of March 22 to hear the wonderful contralto sing especially for them, and formed a guard of honor for her on her way to the Spreckels organ, where she was presented with the keys to the city and made an honorary citizen of San Diego.

Marcella Craft and Ellen Beach Yaw were two other sopranos whose recitals at the Exposition drew thousands of people, and John McCormack, the noted Irish tenor; Fritz Kreisler, the world’s greatest violinist; and Efram Zimbalist, the Russian violinist; Florencio Constantino, the great Spanish grand opera tenor; George Hamlin, the well-known American tenor; Charles Wakefield Cadman, the pianist and composer of Indian songs with Princess Tsianina Redfeather, soprano; and Claude Gotthelf, pianist; Julia Culp, the noted Dutch lieder singer, all names to conjure with, drew audiences running into the hundreds and thousands.

Fifteen prominent organists played at the Spreckels organ, and one, Dr. Sidney Durat, of Cincinnati, at the White Temple. The guest organists at the Exposition included such men as Clarence Dickinson, William Carl, Richard Keys Biggs, Harold Gregson of Australia, and William Gomph of Buffalo.

In point of picturesque setting and impressiveness, the ceremonies at the Exposition Christmas night exceed any other musical event of the year. In no other portion of the United States could such a program have been given out of doors, and in no portion of Southern California could it have been give more successfully than in San Diego. A balmy night, with stars shining softly overhead, served to increase the Christmas spirit that pervaded the 5,000 people who attended.

Three vested quartets stationed at different points on the Plaza de Panama sang Christmas carols, the echo of one quartet scarcely dying away before another quartet took up the succeeding verse. Before each singer blazed a tiny candle, and the effect was that of three choirs singing in a giant cathedral.

This effect was heightened when at the Spreckels organ I the Plaza de los Estados, the listeners gazed upon of a hut of thatched palms within which were figures of the Madonna, the Christ Child, the Three Wise Man, and Joseph. There in the semi-darkness, lighted only by the blaze of the giant Christmas tree nearby, the choristers in vestments of red and white, sang of Christ’s birth to the silent throng, and the great organ pealed forth its noble tones, while in the western sky hung a long star of exceeding brightness.

A feature of this entertainment was that is was managed entirely by women, and it is difficult to conceive that men could have exceeded their handiwork. Great credit for Exposition music is due Miss Gertrude Gilbert, chairman of the music committee of the Woman’s Board, and to Mrs. L. L. Rowan and Mrs. Florence Schinkel-Gray, who assisted her throughout the year.

When the music lover turns from the Exposition, he discovers that in other parts of the city, the musical results of the year are of importance. Sixteen artists from other cities gave recitals in San Diego theaters, hotels and churches. There were eight concerts by orchestras, give performances of oratorio by choral societies, two recitals by visiting string quartets and one by a local string quartet, and two concerts by a children’s orchestra. Six outside artists appeared as soloists at these orchestral and oratorio performances. In addition, there were half a hundred musicales and recitals given by local artists, the records of which are not available to the writer.

Four concerts were given during the year by the Popular Symphony Orchestra under the leadership of Chesley Mills. This organization is having its troubles with finances at present, but it is sincerely to be hoped that the lack of dollars will be remedied in time to save the orchestra from dissolution.

The People’s Chorus, under the leadership of Willibald Lehmann, has given four concerts at the Exposition and one at the Spreckels Theater during 1915, and has scheduled for early in 1916 a performance of the oratorio “Samson.” The Spreckels Theater performance was that of Haydn’s “Creation.” Its success led to a repetition of it on Easter Sunday at the Spreckels organ, the result being of even greater artistic merit. To this organization, in conjunction with the Popular Symphony Orchestra, was given the honor of assisting in the dedication of the organ on last New Year’s Eve.

Four concerts were given by the San Diego Symphony Orchestra and four by the San Diego Choral Society, both of which are under the leadership of B. Roscoe Schyrock. Two performances of Mendelssohn’s “Elijah” were given and one performance of Handel’s “Messiah.” Another performance of this latter oratorio will be given tonight.

Perhaps the most influential and prosperous musical organization in the city, and the one which has brought more high-class artists to San Diego than any other institution this year than any other institution, except the Exposition, is the Amphion Club. Under the leadership of Miss Gertrude Gilbert, president, ably assisted by Mrs. Florence Schinkel Gray and Mrs. Edward T. Lannon, vice president and secretary respectively, the club has brought to San Diego during 1915 Fritz Kreisler, the king of violinists; Julia Culp, the Dutch contralto, who has the reputation of being the greatest lieder singer of the present day; Tina Lerner, the brilliant Russian pianist; Efram Zimbalist, the Russian violinist who is giving Kreisler a hard fight for supremacy among the fiddlers of the world; the Soellner String Quarter, an organization whose rise in the musical world has been phenomenally rapid; and Myrtle Elvyn, an American pianist of unusual technical attainments and great promise.

In addition to its concerts by outside artist, the Amphion Club has held a number of concerts at the Wednesday clubhouse, at which the leading local musicians have given the programs. The result has been a series of concerts of high standing and an increasing appreciation by San Diegans of the worth of musicians who live in their midst.

An organization which has worked quietly but nevertheless effectively for the best interests of San Diego music is the Mendelssohn-MacDowell Club. Its members meet once a month or oftener in various homes and its programs are given exclusively by local musicians. These programs have been of unusual excellence and the meeting have afforded the club members an opportunity for much musical education as well as for social recreation.

Another musical organization which should be mentioned is the Children’s Orchestra, under the leadership of Chesley Mills. This orchestra has had only two public appearances, but on each occasion its work was of a standard superior to many adult orchestras.

The Tuesday noon free musicales of the Y. W. C. A. also have contributed no little share to the education of the San Diego public in musical appreciation, especially among those who have been so unfortunate as not to be able to hear many of the great artists who have given concerts in this city. The leading artists have freely donated their services to this worthy cause.

Of the many performers and teachers in San Diego, who are working quietly and bravely to inculcate high ideals on the youth of San Diego and to raise their standards of musical performance, space forbids mention. They are an earnest and conscientious band to whom the high principles and the beauty of their calling man more than its monetary returns.

What the financial benefit of music has been to San Diego in 1915 is incalculable. Music, it is contended, has drawn more people to the Panama-California Exposition than any other single attraction, and the result of the concerts given there, as well as in other parts of the city is evidencing itself daily in the demands for musical instruments and for performances of a high standard by professionals. L. S. Behymer, the Los Angeles music manager, who has had more than a quarter of a century of experience in his line, recently estimated that San Diego has invested in music more than a million and a quarter dollars. Even he admits, however, that he cannot estimate in dollars and cents the return which this investment is bringing in advertising, education, and the raising of artistic and esthetic ideals in the present and the coming generation.


When on the night of December 31, 1914, John D. Spreckels presented to the people of the city of San Diego the magnificent organ and pavilion that stand in the Plaza de los Estados of the Panama-California Exposition, few persons in the throng that stretched away from the donor as far as he could see realized what hours of delight that gift would bring to San Diegans and the strangers within her gates. Few could foresee that the pick of organists and singers of America would be eager to be heard at the organ, that its fame would be heralded throughout the western hemisphere, that the eye of the camera would project its likeness upon the pages of every great newspaper and magazine of America, and that the musicians of two continents would look back with pride upon their recitals with it as events in their careers.

These are not idle boasts. There are facts and figures to prove them, and logic to back them. With the exception of the Exposition itself, the Spreckels Organ, as it is called, has done more than anything else in San Diego to make this city known and discussed throughout the United States. And as far as the musicians and music lovers (who are legion) are concerned the organ in a way takes precedence over the Exposition.

The Spreckels Organ is the only outdoor organ in the world. There is nothing similar to it in Europe, and the nearest approach to it in America is the big organ in Chautauqua, New York. But the Chautaqua organ stands beneath an immense open-air pavilion and is only slightly more entitled to be classed as an open-air organ than is the big organ in the Tabernacle at Salt Lake City.

Being the first of its kind, the Spreckels organ was, in a sense, an experiment. To secure a given volume of sound from an outdoor instrument is a much more difficult problem that is presented by an indoor instrument. In the latter, the builder may count upon the acoustic properties of the building to help attain the needed volume and intensity of sound is dependent entirely upon the strength of the vibrations which are produced in the instrument itself. For instance, at the San Francisco Exposition players upon the big organ in Festival Hall discovered that they might not use the full power of the instrument because the flood of sound was overpowering. The Spreckels organ, on the contrary, can be played at its full power and, with favorable winds, its tones have been heard a full mile or more distant.

Another experiment was in the problem of preserving an equable temperature. Even in San Diego, with its ten-degree thermometer, changes of temperature must be guarded against in this instrument for a change in temperature of five or six degrees will, by expansion or contraction, alter the pitch of the metal pipes. This problem was partially solved by double walls in the organ pavilion, but this was not enough, and it has been necessary for Organ Tuner R____ to go over some of the pipes every day to insure their accurate pitch.

In the construction of this instrument are to be found all of the up-to-date features and conveniences which the great organ builders of the world have invented. Its action is electrical and, therefore, instantaneous. It has every variety of stop and every resource for tonal coloring known to the art of organ building. There are four manuals, or keyboards, not counting the pedals, eighty-six stops and eight pushbuttons to each manual by means of which the organist can make any changes of stops he desires in a fraction of a second. Each of the four manuals is in reality a keyboard for a separate organ, with its own stops and pipes. Counting from the top down, there are the solo organ, the swell organ, the great organ, and the orchestral organ. Each can be used alone, and any or all may be linked together, with no more exertion on the part of the player than is required to play one. The same strength of touch is required, whether the organist plays the softest pianissimo or the most tremendous fortissimo. The electrical power does the extra work for the organist. A twenty-horsepower motor furnished the power that operates the stops, the pipes and the windchests. The depression of a key forms an electrical contact which instantaneously opens the valve of its individual pipe and instantly closes the valve when the pressure upon the key is withdrawn. Originally, it was necessary to have wire cords and strings to manipulate these pipe valves. All the organs in Germany are built with this cumbersome obsolete action. The burdens which it places upon the performer can be realized by anyone who has played a melodeon using the octave double stop.

Apart from the value of the Spreckels organ to San Diego as a means of spreading its fame abroad, and infinitely more important to those who see in the culture of a city its greatest advancement has been the educational value of this noble instrument to the citizens of the city, this in spite of the fact that owing to the mixed character of the crowds that have attended the recitals during the last year and will attend them this year, Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart, the official organist, has made no special effort to educate his hearers to an appreciation of organ classics. Later, when Dr. Stewart may calculate upon the greater number of his audience attending all his recitals, he intends to take up the educational side of his work through chronological programs, annotated programs, and other approved methods.

During its brief existence of one year, the Spreckels organ has sent forth melody more times probably than any other organ in America in a like period. Only seven times in the 365 days of the year has Dr. Stewart been forced to abandon his daily recitals because of weather conditions. Daily and Sunday the recitals have been given diligently by him or other organists. Eight numbers were played at each recital making a total of 2,864 selections played during the year at these recitals alone. In addition to this, Dr. Stewart or his substitutes took part in a number of special programs, such as the night when Madame Schumann-Heink sang to 20,000 people, and when Marcella Craft, George Hamlin, Hugh Allen, and Alys Larreyne were heard in concert. Others that may be mentioned are the dedication concert on the night of December 31, 1914, the performance of “The Creation” by the People’s Chorus on Easter Sunday, the Military Mass on Catholic Day, and Christmas night. Also the organ was played at special concerts by persons other than the regular organist, among them the concerts by the Tabernacle Choir of Ogden.

During the year the following guest-organists have played on the organ:

Dr. Frank Wilbur Chase, Sewickly, Pa.; Dr. George Whitefield Andrews, Oberlin, Ohio (two recitals); Clarence Dickinson, New York (two recitals); Warren D. Allen, San Jose (one week); Dr. Roland Diggie, Los Angeles (three recitals); William J. Gomph, Buffalo, N. Y. (two weeks); Richard Keys Biggs, Brooklyn (two recitals); Ernest Douglas, Los Angeles (three recitals); Miss Caroline Lowe, Cleveland, Ohio; Harry L. Vibbard, Syracuse, N. Y. (two recitals); Dr. William C. Carl, New York; Harold Gregson, Auckland, New Zealand (three recitals); Will C. MacFarlane, Portland, Maine; Walter Handel Thorley, San Francisco (seven recitals); Archibald Sessions, Los Angles (two recitals).

Outside artists who have sung at the organ as part of the recital programs, or in whose concerts the organ was used were:

Madame Schumann-Heink, contralto; George Hamlin, tenor; Marcella Craft, soprano; Cecil Fanning, baritone; Mlle. Alys Larreyne, soprano; Hugh Allen, baritone; Ethelynde Smith, soprano; Eleanora Patterson, contralto; George von Surdam, tenor: Mollia Byerly Wilson, contralto; Alexander Gray, baritone; Effie Stewart, soprano; Earle Meeker, baritone; Edwin House, base; Haydn Jones, tenor; Alice Brown, contralto; Dr. Victor Laurent, baritone; Mrs. Mary Linck Evans, soprano; Claudia Albright, contralto; Ellen Beach Yaw, soprano; Florencio Constantino, tenor: George Alamand, baritone; and M___ Buckler Stevenson, soprano.

Local artists who have sung at the organ are:

Miss Blanche Lyons, soprano; Mrs. L. L. Rowan, contralto; Dean Blake, baritone; Frederick Beyer, tenor; Mrs. J. M. O’Toole, soprano; Mrs. J. Perry Lewis, soprano, Otto J_____, baritone.

In addition to concerts on the dedication night and on Easter Sunday, the People’s Chorus also gave two Sunday afternoon concerts during the year, and the San Diego Choral Society one. Other artists and organizations who appeared in concert at the organ, but without the assistance of that instrument will be treated of in another article.

As illustrating the variety of the organ recitals, it may be mentioned that selections by 150 composers have found places on the programs. According to the number of different selections, the most prominent of these composers were: Back, seven; Beethoven, six; Chopin, three; Brahms, three; Dubois, seven; Diggle, five; Foote, five; Grieg, four; Gounod, four; Guilmant, eleven; Handel, eight; Mendelssohn, twenty-three; Mozart, two; Rossini, two; Raff, two; Ruby, three; Stewart, ten; Schumann, three; Salome, six; Schubert, four; Saint-Saens, seven; Spohr, three; Verdi, two; Wagner, nine. In the number of times a composer was represented on the program, Mendelssohn led with ninety-six appearances, while Wagner came second with sixty-nine. The most popular number was Mendelssohn’s “Spring Song,” which was played twenty-nine times; next came Schumann’s “Traumerei,” which was played seventeen times.

During the year requests have been made for many selections which were not given because of their non-suitability to the organ. The wonderful “Fire Music: and the “Ride of the Valkyries” from Wagner’s “Die Walkure” are in this class, as is also the “Tannhauser March.” Many of Tchaikovsky’s compositions have been found unsuitable also. The composers of these selections have depended largely upon rapid violin passages for their principal effects. As yet no organ device has been invented which will serve as an acceptable substitute for fast and sweeping string work.

2:3. Women’s Board spends active year; “Persimmon Room” at Exposition proves

entertaining center.

The Women’s Board of the Panama-California Exposition was appointed as a committee

by the president of the board of directors to represent the women of the city and county of San Diego, and to care for Exposition fields especially feminine. Appointed as 20 members, it was added to by 13 of the directors’ wives, who accepted the invitation to become working members and, ex officio, by the wives of mayors during 1915, Mrs. Charles O’Neall and Mrs. Edwin M. Capps. Its work, looking back over 1915, has centered in three places: the women’s reception room known as the Persimmon Red Room in the California Building; the silence room on the lowest floor of the same building, which has rested many feet and heads from all over the United States; and the children’s day nursery, maintained in a little bungalow beyond the gorgeous canna gardens on the north of the Prado.

The furnishing of the first, the reception room, is the work of Miss Alice Klauber and her committee, and from the ardent daily questioning of visitors and succeeding letters from every state in the Union, has evidently furnished to many men and women ideas for their own drawing rooms, tea rooms, and sales rooms, in large and small corners of the country. It is maintained by a house committee, headed by Mrs. Jarvis Doyle, whose daily care has been the keeping of fresh flowers and fruits, typical of the prodigality of California, and shrubs and plants gathered as well from the sands of the desert — as the much-noticed Crucifixion thorn — as from the peaks of nearby mountains. At Thanksgiving time, even vegetables _____ San Diego’s county abundance: strings of picturesque red peppers, great pink pumpkins, which one little girl visitor hailed as “those giant baby tangerines.” The room has been hostessed by ladies from every organization in the county, and the Hostess Committee from the Woman’s Board, Mrs. A. E. Frost and Mrs. J. G. Burne, feel that their acquaintance has been enlarged and enriched by hundreds of gracious women who for the past 365 days have greeted and chatted with thousands of guest of the Exposition who daily pass through the women’s rooms.

It is here that the cordial hospitality of California has been manifested to many distinguished guests of every world-interest: the arts, politics, organized labor, men and women high in every conceivable and diverse walk of international life. These teas, simple in their appointments, were under the direct responsibility of Mrs. George McKenzie and her committee, and, while tea was served to the nucleus of distinguished guests, it invariably included every guest in the room, and that number in an afternoon has reached a thousand. Such welcome, in its spirit and action, goes far to perpetuate in the minds of Eastern visitors the well-known phrase “famous California hospitality.”

The music for varied afternoons in the Persimmon Red Room has been in charge of Miss Gertrude Gilbert and many local San Diego musicians.

Downstairs, on the same floor as the Pioneers’ Room and the lovely chapel of St. Francis, is the Silence Room, its conception and equipment the work of the brains and hands of the Woman’s Board, and itself the special protégé of the president, Mrs. Ivor N. Lawson. Furnished in soft pinks and grays by Miss Klauber, presided over from 9 to 5:30 by a graduate nurse, not a day has gone by when its cots, beds and wicker rockers have not rested women, weary with much sightseeing. Sometimes only a footbath or cup of hot tea, sometimes expert medical care were required, and of the four thousand or more cared for, it has been to the amazement of all guests that no fee was ever accepted. Perhaps, among women guests, no impression of the Exposition’s courtesy and completeness was a better silent advertisement than this.

A later need, unprovided for by the Exposition, appeared and was met by the Woman’s Board in the children’s day nursery. Financed by the committee, under Mrs. Uriel Sebree, the equipment of the little brown cottage was entirely provided by donations, from cribs to toys and perambulators, secured by Mrs. Julius Wangenheim, Mrs. Arthur Marston, Mrs. E. Thelen, and Mrs. Frank Von Tesmar. Untiring in their efforts to provide for the baby visitors, the nurse in charge reports from her checking cards 800 babies in the months since April, when the nursery was started. What expense of time, thought and money it has meant to the devoted and resourceful children’s committee, has been recompensed by the relief of many a weary visiting mother and the content of the visiting baby.

The Woman’s Board, as appointed, designated the following officers and heads of standing committees which have served without charge throughout the year:

Mrs. Ivor N. Lawson, president; Mrs. Uriel Sebree, first vice president; Mrs. A. E. Frost, second vice president; Mrs. T. B. Wright, corresponding secretary; Mrs. Earl Garrettson, recording secretary; Miss Alice Halliday, treasurer; Mrs. George McKenzie, entertainment; Miss Alice Klauber, furnishing; Miss Gertrude Gilbert, music; Mrs. Jarvis L. Doyle, house; Miss Daisy Barteau, organized labor; Mrs. B. D. Saville, Federated States; Mrs. A. E. Horton; Mrs. J. G. Burne; Mrs. Clark W. McKee, San Diego County representative of Woman’s Auxiliary of Southern California Panama Expositions Commission; Mrs. A. S. Bridges; Mrs. E. Thelan; Mrs. Frank Von Tesmar; Mrs. Ernest E. White; Miss Gertrude Longenecker, education.

2:3. Museum succeeds Exposition as cultural center.

The San Diego Museum was established on the Exposition grounds for the purpose of cooperating with the city, through its park commission and with correlated societies, in making the benefits of the Exposition perpetual. The park buildings and scientific collections are the permanent possession of the people. By developing a great cultural and recreational center the Exposition was made a permanently productive investment.

The scientific collections that were acquired with the assistance of the Archaeological Institute of America and the Smithsonian Institution are in the museum. Of great initial value, they have now become priceless. Private collections made at great expense can, after serving the purpose of the owners, be kept intact forever and multiplied in value by depositing them in the public museum. Valuable collections are in the museum as gifts and loans.

The museum is not a mere depository for collections, but an active educational institution. Lecture courses, art exhibitions, concerts, pageants and moving pictures are regular museum activities. Scientific laboratories in affiliation with national institutions are maintained. These laboratories are of great service to the schools, courts and social agencies.

2:4-5. Ubiquitous Exposition president amazes tourists by speedy changes and calm


The rush of functions and courtesies extended on behalf of the Panama-California Exposition to prominent visitors by President G. A. Davidson personally during the year would have racked the nerves of any man less evenly tempered and placed his in a rest cure sanitarium indefinitely.

Imperturbable in temperament, polished in manner, quietly if not slowly spoken, those who observed him on various occasions during a day and evening wondered where he showed the speed that enable him to appear so calmly sedate, in the proper garb of the hour and occasion, without seeming to have disappeared at any interval from the round of events.

One could see President Davidson at 10 o’clock receiving some governor and party in high fiat and formal morning dress in his reception room in the California Building and see him a few hours later taking the governor to luncheon on the grounds, but wandering over to the delightful Pepper Grove, one would see him there, as if by magic, making the guests at some society picnic at home, in flannels and soft white hat. Hurry, if one would to the open-air organ pavilion, and he would be seen there delivering an address of welcome to some visiting organization in the proper formal dress. Hungry, one could wander to a certain swell café on the grounds, and there he would see the president again presiding at some stag affair in dinner jacket, and then, attending some elaborate ball, see him bowing in evening dress.

How was it done? Nobody knew. Perhaps, however, there was a presto-change dressing room with a handy valet somewhere near his office. Anyway, being an Exposition president keeps one busier than work, and there was no pay for President Davidson either.

2:6-8, 7:5-7. Noted manufacturers win merit awards at San Diego Exposition; list given.

3:1-4. States, counties of West add spender to San Diego; northern valley displays State’s


Extending across the entire north end of the Plaza de Panama stands the Sacramento Valley and Mountain Counties building, pronounced by architects and artists to be one of the most beautiful buildings on the grounds, occupying, as its beauty justly deserves, the most prominent location within the gates of the Exposition.

Within this building is housed an exhibition of the wonderfully diversified products of the Sacramento Valley and its tributary mountain counties. The interior of the building is an unique and artistic as the exterior. An installation of the products of this great valley presents a pleasing contrast to other beautiful installations to be found in the various buildings.

The feature that arrests the eye of the visitor is the impression of space, room, the wide, unobstructed aisles being devoid of the too often congested grocery store features of exposition installation. This liberal use of space was designed to impress the visitor with one of the Sacramento Valley’s principal resources, the vast acreage of splendid, unoccupied agricultural land.

The next impression that the visitor will not fail to note is the unique beauty of the native pine wood, from which the various installation features have been constructed. This feature was also designed to exhibit the ____ lumber industry of the mountain section, east of the Sacramento Valley, an industry which totals about $25,000,000 annually. The only treatment of the wood has been to slightly fume in with a painter’s torch, which accentuates but does not change the grain, after which it was treated with a light coat of varnish.

Mineral Resources Shown 

Along the broad aisles have been arranged the wonderfully diversified agricultural, mineral and forest resources of this empire in the northern section of California. Beautiful transparencies show the Sacramento River, which flows from the base of Mount Shasta in Siskiyou County to the Bay of San Francisco. On the east bank of this river, ninety miles from San Francisco, stands Sacramento, the capital city of California.

In the Sacramento Valley Building will be found the most complete mineral exhibit at the Exposition. Prominent, of course, is gold, the output of which from this section of California has maintained the state in the position of the leading gold-producing state in the Union since 1848 when Marshall took out the first nugget on the south bank of the American River in El Dorado County, forty-two miles east of the city of Sacramento. Included in this mineral exhibit is every mineral found in California, with the single exception of mineral oil. The grand prize was awarded this mineral exhibit by the Panama-California Exposition jury of awards.

The lumber exhibit, while not large, is interesting, showing the soft wood timber industry, comprising sugar pine, white pine, yellow pine, spruce, fir and cedar. One clear sugar pine plank measures 54 inches in width.

There is installed in this building an exhibit of every agricultural product grown in California, with the single exception of cotton. There is no agricultural product grown in California that does not grow commercially and profitably in the Sacramento Valley and its tributary mountain counties. All agricultural conditions, soil, water and climate are typically Californian. These conditions are as near ideal as can be found in any part of the state.

Representative Board 

The Sacramento Valley Building and its exhibit was created and has been maintained by the Board of Exposition Commissioners composed of the following representatives from each of the ten counties exhibiting at San Diego.

(The names follow.)

The building and exhibit has been under the management of C. H. Dunbar of Sacramento, with a staff of assistants consisting of A. B. Barker, Solano; C. E. Robinson, Glenn County; E. G. Atwood, El Dorado County; Clarence Smith, Sacramento County; Evelyn L. Gwinn, Sacramento, and Miss Gertrude Hutchins, Colusa County.

3:1-2. Rice lands yield abundant crop.

One of the most interesting exhibits in the Sacramento Valley building and one that means much to the future, not only of the valley, but of the state of California, is the splendid rice exhibit installed in this building. Rice is one of the leading cereals of the world. There are probably more people who live on rice than any other cereal grown. We consume annually in the United States about 100,000,000 bushels and of that amount 80,000 bushels in imported annually into the United States. About 23,000,000 bushels are raised in the southern states.

In 1909 the secretary of agriculture became convinced that rice should be grown in California. He knew we had the soil and climate. The only unknown quantity was water, and as the most abundantly watered section of California is the Sacramento valley, he established an experimental rice-growing station at Biggs in Butte county. The experts experimented on _00 varieties of rice, finally settling on some half dozen varieties as being adapted to our soil and climate.

In 1911 the first field of 150 acres was planted. It yielded a crop of about 80 bushels to the acre. In 1914 we harvested 15,000 acres of rice, yielding about 1,000,000 bushels. This year we have just harvested 30,000 acres of rice, yielding over 2,000,000 bushels. There are about 300,000 acres of rice land in the Sacramento valley, and an abundance of water available for every acre. The average yield of this crop is about 80 bushels to the acre in California, so that when the entire 300,000 acres shall be in rice, as it will be within the next ten years, the output in the Sacramento valley of this basic cereal will be in the neighborhood of 25,000,000 bushels — more than is produced in the entire rice area of the southern states. The quality is not excelled in any section of the world where rice is produced.

3:1-7. New Mexico returns rich from display at San Diego, by Waldo C. Twitchell, assistant

manager, New Mexico building.

3:8. Montana exhibit boosts state resources; sixteen awards captured at Panama-California Exposition; fine mineral display; paintings of natural scenery and crops decorate building, by L. A. Pyle

The Montana State Building and exhibit at the Panama-California Exposition was made possible by the generosity of ex-Senator W. A. Clark , of Butte, Montana, who donated the building. The exhibit was furnished by the state.

The Montana Building has one of the best locations on the Exposition grounds, being built on the highest knoll, from which there is a beautiful view of the “Harbor of the Sun” and Balboa Park. The building is one of the largest state buildings and was built along lines different from the rest of the Exposition buildings.

The interior of the building shows the most artistic work of grains ever seen at any world’s fair. There are beautiful panels of oats, barley, clover, alfalfa and a wonderful frieze of oats, braided straw, wheat, wild grasses and flax.

A large reception room contains a beautiful old-fashioned open fireplace with a rustic mantel made of boulders. The pretty baby grand Starr piano is made of weathered oak to match the rest of the room. Papers are received from all cities and towns in Montana and kept on file for persons visiting the building. The walls are hung with paintings of the Glacier National Park and pictures of some of the finest mountain scenery in the world, furnished by the Great Northern Railway Company. There is also a smoking room for gentleman and a rest room for ladies.

Besides other exhibits there is a fine mineral display. Montana has always been one of the leading mining states in the Union, producing large quantities of copper, zinc, gold, silver, and coal; and recently the third largest gas well in the world was struck in the northern part of the state.

A display of large sugar beets showing Montana’s sugar beet, raised from seed grown in Montana. Up until the European war America has been getting its sugar beet seed from Germany. The exhibit includes a display of potatoes that made Montana and the Northern Pacific Railway famous: “the route of the big baked potato.” Some of them weigh as much as eight pounds, solid and with as fine flavor as the small ones.

Montana spent the least of any state on its exhibit, and received almost three times as many awards as any of the other states — sixteen awards in all. Montana was awarded grand prize for agriculture exhibit and gold medals for wheat, oaks, barley, peas, flax, grasses, rye, alfalfa, clover, four, brick, graphite, and park exhibit building.

The management of the building in boosting the state has had the advantage of Montana’s wonderful 1915 crop. This means winter wheat going as high as 78 bushels to the acre, and a total crop of 40,000,000 bushels; also a heavy yield of oats of an extra fine quality and a bumper crop of the famous Mackintosh wormless red apples. The state as a whole is in the most prosperous condition it has ever been in its history. Copper and zinc mines and smelters are running overtime. Butte, a city of 70,000 population, has a monthly payroll of $2,000,000. Railroad construction work is starting up and settlers are flocking in from all parts of the United States.

The state with its wonderful natural resources, still undeveloped, needs people and capital, and expects great results from its exhibit at the Panama-California Exposition.

3:8. Continue Fair demand from Southland; San Diego heeds call of California that Exposition

run second year.

3:8. Salt Lake exhibit, homelike center.

Known as the home of hospitality, the beautiful building erected and maintained at the San Diego Exposition by the Salt Lake and Union Pacific System was the center of continuous social activity during 1915.

As testifying to the popularity of the building, the Exposition jury of awards awarded the building a gold medal and designated it as a unique structure at the Exposition.

The building itself is as novel as its location and contains a magnificent exhibit room illuminated with photographs and photographic transparencies illustrating the scenic and development features along the Salt Lake Route, the Union Pacific, and the Oregon Short Line. At one end of this exhibit hall is a gigantic bird’s eye map in oils, showing the Salt Lake Route and its tributary country, while the other end of the room is occupied by a comparison map of Yellowstone Park as reached by the Union Pacific System.

4:1-2. EDITORIAL: The Union’s 1916 Annual . . . Another Year of the Exposition . . . A Most Encouraging Outlook.

4:1-4, 7:1-3. Exposition Beautiful triumphantly closes first successful year, by Lewis H. Falk, Director of Publicity, Panama-California Exposition.

Attended by practically 2,000,000 visitors from all quarters of the world, the Panama-California Exposition at San Diego has just rounded out twelve months of operation which will be set down in exposition annals as a distinctive achievement in the world of big endeavor. Like a thoroughbred which has made every post a winning one, the Exposition has made each month of its operation since its opening, January 1, 1915, return snug financial gain. Thus, such forecasts that have been made in the past that expositions at best can be operated only a sort time successfully, have been contradicted. The prophets did not figure with golden climate, wealth of resources or immeasurable pluck and determination.

Three hundred and sixty five days have elapsed since San Diego gave birth to its dream of years, and now, secure in success, this city of big ideas points with pride to its accomplishment, for the Exposition stands as a monument to its daring, business acumen, and liberality. It is not a task of small proportions for a city of San Diego’s size to build and operate an exposition which should win unstinted praise from world travelers.

Exposition Attendance Is Cosmopolitan 

With Europe’s doors closed to tourists on account of the war, the Exposition drew a heavy attendance in its opening month last January, satisfied its patrons, and they went back to their homes imbued with the idea that the sons of the West had built on a high mesa overlooking San Diego an Exposition Beautiful, far different from and in history and so different in detail from the one at San Francisco that the two could not be considered rivals. Through an average attendance which, will not up to expectations, was sufficient to yield a profit, the Exposition was operated January, February and March. The tourist rates took effect in March and soon an appreciable increase in visitors was noticed. Then came May, the last of the spring months, and attendance totaled 179, 818. June gave approximately the same figure, while the vacation months of July and August contributed heavy patronage, July going down as a banner month of 301,937. Throughout the late summer and fall the decline in attendance has been the natural result of the slight decrease in Western travel, but, with the advent of cold weather in the East, travel to the Exposition again increased. According to estimates of Exposition officials, attendance in November was approximately 125,000, while the December’s was over the 100,000 mark.

The Exposition has been cosmopolitan in its attendance as well as in its attractions. During the year it has been visited by twenty governors of states in the United States; Vice President Marshall; Colonel Theodore Roosevelt, former president; William Jennings Bryan, former secretary of state; Franklin K. Lane, secretary of the interior; Josephus Daniels, secretary of the navy; Lindley M. Garrison, secretary of war; William M. McAdoo, secretary of the treasury; and scores of United States senators and representatives. Had it not been for important international problems brought on by the European war and the Mexican situation, President Wilson would have headed the list of distinguished visitors. His regret at inability to attend is expressed in a message in which he gives liberal praise of the perseverance and pluck necessary to building and operating successfully for a year such a laudable Exposition. The United States has not alone, however, contributed all of the distinguished visitors throughout the year, for dignitaries have come from many countries, all to be entertained by President G. A. Davidson, whose devoted to the Exposition has been a large factor in its success. At sacrifice of private business, Mr. Davidson has been a twenty-four hour man on the job throughout the year and his energies were directed toward making the Exposition successful, not for any financial remuneration he would receive, but purely for the love of directing an enterprise which head had been associated with since its inception.

As has been indicated, attractions at the Exposition, aside from those furnished by the beauty of the grounds, artistic arrangements and comprehensive exhibits, have been as cosmopolitan as its personnel and patronage. The Exposition has been the common meeting ground of all classes and creeds, likewise the clearing house of ideas for the entertainment of those who will be amused by departures from stereotyped programs. Entertainment has been of a hodgepodge variety, diversity being the keynote. Whether special attractions took the form of an open-air ball at night in the Plaza de Panama, competitive drills by crack military and fraternal organizations, spellbinding oratory from nationally known men, a Shakespeare festival on greensward, or an aerial insanity furnished by some heedless aviator, it was always something new. Thus the Exposition with its diversity was able to attract and amuse everyday those residing in its nearest territory.

Convention bodies in great number visited the Exposition. Practically every line of industry and many of the arts and sciences were represented by these gatherings. Long before the Exposition opening, national organizations seemed to realize the benefits to be derived from choosing the Exposition as a convention ground. Several special trains pouring in convention delegates in large numbers arrived each week and conventions ran the gauntlet of variety from that of the National Association of Ice Cream Manufacturers to the California Teachers’ Institute, Southern Section, which had an attendance of 6,000 school teachers from the southland.

Each holiday was made the occasion of special celebration. To show that the Exposition in its celebration was without comparison by attention in narrow lines drawn by creeds or nations, the observance of the Chinese New Year in February is cited. Then again the celebration of Japan is mentioned. Canada also was given a special day, while each state had a state day. Standing out as distinctive for the influence created for better citizenship was the three-day exhibition of the Liberty Bell. In no place in the country where the Liberty Bell was exhibited on this year’s tour was more honor paid to it than at the Exposition. Well did it seem to fit in with the Exposition atmosphere, an atmosphere which reflects in architecture of buildings the early struggles in Southern California shores for the establishment of Christianity and a better liberty.

Children’s Fair Successful 

Exposition success must not be measured along by work contributed by grownups. Young America had its part to play and well has it fitted in throughout the year, in pageants, parades, festivals and juvenile exercises. San Diego children have worked successfully and a share in the triumph of the Exposition must not be denied them, for at times one was reminded of the Biblical declaration, “a little child shall lead them.” One of the most notable examples of child endeavor was shown in the presentation of the Children’s Fair, and here again the Exposition achieved another record, being the first exposition to conduct a children’s fair. This fair had more than 3,000 exhibits of youthful handicraft in arts, science, agriculture, and mechanics. Leading educators pronounced the display startling and one that well reflected the great advance in recent years in child education.

The Exposition was indeed fortunate in having military stationed on the grounds, for without this important adjunct, there would have been an absence of the proper pomp and ceremony incident to the visits of dignitaries. The military also was a part of daily Exposition life, supplied snap and precision to increase attractiveness of daily programs. On a commanding mesa, just in the rear of the state buildings, the Second Battalion, Fourth Regiment, U.S. Marine Corps, commanded by Major W. N. McKelvey, established a model camp with the Exposition’s opening. At this camp was seen the daily life of Uncle Sam’s men and their drills and reviews have done much to give the public a better understanding of military service. In these days when greater national preparedness is being urged, it is but the natural result that Exposition visitors should give the military at the Exposition scrutinizing attention. Through the efforts of Colonel J. H. Pendleton, commanding officer of the regiment, the Marines have been available for many programs throughout the year, while the regimental band has played daily concerts.

Military Plays Part 

With its camp pitched just outside the Exposition grounds, a squadron of the First Cavalry, commanded earlier in the year by Captain George Van Horn Moseley, and more recently by Major William T. Littlebrant, has taken part in all the military activities. At various times the companies of coast artillery from Fort Rosecrans have participated in the big military turnouts, escorts and parades. The Thirteenth Band, Coast Artillery Corps, which has been a musical attraction during the entire year, took quarters near the grounds in the summer that it might be more readily available at short notice.

But Uncle Sam’s land force did not hold all the attention, for frequently the commissioned and enlisted personnel of Pacific fleet warships responded with drills and parades. This was accomplished through the courtesy of Admiral T. H. Howard, who until recently commanded the Pacific fleet, and his successor, Admiral Cameron MacRae Winslow, has established his willingness for a continuance of the navy’s participation in Exposition events. Of national importance, one event stands out in luminous light in connection with the navy’s activities. This was the visit to the Exposition of 500 Annapolis midshipmen, all of whom made the cruise from the Atlantic seaboard through the Panama Canal to San Diego, the first port of call. Military organizations not in the regular establishment also made official visits to the Exposition, and notable among these were the Richmond, Virginia Light Infantry Blues, the First Regiment Infantry, National Guard, Illinois, and the Salt Lake City High School Cadets.

Music Prominent Feature 

In an exposition which is developed with art, it was surely appropriate that music should be given much consideration. Throughout the year, the daily programs at the Spreckels organ by Doctor H. J. Stewart, official organist, have been a pleasing feature. This organ, the greatest outdoor organ in the world, was presented to the City of San Diego by A. B. and John D. Spreckels. In a commanding position, it stands as a monument to their generosity, for the structure and instrument cost $100,000. This organ has been the scene of many successful entertainments, at times calling the world’s greatest soloists and musicians. The concert given by Mme. Ernestine Schumann-Heink to the citizens of San Diego proved a distinct success in the Western musical world. Mme. Schumann-Heink sang to 25,000 people.

On the long list of artists who have appeared at the organ are the names of some of the world’s best known singers, musicians, composers, and dramatic stars. A few who have been heard during the Exposition are Signor Florencio Constantino, Ellen Beach Yaw, Carrie Jacobs Bond, Claudia Albright, Hamlin Hunt, Warren P. Allen, Will O. MacFarlane, and Mme. Alla Nazimova. Several times San Diego talent has been heard in musical programs.

Throughout the Exposition year San Diego awaited with keen anticipation its greatest day. This, San Diego Day, was observed November 17 when an attendance of about 40,000 testified to the popularity of the Exposition with San Diegans. In preparing for an exposition, San Diego has much experience with celebrations and public exercises, so it was well equipped to turn a mammoth crowd into the Exposition gates on San Diego Day. Loyalty of commercial San Diego was shown on this day, when all places of business were closed at noon. This city-wide closing also established another record and for the first time since San Diego was a city, excepting on the days required by the state laws, the saloons also joined in the closing movement. Of the many celebrations held at the Exposition throughout the year, none was attended with such success as San Diego Day. It came at a period when the Exposition could make its success known by its deeds rather than by words. It was a celebration of achievement.

Western Resources 

Built for the purpose of exploiting the resources of California and the states closest to it, the Exposition stuck steadily to its purpose throughout the year. It was the point from which information to colonists and homeseekers was distributed. Such information was circulated at the various state and county buildings and by mid-summer an increase in settlement on Southwestern lands was noticeable as a direct result of the Exposition.

In commercial and industrial displays a difference between this and other expositions was noticed. The Exposition marked the departure from the old line of exhibiting where one can of baking powder or one make of washing machine or a certain order of agricultural implement contested with dozens of others for honors. In choosing exhibits for the Exposition displays were solicited only from the leading manufacturers in each line and thus mediocre exhibits were eliminated. The appreciation of this arrangement is shown in the profitable advertising which exhibitors have gained. With only one exhibit from each branch of manufacturing and that one truly representative, visitors were not compelled to divide their attention among rival exhibits in the same line. Thus there was created an inquiry about exhibits which made future business.

Along in mid-year exhibitors put on these best clothes, so to speak, for the jury of awards convened and competing with products and manufactures from all parts of the Southwest, Southern California again asserted its supremacy as the land for the homeseeker. It was awarded the greatest number of prizes and medals for agricultural display, while the northern part of the state was ably represented by Alameda County, which was given fifty-six awards for its display of manufactured articles. This was a greater number than that secured for manufactured exhibits by an county represented at the Exposition.

Police Arrangements Perfect 

With liberal attendance on everyday and big crowds pouring through the grounds on special occasions, it had been expected that the usual influx of the criminal element would be noticed. Long before the opening, however, the policing and protection of visitors had been well organized. This important point was placed under the direct charge of Colonel William A. Pinkerton of the Pinkerton Detective Agency. Bunco men, pickpockets and others of the class who follow criminal pursuits were warned that the San Diego Exposition would be a decidedly unhealthy place for them. The warning was sufficient and throughout the year visitors were afforded entire protection and the Balboa Guard, with its plain clothes detail, made a record for efficient policing. Not a single robbery or work of pickpockets was reported while the guards found numerous articles which had been lost and restored them to their owners. In many cases the property was found and delivered to the owner after the Exposition visit had been concluded.

Fire protection was also entirely adequate throughout the year and, while the fire companies from the City of San Diego stationed within the grounds, responded to several alarms, the fire loss was trivial. It did not exceed $500.

Fair’s Efficient Staff 

Businesslike arrangements marked the handling of all Exposition business and with the assistance of an efficiency expert expenses were kept at a minimum. In its employment the Exposition had a number of specialists and yet these id not specialize to the degree where they could not do any other work when the occasion was presented. It is noticeable that there existed between the various departments a cooperation which worked for the Exposition’s success, while back of the project to rule on important questions and preside as a sort of watch dog of the treasury was an executive committee composed of San Diego’s leading businessmen. It was the members of the committee who discarded through loss much of their private business that they might best serve the Exposition cause. Through the Exposition building and during its early operation H. O. Davis, as director general, was its chief executive. His resignation was tendered and accepted August 1, and E. L. Chapin, who had been identified with the Exposition in important positions for three years or more, succeeded him. Thus, Director Chapin became the direct representative of the directors and the executive committee and all of the various departments which were under his charge. Directors who have held office during the year are: R. C. Allen, Lucius R. Barrow, Frank J. Belcher, Jr., L. A. Blochman, George Burnham, William Clayton, G. A. Davidson, C. W. Fox, D. F. Garretson, Percy Goodwin, C. H. Heilbron, M. F. Heller, H. H. Jones, W. F. Ludington, Arthur H. Marston, J. W. Sefton, Jr., W. A. Sloane, John D. Spreckels, C. L. Williams, Julius Wangenheim, D. C. Collier, F. W. Jackson and E. J. Burns. The executive committee was composed of the following: Frank J. Belcher, Jr., G. A. Davidson, P. H. Goodwin, M. F. Heller, H. H. Jones, C. L. Williams, W. A. Sloane, and E. J. Burns.

History of Fair 

A superficial review of pre-Exposition history discloses obstacles confronting San Diego which it surmounted in carrying to completion its dream born in civic enterprise and nursed by liberality of its citizens. The birthday of the Exposition can be considered as September 4, 1909. It was on this date that the San Diego Chamber of Commerce got behind the proposal to have the first port of call hold the official celebration of the Panama Canal opening. Rapidly plans were formulated. San Diego subscribed liberally and voted municipal bonds and the project was launched. The official groundbreaking was held in July 1910.

After the Exposition was chartered and underway, San Francisco entered the field and sent a delegation to Washington to seek government recognition and patronage. Thus San Diego and San Francisco became rivals in this one respect. New Orleans saw opportunity of taking advantage on account of the division and made a bid for the 1915 world’s fair.

San Diego withdrew voluntarily that the great event might be held on the Pacific Coast. This resulted in San Francisco having a clear field for her world’s fair, but San Diego decided to hold an exposition of vastly different type from that planned for San Francisco. So it went ahead with its plans and made a bid for foreign participation, sending Colonel D. C. Collier, the first president of the Exposition, into the field for this purpose. Various conditions existing at that time made it obvious that the foreign participation at San Diego would be the participation of industrial leaders rather than governments. Thus San Diego early in the project abandoned the idea for foreign government participation.

Old Spain Architecture 

The decision to build the Exposition in the 1400-acre Balboa Park, owned by the City of San Diego, was a popular one and in its building those considered the best landscape and building architects were engaged. These carried to successful completion the beautification of the grounds, construction of buildings, an arrangement which as a whole has been set down as a fine example of engineering skill.

It is the architecture of the buildings which strikes the keynote of harmony, for Mission predominates n California. Back to the days of the good Franciscan fathers the architects went for their types, and well did they portray a class of architecture which has attained great popularity in recent years. It was fitting indeed that they should draw on early California history for Exposition building. Throughout the different types it is seen that the Spanish-Colonial predominates. The Home Economy Building resembles the hacienda [sic] of the Conde d’Heras. In the Indian Arts Building are many suggestions of the Sanctuario de Guadaloupe at Guadalajara.

In the Science and Education Building there are found points resembling the cathedral at Puebla, Mexico, and in the Varied Industries Building there are resemblances to the eighteenth-century monastery at Queretaro, Mexico. The California State Building, of course, bears many resemblances to the beautiful [sic] at Oaxaca, Mexico.

Indian Life Shown 

The San Joaquin Valley Building bears an extremely close resemblance to any one of a half dozen of the municipal buildings of Spanish America, although, of course, there are details which originated in the mind of the architect. The building of Kern and Tulare County suggests strongly any number of palaces. The unique building which New Mexico has erected is a copy of the old mission on the rock of Acoma in New Mexico, with a few details introduced from the church of Cochiti.

In the Painted Desert these resemblances are equally marked. The larger pueblos are copies of those at Hopi and Taos and the interior of the lower structure, where the Rio Grande tribes are quartered, is a copy of the ancient Governor’s Palace, El Palacio Real, of Ornate, at Santa Fe. The buildings and small structures throughout the Painted Desert are, of course, an exact imitation of typical scenes in the great Southwest.

Throughout the grounds the planting shows an artistic arrangement such as only could come from the hands of a master. It is such a project as Father Serra must have dreamed of years ago when he laid the foundation of California civilization. Crossing the great Puente Cabrillo, the visitor approaches a massive arch, flanked on one side by a rich cathedral, and, on the other, by a plain mission. The cathedral is the California State Building and the mission is the Fine Arts Building. Once inside this gateway, the visitor looks down the Prado, the main street of the Exposition, on one of the most beautiful views ever seen. Lining the Prado are scores of black acacia trees, behind which stand the wonderful Spanish-Colonial buildings of the Exposition. Over the buildings clamber a riot of vines, the rich green of the leaves giving way here and there to bright flashes of color of the blossoms.

Flowers and Romance

Several of the buildings are large but, except for the great dome and tower of the California State Building, standing at the west approach near the end of the great Puente Cabrillo, few are tall. Instead they spread luxuriously over broad spaces on the mesa which looks down on the sea and the strand of Coronado, or back up the fertile valleys to the Sierras, with long cool cloisters and acacias lining their facades. Instead of making streets, there are prados bordered with acacia and lawns and thick beds of gladiolas and poinsettia, and low shrubbery which droops through the arches of the arcades. Up the walls, up to the Spanish domes and towers and the belfries where pigeons nest and mission bells swing, clambers the gorgeous growth of rose and honeysuckle and bougainvillea, the superb vine whose bloom does much to make a fairyland of Southern California. A portal invites one past the cloister, and beyond there lies a quiet patio, green with foliage illuminated by the color of an occasional flowering shrub, murmuring with the soft play of a fountain.

San Diego has an individual interest in the development of the back country, but broader than that interest was the genuine intent of the Exposition to stimulate bigger things, the upbuilding of the entire West, and in this program Washington and Montana and Kansas took as much interest as Nevada and New Mexico and Utah and the other states which may be considered as in the Southwest. Their state buildings were devoted to a sort of follow-up system of the Exposition’s program for developing the nation’s agricultural resources by methods as novel as the architectural program and as effective.

Back-to-the-Land Movement 

The back-to-the-land movement has been urged by pen and brush and oratory. It can be conceded that the country is fairly well aware that there should be a shifting of population from city to country, instead of country to city. It can be conceded that no city man who has made more or less of a failure and his brother who has made more or less of a success in the metropolis alike have a longing to get out of the dust and turmoil and tension of town and into the clear air of the fields. But the land is not occupied, The government has held land shows, but the movement to the farm is not a big one.

The failure of the methods is due to just one thing, the lack of any real information to the possible farmer as to how he was going back to the farm and what he was going to do when he got there. The same is true of world’s fair agricultural exhibits which have shown majestic pyramids of oranges, and a great array of other fruits and vegetables and cereals and grasses. None was materially different from those the possible farmer might have seen in his own city at the grocery or produce exchange. There was another significant difference between San Diego’s new type and the old type world’s fair.

Model Farm Feature 

Down the Alameda from that large-scale farm display is the model intensive farm. Many there are in the back-to-the-land movement who can afford to take up 120 or 160 acre tracts, equip them and cultivate them, but many others there are who for financial or physical reasons can do nothing of the sort, but of these men who can see a five-acre tract bearing a variety of fruits and an intensive cultivation bearing still greater variety of vegetables in the soil beneath the fruit trees, if they can see a little section given over to vineyards, another to berries, another to a small poultry farm, if they can see that this tract produces four or five times as much as the same area did under old-style methods and with less labor, if they can catch the spirit of the “little lander,” who gets “a sure living and a good profit on a little land,” then there is a meaning to them. The effort was to show just such men exactly what they can expect if they are willing to work.

In the center of the model intensive farm is a typical Western bungalow. And while the prospective farmer discovered that modern machinery would save him the drudgery that his grandfather had to bear, the prospective farmer’s wife learned that other machinery will save her the drudgery that was her grandmother’s. She could see that the modern bungalow has equipment just as complete as the city apartment.

Across the ravine from the intensive farm is an orchard in full bearing, designed to show the operation of the latest type of orchard machinery and across the way is another orchard of citrus fruit, picked from the best orchards of Southern California (?), showing the orange, the grapefruit, the lemon, the kumquat and the other citrus fruits growing alongside the paths. The exquisite fragrance of the citrus blossoms lingers long in the nostrils of him who has sniffed it.

Lesson of Exposition 

That is the spirit of all the exhibits, many of them out-of-doors, many indoors in the missions, the palaces, the cathedrals of the Spanish city. The broad lawns, the grove of pepper trees, the patios, the wide stretch of open country abloom, stretching down to the canyons, encourage one mightily. He realizes that this space after all is concentration in a small space of the whole life of the new West and he is filled with a longing to see more, to see the great vineyards of olive and orange, to see the vast apple and cherry country to the north, to roam in the forest reserves and up the slopes of the snow-capped Rockies, and over the agricultural empire beyond. It is typically Western, this, but its great lesson, the utilization of possibilities, is as applicable to the cut-out timberlands of Wisconsin, the neglected lands of the South and of New England. He who is willing to learn can learn aplenty, wherever his interests may be.

Exposition year would have been without its light entertainment had it not been furnished by the Isthmus. This, the Exposition’s Joy Street, was in previous expositions known as the Pike or Midway, and it was the gathering place of many carnival crowds. Not only did the Isthmus furnish amusement with its standard attractions, but it proved a continued source of revenue to the Exposition and to the concessionaires. Almost innumerable is the list of special events held on the Isthmus and many times it presented a scene of gay carnival, rivaling the famous New Orleans Mardi Gras.

Onward the Exposition has gone through its twelve month’s operation, gathering impetus with each thirty days and profiting by experience. Its record proclaims to the world that a great future awaits San Diego and that its progressiveness may at any time be looked of to make history.

6:1-2. Fair grounds festive scene as world-famed performers delight responsive crowds; list of special events.

6.6. Schumann-Heink and Ellen Beach Yaw to sing today; program is announced.

6:7. Arizona accepts Fair space for big display; Commerce Chamber resolutions provide conference of state bodies to plan exhibit.

7:2-3. Ramona’s Marriage Place in Old Town restored.

7:2-5. Efficient street railway handles Exposition crowds; “Clover Leaf Trip” touches all famous scenic points.

7:3. Scenes of Saint Marks, Venice, duplicated at the Plaza de Panama during the Exposition year.

7:3. Only one small conflagration in a special building on the Exposition grounds during the year; damage less than $500.

7:3. Not a single serious accident occurred on the grounds during 1915.

7:3-4. Cabinet members, federal officials, San Diego guests.

7:4. Resources shown by Southland’s Model Farm, Southern Counties unique exhibit attracts eyes of entire nation.

In 1911, when the commission took up the matter of preparing exhibits from the counties of Imperial, Los Angeles, San Bernardino, San Diego, Ventura, Orange and Riverside, it was felt that something different from the exhibits which people were accustomed to seeing at an Exposition should be presented at either one or both of the expositions to be held in California in 1915. As a result of this, about 17 acres of land were secured from the Panama-California Exposition, and it was decided that a part of this should be devoted to a practical working demonstration of the methods used in Southern California in growing its various products, and that this should be an object lesson to the visitors from the Eastern states in the cultivating of the soil and the proper methods for caring for the various crops.

With this end in view, what has become known all over the United States as the “Model Farm” was laid out and a model bungalow was added as an additional exhibit with the Model Farm. The farm proper covers six acres and in addition there is a demonstration field of about three acres and a large citrus grove of five acres.

Since the beginning of the farm, January 1, 1915 (?), there has been raised four successive crops of vegetables through intensive cultivation, intelligent fertilizing and rotation of crops. In one or two instances, the fifth crop is in the ground and is now growing. The farm is planted with all varieties of citrus and deciduous fruit trees, berries and other small fruits.

In connection with the farm, a model poultry plant was established, and here, with the same care given other parts of the farm, it has proved a success. The produce of the farm has not been sold, but has been placed on exhibit in the Southern California Counties Building.

The model bungalow on the farm probably has attracted as much attention as any other feature. As a result, it was found necessary to prepare working blueprint plans of the bungalow. Hundreds of these have been sold and given away to persons living in all parts of the United States and Canada. The commission is constantly in receipt of letters requesting information concerning the farm and bungalow.

Also conducted as a model, the yield from the citrus groves must come as a surprise to commercial citrus fruit growers. The careful attention given to fruits at the Model Farm has resulted in a growth and production that compares favorably with results obtained by commercial growers who cultivate their trees under the most favorable conditions.

In addition to the model bungalow, a cottage of three rooms was built for the use of the superintendent. Showing that automobiles were not forgotten, a combined garage and stable was built. Indeed, nothing was overlooked that would contribute to the convenience and comfort of the farmer and the economic handling of work on his farm.

The commission desired to show not only to the Eastern man, but to the farmer in California, also, that it is not necessary to live in a bare, unadorned piece of land. Grounds around the farmer’s house were beautified and, in corners ordinarily devoted to rubbish, flowers were planted that would bloom or blossom throughout the year. The object of the whole exhibit has been to show how artistic and beautiful attributes of a farmer’s home can be combined with the practical uses of a small farm.

7:8. Utah exhibit at Fair shows Western sentiment; resources and attractions of State vividly described in fine building; results satisfactory.

7:4-5. Cabinet members, federal officers, San Diego guests.

8:1-8. Celebrities captured by camera at Exposition: Theodore Roosevelt; Nicholas Longworth; Vice President Thomas Marshall; Honorable Champ Clark; William Howard Taft; Theodore Vail; Joe Cannon; Governor Hiram Johnson of California; Mrs. Eleanor Wilson McAdoo; William McAdoo, Secretary of the Treasury; Senator John Weeks of California; Admiral W. F. Fullam; William R. Hearst; Mrs. William R. Hearst; Governor James Whitman of New York; Mrs. Whitman of New York; Maharajah of Karputala; Maharanee of Karputala; Mrs. James Rolph; John Barrett; Thomas A. Edison; Boise Penrose; Henry Ford; Admiral Thomas B. Howard; Colonel George Goethals; Governor Spry of Utah; Mayor George Thompson of Chicago; Mrs. George Thompson of Chicago; Minister Martin Burrell, Canada; Governor Fielder of New Jersey; Charles Maryland; Admiral Dew, Japan; James Lynch, New York Labor Commissioner; Madame Schumann-Heink; Honorable Seth Law; William Jennings Bryan; Count Del Valle de Salazar; Countess Del Valle de Salazar; Franklin D. Roosevelt, assistant Secretary of the Navy.

Business Section

8:7-8. San Diego reality active; Exposition boosts values.

Industries Section

3:1. City park system covers 1,867 acres; portions of recreation grounds are left in natural state; 7,000 rose bushes planted in Balboa Park flower gardens.

The park system of San Diego has an area of 1,867 acres, which comprises Balboa Park, 1,400 acres, Torrey Pines Park, 363 acres, Collier Park, 65 acres, Mountain View Park, 15 acres, La Jolla Park, 6 acres, Mission Hills Park, 5 acres, New Town Park, 3 acres, Plaza Park, 1 acre, Old Town Park, 2 acres, and has a total valuation of $8,492,700 for the land and $2,127,000 for improvements, which include the buildings of the Panama-California Exposition, Cabrillo Canyon bridge, the improvement and planting of the grounds of the Exposition, and $352,000 for general park improvement, the most of which was spent for the improvement of Balboa Park outside the Exposition grounds.

Balboa Park lies practically in the heart of the city, few large parks being located so conveniently for the use of the public. The topography has a more varied character than that of any other park so situated; the beautiful views of the mountains, bay and ocean are unsurpassed by any city. There are many canyons, both large and small, which when improved will further enhance the landscape beauties of the park.

It is the policy of the Board of Park Commissioners to leave several large areas of the park in their natural state, preserving all the native shrubs and wild flowers which grow abundantly in these places; in other sections the development is along regular park lines, such as the planting of trees, shrubs and flowers, large expanses of lawn, the installation of playgrounds, ball fields, waterfalls and small lakes in some of the hills and canyons, and the building of a fine system of roads and bridle paths.

The climatic conditions of San Diego are excellent for park development as nearly all the world may be drawn upon to provide suitable trees and shrubs for planting, a boon that few cities enjoy. Australia, New Zealand, South America, China and Japan furnish a large number of the variety of trees, shrubs and flowers that are utilized in the development of the park system, and experiments are now going on with plants which are at present very rare in this section of the country.

Up to four years ago very little had been done to improve the park system, but the holding of the Panama-California Exposition in 1915 was the incentive for the commencement of extensive improvements in the Park Department and the planting of the Exposition grounds. Several hundred thousand trees, mostly acacias, eucalyptus, arucarias, sterculias, ficus, hymenosperum, cupressus, camphora, cedars, avocados, sapotes, over a million shrubs, draceneas, dasierions, nolinas, strelitizias, bananas, agaves and others have been planted. Seven thousand rose bushes in the rose garden, and hundreds of thousands of flowering and budding plants and bulbs.

The results that have been obtained are certainly appreciated by the people of this city and the hundreds of thousands of visitors to the Exposition have voiced their appreciation of the landscape beauty of the park and Exposition grounds.

Of the smaller parks scattered throughout the city, La Jolla Park, New Town Park and Plaza Park are completed, several others have had some improvement, and with the balance nothing has been done as yet. Torrey Pines Park, which has an area of over 300 acres, is located on the Torrey Pines Grade, on the north boulevard from Los Angeles, and has a frontage along the Pacific Ocean of about one mile. This is a very interesting place, as it is the native habitat of the famous Torrey pines, and is the only location in the world where they are native, and, being on the crest, they have a rugged, gnarled and windswept appearance, and when planted inland, they are beautiful trees and among the most admired of the conifers of the western hemisphere. The park is a favorite resort for picnickers and fisherman as the beach along the ocean front is noted for corvina and other surf fishing.

La Jolla Park is located about 15 miles from the heart of the city along the ocean to the north, and while it is only small park of 5 acres, it is much favored as the rugged cliffs along the ocean are very picturesque and the beach at the cove is a favorite bathing place.

The conservatory and botanical building have been greatly admired by visitors owing to the fine condition of plants that are very seldom seen in other parts of the country.

The zoological section of the park will soon be a very important one, as there is gradually being gathered together a fine collection of animals, such as buffalo, bear, elk – both valley and mountain, several species of deer, and also a fine collection of birds in the aviary division, all of which are much appreciated by the visitors.

On the whole San Diego can be proud of its park system, which in a few years will be the equal in beauty of any park system possessed by any city of its size in the country.

Mission Section

3:3-6. Pala Indians forsake chase for quiet life; three-day Fiesta at Exposition.

In August, on invitation of the officials of the Panama-California Exposition, about 200 Mission Indians from Pala, Pauma, Rincon, La Jolla and Los Conejos reservations held a Fiesta in the Exposition grounds. Their visit was one of pleasure to themselves and to the visitors, but, besides this, it was an educational lesson to these children of the woods who seldom wander far from the reservation.

Shortly after this Fiesta an amusing article in a newspaper magazine stated that the Indians were only restrained from feasting on dog meat by the intervention of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. The writer had evidently visited the Igorrote Village in a northern city and mixed his stories. The same writer also noted that the Indians “gambled all night with their exciting Peon game.” All gambling was prohibited within the Exposition grounds.

During the three-day stay of the Indians, five Indian policemen, two Exposition guards, and a government special officer never left the encampment. Mr. T. McCormick was there most of the time and the reservation chaplain, Reverend George Boyle, arrived with the Indians, remained with them, and accompanied them home. Every game of Peon, or any other kind, was played for a prize donated and afterwards presented by Exposition officials. There was absolutely no gambling. But then the magazine writer was giving readers an Indian story and felt that his or her presumption would not be resented. The Mission Indians are neither gamblers nor drunkards and their morals are of a high standard.

7:2-3. Ramona Marriage Place in Old Town, San Diego, restored.

Real Estate/Building

8:2-4. Drawing of University Club on east side of Seventh Street between A and Ash; William

Sterling Hebbard and Carleton Monroe Winslow, architects.

Regular Pages

1:7-8, 6:4. Twin celebrations usher in New Year and 1916 Exposition; Fair grounds alive with light and color.

4:1. EDITORIAL: Another Year of the Exposition.

6:6. Schumann-Heink and Ellen Beach Yaw to sing at Spreckels Organ Pavilion at 2 p.m. today.

6:6. Arizona accepts Fair space for big display.

9:4. U.S. Navy exhibit at Fair, one of best; electric cyclorama shows types of vessels, model of floating dry docks, feature.

II, 1:6. Exposition sues 200 subscribers.

January 1, 1916, San Diego Union, pages not known. Pioneer Society preserves city records; accomplishes important service for future Southwest historians; Exposition collection; display at San Diego Fair attracts attention of world tourists, by Mrs. Margaret V. Allen, president Pioneer Society of San Diego County.

The Pioneer Society of San Diego County was organized in 1895 (?) and incorporated in 1911. “Regular or pioneer members are men and women who became residents of the city or county of San Diego prior to January 1, 1880. Associated members are the husbands of wives of regular members and also sons and daughters of regular members when they have attained their majority.”

The purpose for which the society was formed, as recorded in its bylaws are: “To unite in friendly association the early settlers and pioneers of San Diego and their descendants, together with other persons in sympathy with the purposes of the association.

Pioneer Spirit Renewed 

For twenty years the Pioneer Society has carried out the purposes and aims expressed in these bylaws. On the last Monday of each month a business and social meeting is held, usually at the home of some member. At these meetings the neighbors and friends of the early village life exchange reminiscences and renew the rare spirit of those pioneer days: a spirit which should be the common heritage of the generations to come as well as of those whose part in them was immediate and personal. Twice a year open meetings of the society are held at which the families of pioneers and invited guests are entertained. A program of addresses and music is given, usually followed by old-fashioned-dances. Many of the older pioneers would be lonely, indeed, if it were not for the social life and the personal contact with old friends that these pioneer meeting furnish.

The interest taken by the society in its members, as one by one they ____ out from the ranks of active workers by reason of old age or illness had endeared it to all. At each meeting reports are given of invalid or infirm members and messages of interest and sympathy are sent to the absent ones. Few calls have ever been made for financial help from the members of the association, but many responses have been given to appeals from local charities or to meet the needs that have arisen after some great national calamity.

Story of City Told 

The third purpose for which the Pioneer Society was formed, as explained by its bylaws, the conservation and preservation of the vast amount of historical material belonging to this section of the state has received a great impetus during the years of preparation for the Panama-California Exposition. At a meeting of the Pioneer Society, held shortly after the public announcement of plans for this Exposition, a motion was passed providing that the secretary should ask for space for an historical exhibit “similar to the historical exhibits of other exhibitions” at the Fair to be held in San Diego in 1915.

A few months before the opening of the Exposition, the lower floor of the Fine Arts Building was assigned to the Pioneer Society and here, during the past year, in the gallery of California history, thousands of visitors from all portions of the United States have learned the story of our state and city from the day when Fray Junipero Serra raised the cross on Presidio Hill and California history began.

Railroad History Kept 

The society has never attempted to collect objects for an historical museum. Curios and relics have a small part in the Pioneer exhibit in the gallery of California history. Every article on display illustrates some phase of life in early California; every document is a link in the chain of history; all newspapers, letters, diaries, legal documents and business papers have their use as a valuable source material for the preparation of local history.

The railroad section, with its reports of surveys, maps of routes, minutes of stockholders’ and directors’ meetings and long lists of stockholders and subscribers to subsidies that were voted to prospective road builders from the days of the San Diego and Gila Southern Pacific and Atlantic, in the early 50’s to the San Diego & Arizona of the present day, is of great value, not only to engineers and business men, but reveals much of the spirit of optimism characteristic of the typical San Diegan of the past and present alike. A collection of plats, maps, pictures and photographs present graphically to the tourist or newcomer the story of the formation and growth of the city, and make its geography familiar to him at a glance.

Exposition Year Successful 

The political and civic life of the earlier years is revealed in election reports, proclamations, notices and petitions to the trustees, to the county officials and to the voters on every imaginable subject connected with the community interests. The library of earl California books that is being collected is rich in local history from the pens of mean and women whose fame in nation-wide.

On the walls and in cases are the portraits of the men and women that had a part in the activities of the pioneer community, solving its problems and bearing its burdens. So in this glad year that is witnessing the triumph of San Diego, marking as it does the accomplishment of a great work in the building and equipping of an Exposition as well as an entrance into a large place in the industrial and commercial life of the world, the Pioneer Society thinks that these good citizens should not be forgotten. For this reason the members of the society, their contemporaries and their children have made the Pioneer section of the gallery of California history a memorial to the man and women that made not only the Exposition but the city itself a possibility.

January 1, 1916, San Diego Union, pages unknown. City lands held solve labor problem; pueblo farm, once barren, now covered with rich forest; roads increase value; La Jolla to Del Mar mesa cost beauty spot of county, by Max Watson, Supervisor Public Lands.

January 1, 1916, San Diego Union, pages unknown. Efficient street railway handles Exposition crowds; “Clover Leaf” trip touches all famous scenic spots.

January 1, 1916, San Diego Union, pages unknown. Drama holds sway despite power of movie infatuation; past year memorable for success of local Thespians.

January 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:1-2, 3:6. Twenty thousand voices ring enthusiasm at 1916 Exposition opening.

20,000 voices ring with enthusiasm at 1916 Exposition opening; President Davidson springs surprise by announcing that big French exhibit will be displayed her; concert of Schumann-Heink and Ellen Beach Yaw thrills thousands; great celebration in March is being arranged.

A great joyful crowd, estimated at 20,000, made its way to the Panama-California International Exposition yesterday to participate in the reopening ceremonies. Madame Ernestine Schumann-Heink, the world’s greatest contralto, and Ellen Beach Yaw, the California songbird, both resident Californians, sang to large and appreciative throng. And, as n additional feature, President G. A. Davidson happily surprised his hearers, reading to them a telegram from Albert Tirman, commissioner general for the Republic of France, which announced the decision of the French government to exhibit at San Diego in 1916. A full account of the great out-of-doors concert given by Schumann-Heink and Ellen Beach Yaw will be found in another section of this newspaper.

Decision of France Greeted With Cheers

Thousands of voices were raised in ringing cheers at the Spreckels music pavilion when President Davidson announced the decision of France to exhibit.

The announcement, coming as a New Year’s surprise, was greeted with an enthusiastic demonstration by San Diegans and their visitors. Hats were flung in the air and deafening applause was given. President Davidson has received the news in a telegram a short time before. He told the crowd he had a happy New Year’s surprise, and then he read the telegram as follows:

“I am pleased to inform you that the French government has granted me authorization to loan to the San Diego Exposition the collections of the state, including the pictures.”

The message was signed by Albert Tirman, commissioner general for the Republic of France, who was in San Diego some weeks ago.

Exhibit Best of Kind 

This means that during 1916 the great French exhibit, considered the best of the kind ever made at any Exposition, will be on display in the California Building and the big art collection will be on exhibition in the California Quadrangle.

Officers of the Exposition have been at work some months to secure the French exhibit. The first definite word came yesterday, spelling success to the San Diegans who have worked tirelessly for it.

An additional reopening of the Exposition I March, which it is claimed will eclipse all previous events at the Exposition and will direct the attention of the nation to San Diego for a single day at least, was the announcement of President Davidson yesterday.

The celebration will be one of the biggest of the kind ever held in Southern California. Within a few weeks committees will be appointed to arrange it. The committees will be told to “go the limit” in giving San Diego the biggest, noisiest festivity in her history.

Support by State 

President Davidson made the announcement as a part of his talk in reopening the Fair. “It has been a wonderful success and we are proud to have entertained so many enthusiastic visitors in 1915. We now stand on the threshold of a new year, one which brings great promise to use and which should prove equally as successful as 1915. We have received loyal assistance from all parts of the state in an effort to keep the Exposition open another year, and today we have the hearty cooperation and support of all Californians.”

Beginning with a military and naval pageant and ending with the open-air concert given by Madame Ernestine Schumann-Heink and Ellen Beach Yaw, yesterday’s festivities of opening the Panama-California International Exposition will live long in the memory of those who were on the grounds.

Thousands lined the streets to see the military and naval parade of which Major Herbert F. Ray was the grand marshal. It proved an inspiring sight and the several divisions of the army and navy were heartily cheered. First came a battalion of the coast artillery corps headed by the Thirteenth band of the coast artillery, then a battalion of sailors, also headed by a band. Two companies of marines from marine barracks, headed by their band, a squadron from the First cavalry, two companies of coast artillery corps reserves, and a division of naval reserves followed.

Officers Entertained 

Army and navy officers reviewed the parade with officers of the Exposition as the Sacramento Building. Rear Admiral W. F. Fullam with member of his staff, State Adjutant C. W. Thomas, Jr., President Davidson, Carl Heilbron and other officers of the Exposition occupied the reviewing stand.

At noon at the Cristobal Café, President Davidson gave a luncheon party for the officers of the army and navy. Rear Admiral Fullam was the guest of honor. Among others present were S. R. Flynn, Carl I. Ferris, J. P. Smith, Frank Spalding, I. Carl Schindler, Don M. Stewart, Carl H. Heilbron, Major Herbert R. Fay, and C. W. Thomas.

A troupe of Spanish singers and dancers roamed about the grounds yesterday and added to the pleasure of visitors. So much was the entertainment enjoyed that many times the crowd insisted on keeping the performers in one place. Spanish entertainment will be more than ever a feature of the Exposition during 1916, it was announced.

With several large attractions in different parts of the city yesterday, thousands seemed to prefer the Exposition. Fully 20,000 were on the grounds during the day it was estimated. The day before 17,074 passed through the entrance turnstiles.

By yesterday’s opening ceremonies and the great crowd which attended them, the Panama-Californian International Exposition got away to a flying start. More than 2,000,000 people visited the Fair during 1915, and this record will easily be broken in 1916 it is believed.

January 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:7. Schumann-Heink is given ovation; Ellen Beech Yaw cheered, by W. W. B. Seymour.

One of the greatest tributes which man or woman can receive was paid to Madame Schumann-Heink, world-famous contralto and first citizen of San Diego, yesterday when she walked out upon the platform of the Spreckels organ.

Fifteen thousand men, women and children arose en masse and stood silently at the feet of the great singer, tendering by that silence the mead of honor due the art and the personality of the woman whose glorious voice and rare musicianship have delighted hundreds of thousands throughout the civilized world.

A moment later a roar of applause rang out, drowning the voice of President Davidson. No introduction was needed, for everyone knew the great Schumann-Heink, who was there to sing to her fellow citizens in honor of the opening of the new Exposition.

Bach’s “My Heart Ever Faithful” was the singer’s first number. Its first note proved that the great contralto was in rare voice, and in reverent mood the throng listened as words and music of the melody which has comforted thousands poured out to them in a stream of sound that was vibrant with feeling.

Schubert’s beautiful “Die Allmacht” was the next number, after which the beaming singer gave “Danny Boy,” an Irish love song, as she herself announced to the throng.

Then came the most beautiful and impressive number of the program, the beautiful “Stille Nacht, Helige Nacht.” This was sung to organ accompaniment played by Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart, the official organist. Sweet and simple, its rendition went straight to the heart of every listener, proved beyond cavil the singer’s art, and gave the finishing touch to her program.

“Lark Ellen” Wins Favor 

Although the reception accorded Madame Ellen Beach Yaw on her appearance by no means compared with that given Schumann-Heink, before she had finished her numbers she had leaped into tremendous popularity and was called back again and again

“Lark Ellen,” as she is called, began by singing the famous “Bell Song” from Delibes’ “Lakme,” a number rarely given because of its difficulty, in which characteristic it exceeds even the well-known “Mad Song” from “Lucia,” beloved by coloratura singers. Full of trills, arpeggii and cadenzas, the song rolled from the singer’s lips with birdlike ease, and when Madame Yaw transposed a note a full octave to F sharp above high C, ending with a soft glissando to the middle register, the crowd listened in amazement, and from the front ranks came a soft hand clapping.

Madame Yaw then sung a song of her own composing entitled “California,” the last verse of which dedicated to San Diego, was written by her on her way here from Los Angeles, Friday.

These songs were rendered before Madame Schumann-Heink’s appearance, and after the great contralto has sung, “Lark Ellen” reappeared and sang her song “The Skylark,” which has brought her fame on two continents. A startling feature of this song is its conclusion in which Madame Yaw soars up in a swift run to the almost unbelievable pitch of B flat above high C. There is a flutelike quality to these upper notes which reminds one of exquisitely played harmonics, and which explains to the listener why Madame Yaw is called “Lark Ellen.”

In startling contrast to “The Skylark” was the last number, the ever beautiful “Last Rose of Summer.” It was beautifully sung and demonstrated that the singer’s beauty of tone is not confined to her upper register.

In the reviewer’s opinion, both Madame Schumann-Heink and Madame Yaw sang better yesterday than they ever have before to a San Diego audience. In fact, the more years they gain, the more beautiful become their art and their voices.

Singers Ably Assisted 

Both singers were ably assisted by their accompanists, Miss Edith Evans of Maryville, O., who is with Schumann-Heink this season, acted in that capacity for the great contralto, while Miss Grace Bowers of San Diego performed a like service for Madame Yaw.

Dr. Stewart played two numbers on the big organ, both of his own composition, the first being “Fantasia on Christmas Melodies” and the second (by request) “Medley of Hawaiian Airs.”

Altogether the concert was, to borrow a timeworn oratorical phrase, “a must auspicious occasion,” and will be remembered long as an event in the musical history of San Diego.

January 2, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:6. More than 200 suits aggregating thousands of dollars were filed Friday by Panama-California Exposition in effort to collect unpaid balances of stock subscriptions; C. H. Tingley, auditor of 1915 Exposition; names of delinquent subscribers given.

January 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Two Successful Expositions.

January 5, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:4. Greater Exposition is in the making; exhibits being installed; seal is designed; Women’s Board honored; Isthmus will open formally February 15.

January 5, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1-2. Funeral services for Mme. Ernestine Schumann-Heink’s son Hans Schumann-Heink will be conducted tomorrow at Saint Joseph’s Catholic Church.

January 6, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:3. Senator Luce asks state aid for Exposition; bills will grant use of Balboa Park for another year and appropriate $50,000 for maintenance of California building.

January 7, 1916, Minutes of the Park Commissioners. Transfer of Washington State Building on the Exposition grounds to Mr. A. E. Smith, to be maintained as an exhibit building for the productions of the State of Washington and the northwest was approved.

January 7, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:2-4. A De Khodijayan, Russian commissioner, promises big display; says Muscovite misunderstood in United States.

January 7, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:3. Fair officials have “round table” talks in Cristobal Café.

January 7, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:4. Numerous trips from East to Fair planned; schedules indicate travel will surpass 1915; Raymond & Whitcomb Company arranges 19 trips.

January 8, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:6. Exhibits arriving for Exposition; United States display arrives tomorrow; others are being installed.

January 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4-5, 3:2-3; Building for exhibits being rushed at 1916 Fair.

January 11, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:3. Exhibits arrive at Exposition.

During the reorganization period several of the buildings will be open. There will be organ recitals at 2:40 p.m. daily by Doctor H. J. Stewart, the 13th Band, Coast Artillery Corps, and the 4th Regiment Marine Corps Band will alternate in playing concerts; the marines will hold guard mount on the Plaza de Panama at 3:40 p.m. every day, excepting Wednesday, Saturday and Sunday, and will give at the camp at 9:30 a.m. each day, excepting Saturday and Sunday.

The San Joaquin Valley, Kern-Tulare, Alameda-Santa Clara and the Southern California Counties buildings are being kept open.

Commerce and Industries building is being remodeled inside for Canadian exhibit. Every exhibit from the 1915 exposition is being moved out of the building and a big force of carpenters, under the direction of G. L. Murphy, is remodeling the interior. J. O. Turcotte will have charge of the decoration and it is promised that when the remodeling is completed, no bare rafters, posts or beams will be seen. While the building is being prepared, the first shipment of Canadian exhibits is being unloaded today.

January 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:1, 3:2-3. Exposition bills passed by state solons; one providing the use of Balboa Park until 1917 and the other an appropriation of $50,000 for Exposition.

January 11, 1916, 1:3-4. Mrs. Ivor N. Lawson, president of Women’s Board, honored at luncheon at Cristobal Café at noon.

January 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:4. Washington building on grounds sold to San Diego Society of Natural History.

January 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:3. Exposition placing Canadian display; admission to Fair twenty-five cents during remodeling.

January 12, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 1:7-8. Cavalry, Marines and Infantry coming here; Marines will camp on the 1915 site; site will be enlarged; only a handful of Marines at the Exposition now.

January 12, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:2. San Diego chosen base for Fourth Marine Regiment; other Navy units expected to establish quarters here; may get Navy Academy.

January 12, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:3. A battalion of United States infantry and a band have been offered to the Exposition to augment the government’s participation for 1916.

January 13, 1916, Los Angeles Times, Editorial Section, 1:7, 11:4. Most of San Francisco’s “zone” to come here; flower of Exposition’s fun to great Seal Beach at a cost of several hundred thousand dollars; work on buildings will begin early next month.

January 13, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5. Exhibit space is at a premium; plans are being made to bring the Knights Templars, attending convention in Los Angeles, to San Diego Exposition, June 24..

January 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:2-3. S. Osmanoff, aged Russian Cossack, part of Czar’s exhibit at Exposition; cross of St. George awarded him for killing 39 men in battle in war with Turkey.

January 14, 1916, Minutes of the Park Commissioners. Mr. H. W. Allen and Secretary L. A. Clark of the Washington State Commission stated deal with Mr. A. E. Smith had not been consummated; presented a bill-of-sale of said building to the San Diego Society of Natural History; Board refused to ratify the sale.

January 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:4-5. Picture and description of Exposition seal for 1916.

January 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:1. Big Pan-Pacific exhibit at Fair to be installed in Home Economy building; manager arrives to supervise works, Economy Building to be used, name changed; to be open in three weeks; 12 tanks of Hawaiian fish, tea garden, movies, Alaskan display among features.

  1. F. Donaldson, managing director of the Pan-Pacific exhibit at the Panama-California International Exposition, arrived in San Diego yesterday to superintend the installation of several exhibits. They will be in the Home Economy building, the name of which will be changed to the Pan-Pacific building.

Donaldson is a veteran of Expositions. He has been engaged in the work since the Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876. A number of the exhibits have arrived and others are on their way. There are to be sections devoted to the Philippines, Siam, Java, New Zealand, New South Wales, Hawaii, Alaska, China and several South American countries. The Pacific Coast Steamship Company, the Oceanic Steamship Company, the T. K. K. Steamship Company, a Japanese concern, and the Union Line will have exhibits.

Exhibits Require 14,000 Square Feet 

“Our exhibit will consist of 14,000 square feet of as interesting material as was ever placed in one building,” said Donaldson. “The Hawaiian exhibit of fish will be particularly interesting. There are twelve tanks of fish.

“At San Francisco we had to experiment a long time before we found how to keep the fish alive. We finally discovered the trouble was with the water. After we began taking it from the three-mile limit in the ocean, we had no further trouble.

“At other sections of the Hawaiian exhibit, there will be fruit, sugar cane, and natives who will sing and dance and show many of the older customs, beliefs and superstitions of the people of the islands.

Pictures Will Show Customs 

“We are planning a tea garden on the second floor of the Pan-Pacific building. As we hope to make our building the center of social activity during 1916 we want the tea room as a meeting place. We also are planning a motion picture theater in which will be shown life in all the countries represented in the building. The pictures visitors will find, will prove unusually interesting.

“The exhibits from Alaska, which consist of furs, curios and minerals, are already here. Other exhibits are on the way, and by the time we have finished remodeling the interior of the building, we will have the material with which to install the exhibits. The building will be ready for public inspection in three weeks, I think.”

January 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Fair buildings get new names; exhibits changed; “International” put on title.

January 16, 1916, Los Angeles Times, II, 2:1-3. Fresh frocks for the Fair; San Diego Exposition redressed for another year; quaint beauty to be retained but brightened; plans for new season grow with big exhibits.

San Diego, January 14. — San Diego’s exposition is being made over for 1916, to be ready by the middle of March. Carpenters, decorators and artists are busily engaged in remodeling the interiors of the big exhibit buildings, tearing exhibit booths out to make room for works of art and for the wonderful foreign exhibits to be installed.

“Making over” the exposition is not exactly true and the San Diegans would indignantly deny that they would permit their Exposition Beautiful to be “made over.” For the San Diegans are jealously proud of the beautiful architectural gem they have built and bitterly resent any attempt to change the architectural scheme.

When some over-zealous publicity man sent out a report that the Tower of Jewels was to be sent south to surmount the California Building, San Diegans held up their hands in horror. Signed communications appeared in the newspapers from irate citizens who criticized the president and directors of the exposition for permitting such desecration.

When President Davidson explained that he was as determined as any one to have not a single line of the exposition’s architectural beauty changed things came peaceful once more. In fact, this determination of the directors to retain the completeness and artistic beauty of the exposition which was the delight of all who visited it last year will probably prevent them from putting up additional buildings that are need for exhibits. For it was the scheme of the exposition that not a building could be added without in some measure detracting from the general scheme.

But this does not prevent the entire interior of the exposition from being transformed. It was found necessary while doing the tremendous work of tearing out booths and exhibits and installing the new to close the main buildings.


However, the exposition is kept open and admission prices reduced one-half. Daily musical programs are given at the big organ and by the Marine and Coast Artillery bands. Marine Corps drills and guard mount are also held each day at the fair. Some of the buildings are open.

In the Commerce and Industries Building every exhibit booth is being removed to make way for the Canadian exhibit. No changes will be made in the San Francisco display from Canada except where the building dimensions limit it. The first shipment of the exhibit, which arrived this week, consisted of six fifty-foot cars.

In the Sacramento Valley Building and in the Nevada State Building the government exhibit, which consists of 140 tons dead weight or 500 tons measurement, is being installed. The United States fuel ship Mars brought the exhibit this week. The government fisheries exhibit, which will arrive later, will be installed elsewhere in a new building, erected at the southern end of the Isthmus.

France requires two buildings to house its offerings, the California and Fine Arts Buildings. The art treasures of the valuable Luxembourg collection will occupy the entire Fine Arts Building. Walls are being thrown up in the large rotunda of the California Building to make room for the French art there.

Italy will make an interesting showing of bronze, marbles and statuary. A part has arrived and is now being installed in the Foreign Arts Building. Two carloads of the German-Austrian exhibit for the Foreign Arts have arrived and are being unloaded. Spain, Japan, Persia and Egypt will have exhibits in this building. Russia and Brazil will have their exhibits in the old Indian Arts or Arts and Crafts Building adjoining the Fine Arts.

The commercial exhibits that occupied the Home Economy and the Varied Industries and Food Products Buildings have been removed and [the buildings} will hold industrial, art and commercial exhibits from foreign lands. The Home Economy Building will be called the Pan-Pacific Building and will house a most interesting exhibit showing commercial and industrial progress in the countries of the Pacific Ocean. C. J. Donaldson is her now overseeing their installations.

The Pan-Pacific includes exhibits from the Philippines, Australia, Siam, Java, New Zealand, South Wales, Hawaii, Alaska, and a number of Pacific steamship lines, including the Pacific Coast, the Oceanic, the T. K. Japanese line, the Union, and the Alaska Steamship Company.


The Netherlands exhibit will be housed in the Varied Industries Building, which will be the Foreign and Domestic Industries now. Montana, Utah and Washington will again have exhibits in their buildings although in the Washington there will also be a fine museum placed there by the San Diego Pioneer Society. Historic curios and antiques of the country will be placed there.

The Kansas State Building has been purchased by the Theosophists for their display.

On the Isthmus, too, there will be great changes. The high-class shows, such as the Painted Desert, the War of the Worlds, the Panama Canal and Hawaiian Village, have been retained. There will also be the painting Stella, the Escurial and a number of new attractions from the north.

The Model Farm, perhaps the best of the exhibits of the San Diego fair last year, will be conducted again. As will the Southern Counties Building of which the Model Farm was an adjunct.

The formal reopening of the main part of the exposition will be March 15. The Isthmus will be reopened February 15, when a suitable program will be given.

Much attention will be paid to special events the coming year. There will be big athletic events and several transcontinental aeroplane flights with the exposition the destination. The out-of-door features will be played up by the management more than ever and weekly or bi-weekly open-air balls in the plazas, open-air operas and entertainments will be frequent.

The Spanish troubadours and dancers, which were so closely associated with the Spanish atmosphere and architecture of the place that they seemed almost a part of it, will again sing and dance through the day and evening in the exposition streets, on the plazas and from the balconies. Numerous bands will play constantly.


The military, as heretofore, will play an important part in the entertainment of the fair. In addition to the Marine Corps and the cavalry that have been encamped all year on the exposition grounds, there will be a battalion of Coast Artillery stationed on the grounds.

The extra battalion of Coast Artillery and a cavalry have been recently offered by the government to the exposition. This, with the Coast Artillery from Fort Rosecrans, which has always furnished a band for the fair, and the sailors and marines from battleships in the harbor, will give all branches of the service representation.

Although part of the exposition is closed, thousands of visitors are on the ground each day, enjoying the beauty of the grounds and attending the band and organ recitals. The buildings now open are the San Joaquin Valley, Alameda-Santa Clara, Southern California, Kern-Tulare and the Salt Lake-Union Pacific Buildings. The grounds were never so beautiful as now since the rains have made the flora and foliage more luxuriant and more brilliant in coloring.

An organ recital is given daily by Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart. The Marine band gives a concert at the organ pavilion and the Fort Rosecrans Coast Artillery band, one of the best military bands in the country, plays each day in the Southern California patio.

With the beautiful setting which the southern exposition offers for the great art collections and exhibits, the cream of the exhibits of the San Francisco exposition, the Panama-California International Exposition should surely be one of which all California will be justly proud.

January 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3. Hear this girls — Leap Year court at Fair; Why not regular nook to pop question?, pretty maid asks; directors at variance on proposed establishment of place to snare bachelors.

January 17, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:7-8. Record rainfall hits Southland as Hatfield the Rainmaker is working.

January 17, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:3-4. Typical San Diego girl sought by Exposition heads; will adorn Fair poster.

January 17, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:5. Many bands at Exposition for year.

January 17, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:5. Changes in names of buildings announced

Commerce and Industries ~ Canada

Indian Arts ~ Russia and Brazil

Science of Man ~ Science and Education

Home Economy ~ Pan-Pacific

Varied Industries and Food Products ~ Foreign and Domestic Products

California Building will house French exhibit.

January 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:2. Navy cyclorama at Fair.

January 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1-2. Pioneer Society exhibit at Fair warmly praised; State Historical Commission secretary finds encouragement in collection; relics of Mexican war.

January 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Elks to hear about Exposition for 1916.

January 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Harry Toplitzky, Los Angeles perfume man, arrives for Exposition

January 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Buildings stand weather test; structures at Exposition, although temporary, unharmed by wind and rain.

January 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:7-8. Exposition organ in perfect condition, says annual report.

January 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:1. Work rushed on installation of exhibits at Fair; more than 350 recitals have been given and 2,597 compositions performed by some of the Country’s leading artists, according to statement by Dr. Stewart, organist.

January 21, 1916, Minutes of the Park Commissioners. San Diego Museum Association appointed custodian of the “Tilden collection.”

Log Cabin, formerly displayed by the Towle Maple Products Company in the Varied Industries Building, donated to Park Board for erection in a suitable place in Balboa Park.

Superintendent reported recent rains had done some damage to the park driveways, but nothing of a serious nature.

January 21, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:2. New building at Exposition will house exhibit; government structure is erected on Isthmus for the Bureau of Fisheries; 100-tank display, hatchery exhibit and exhibits showing the government’s work in stocking lakes and streams; government band will play twice daily on verandah.

January 21, 1916, San Diego Sun, 8:1. Plans made for grand opening on Isthmus and for a free carnival night in early March; Selig Wild Animal Show, Madame Ellis and her intelligent horse “Captain,” picture “Stella,” etc.

January 21, 1916, San Diego Sun, 8:3. Exposition directors accepted two large Cupid statues decorated with floral wreaths and a cast of the California bear surmounted by a California goddess; gifts of Sacramento Valley Commission from San Francisco Exposition, f.o.b.

January 21, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1. Great dinner in honor of Boards of Exposition considered.

January 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:2. Singalese masters “Exposition English”; father forgives, beseeches son to return to Ceylon.

January 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:4. One hundred year old spinning wheel spun cotton at 1916 Fair; Mrs. Ella Swicard demonstrated with California cotton.

January 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:2-5. Prize exhibits unloaded at Exposition; many displays being installed; alterations in buildings being made.

January 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:3-4. Exposition guards balk at racetrack uniform.

January 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4, 2:5. Neutrality reigns at Fair; Germans, “Allies” clasp hands; German flag over exhibits.

January 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:3. Big business coming; D. C. Collier Company ready.

January 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2-5. Plan of the Government building for fish exhibit; Carleton Monroe Winslow, architect.

January 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:1-6. Marvelous Russian paintings at Fair; picture of Saint who is said to have sacrificed is life for country, portrait of Tolstoy.

January 24, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 7:3. German colors hosted in the Foreign Arts building at Fair; commissioner not sure of decoration scheme; big firms to enter exhibits; Golden Eagle conspicuous; 11,000 square feet of exhibit space; Solingen steel exhibit to be added to display; Stollwerck Chocolate Company will serve chocolates free and furnish a rest and reading room.

January 25, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:5. Three males and nineteen female elks, gift from Southern Pacific Railway Company for park, are being shipped from Miller and Lux Ranch at Buttonwillow, California.

January 25, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:7-8. Wonders of Pacific lands to be shown at Exposition.

January 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:1. Photographs and descriptions of paintings shown in Russian exhibit.

January 24, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, German colors hoisted at Fair.

January 27, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:1-2. Dynamite dam in park; at 11:15 a.m. today workmen dynamited the west end of the Switzer Canyon dam. The dam was badly cracked at the time, and it was feared that if the heavy rain continued, it might go out. The dynamite cleared a path for the waters, which were rushing in torrents from the hills; waters rushing from the canyons of the big park swept down 14th, 15th, 16th and 17th streets.

Houses on 16th Street were turned on their sides.

Switzer conduit runs from 20th Street and Balboa Park to bay.

At the Switzer Canyon dam, water began pouring over the top of the dam at 5 a.m.

Horses were taken out of the city barns, a short distance from the Switzer dam.

January 27, 1916, San Diego Sun, 6:2. The purchase of the Washington State Building by the San Diego Society of Natural History has been revoked. Washington will stay at Exposition for 1916. Funds raised by commercial clubs and organizations throughout Washington.

January 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:7-8. Fine Netherlands’ exhibit to be installed in Foreign and Domestic Industries building at Exposition; display of pottery, paintings and carpets to surpass that at San Francisco; government fisheries exhibit assured; Washington keeps building.

January 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:7-8. Wonders of Pacific lands to be shown at Exposition; representatives from west coast states and islands of the sea will assemble best products each can boast; all will aim to advance Pan-Pacific interests.

January 28, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4-5, 2:2. Old Town concrete bridge swept away by torrent.

January 28, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:1-4. Floods in past caused small loss in comparison to present storm.

January 28, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Flood rushing down park canyon sweeps busy section; view of Switzer Canyon dam.

January 29, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:1-2. Lower Otay dam gone.

January 29, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:2. Change in Fair colors suggested.

January 30, 1916, Los Angeles Times, IV, 12:1. “Ramona,” California epic on film, soon to unfold for public view.

January 30, 1916, San Diego Union, 9:1. Fair exhibits are held up by flood.

February, 1916, The California Garden, 10-11. Monthly Excursion Through The Exposition Grounds, by G. R. Gorton

If this were Japan, and we were Japanese, about now we should probably celebrate “Acacia time,” much as the beauty-loving Japanese make a festival of Cherry blossom time. Surely the Acacias are worthy of a fiesta in their honor, as witness the gorgeous masses of bloom evident and about-to-be evident in different portions of the Exposition grounds. They greet the visitor immediately entering the gate — especially the west gate — and continue to meet and charm him from time to time as he makes his tour of inspection up and down the different paths and roadways.

Looking east and a little south from the Cabrillo Bridge a whole hillside, covered with Acacia Baileyana, displaying its charms attracts much attention by reason of the striking foliage effect, even when the shrubs are not in flower. But now the silver of the foliage loses caste (no pun intended) in competition with the superior charm of the golden bloom. Apparently a gold standard obtains even among plants. Nothing is free from commercialism in these materialistic days.

The Montezuma Gardens suffered considerably from the recent embarrassment of riches in the form of rain, and it was deemed advisable to take advantage of the opportunity to rearrange as well as replant where necessary, so in common with many of the buildings, the gardens present an appearance of undergoing reconstruction. There is, however, in the northeast corner of the gardens, a group of Coronilla glauca and Coronilla variegata which have escaped the hands of the “transplanters” and is well worth seeing. The small, round glaucous leaves are at all times attractive, and the canary yellow flowers still more so.

Just west of the Montezuma Gardens and skirting a small canyon which is tributary to Cabrillo Canyon, a walk leads to a curved pergola adorned with Cecil Brunner roses and honeysuckle and cozily lined with Eugenia myrtifolia. Leading to the right from this pergola is another walk which, after devious twists and turns, finally returns to another part of the pergola. This is the Trail of the Acacia, at least for the first half of its horseshoe-shaped course. Baileyanas again, floribundas and latifolias abound, followed by peppers, and forming an undergrowth is a mass of Vinca major, the Periwinkle of our grandmother’s garden, or rather an improved form of it. This is covered with its familiar blue flowers, and is very pleasing, as is indeed the entire effect of this rather obscure spot.

Returning to the pergola, and thence following the path around the stretch of lawn and towards the east, one comes presently upon some very goodAcacia latifolia. Still further on, just before the Kern-Tulare Building is reached, are several specimens of Senecio petacitis, intermingled with the groups of cactus, agaves, palms, dracaenas, etc. These are in bloom now, and are interesting as being really yellow. Cinerarias (a synonymous term being Cineraria petacitis). Nearby some Aloe soccotrina are lifting up their torch-like flowers. In front of the Alameda-Santa Clara Building, at the end of the path, the row of Cinerarias (star Cinerarias this time) makes a brave show of color in front of the shrubbery planting.

In many portions of the grounds the Viburnum tinus (or Laurustinus if you prefer the older name) is decidedly at its best at this time. Although it may be found in flower at almost anytime of the year, it does not always look as well as now. An especially good specimen adjoins the Commerce and Industries Building (rechristened the Canadian Building) and south of the arcade.

All along the Prado changes may be observed. In some instances, the groups are being augmented by the addition of more Leptospermum, Grevilleas, or other shrubs of species which are already represented there. In other portions of the planting several species of Ericas, new to the Exposition grounds, are being planted. In fact, throughout the Exposition, the process of thinning out where it is needed, and using the shrubs so obtained to fill in the bare places, has been going on for sometime.

Near the east end of the Prado, overhanging the retaining wall north of Spanish Canyon, a good specimen of Acacia mollissima is now in full flower. The delicate, feathery foliage of this species, combined with the masses of familiar yellow flowers, is different and very attractive.

The first hundred feet or so of the path leading to the Pepper Grove is a riot of red and gold, and when the Acacia latifolia add their quota of yellow blossoms, it is safe to say that the total effect will be very beautiful.

The planting on the edge of the canyon west of the Botanical Building contains a number of Hardenbegia monophylla alba in flower. This species, as well as the purple-flowered climber, deserves to be better known and used.

Many more plants have been added to the collection in the Botanical Building. More Azaleas have arrive in the nursery, and will be put in place before this goes to print, several large Birds Nest Ferns are there now, together with more Cinerarias, Primulas, etc. An especially striking effect has been attained by massing Cyclamen near the center of the lath house. There is quite a variety of colors and markings in this group, including a pure white variety which is very good. If you visit the Botanical Building soon, ask the gardener to show you Begonia Gloire de Cincinnati, another recent addition, and if the writer is a true prophet, you will add this variety to your list of desirable sorts.

La Lagunita, in front of the building, has a decidedly tired look, as if the strain of being on show all summer long had had a dispiriting effect upon it and its environs. There is, however, one brave lonesome little plant which deserves mention, not because it is holding the fort alone in its flowering, but because it really had many good qualities as an aquatic, chief among them being its fragrant white flowers, bearing a Hawthorn-like odor. This is the Cape Pondweed, Aponogeton distachyon.

February 1, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:5. There are nineteen cars of Canadian exhibits, one car of Holland, one car of Italian, and several other cars containing exhibits which can be installed in the exhibition palaces.

February 2, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 3;3. Storekeepers now aiding marines; threat to establish free supply depots alongside those who raised prices has desired effect; about 75 marines in squads of four and five are patrolling in Tijuana and Otay valleys.

February 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1-2. Gems of Italian art were shown at San Francisco Exposition; pictures of vases and marble statuary on exhibit that took prizes at San Francisco; exhibits being placed in Italian section of Commerce and Industries Building. (?).

February 3, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 1:6-7. Marine base is permanent; Colonel Pendleton and his men returned here this morning on the cruiser Buffalo from the Mexican coast; Kettner doing everything possible to get the marine regiment a site opposite the Point Loma country club; 25th and 28th companies and regimental headquarters disembarked this morning; other companies are leaving on the Buffalo today for San Francisco to pack their equipment there and return to San Diego in about ten days.

February 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:7-8. Spectacular auto tests at Exposition will determine prowess of competing cars.

February 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:7. Two statues of Cupid will be unveiled in Leap Year court when Fair will formally be opened.

February 3, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 14:2. Boats to bring delayed exhibits for Exposition; Luxembourg paintings arrive and will be open for public view next Wednesday in the Fine Arts Building.

February 4, 1916, Minutes of the Park Commissioners. Superintendent reported that owing to last storm the damage in Balboa Park would probably amount to $4,500; a large part of the damage being to roads and driveways.

February 4, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:1. D. C. Collier arrives; “advance agent” for prosperity.

February 5, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:4-5. Sun, through United Press, tells world Exposition is open and not hit by storm. Although Santa Fe line may not be running for several weeks, incoming steamers are

crowded to capacity, and hotels are filled.

February 5, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:5-6. President Davidson thanks the Sun and United Press for tell truth about Exposition.

February 5, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:4. The battleship Oregon extended a formal farewell to San Diego with a grand ball t Dreamland Pavilion last night.

February 5, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:4. More than 800 residents of Utah arrived in San Diego last night to visit Exposition. Although the Exposition is not running full blast, because of the installation of foreign exhibits and reorganization of many features, recognition is being given to the visitors. The transferring of troops from the Exposition to the flooded districts has left the Exposition without a single band during the present week.

February 5, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:5. D. C. Collier to boost local Exposition; new elected Commissioner-General. He will seek the aid of railroads, steamship lines, tourist agencies, travel bureaus, hotels, commercial organizations, newspapers and magazines.

February 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 9:4. Colonel D. C. Collier was made Commissioner General to promote 1916 Fair throughout United States; will start on campaign in East next week; chosen by directors of Exposition; aid of roads, steamship lines in 1916 is sought; as advisory board chairman he will enlist support of nation’s prominent men.

February 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Painted Desert in film acts; old Aztec romance is subject; spectators have privilege of witnessing battle today; 500 persons in scenes.

February 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 9:4. Love statue for “Leap Year Court”; figures of bear, goddess and two children gift from Sacramento Valley Commission; sculpture is by R. Schmid.

February 7, 1916, Los Angeles Times, II, 1:4-5. Mine exhibit planned for San Diego Fair by A. E. Smith and J. E. Babcock.

February 7, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 7:4. Marines direct relief work now; 60 marines and four officers from 4th Regiment, stationed at the Exposition grounds, are on duty in the flood districts at the head of the bay; Colonel J. H. Pendleton, commander of the 4th Regiment, is expecting full daily reports from Captain Charles P. Westcott, commander of the detachment; marines patrolling Otay and Tijuana valleys and supplying the homeless.

February 7, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:4. New exhibits at Exposition opened in Science and Education building; work being rushed on other exhibits; about 25 members of delegation of Southern Pacific passenger agents here yesterday.

February 7, 1916, San Diego Sun, 6:3. Davidson tells Exposition plans for 1916; battalion of infantry with band expected soon; Philippine constabulary band may be engaged for four months; March 18 will be reopening day.

February 7, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. False account of damage to Fair shattered by Davidson’s statement.

February 7, 1916, San Diego Union, 12:3. Utah state exhibit custodian arrives; E. W. Bolling, who is preparing agricultural trains, assumes duties at Exposition.

February 8, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:3. Davidson asks schoolchildren, business houses and adults to write letters on February 11, Letter Writing Day, telling of San Diego’s Exposition and undamaged condition from recent floods.

February 9, 1916, San Diego Sun, 2:1. Workmen at Exposition are tearing down the comic signboards along the Isthmus amusement street. Animal cages with a frontage of 12 feet each are being installed and about 80 beasts of different kinds will be placed in them as a free attraction during the ensuing year.

Most of the animals are to come from Ocean Beach where a large number have been quartered for some time. A number, however, will be furnished by he city, buffaloes and elks possibly. Among the animals to be on exhibit are __ monkeys, 4 lions, 3 pumas, 5 bears, 2 coons, 2 leopards, 12 birds, l bobcat, 2 coyotes, l anteater, 2 buffaloes, l sacred cow, __ wolf, 1 hyena, 1 kangaroo and 1 goat. The monkey cage will be arranged so that spectators can walk around it. The cages will be several feet from the street line.

An interesting feature in connection with the placing of the animals in their new quarters will be the method used by F. G. Kauffman, the trainer in charge, to accustom the lions and leopards to one another. In each cage two of the beasts will be tied so that they cannot harm each other. A week or more will be required for them to get acquainted. It will take an additional two weeks to complete their training. When the new attraction opens two free shows will be given daily.

February 9, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:7. Saturday will mark the opening of the Luxembourg art exhibit in the California Building. The collection was sent to this country by the French government at the opening of the war and contains about 80 paintings valued at $500,000. Collection is to remain in San Diego until April 1.

Paintings by Detaille, Henner, Carriere, Monet, Morot, Bemar, Ziem, and Bonnar.

February 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:2. D. C. Collier tells Chamber of Commerce opportunities for San Diego have never been brighter; railroads are expected to spend millions boosting Exposition.

February 10, 1916, San Diego Sun, 12:1. Truth is told about Exposition; wild reports are denied throughout the East; exposition authorities send telegraphic denials to incorrect reports.

February 10, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. D.C. Collier to begin Exposition boost campaign today; hopes to discourage false reports of damage to San Diego during flood.

February 10, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:2. Art gems will be displayed at Fair, Saturday; public to view $500,000 collection of paintings; Luxembourg exhibit, owned by French government, to be kept open until April.

Saturday morning at the Exposition the great Luxembourg art collection will be opened to the public. This collection of paintings owned by the French government will be on exhibition in the Fine Arts Building until April 1. There are eighty paintings, ranging from two feet square to almost 200 feet square. A conservative estimate of the value of the great collection is $500,000.

Jean Guiffrey, commissioner of fine arts from France at the San Francisco exposition and occupying the same position at the Panama-California International Exposition, arrived Tuesday, and is superintending the hanging of the paintings.

Among the great art collection are such pictures as “The Dream” by Detaille, which is approximately 15 feet by 10 feet and is especially valuable at this time because of its portrayal of French soldiers in battle. “The Christ” by Henner and “The Christ” by Carriere are other notable paintings to be seen in this collection. “Green Balcony” by Monet, two pastels by Degas, “Rezouville” (?) by A. Morot, and “Evening” by Jule Breton are other painting sure to attract the attention of Exposition visitors.

“Marquise de A—” by Carolus Duran, “Daudet and His Daughter” by Carriere, “Portrait of Negroes” by Bemar, “Portrait of Mme. Pasca” by Bonnar, “Impressionists” by Claude Monet, “Renner” and “Harbor of Antwerp” by Ziem, are a few of the other notable canvases.

“Although coming several weeks before the 1916 dedication, I believe the showing of these paintings is one of the big events of the entire year,” said President Davidson yesterday. “San Diego citizens should realize the great opportunity brought to their door by the coming of this French display. The Luxembourg art collection is one of the great attractions for American tourists, and this year, when travel to Europe is impossible, some of Europe’s best is to be seen along with the greatest attractions that can be seen in America.”

February 11, 1916, Los Angeles Times, II, 7:3-4. Hundreds of workmen repairing flood damage.

San Diego, February 10. — It’s an ill wind that blows no one any good, and the ill wind that blew floods and damage into San Diego county also blew thousands of idle men work at good wages repairing the damage caused by the recent rains, according to the agents of the big corporations who were hardest hit.

The Santa Fe Railroad now has 1500 men on its payrolls our of San Diego all the way from National City to Oceanside. The road expects to resume service March 1, but according to Allen F. Hunt, who is in charge of the work of repairing, there is a possibility that trains will be running a week earlier.

Two hundred men are at work on the plant of the Hercules Powder Company of National City. The County Supervisors are employing hundreds of men repairing the roads and bridges throughout the county and the San Diego and Arizona Railway is building a shoo-fly tract, the construction crew already having go across the Sweetwater Valley.

The La Jolla road also has a considerable force working to get its line in order and will be running very shortly, while the city of San Diego has added 200 more men to it payroll in an effort to get an early repair of the water system.


The great Luxembourg art collection will be opened to the public Saturday at the Exposition. This collection of paintings, owned by the French government, will be on exhibition in the Fine Arts Building until April 1. There are eighty paintings, ranging from small ones two feet square to great canvases of almost 200 square feet.

Jean Guiffrey, commissioner of fine arts from France at the San Francisco exposition and occupying the same position at the Panama-California International Exposition, arrived Tuesday and is superintending the hanging of the paintings.

Among this great art collection are such pictures as “The Dream: by Detaille, which is approximately 15x10 feet in size, and is especially valuable at this time because of its portrayal of the French soldiers in battle. “The Christ” by Henner and “The Christ” by Carriere, are other notable paintings to be seen in this collection. “Green Balcony” by Monet, two pastels by Dejas, “Rezouville” by A. Morot, and “Evening” by Jules Breton, are other paintings sure to attract the attention of exposition visitors.

“Daudet and His Daughter” by Carriere, “Portrait of Legros” by Bemar, “Portrait of Mme. Pasca” by Bonnar, “Impressionists” by Claude Monet, “Renoer” and “Harbor of Antwerp” by Ziem are a few other notable canvases.

February 11, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 4:1-2. EDITORIAL: Making It Appear That California’s Exposition City Is Badly Crippled.

The most robust lying concerning flood conditions in San Diego county has been perpetrated by the Scripps “string” of newspapers, in which E. W. Scripps of San Diego owns a controlling interest.

February 11, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:3. Letter Writing Day is a success.

February 12, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:7-8. Famous Luxembourg art exhibit to open today.

February 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 9:3-4. Luxembourg art exhibit attracts hundreds; rare French paintings are shown at Exposition.

February 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1-2. Collier predicts heavy Eastern travel to Exposition; resumption of railroad traffic on Santa Fe will bring thousands here; advertising campaign will be launched.

February 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:6. Selig animals to act on Isthmus; film company shows will be shown at Exposition thirty days with option for extension.

February 15, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 5:2. Marines are due back tomorrow; battalion from San Francisco due at 10 a.m., Thursday, on transport Buffalo; Colonel Pendleton announced resumption of afternoon band concerts and parades; present force is 505 men; when absent battalion comes regiment strength will be almost 1,000 men.

February 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:7. Treasury report read; Exposition had surplus of $53,383.84 at close of 1915.

Any profits which may accrue from the operation of the Exposition during 1916 will go to the park fund of the city.

February 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:4-5. City parks’ beauty attracts hundreds.

February 15, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:2. Last of big Canadian exhibit at Exposition; only German and French displays are yet to be sent here from San Francisco.

February 15, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 14:2. Montana adds ore to exhibit at Exposition; Anaconda Mining Company sends copper specimens.

February 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Salt Lake route advertises Fair; railroad company decides to keep building open at Exposition.

February 17, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 12:3. Naval transport Buffalo arrived early today with marines.

February 17, 1916, San Diego Sun, 12:1. 19 nations, 16 counties of California, seven states and territories and two United States possessions (Philippine Islands and Hawaii) represented in 1916 Exposition.

February 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:2. Los Angeles to boost Exposition; Chamber of Commerce takes hand; excursion planned and information regarding Fair given out.

February 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:5. French exhibit arrived; $100,000 tapestries, Rodin sculpture and Luxembourg art collection in big display.

February 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:6. Exhibits arrive from Philippines; eight carloads of display material come into port.

February 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Three companies of U.S. Marines arrive at Exposition; cruiser Maryland ordered here on March 3; to remain until Exposition closes.

February 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Colors of Spain gift from King to Exposition; to be raised March 18; Count del Valle de Salazar to represent monarch at presentation ceremonies.

February 19, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:1. Utah’s governor accepts position on Fair Board; Collier appoints Spry to membership on advisory committee for year term; state support promised.

February 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:5-6. Women’s Fair Board holds first 1916 public function; reception given in honor of Rear Admiral and Mrs. Fullam; more than 1,000 persons attend; marine band supplies music; full attendance of new directors.

February 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:1. French exhibit arrives; work of placing is begun; $100,000 tapestries, Rodin sculptures in big display.

February 21, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 1:1-2. Bond election to be held March 31.

February 21, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3, 3:3. World-wide toast to 1916 Exposition; “Dream City” will be dedicated noon Saturday, March 18; nineteen nations plan part in festivities.

February 22, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 3:4. Forest service exhibit now ready; occupies a room in Nevada Building.

February 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4. Novel features in scientific exhibit at Fair; strange British Guiana folk, Eskimos shown; Dr. Hough hurrying installation of Smithsonian Institution display for 1916.

February 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:6, 3:5. Denver to boost San Diego Fair; Collier appointed Colorado governor member of Exposition’s advisory board.

February 23, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 3:3. Commissioners from Holland here.

February 24, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:3-4. Exposition progress shown as work is rushed; United States Forestry exhibit in Nevada Building ready; exhibits of Brazil and Russia ready; work still going on Canada exhibit; Smithsonian Institution exhibit being installed in three halls of Science and Education Building.

February 24, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:5-7. Oscar Aeolus is name of goat mascot in the Deer Park near Laurel Street entrance; has lived in park for more than four years; donated by Frank Wyatt.

February 24, 1916, San Diego Sun, page unknown. ’49 Camp with no gambling, new Exposition plan; a semi-circle of individual concessions has been installed back of the place where the old entrance used to be.

February 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:5, 6:5. Miss Marian Vodges chosen “Miss San Diego,” native daughter named to represent Fair.

February 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:2. Concerts at Fair to open March 4; Alfred Tommasino and band of 30 musicians on way.

Tommasino’s Royal Italian Band, under the leadership of Alfredo Tommasino, will be the official band for the Panama-California International Exposition for 1916. He will open his engagement at the Exposition on March 4. The contract was signed yesterday by Exposition officials and Louis Gasdia, manager of the Italian band.

Tommasino is the youngest band master in the world and is a native of Naples. He was leader of the First Regiment Royal Guards of Italy until he came to this country, and is a composer of note. He has studied under such masters as Chevalier Constantino Gozzi and Professor Ullise Trovati and has completed many important engagements since coming to the United States.

In connection with his band of 30 pieces, Tommasino will bring equipment for rendering grand opera numbers and beginning with dedication day, March 18, three vocalists will present a special program of opera with each concert.

Tommasino is on his way from New York and is expected to arrive in Los Angeles within a few days.

Following the debut of Tommasino’s Royal Italian Band, the Tuskegee singers from Tuskegee Institute will sing to the accompaniment of the band on March 5. Although the Exposition will not be dedicated until two weeks later, this event will inaugurate the first of the 1916 special events.

Signor Tommasino’s programs will include gems from the old and modern operas, the picturesque peasant music of Hungary, Poland and the Slav provinces, and the characteristic themes of French and German composers. There are also impressionistic studies, and such composers as Bucalossi, Offenbach, Massenet, Rossini, Schubert, Leoncavallo, and all of the greatest composers are numbered in the works he gives.

February 24, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:4. Netherlands’ exhibit to be Fair feature; art, pottery and other valuable exhibits to be installed at once in Domestic and Foreign Industries building.

February 26, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:1. Four girl shows will feature Isthmus at the new Exposition; 12 diving girls from San Francisco Exposition; 15 or 18 in “Paris After Midnight” performance; 12 in “Sultan’s Harem,” and we in Hawaiian Village attractions.

February 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. World’s largest scissors shown; bit cutlery exhibit installed in German exhibit at Exposition.

“You’re next!”

A welcome word this in the ordinary downtown barber shop on a busy day, but not as enticing at the Foreign Arts Building on the Exposition grounds yesterday.

Miss Esther Schier, the “barber,” who uttered it, certainly was attractive, but the implements with which she planned to do the job positively were formidable.

She temporarily was the proud possessor of a pair of scissors nine feet in length and of a “pocket knife,” in lieu of a razor, of almost equal length.

President Davidson, who said he needed a haircut, but who had never dreamed of cutlery of such proportions, except in the days when he used to read fairy tales, was one of the first to disappear.

The immense knife and scissors exhibited by Miss Schier, a San Diego girl, are part of the Henckels’ cutlery exhibit in the German section of the Exposition.

Miss Schier also displayed what is said to be the smallest pair of scissors in the world. They appear almost like a speck in the palm of her dainty hand. Between her thumb and forefinger she also held one of the smallest combination pocket knives in existence. This tiny knife is a veritable tool box. I contains a corkscrew, screwdriver, nail file and can opener.

February 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:3. Skilled work of Indians will be shown at Fair; Federal government display at Exposition to require 18,000 square feet.

February 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:4. Naval Station here is cause for worry; plan to move base here brings criticism from press of San Francisco.

February 29, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:1-2. Exposition wins Madame Melba’s heart; refused to consider a contract to sing at the Exposition this time; will appear at the Isis tonight.

February 29, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:2. Night programs at Exposition to begin Saturday night when Tommasino’s Royal Italian Band will present its first program in the Plaza de Panama; Exposition price will return to the usual admission of 50 cents following this first concert.

March, 1916, The California Garden, 8-9. Monthly Excursion Through the Exposition Gardens, by G. R. Gorton

Lovers of aquatics have something to look forward to this year when the “open season” for Lotus and Lilies arrives. La Laguna de la Espejo is undergoing radical changes, and, in addition to the rainbow of color which the upper pool will present again this year, the lower and larger on will contain some of the rarest and best in water plants, in the form of an exhibit by E. D. Sturtevant of Hollywood, recognized as one of the foremost growers of aquatics in America. The wonderful Victoria will be represented by some eight or ten specimens, all of the hardy species Cruziana. This species apparently has all of the desirable qualities of the well-known Regia (adding that of greater hardiness). Several species of Lotus will be used, and the elite of Water Lilies will be present, including some imported novelties which cost so much money that it is not best to quote figures, lest we be accused of lapsing into “Exposition exaggeration,” but suffice it to say that the cost of one of these rarer sorts would stock a good-sized pond with pretty good varieties. Besides these rare lilies, many of the best standard varieties will be seen, as, for instance, the beautiful Zanzibar or Royal Purple Lily (Nymphaea Zansibarensis), considered by connoisseurs to be the finest of all blue water lilies. Several of the various varieties of the species gracilis, which is distinguished in part by the fact that the flowers are borne on small stems, fifteen inches or so out of the water, George Huster, a gorgeous crimson, and other tropical lilies will be planted in compliment [sic] to this favored portion of the globe where such tender plants may safely be planted out of doors.

The Botanical Building is ablaze with color — more than it has been for some months. Much new material has been added, including some very showy Rhododendrons in very good colors, more Cincerarias, Primulas, Schizanthus in many colors, and in the glass house several different species of Anthuriums are in flower.

The path which loops the loop around the wild flower field north of the California Building might prove interesting enough to reward the visitor for going a little bit out of his way and following it around its circuit. Commencing from the northwest corner of the stock beds which occupy the site of the late lamented canna exhibit, the first object of interest which greets one is a Leptospermum laevigatum bending under its burden of white bloom. Continuing along past a stone wall, which is opposite an outlook towards Cabrillo Canyon, groups of Solanums of two species will be seen: oneSolanum Warcezwiczii (it will avail nothing to try to pronounce it — it can’t be done — the gardeners who have had to call it something have corrupted the specific name into “Worsethanwhisky” — which is a slander, although it has its faults). It bears large, deeply lobed leaves, quite tropical in appearance and slightly suggesting those of some of the Arailias. The stalk, however, is very thorny, the flowers white, and rendering the plant easy of identification as a Solanum. The growth is very rapid, and according to the introducers the plant attains a height of about six feet, but here it has exceeded the specifications, and rises up to a height of eighteen feet or more in favorable spots. Its relative, the “New Zealand Holly,” which will be found nearby, is also a Solanum, but of a species which seems to be unknown to this part of the country. However, the plant is quite decorative when it bears, as now, clusters of bright red berries. The leaves are simple, entirely dull green in color, with the new growth very downy. The whole plant is dwarfier than its relative of the Russian name, averaging about six or eight feet in height.

Returning via the same path, but skirting the east side of the field, the most conspicuous feature of the immediate vicinity is a clump of Echium fastuosum, bearing giant spikes of rich blue flowers. This plant seems to be a popular resort of bees, which may be seen at anytime earning their daily bred (bee bread, you know) therefrom. Further along, as the path turns into the one which leads towards the Botanical Building, is a large group of Polygala dalmaisiana, a bright cheerful sort of a plant which is constantly maintaining a show of magenta blossoms, but is inclined to be a bit quarrelsome with most other colors, except perhaps pale yellows or, of course, white.

Due west of the Government Building (known during the past year as the Sacramento Valley Building), at the fork of the path, is another Echium, a white flowering species — Echium simplex by name. Opposite the northwest corner of the same building is more Echium fastuosum. Across the walk, and down into the canyon, a large planting of Genista carnariensis, one of the Brooms, has contributed much yellow bloom to the general yellowness of things. Sometimes it seems as if all the plants in Southern California bore yellow flowers.

Near the north door, about opposite the center of the building, Acacia armata is in flower. This is one of the most curious of Acacias, “armed,” as its name indicates, with thousands of needle-like thorns; north of the Botanical Building the dainty Diosma Ericoides — Breath of Heaven — with tiny, white flowers and aromatic, heath-like leaves gracing the front lines of the planting bordering the path; and just before the Japanese Tea Garden is reached, a Cantua buxifolia may be seen, hung with clusters of funnel-shaped, orange-red flowers. Around the corner, the path is flanked on both sides for a few feet with the orange and yellow of Streptosolen jamesonii.

Among the other Acacias which have come into flower since last month is Acacia cultriformis, the “Knife-leaved Acacia,” a very odd species, with small, seamless, triangular-shaped leaves, bluish in color. Specimens of this species are planted east of the glass section of the Botanical Building, in the angle formed with the lath portion, and are rather hard to see, being a considerable distance back from the path. Acacia verticillata is more accessible, in fact, quite conspicuous on several sides of the Plaza de Panama. This is a species which is often mistaken for a conifer of some sort by the casual observer — at other times of the year — by reason of its needle-like leaves. At this season the typical Acacia flowers remove every possible doubt as to its identity. The group of these along the balustrade south of the Plaza bids fair to redeem a promise made for it sometime ago that it would furnish a very attractive blue and gold combination in conjunction with the Heliotrope planted alongside.

March 1, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 7:3. Park Board may prohibit big mat go in stadium; opposition to allowing wrestling match in civic edifice on Sunday voiced.

March 1, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:1-2. Plans ready for formal opening of Exposition; program given.

March 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:1. Exposition sets stage for opening; President Wilson expected to attend dedication on March 18; many events arranged to make day a success.

March 2, 1916, San Diego Herald, 2. EDITORIAL: For Congress

The question of who will be the next congressman is of vital importance to the people of this congressional district and particularly so to the people of San Diego. It should be the aim to send to Washington a representative who will be able to get results, rather than reward some political favors or some popular “good fellow.”

The latest names mentioned as candidates are D.C. Collier, Republican; Edgar Luce, Progressive; and Colonel Fred Jewell, Democrat. Colonel Jewell is a popular gentleman and has many friends, but there is no possibility of again electing a Democrat in this district. The race will be won by a Progressive or a Republican, or rather by a Progressive Republican, so Edgar [Luce] can never again be elected to any office.

  1. C. Collier is a Progressive Republican and is exceedingly popular, but it is a question whether he is as well fitted for the work which a congressman is expected to do as he is as a publicity man and a booster. Whether or not he is the best man for the place, his popularity will make him a factor in the race. What the people should do is to select some man who they know will get results regardless of friendship or politics.

The Herald still insists that Ed Fletcher and L. J. Wilde have those qualifications for getting results that makes them the two best men for the office of congressman, if either could be persuaded to enter the race. Colonel Fletcher has stated he cannot and will not be a candidate. So far Mr. Wilde has refused to commit himself. The refusal of Fletcher to be a candidate makes Wilde the one best man available.

If the people of San Diego are wise, they will get together, center on Wilde, and insist that he enter the race. So far, Mr. Wilde has refused to be a candidate for any office, but now that he has retired from active business, he might be persuaded to do the public a great service if he was shown that it was a public desire. Organize and go for Wilde.

March 2, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:4. Alfredo Tommasino and his Royal Italian Band will give first concert Saturday, March 4, at 7:30 p.m. in Plaza de Panama.

March 2, 1916, San Diego Sun, 4:4. Canadian exhibit getting finishing touches; red and gold felt decorations cover ceiling and side walls; beavers turned into the beaver “haunt” yesterday.

March 2,1916, San Diego Union, 8:4-5. Pageant at Fair April 22 to honor memory of Shakespeare; children of schools to participate.

March 2, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:5. Ethnology exhibit at Fair opened to public view in Science and Education Building; installed by Smithsonian Institution and National Museum.

March 3, 1916. Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners: Panama-California International Exposition requested to pay $3,000 per month for the care and maintenance of Exposition grounds.

March 4,1916, San Diego Union, 1:6. A magna-vox is to be installed at Spreckels Organ Pavilion and at other places on the grounds; will send music into Plaza.

March 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:7-8. A squadron of military biplanes piloted by four aviators will circle over Exposition grounds dedication day.

March 5, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:4. Six programs of music scheduled at Exposition; three band concerts; Tuskegee singers, church choir and organ recital today.

March 6, 1916, Los Angeles Times, II, 3:5. Chamber of Commerce plans San Diego excursion.

March 6, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 3:3. Special events to be high caliber.

March 6, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 3:3. Isthmus puts on new show.

March 6, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 3:3. W. W. Bowers says it is a shame that California Building tower is not lighted.

March 6, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 3:4. Exhibits ready for opening of Fair.

March 6, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 9:1-2. More than 6,000 persons visit Exposition Sunday afternoon; Italian band, organ and Jubilee Singers popular.

March 6, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:1. Tuskegee Jubilee Singers at Exposition yesterday.

A cordial greeting was accorded the famous Tuskegee singers at the exposition yesterday. The day was delightfully warm, and the large audience enjoyed to the utmost the exceptional advantages offered by the mild climatic conditions and the unusually interesting open-air concert. The Jubilee Singers gave some genuine old plantation darkey songs with fine effect, and were encored again and again. Among their songs were “Good-News, Chariot Coming,” “Go Down Moses,” and three old favorites, “Swanee River,” “Carry Me Back to Old Virginia,” and “Swing Low, Sweet Chariot.”

Charles Winter Wood, manager of the organization, added much to the interest of the program by reading selections from Paul Laurence Dunbar, the Negro poet. He also made a few remarks concerning the splendid work for the education and uplift of the Negro race which has been made and is being carried on at the famous Tuskegee Institute.

March 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:4. Grape Day fete at Exposition, aim of State viticulture board member.

March 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:5. Arizona to have 86 feet of exhibit space in Panama-Pacific building.

March 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:6. “War of Worlds” will be ready for opening.

March 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Changed Isthmus will teem with new joy devices.

The Exposition’s new Isthmus, which is being reorganize for the March 18 dedication, will provide amusement of every description and promises to be one of the successful features of the Exposition during the year. Repainted, relighted, “fur-lined,” and offering dozens of new features, real carnival is scheduled to reign afternoons and nights.

A list of 1916 attractions was prepared yesterday and a number of others will be added later. H. E. Croft;s Crocodile and Alligator Farm, where alligators from six months to 800 years old are shown; the Sultan’s Harem, a realistic reproduction of spectacular dancing and singing; Elizabeth the famous midget who was visited by thousands at San Francisco; Robinson’s educated animals; heroes and heroines of motion picture plays; a Grizzly Gulch, to be a reproduction of ’49 days are among the amusements to be opened.


Many New Attractions 

Paris After Midnight, a reproduction of the Latin Quarter of Paris; Jerusalem, a reproduction of the Holy City; Captain and Madame Ellis, two headliners in the intellectual realm, as Captain offers a program to show that he thinks and Madame Ellis startles by her feats of mental telepathy, will be seen.

Stella, whose greatest claim is the publicity gained at the San Francisco Exposition, is expected to be forgotten when Cleopatra at the Bath and other nudes are shown in the Imperial Art Gallery.

The War of the Worlds will be as strong a drawing card as in 1915; the Painted Desert will claim its patronage; the Panama Canal will open March 15, to be ready for Dedication Day; the Exposition’s free zoo, on either side of the Isthmus, will offer a hundred interesting animals.

Climbing the Yelps, Chinatown, the Gem Mine, the Ostrich Farm, the Doll House, and the Temple of Mirth are said to be ready for the amusement-seeking public.

  1. P. Free Display

The Hawaiian Village will be one of the big attractions of 1916. The Roller Coaster, Race Horse, Dancing Pavilion, the Merry-go-round, the Kelly game, Clothes’ Pitch game, Ferris Wheel, Shooting Gallery, the Motordome, the Joy Wheel, Japan Joy Garden, and Skee Ball are interesting features.

The Southern Pacific Railway building is presenting a free display, reproducing scenes along the right-of-way of this company.

The Palace of Mines, the Rotissery, Alhambra Cafeteria, Cider Mill, knife and cane racks, novelty stands, baseball, White House Café, and others not yet signed are to make up the Joy Street district.

A new stage has been built at the north end of the Isthmus and on this will be offered extensive free programs each Saturday night. Tommasino’s Royal Italian Band will play in front of the government aquarium building, which is at the south end of the Isthmus.

March 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:7. Wide scope of work revealed by United States exhibit.

March 7, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:4. United States exhibit is complete; display of government vocational Indian schools; miniature sea where a battleship is sunk by a submarine in mine explosion; models of U.S. Navy ships; movies.

March 7, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1. Two thousand troops to be stationed at Fair during 1916.

March 7, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:2-6. Six thousand persons listened to the concert of Tommasino’s band and the Tuskegee Institute singers at Exposition Sunday, March 5; weather was not favorable.

March 7, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:4. Colonel D. C. Collier is expected in San Diego today; had been on a boosting trip through Midwest.

March 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:2-3. Holiday March 18 assured for Exposition dedication.

March 8, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:2-3. Southern California Counties Building at Exposition ready for another year.

March 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:5-6. Exhibits of United States at Exposition will be thrown open today.

The United States building at the Exposition, containing the exhibits of the departments of treasury, war, navy, commerce and interior, will be open to the public today.

Demonstration of methods to employ in resuscitating persons drowned or suffocated, instruction in giving first aid to the injured, and a demonstration of the way in which harbors of the United States would be mined in time of war will be given daily.

The United States aquarium, which is to house the exhibit of the bureau of fisheries, is under construction at the head of the Isthmus, adjacent to the War of the Worlds concession. It will be ready to exhibit about the middle of April.

32 Cages in Zoo 

The Exposition Zoo, in charge of F. L. Kaufmann and consisting of buffaloes, kangaroos, bears, lions, leopards, hyenas, wolves, baboons, monkeys, parrots and cockatoos, is the latest acquisition for the Isthmus.

The zoo, to be situated at the far end of the Isthmus, will contain thirty-two cages, which will spread out along the amusement street so that every animal will be in plain view. Each cage will have a plate giving the pet name of the animal, the species, and the native country.

No pains have been spared to make the Exposition zoo the best of its kind in the west.

The Isthmus free stage occupies a prominent position in the midst of the row of cages. On this stage, the exposition animals will give a free performance. The carnivorous animals will be fed daily at 4:30 o’clock.

Auto Race Resolution 

After a stormy session yesterday at a special meeting of the Isthmus concessionaires, Kenneth Croft, manager of the Hawaiian Village, was chosen to draft a resolution to be presented to President Davidson, concerning the 50-mile race set for Saturday, March 25.

The following is the text of the resolution of the concessionaires:

“At a meeting of the concessionaires this morning, at which were present Tommy Getz, Dentzel Cooch, Quinn, Croft and Gardiner, it was resolved that it should be respectfully presented to you two points in connection with the proposed Exposition automobile race and protest against the same entered.

“First: The danger to the fronts in case of accident.

“Second: The loss entered into in closing the Isthmus on the afternoon of this race.

“The foregoing appointed me their representative to bring these matters to your notice and ask you to consider same.”

The executive committee will consider the matter of danger to Isthmus attractions, and if proper safeguards cannot be made to protect life and property, another course will be sought on the Exposition grounds, and if this is not available, the big contest may be called off.

March 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:3-4. Louis XVI desk reproduced and sent to Exposition for exhibit in Southern California Counties Building.

March 9, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:2-5. Four rich musical programs at Exposition today; Tommasino’s band will present two concerts.

March 9, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:3-4. Lots to see at Exposition; buildings open; music daily.

March 9, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:4 Room for San Diego artists at Fair, aim; collection of paintings by Californians proposed by the Woman’s Board.

March 10, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:1. President Wilson orders troops to Mexico; American Army will hunt down Villa.

March 10, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:2-3. Doctor H. J. Stewart favors San Diego Symphony.

March 10, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2-3. Coast road will be ready for opening, report.

March 10, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Nude figures of French display shock ex-mayor Wadham.

March 11, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 15:4. Colonel D. C. Collier sticks with Bull Moosers.

March 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. First United States Cavalry at Fair in readiness for service in Mexico.

March 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:7. Exposition’s 50-mile automobile race set for March 25; objections of Al Waddel, representing the Los Angeles American Automobile Association, have been overcome.

March 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 16:5. Exposition’s zoo now real jungle land.

If Noah’s ark had been unloaded at the north end of the Isthmus the effect would not have been a great deal more wonderful from a zoological standpoint than exists at present, with the opening to the public of the great Panama-International menagerie on that spot.

The exhibit of wild animal life, which is free to all Isthmus visitors and which is well worth the price of admission to the grounds alone, is a veritable jungle land, transported almost to your very door.

In a long row of neat and substantial cages fronting on the Isthmus are to be seen lions, leopards, bears, hyenas, catamounts, wolves, jaguars, monkeys, and other beasts and birds of rare species representing almost every country in the world. Most any circus would be proud of such a collection, but, unlike the circus animals, these wild captives have not come to San Diego for a single day, but for the entire year. Once on the Isthmus one can now hear the roar of the lion, the cry of the smaller cats, the grunt of the bear, the chatter of the monkeys, the wild piercing shriek of the hyena, and, in fact, an entire jungle chorus, both at night and day.

Most of the animals are friendly — in their strong iron cages — and their trainer has them all well in hand, eliminating, it is said, all possible danger.

The zoo is sure to make a great place for the little folks. The exhibit is as instructive as it is entertaining. The monkeys’ cages, which contain many baby simians, as well as the larger baboons, will be especially attractive. The monkeys are already at home in their new surroundings and are cutting all kinds of funny capers. No trip to the Exposition will be complete without a visit to the zoo.

March 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 16:4. Jack Johnson arrives; not former prize “pug,” but fighting alligator.

Jack Johnson, black and smiling, arrived in San Diego yesterday. Johnson weighs 1,000 (?) pounds, is 12 feet tall, and is still some fighter; but it is not Jack Johnson, the black man of the prize ring, but a fighting alligator to be installed in the alligator farm on the Isthmus. Samson, a 14-foot crocodile and one of the tank containing the only crocodiles in captivity, is another famous animal in the special car of more than 250 alligators and crocodiles that came to the Exposition yesterday. Everyone of the animals, which range in age from six months to 800 years, made the trip from the north with their mouths tied shut. This precaution is necessary to make the size of the crates a fraction of what they would have to be if they were permitted to open their jaws, and, also, it prevents fighting.

The male crocodiles are valued at $1,000 (?) and the females from $600 to $800.

The alligator farm is being built opposite the Hawaiian Village on the Isthmus and will be open before Dedication Day. H. E. Croff is manager of this Exposition attraction.

March 12, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. Brilliant program will flash 1916 Exposition into life next Saturday with many present.

March 12, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:5. Rich Botanical Building’s blooms charm visitors.

March 12, 1916, San Diego Union, 12:4. Display of tapestries and rugs, dating back to the reigns of Louis XIV, Louis XV, and Louis XVI, in French exhibit adorn walls of California Building.

March 12, 1916, San Diego Union, 15:5-6. Day full of music planned for Sunday Fair visitors.

March 12, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:3. Fifty paintings by San Diegans to be on exhibition in the Woman’s Board Headquarters at the Exposition March 14.

March 13, 1916, Los Angeles Times, II, 7:3-4. Until brought to the San Diego Exposition by her parents, who have charge of the Alaskan exhibit, three-year old Margaret Marie Bales, never saw another child.

March 13, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 4:7-8. San Diego ores shown at Palace of Mines.

March 13, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 7:3. Four troops of cavalry leave San Diego.

March 13, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:1-3. Fine program arranged for Exposition opening beginning at 11 a.m.; Franklin K. Lane, secretary of the interior, to make speech of day; flags of all nations, surmounted by Stars and Stripes, will be unfurled at Plaza de Panama after 11 a.m.; military parade starting at 10 a.m.; Governor Hiram Johnson of California and Governor Strong of Alaska to speak; five bands will be in action; aero flights by members of North Island Aero Corps in afternoon; grand ball in Plaza de Panama in evening; Count Salazar, official representative of the King of Spain, will unveil Spanish flag.

March 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. Cavalry to leave today; 40 cars to carry squadron; Douglas, Arizona is troop destination.

Orders for the entraining for services in Mexico of the First United States Cavalry, 300 strong, stationed at the Exposition grounds, were received yesterday morning by Captain Frank B. Arnold, divisional squadron commander. The cavalrymen, accompanied by a pack train of sixty mules and the hospital corps, will leave San Diego for Douglas, Arizona in a special train of forty cars about 9 o’clock this morning.

The division of the First Cavalry consists of troops A, D, K and L. Six troops of First Cavalry left the presidio of Monterey at 4 o’clock yesterday afternoon in a special train of seventy-six cars. These troops will join the First Cavalry squadron from San Diego at Douglas.

According to word received from Western Division Headquarters here yesterday the First Cavalry will be sent into Mexico to act as rear guard for the troops which already have been sent across the border in pursuit of Villa.

Lieutenant C. Enos is in command of Troop A; Lieutenant W. W. Gordon of Troop D; Captain Frank Arnold of Troop K; and Lieutenant W. C. McChord of Troop L. There are approximately seventy men to a troop. Lieutenant J. K. Boles is in command of the quartermaster department.

Troops B and M of the regiment are expected to be kept at Calexico, where they are stationed now.

March 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:2-4. Rush work on United States building; fisheries exhibit at Fair to be varied.

Among the many new features at the Exposition this year will be the United States government fisheries exhibit, to be arranged in a fine new building now under construction facing the Calle Colon, adjacent to the War of the Worlds at the extreme south end of the Isthmus.

The building, built in conformity with the other Exposition structures, is a thing of rare beauty. A large force of workmen is engaged in rushing the edifice to completion.

The great government fisheries exhibit in this building will be one of the most wonderful of the kind every placed on display, showing many specimens from Hawaii.

March 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:4. French exhibit at Fair to open tomorrow; Tommasino’s Band to play “La Marselliaise”; President Davidson, others to speak.

March 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:4. Guards to prevent scalping of Exposition souvenir badges.

March 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:5-6. Gong will announce Exposition opening.

March 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:6. San Diego artists’ collection to be thrown open to visitors in the Woman’s Board Headquarters this afternoon.

March 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Banquet to end opening program.

March 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Program at Fair attracts crowd.

March 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:6. Many events of today’s program at Exposition; guard mount by marines; submarine mine demonstration; music attractions.

March 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:1. Car will spread word that road to Fair is open.

March 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:2-3. Two armed girls hike to Fair.

March 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:4. French exhibit at Fair to open tomorrow.

March 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:5. Brazil’s exhibit at Fair to be enlarged.

March 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:6. Paintings by San Diego artists on display in Woman’s Board Headquarters.

March 15, 1916, Los Angeles Times, II, 6:4-5. Program for opening of big new Exposition.

March 15, 1916, San Diego Sun, 12:1. Put final touches on Magic City; French exhibit dedicated today.

The Southland’s Magic City — the Panama-California International Exposition was a beehive of activity today.

Artists and workmen, concessionaires and exhibit managers, were putting the final touches on the Southern California wonderland — one of the very finest international exposition’s in the world’s history. All will be ready for the grand opening Saturday when thousands of visitors are expected.

The gala event of today was the dedication of the fine French exhibit. With M. Jules Heltner, French consul general at San Francisco present and with other dignitaries in attendance, a fine program was scheduled.

This program included the raising of the national colors above the building and speeches by President Davidson, Superintendent of Schools Duncan MacKinnon and Jules Neltner (?). A concert of French national airs was to be heard from Tommasino’s band.


On completion of the program the building was thrown open to visitors.

The arrangement of the French exhibit is an artistic one. On entering the building a large Gobelin tapestry — the portrayal of an incident in the campaigns of Alexander the Great is hung, at either sides of which hangs the blue and gold tapestries made for Napoleon, and below which lies the famous carpets of “The Cohortes,” ordered made in Tournay by Napoleon for the Palace of Moudon. On the walls at either side of the building hand a Gobelin as artistic as it is historically significant, below which is spread a magnificent savonnerie, ordered for the Palace of the Louvre by Louis XIV. An effective placing of vases and statuary and artistic _______ of historic furniture about the building adds to the impressiveness of the display.

In the balcony at the front of the building is the display of models on which are to be seen the latest Paris creations. The _____ of models is a labyrinth of colors — not harsh colors, repulsive to the esthetic eye, but soft, delicate shades which please the most artistic tastes.

The French exhibit does not show the finer sides of the nation’s life only, but contains ample proof of the economic development and industrial efficiency of France.


The Dedication Day dinner at the Cristobal Café will have the personal supervision of Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth Croft, who yesterday took over the management of this exposition enterprise. Elaborate decorations and many alterations have been made at the café to make the big banquet hall as attractive as possible.

When President Davidson offers his international toast to peace at the exposition a few minutes before noon Saturday, it will be drunk in orange juice in honor of Orange day, which falls on that day.

An entertaining feature of the night Dedication day program at the exposition is the outdoor ball in the Plaza de Panama from 8 till 10. The grand march will begin at 9 o’clock and will be led by “Miss San Diego – 1916,” Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane, Count and Countess Del Valle de Salazar, Governor and Mrs. Hiram Johnson and visiting notables at the exposition.

In order to permit dedication day visitors to the exposition to have a full evening on the exposition grounds, the La Jolla electric line will run extra dedication night car service. The last car will leave the Fourth street office at 1:15 a.m. Sunday.

March 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Franklin K. Lane, secretary of the interior, sent to San Diego to represent President Wilson at opening of 1916 Fair.

March 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Leading houses will close Dedication Day.

March 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. A nude “Magdalen,” painted by Murillo one hundred and fifty years ago and stolen from Mexican cathedral sixty years ago exhibited at Fair by Frank Strauss.

March 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Universal Film Company of Los Angeles filming the play “The Eye of God” on Exposition grounds.

March 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Two carloads of wild animals due today.

March 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. French exhibit to be opened today.

March 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth Croft take over management of Cristobal Café.

March 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:7 Montana exhibit exhaustive.

March 16, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 3:3. Complete plan for reopening of Fair.

March 16, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 4:1-2. EDITORIAL: Thanking the Women’s Board for a Favor to California Art.

March 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:1-5. New Maryland Hotel is opened with big reception.

March 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:2. Rare brilliancy of French exhibit thrills throng.

March 16, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:1-5. Cheers ring as French exhibit is opened at Fair.

March 16, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 11:1. Nations of world listed for parts in reopening of Fair.

March 16, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 11:3-4. Isthmus to have big part in dedication.

March 16, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:1-5. Cheers ring as French exhibit is opened.

March 17, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 1:1, 8:3-4. New and great Fair ready; President Wilson will give opening signal.

March 17, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 4:1-2. EDITORIAL: San Diego’s Duty to Its Exposition.

San Diego’s exposition is primarily for San Diegans.

Therefore, let San Diegans consider it their duty as well as their pleasure to swell the daily attendance upon the feast of reason spread for them, trusting that in their own flow of soul they will appreciate the high worth of what they have themselves provided.

March 17, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 5:2-4. Working model of big battleship Massachusetts to be exhibited by inventor at Fair.

March 17, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 6:1. Women’s Board gives outdoor ball; event in honor of personal representative of President Wilson takes place on Plaza de Panama.

March 17, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:8, 3:3. President Wilson will touch button at start Fair going at noon tomorrow in the White House; an immense gong loosened by the flash over the electric wires will clang out the message in the Plaza de Panama; flags of all nations will be unfurled.

March 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3-4. Visitors flock to city to help in celebration as Exposition is dedicated.

March 18, 1916, Los Angeles Times, 1:3, 3:7. Reopening of San Diego Exposition; gala day promised in San Diego; thousands of arrivals from Los Angeles and the north crowd hotels; Secretary of the Interior Lane represents President Wilson at Dedication, by Lewis Havermale.

March 18, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, Dedication Number

1:1-4. City again triumphs this day.

1:1-2, 18:3-6. Notables of many nations take part in big ceremony, by George H. White.

Noon! The great gong at the United States government exposition building sounded under pressure of an electric button in the White House at Washington. United States warships in the harbor and United States marines within the grounds fired salutes, the Stars and Stripes were raised by Miss San Diego, the flags of eighteen nations unfurled, the band played “Star Spangled Banner,” the exposition toast was made by President G. A. Davidson — and the Panama-California International exposition, San Diego’s 1916 fair, was officially opened with its welcome to the world.

This noon, today, was, therefore, the most signally significant in San Diego’s history, for unless all signs fail, the new exposition will mark the beginning of a new and greater era for San Diego.

The mid-day ceremony of so great import was but a brief ten minutes’ incident in the formal dedicatory exercises of the new exposition. It followed an hour of formalities and speeches and was to be followed by another hour of similar character. Still another hour earlier, the day’s program was really begun with the imposing military parade which passed up Broadway to the exposition grounds, and was reviewed on the Plaza de Panama. And afterwards events of the auspicious day were to follow with rapidity until midnight, or beyond.

Following the review of the military parade in the plaza, and selections from Tommasino’s Royal Italian Band, President Davidson at 11 o’clock, delivered the opening address from the steps of the United States government building fronting the Plaza de Panama on the north.

Crowds began clicking the turnstiles early this forenoon and by 11 o’clock, when the dedicatory exercises began, the bureau of admissions estimated closely that more than 20,000 persons had entered the grounds. The heavy line continued to pass in and it was predicted that 40,000 or more would be registered as the day’s attendance.

Senator Robert N. Bulla, of Los Angeles, first vice president of the new exposition and chairman of the day, was the first speaker introduced by President G. Aubrey Davidson. Senator Bulla said:

“Ladies and Gentlemen and Distinguished Guests — A little more than one year ago the Panama-California exposition was dedicated in this place, designed originally to commemorate the greatest material achievement of modern times, the completion of the Panama canal: the elements of beauty, science and sentiment were, nevertheless, the most characteristic features of its construction. Barren hills and rugged canyons had been converted into a garden so entrancing as to captivate and compel the admiration and wonder of even the most practical minded visitor. Its architecture was the realization of an artist’s dream without one jarring note to mar the exquisite whole. Unconsciously one found himself recurring to the romantic past, when the holy padres landed on the shores of the “Harbor of the Sun” and California began.

(Senator Bulla’s talk was followed by remarks by Mayor Edwin M. Capps of San Diego, R. W. Pridham, chairman of the Los Angeles County supervisors, and John S. Mitchell, president of the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce. After the introductory speeches, Count Del Valle de Salazar, representing King Alfonso of Spain, raised the Spanish flag, following which Mayor C. E. Sebastian of Los Angeles, Governor Strong of Arizona, and Governor Hiram Johnson of California gave short addresses. These were succeeded by the chief address of the day, given by Franklin K. Lane, secretary of the interior, representing President Wilson.. He described the burdens of the presidency that kept President Wilson from attending the dedication, complimented San Diego on its daring and achievement, and ended by suggesting that men should fight nature rather than one another:

What has this nation to say to those who lie before it and around it? We answer that we have come to know that this world is made not for the gratification or the desire of a few but for the benefit of the many; that power must be common capital; that nature not man is the enemy man must conquer, and that the world belongs to him who reclaims the desert, who bores the mountains, who most swiftly sails the seas and most surely masters the air; who with plow and microscope, furnace and blow pipe, test tube and machine makes this world serve mankind best.

Outstanding features of the evening are the dedication day dinner to be held at 7 o’clock at the Cristobal Café, and the grand open-air ball to begin at 8 o’clock on the Plaza de Panama, under auspices of the official woman’s board with music furnished by the Marine and Flagship bands.

The exposition has adopted its new flag, but the designer has not been rewarded with the season ticket promised. Executive Secretary H. J. Penfold is willing to reward the author of the design if he will come forward and make himself known.

A trio of singers from Milan Grand Opera company, consisting of Eilina Lebbycot Tronbett, soprano; G. Ingar, tenor, and David Silvia, baritone, will assist Tommasino’s Royal Band in two concerts today.

The young woman in charge of the exposition studio on the second floor of the Russia and Brazil building will hold open house this afternoon and will have the new impressionistic paintings on display. Entrance to this gallery is through the Montezuma gardens.

2:1. Women’s work is given high place at new Exposition.

2:2-7. Famous United States Marine Corps Regiment makes San Diego home, by Sergeant Major Thomas F. Carney.

2:4-5. Model Farm justifies existence.

2:8. Model aeroplane meet, first of its kind, to be held here; trophy cup to go to winning school.

3:1-6. Swiss watches form a part of unique exhibit in Foreign and Domestic Industries building; commissioner will entertain in pretty chalet.

3:1-7. Holland’s exhibit in Foreign and Domestic Industries building artistic and most interesting.

4:1-7. Magnificent Brazilian exhibit reward of untiring efforts of Doctor Eugenio Dahne.

5:1-6. Russian exhibit at Exposition typifies tremendous industries of large nation.

5:7. San Francisco Chronicle writer amazed by fine examples of peasants’ shown at Russian exhibit in the Transportation building at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition in 1915.

6:1-3. Spain’s display in Foreign Arts building at Fair; paintings, etchings, bronzes, tapestries; tile work, silks, laces and crockery from Valencia; jewelry, wools, cloth and other articles from Barcelona.

6:1-7. Combination of Oriental displays from Persia, India, Turkey and Egypt offered by J. Gazvini in Foreign Arts building.

6:1-7 Spirit of Arabian nights prevails over exhibits from mystic lands.

6:4-7. Beautiful Italian Colonies exhibit in Foreign Arts building.

7:1-7. Union Oil Company’s exhibit in Foreign and Domestic Products building proves worth of Golden State’s products.

8:1-2. Aquarium curio section in Pan-Pacific Building.

8:1-2. Pacific Coast Steamship Company in Pan-Pacific Building.

8:1-2. Pearl carvings display of Afana brothers in Pan-Pacific Building.

8:1-7. Mission Wine Company in Pan-Pacific Building

8:1-7. Displays from Philippines, Western America and Sunny Islands group fill Panama-Pacific Building.

8:1-7. Hawaii, seat of Pan-Pacific movement.

8:3-4. Arizona section in Pan-Pacific Building.

8:3-4. Oceanic Steamship Company in Pan-Pacific Building

8:3-4. Hawaiian Coffee section in Pan-Pacific Building.

9:1-4. Twenty nations exhibiting at new Fair.

9:6-7. Athletics to have place in big Exposition.

9:8. Ethnology Hall display vast in scope; central room of Science and Education Building to be known as the Hall of Ethnology.

9:8. Fine French paintings lead all; million dollar Luxembourg paintings in Fine Arts gallery.

11:1-7. Canada’s exhibit is one of best at Exposition.

12:1-7. Counties united in exhibiting in the Southern California Counties Building; assessed valuation $949,784,180; Valuation of products in 1914, $572,032,055; population, 1,750,000.

12:1-7. The Story of California, by John Steven McGroarty.

13:1-7. Oriental Joy Garden on Isthmus; S. Sekiguchi, proprietor; dining room; six Japanese dancing girls; kissball and Japanese rolling ball game.

16:7-7. Magnificent Italian exhibit at main entrance of Foreign Arts Building.

17:1-2, 18:3-6. Exposition opened to world.

March 18, 1916, San Diego Sun, Exposition Page.

  1. Miss Marion Vodges chosen as “Miss San Diego”.

1:7. Wonderland opened to throngs.

1:8. Fireworks tonight.

March 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3-6. Miss Marion Vodges, Exposition queen, begins her reign today.

March 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:7. Official Dedication Day program.

March 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:7-8, 5:2-3. San Diego realizes cherished ambition; International Fair.

March 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Birdmen squadron to fly today at opening of 1916 Exposition.

March 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Fireworks to light heavens at Fair tonight

March 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Sound magnifier to be used by speakers at Exposition today.

March 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Secretary of Interior Franklin K. Lane says Villa will regret day he crossed line.

March 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Photographs of badges made for directors and other officials of 1916 Fair; made in San Diego.

March 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Army and Navy to take part in big parade.

March 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:6. Big reservation list a Cristobal Café.

March 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:6. Big crowds at Fair today from Los Angeles, prediction.

March 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:7. Who designed Exposition flag? Is question.

March 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:7. “Court of Leap Year” seeks for brave bachelors.

March 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 16:3. Noted old auto is boosting Fair; has covered more than 250,000 miles in this country since 1912; plans made to have this city Western terminus of trip across from New York

March 19, 1916, Los Angeles Times, 7:1-5. San Diego Exposition begins its second year; thirty-five thousand persons take part in rededication of monument to Southern California enterprise; Secretary Lane represents President Wilson at dedication, by Lewis Havermale.

March 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:1, 3:1. Exposition opens in din of enthusiasm; button pressed in White House by Secretary of the Navy Daniels; aeroplane parade, musical program feature dedication..

March 19, 1916, San Diego Union. Bachelors shun Leap Year Court at Fair.

March 19, 1916, San Diego Union. Cristobal crowd sets new record.

March 19, 1916, San Diego Union. Carefree crowd throngs Isthmus on opening night.

March 19, 1916, San Diego Union. Military, Naval parade inspires street throngs.

March 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:4. City felicitated upon opening of 1916 Exposition; President Davidson deluged with telegrams.

March 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1-3. Splendor of new exhibits at Fair gladdens San Diegans.

March 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1-3. Secretary Daniels gives signal for opening of Fair.

March 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Fireworks glow bathes the Fair in myriad colors.

March 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Dedication prayer by Dr. R. D. Hollington.

March 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:6. Thousands cheer aviation parade at Dream City; six machines used in flights from North Island to the Fair, as dedication event; circled the California tower and dropped bundles of small American flags as souvenirs; to many it was the most spectacular event of the day.

March 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 12:3-8. Noted speakers at dedication wish Fair success.

March 19, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 8:2-3. ROUNDABOUTS: Several young women carried ice skates to the Exposition grounds yesterday morning. They had intended to use them at the Alhambra ice rink last night. But the plant could not be installed in time, and the opening of the rink had to be postponed at least a week.

March 19, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 8:3. ON THE MARGIN by Yorick . . . California art at the San Diego Exposition.

March 20, 1916, San Diego Sun, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Exposition

The Panama-California International Exposition is formally opened today and San Diego is justly proud of the successful opening festivities.

Our thousands of visitors were greeted with an enthusiastic welcome, and they were evidently well pleased with the entertainment offered at the Magic City in the park.

One thing, however, the exposition authorities learned on the opening day. That is the need of an A1 special events man — an amusement expert who can direct special events throughout the year; one who knows the business of entertaining exposition throngs and who can see that the advertised events are run properly.

The need for such a man was plainly shown as hundreds waited for the ill-fated open-air ball to start at the Plaza Saturday night.

Perhaps someone in planning the amusement for the 600 in the Cristobal forgot that there were 30,000-odd outside to be entertained.

No doubt the exposition officials will profit by their early experience, however, and that future special events will be handled to the satisfaction of all.

March 20, 1916, San Diego Sun, 12:5. Over 45,000 flocked through three main gates of Exposition Saturday; all buildings to be open hereafter on Sundays.

“All ready for a great year.”

So said the exposition officials today. Notwithstanding a fine spring shower that arrived during the morning, they were wearing the proverbial “smile that won’t come off.” For exposition attendance records were shattered on Saturday, the day of the formal opening, over 45,000 flocking through the three main gates.

The exhibit buildings were crowded, both Saturday and Sunday, almost all being open yesterday. It is announced that all the buildings will be open on Sunday hereafter, an announcement that was greeted with enthusiasm by many today.

Isthmus shows did a land-office business Saturday. All the concessions were well patronized.

“We are highly gratified with the opening of the exposition,” said President Davidson today, and a highly successful and prosperous year is predicted on all sides.”

Music programs yesterday pleased the exposition throngs. The band and organ concerts and the singing of the Peoples’ Chorus and the Choir of All Saints’ Episcopal Church pleased greatly.

Evidence that Governor Hiram Johnson had not lost any of his popularity here came Saturday during the addresses at the exposition. The governor got the biggest hand of all the speakers, and his remarks were given enthusiastic attention.

March 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4, 5:1. Exposition officially opened; 45,000 persons saw Exposition on Dedication Day; Saturday’s throng smashes all attendance records; Davidson says mark to be passed many times in year; biggest business in history of Isthmus; thousands view Canada exhibit; Davidson thinks the greatest number during any single day in 1915 was 32,000.

March 20, 1916, San Diego Union. Exposition Sidelights: George P. Pitkin, chief yeoman of the navy, attached to the government exhibit, and Sergeant Major J. F. Carney, ranking sergeant major of the marine corps, hoisted the flag at the flag raising on the Plaza Saturday.

March 21, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 11:1. New shows join Isthmus; Princess Wenona, woman rifle shot; Reckless Vernon speeds on a perpendicular wall at a speed of 100 miles an hour, using a motorcycle and miniature auto; “Nude Magdalen” by Murillo, valued at $50,000.

March 21, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 11:2. Exhibit of Spain in Foreign Arts Building will be ready soon; owing to the lack of space the entire Spanish exhibit cannot be displayed at once.

March 21, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:4. Five hundred children on program April 29 honoring Shakespeare; high school will present characters to represent Queen Elizabeth’s court.

March 22, 1916, San Diego Sun, 6:6. Automobiles to be allowed on Exposition grounds every Monday beginning March 27; will give invalids a chance to make excursion.

March 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:2-4. La Belle Seville, Spanish dancer, wins acclaim; retained for 1916 Fair; is in complete charge of Spanish troupe.

March 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:3. Change in Cristobal Café; Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth Croft have taken over.

March 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:5. George Wharton James sang California’s praises at a weekly luncheon of Chamber of Commerce.

March 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:8. Pass given George P. Thompson, designer of Exposition flag.

March 23, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 8:1. EDITORIAL: The Preservation of San Diego’s Garden.

We can, in course of time, by the expenditure of comparatively little money, have a garden as beautiful and as profitable to the community as that of Rio.

But we must begin to think of the ways and means now.

March 23, 1916, San Diego Herald, 1:3-4. EDITORIAL: 1916 Exposition

The Exposition, which started its second year so auspiciously last Saturday, is receiving praises from nearly all the state press, and from many of the eastern papers. It is now generally conceded that the Exposition this year will be even better and more successful than it was last year. The Fresno Republican, in a brief editorial notice, summed it up as follows:

“The pre-dedication of the San Diego Exposition, for its second year, is singularly propitious. Last year the Exposition at San Diego served a useful but necessarily secondary purpose. This year it is the whole thing. And this year it is bound to be not merely as good as it was last year, but much better. The climate will be as good — which is the best in the world. The buildings will be as good outside, and inside much better, by reason of increased exhibits made possible by the closing of the Exposition at San Francisco. There wonderful gardening will be one year older and better. And last year’s unique achievement — an Exposition open twelve months in the year — will be doubled to twenty-four months. Only in California would this be climatically possible, and nowhere in California so well as in San Diego. The Exposition at San Diego is on a scale which it is financially feasible to maintain over an extended period, and it is a credit and an advantage, not merely to San Diego, but to the whole state to have it done.”

March 23, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:4. Three band concerts at Exposition today.

March 24, 1916, Minutes of Board of Park Commissioners: Monkeys donated by Coronado Beach Company; cage to be prepared.

March 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Fun for all on Isthmus at big “Carnival Night.”

March 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Milan grand opera singers with Tommasino Royal Italian Band in concert at Exposition.

March 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Milan grand opera singers popular at Exposition.

March 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Concessionaires on Isthmus organize.

March 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Palace of Mines in the Washington State building will open soon.

March 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Big artificial ice rink to be dedicated on the Isthmus Monday night; Davidson will “cut first ice.”

March 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Captain Karl Offer, German aviator, will remain here during Exposition in charge of the jewelry display at the German section.

March 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:6. Carmen Costillo, widow of William Carlson, noted auto race, sings at Cristobal.

March 25, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:6-7. Exposition 50-mile auto race today; starts in front of Grizzly Gulch at 2 p.m.

March 25, 1916, San Diego Sun, 12:2-3. Tonight will be “Carnival Night” with free vaudeville program on Isthmus stage; Tommasino’s Royal Italian Band to give concert in front of United States Fisheries Building; trophy cup to be presented to winner of auto race.

March 25, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:6, 2:3. Four daring auto pilots await start; Oldfield, Burman, Tetzlaff and Durant eager for Exposition event today.

March 25, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3. Big auto race won by “Wild Bob” Burman.

March 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:2-4. House just finished at corner of Spruce and Second Streets; architect Carleton Monroe Winslow.

March 27, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 1:1-2. Importance of city bond election urged.

March 27, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 9:3. School boy to appear as Bard of Avon.

March 27, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 10:1. Exposition may give day for Mrs. Carrie Jacobs Bond.

March 28, 1916, Los Angeles Times, II, 12:2. To exhibit riches of mines at Fair; collecting specimens from great western fields; Washington State Building will house display of earth’s treasures at San Diego.

To arouse interest in mining in this county and more particularly in California, James E. Babcock, manager of the Palace of Mines at the San Diego Exposition, will leave today on a tour throughout the Southwestern mining districts.

Mr. Babcock bears the endorsements of the Chamber of Commerce, the Chamber of Mines and Oils of this city, and other civic bodies.

“There has been a great need of a mineral exhibit in the San Diego exposition and we have acquired the Washington State building for the housing of the displays,” said Mr. Babcock yesterday. “There are a number of single exhibits at the exposition, but not one cooperative display. In the Palace of Mines we shall have a display embracing the entire Southwest and the rest of this country.

“The Palace of Mines will be free to the public, the expenses being met through the financial support of the districts represented and by private subscriptions. At the present time the territory tributary to Los Angeles is producing approximately $300,000,000 annually, but that the field is only partially opened and the Palace of Mines will forcibly impress the thousands of possible investors who will visit the exposition with the opportunities offered in the legitimate investment of the mining industry.”

One exhibit already in the building is that of the Couer d’Alene district of Idaho. This exhibit occupies 200 square feet space and contains more that sixty tons of specimens.

Mr. Babcock had charge of the Nevada State exhibit at San Francisco last year. His exhibit was awarded the grand prize. The Boundary Cone Mine of Oatman will be represented by a collection of its ores. Mr. Babcock secured the use of the collection yesterday from the officers of that company.

Mr. Babcock took formal charge of the building on the 15th inst. Since last Friday the sum of $1,100 has been subscribed by prominent mining men of this city and surrounding territory. The exhibit will be fully equipped by May 1

March 28, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:2-4. Walter Damrosch to hold baton at Exposition; New York Symphony Orchestra will give two concerts, April 22 and 23.

March 29, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 1:3, 7:4. Great cast drawn for pageant at Fair; play is called “The Masque of Shakespeare’s Children”; Virginia Church, English instructor at San Diego High School, is author; to be given on the afternoon of April 29 at the Exposition organ pavilion..

March 29, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 10:1. April 27 to be Carrie Jacobs Bond Day.

March 30, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 1:1-2, 5:2. City Attorney warns all voters to vote.

March 30, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 3:3. Indianapolis News praises Fair here.

March 30, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 3:4. Dinner dance de luxe at Cristobal Café tonight.

March 30, 1916, San Diego Herald, 1:7-8. San Diego’s live ones, who is who and why, by S. A. Raymond.

It has been the custom for many years to write a series of “who is who” by the newspapers in the several cities. These articles have been run as new articles and “boosted” every fellow who paid the price, and as only one man was sketched for any one issue, the game was made profitable as long as there were “suckers” to pay the price.

I am going to give the Herald readers an honest chapter on “who is who” in San Diego and why, without the permission or knowledge of those whom I have selected for an interesting story for the benefit of newcomers. There will be no bill sent to any of the victims, and they will all be bunched in one article, and each will be given due credit for what he has done for San Diego, and if anyone is given more prominence than another, it will be because they are entitled to it, for what they have done for San Diego.

This will not be an historical work, because it will treat only that limited portion of the population which has really done something above the average in the way of making San Diego a city. It will not give recognition to any man for his wealth, his official position, nor his professional standing, but to each for what his work has benefited out city. Of course, to begin right we will first have to mention the man who laid the foundations for this modern city.

Alonzo E. Horton, better known as “Father” Horton, came here in 1867 when everything south of Old Town was sage brush and cactus. Father Horton realized that the ideal climate, the fertile soil, and the beautiful harbor would someday be the home of millions if they could be made to realize what we had here. Instead of showing the natives how to let the world know what they had here, he, like a good business man, bought a good portion of the city land at 26 cents per acre, and, after cutting into city lots, proceeded to sell it at prices ranging from $40 per acre to several hundred dollars per acre to those who came here to enjoy this delightful climate. Father Horton did splendid work in bringing to the notice of the world the wonderful natural resources of this section. He was rewarded by making a fortune out of his efforts, which he subsequently lost by trying to boom the city.

Some people think Cabrillo is entitled to greater credit than Father Horton, because Cabrillo discovered this section, but neither Father Horton nor Cabrillo created the land, the bay or the sunshine, so the real glory antedates them. However, Father Horton is entitled to the credit of advertising these advantages which places all of us under obligation to him. However, had Father Horton worked to build a city for the people instead of for Father Horton, he would have induced people to come here and use the land instead of buying it, in which case he would have made it a taxless city and a greater one than it is now.

After the boom of 1887 the city stagnated and declined. The man who had made the city possible was engulfed in the wreck, and the hope of the citizens centered on a new genius. About that time E. S. Babcock conceived the idea of building the Coronado Hotel, which he made the finest of American resorts at that time. Babcock also engaged in other enterprises which aided in the development of the city, the greatest of which was the building of the Southern California Mountain Water Company, in which he interested John D. Spreckels. For years after the boom collapsed, the city gradually declined and would have been almost depopulated but for the enterprise and genius of E. S. Babcock.

About 12 years ago when San Diego was languishing and all the people were discouraged and in the dumps, L. J. Wilde sauntered into the city and thought it looked good. After a careful study of the city, Mr. Wilde decided that what it lacked most was the confidence of its own people and he made it his particular business to restore lost confidence and arouse enthusiasm. The first thing he did was to make the people realize that San Diego had a future, and that real estate was being offered below its value without buyers.

To convince San Diegans that he was sure his judgment was right, he bought considerable centrally-located property, some of which he immediately improved. The first building which he erected was the Pickwick Theater, and later, through his efforts, were erected many of the best structures of the city: the best of which are the U. S. Grant Hotel, the American National Bank Building, and the building occupied by the United States National Bank, and many other buildings of lesser note.

Mr. Wilde has been generous, philanthropic and public-spirited. He has subscribed liberally to every public charity, encouraged every enterprise, aided more people in distress than any other San Diegan, and has favored all public improvements. He was the second largest subscriber to the Panama-California Exposition, and donated to the public the splendid electric fountain in the plaza. Although his every enterprise has been successful, excepting his newspaper, he has given to the public more than the profits on his San Diego investments.

  1. C. Collier, aroused to enthusiasm by the faith of Wilde in San Diego, became the greatest booster for the city and helped its growth by encouraging outsiders to come here to make their homes. Because of his faith, ability and enthusiasm, D. C. Collier was made the director-general of the Exposition, and through his efforts was raised the necessary funds to make the Exposition a success, in which later he contributed a fortune in giving it publicity.

The splendid work of Wilde and Collier not only gave San Diegans confidence in their city, but attracted the notice of outsiders, which started the city to activity and growth. John D. Spreckels of San Francisco had large interests in San Diego which he had offered for sale at a sacrifice, but he too became inspired with confidence in the new San Diego so that he decided that with his help it could be made into a great city. Instead of selling his holdings, he made further investments, and through his wealth and energy has done more and is doing more to build up the city than all other interests combined.

Since making this his home, Mr. Spreckels has invested several million dollars in different enterprises in and around San Diego. Several business blocks, two new hotels, and the finest theater in America are to his credit. The fine water system planned and begun by Mr. Babcock was completed by Mr. Spreckels and sold to the city. And he has given San Diego the best street car system of any city of its size anywhere. Besides he established some prosperous industrial enterprises and is building the San Diego and Arizona railroad. Take it all and all, Mr. Spreckels has contributed more to the prosperity of San Diego than any other man, and is doing more than ever to make a greater San Diego.

  1. Aubrey Davidson, in originating the idea of the Panama-California Exposition, gave to San Diego the opportunity for world-wide publicity, and as president of the Exposition, he has been instrumental in making his dream come true. As the founder of one of the largest financial institutions in San Diego, Mr. Davidson has already won a place in the sun which is made more secure by his splendid work for the Exposition.

Space will not permit mention of some who perhaps have done something to deserve mention in the “who is who” in San Diego, nor will it permit extended mention to some who I feel have done more than will be given them credit in this limited article, so the others will be briefly mentioned for the splendid things they have done for San Diego. By making his home here, U. S. Grant, Jr. did the city a service because he is well known everywhere. But, in addition, he gave to San Diego its finest hotel, which did much in making the city popular with the traveling public.

Madame Katherine Tingley, in locating on Point Loma the headquarters of the Theosophical Society, added a great attraction to San Diego, and her splendid school has aided many of the youths of San Diego besides bringing to us bright minds from many parts of the world. The late A. G. Spalding, who made his home on Point Loma, did much for the beautifying of the city and making it more attractive.

George W. Marston came to San Diego when it was a mere village and remained during its trying period and is still here. Mr. Marston has taken an active part in everything which meant a better and more prosperous city and has given much of his wealth to aid others. His best work for San Diego was the building of his great store which is the equal of the dry goods stores in the great cities of the east.

Ed Fletcher came to San Diego when things were quiet, looking for a job. He did his work so well that he was soon in business for himself in which he made a success. Fletcher has done more for the development of the back country than any other man by inducing men of capital to invest and make improvements. For the past 10 years he has devoted his time to getting control of all the unused water sites of the county which he hopes to consolidate in one great system to permanently solve the water question. The work he is doing will make the settlement of the whole county a possibility, which means much for San Diego.

  1. H. Timken is not much in the lime light, but he has given San Diego some of its best buildings, is for all improvements, and has contributed many thousands of dollars for public charities. Mr. Timken is carrying to success the splendid things planned by the late A. G. Spalding.
  2. I. Irwin is one of San Diego’s successful business men, who has not [only] encouraged public enterprise, but he had done more in a quiet way to help others to do things and get a start in life than is generally know. He has done things for San Diego.

“Joe” Sefton is a San Diego boy, who has grown up here from boyhood to manhood. Joe inherited a fortune from his father and is now demonstrating the he also inherited his father’s ability to handle it. He is the head of several financial institutions and has just completed the splendid Maryland Hotel, which proves his faith in the future of San Diego.

Nathan Watts is another of the younger men of San Diego who is doing things for San Diego. Besides building the splendid Watts Building, one of the best office buildings in the city, he is planning another which will be a monument to his enterprise.

  1. H. Jones, manager of the Consolidated Gas and Electric Company, is a comparative newcomer, but under his management the patrons of his company have received a service which is seldom equaled in a city the size of San Diego. Besides, since the advent of Mr. Jones, the company has extended its services to the entire surrounding country, giving comfort, and encouraging suburban improvements which otherwise would have been impossible. After the recent flood, Mr. Jones distinguished himself by the quickness with which he restored to the country districts a satisfactory service. Mr. Jones has few equals as an executive, and he realizes the public’s rights and those of the men who work.

James H. Holmes, manger of the U. S. Grant Hotel, is another of the latecomers who has helped make San Diego attractive. The splendid service of his great hotel, the wide publicity given, and his personal acquaintance with globe trotters, travelers, and men of means has brought to San Diego that class of people which adds to the city’s prosperity.

John S. Akerman, president of the Chamber of Commerce, may hardly be eligible for a place in this list, but his present work in the Chamber of Commerce, which he is doing to secure factories and encourage home patronage, if successful will entitle him to first place on the list.

There are two noticeable and remarkable things about this list of notables. All of them are still living, except Father Horton and A. G. Spalding. Another is that among this list of men who have done things for San Diego, not one of them has been elected to public office. As a rule they are not the ones who want office, but of those who have consented, they went to defeat, although the successful candidate had done nothing to distinguish himself and afterwards proved to the voters that they had made a mistake.

March 30, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:1. An extensive display of minerals and ores is assured for the Palace of Mines at the Exposition by the Julian Chamber of Mines; Arizona display will include minerals and ores from Oatman and Kingman Counties; New York Symphony, conducted by Walter Damrosch, to give concerts April 22 and 23 at Organ Pavilion; “April Fools’ Day Hunt” for gifts will begin at 9 a.m., Saturday, April 1.

March 30, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Exhibit of Spain to open next week in Foreign Arts Building.

March 31, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 1:5. Interest in voting on bonds lags; first and second propositions transfer bond money now idle to reconstruction of the water system; third proposition is Encanto annexation..

March 31, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 1:2-3. Secretary of the Navy Daniels favors use of tidelands.

March 31, 1916, San Diego Sun, March 31, 1916, 14:1. A battalion of the 21st Infantry, 266 men, accompanied by a band, to be stationed near north end of the Isthmus on Exposition grounds; Alaska exhibit to be installed in Pan-Pacific Building.

March 31, 1916, San Diego Sun, 14:4. Isthmus parade of floats set for downtown tomorrow at noon.

March 31, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3. 5:5. Lioness treated after fierce struggle; crowd at Fair to see queen’s paw cured.

All said and done — trying as the ordeal was — Queen is the better for her operation. In her cattish way, the big lioness seemed to realize as much last night.

Just as forecasted in yesterday’s Union, a surgical operation of the most unusual, and at times the most terrifying character, was performed at the north end of the Exposition zoo yesterday afternoon, with Queen, largest of the lionesses, as the unwilling victim. Failing to realize that her own welfare was the chief consideration, the big cat, who was suffering from an ingrown claw, fought against the efforts of her friends to relieve her suffering, tooth and nail. A crowd of several hundred people watched her roped and tied and operated upon. Queen lacking perhaps in gray matter what she makes up in muscle and sinew, thought they were all against her. Her struggles shook the iron cage — her roars vibrated for blocks around, and her hisses were like that of escaping steam. Yet, with all her brute strength and agility, her stubborn and outraged determination to fight off the attention which she so greatly required, Queen was as a baby in the hands of her keepers.

Roped From Outside 

There was an utter lack of an operating table or glittering, sterilized instruments so popular in the big hospitals. In fact it was impossible to get into the cage with the lioness. They roped her from the outside, sticking the lassoes through the bars with the aid of iron poles drawing them taught.

When it all began, Queen, playful despite the tender, swollen foot seemed to think it was a joke. She sprang lightly from the floor of her cage to the shelf where she is wont to recline in the sun, and back again, friskily as a kitten. She toyed with the wooden poles and iron bars, extended with the ropes attached, and bit them coquettishly.

Then the first noose fell across Queen’s shoulders, and her ears went back. Keepers of great cats known what that means. It is the first signal of an approaching storm. The massive tail, another sign of temperament among the feline kind, swished nervously; the great brute lifted her whiskered lip in a superb snarl, hissed with the fervor of a thousand snakes, and grabbing the rope, shook it like a rat.

From that moment on the lioness, thinking herself tormented, was at bay. She grabbed the wooden bars thrust through to carry the ropes and splintered them with blows from her enormous paws and with savage attacks from her great jaws, the long tusks flashing in the sunlight.

Beast in a Fury

Time and again the keepers extended the noose, but the lioness avoided them. Her rage was now a fury. She crouched and lunged, the weight of her big, yellow body against the bars of the cage, causing them to shake and quiver. One sweep of the flying paws would have shattered the head of any of her “surgeons” like an egg had it reached them. The mouth at times was open — a cavern of red and white — and upon the back of the great she-lion the hair stood in bristles. It was the same lioness that an hour before had purred and rubbed the bars with her cold nose as a child passing had stopped to peer with wide eyes into the cage.

Finally man’s ingenuity conquered over the cat’s ferocious agility. The noose was slipped from the neck over the legs and around the brute’s middle. Then the legs were caught with other nooses and the struggling beast dragged to the bars, where she was held as in a vice.

The operation that followed — painful as it was – although the paw of the lioness was deadened with cocaine — was nothing in the way of suffering compared to the torture she endured from the offending claw for week’s past. Curled under, the claw had penetrated the flesh for nearly an inch.

Chews Up Stick

With placers, resembling in size those used by a blacksmith upon a horse’s hoof, the attendant clipped off the troublesome claw close at its bases. They gave Queen a stick to chew on during the operation — it was a 2 x 4 scantling — but she reduced at least three feet of it to pulp before it was all over. Then they cleaned the wound, put antiseptics upon the sore paw and cut her loose. They would have given Queen a bandage, but they knew she wouldn’t stand for that.

Released Queen shook herself from tip to tail, surveyed the cheering crowd wickedly. She was still full of fight, but the flesh was weak, and with a bound in which the usual agility was lacking, she returned to the shelf high up against the wall, sank into a reclining position, curiously surveyed, smelled and licked the bloody paw, then closed her eyes and seemed to forget.

By the end of the week, should Queen’s admirers call up the Exposition and ask for the patient, Head keeper A. F. Kauffman says the answer will be:

Purring again and rubbing the bars to show her friendliness for all mankind.

March 31, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Baby camel at Fair will be christened for Al Bahr Shrine.

The Exposition has surrendered to Al Bahr Shrine.

President G. A. Davidson was authorized by the executive committee last night to capitulate to the Shriners who are demanding that the Exposition’s new baby camel be christened by their lodge.

Potentate Fred J. Lea gave assurance last night that no one would have any objection to the formal program that is being planned, and that he would have back of him 345,000 Shriners in all parts of the United States who would make the Exposition’s baby camel famous.

Committees are now being appointed for every detail for the big event which promises to be one of the most interesting special nights ever held at the Exposition. In addition to the big dinner, formal dinner and a brilliant ceremony, there will be a score of other features.

March 31, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Effort made to keep exhibit over Sunday.

In response to the hundreds of requests from thousands who have not been able to visit the Luxembourg art collection in the Fine Arts building at the Exposition, and from thousands who desire still another opportunity to inspect these wonderful French paintings, Exposition officials are making an effort to have this art collection remain Saturday and Sunday.

The eighty paintings must be packed and delivered to Wells-Fargo Express Company by Wednesday afternoon, in order to reach Pittsburgh in time for the opening of the Pittsburgh art exhibition. It was considered impossible to allow the pictures to remain on view longer than Friday night, but Executive Secretary H. J. Penfold is attempting to have extra workmen lessen the time required for packing and giving the extra two days to Exposition visitors.

During the six weeks that the pictures have been at the Exposition they have been viewed by thousands.

March 31, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Black opal exhibit obtained for Fair.

The famous $50,000 black opal collection owned by Percy Marks and now displayed by Marshall Field and Company in Chicago is to be one of the latest exhibits obtained for the Exposition.

Miss Irene Miller, representing Percy Marks, was in San Diego yesterday to make arrangements for the bringing of this wonderful collection, which was the greatest feature of the Australian exhibit in San Francisco and which won the Grand Prix.

This collection will be exhibited in the Pan-Pacific building as a part of the New South Wales exhibit, and A. H. Ford is highly pleased at this great addition to the displays.

Percy Marks will arrive in San Diego within a few weeks to superintend the placing of the exhibit.

March 31, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:3-5. Thursday night dinner dances are inaugurated at Cristobal Café.

Miss Mae Murray, premier danseuse, who has appeared with the Metropolitan Opera Company, will open an engagement at the Cristobal Café tomorrow night.

March 31, 1916, San Diego Union (page unknown). Last day to buy tickets to Fair

You will have to hurry!

Annual tickets to the Panama-California International Exposition will not be sold after 5:30 p.m. today.

The annual tickets have been on sale for several weeks and hundreds have purchased them at a low price. It was decided sometime ago to place a time limit on the sale and the limit was set for 5:30 o’clock this afternoon.

They can be secured at almost any bank, at several of the department stores, or at the Federation of State Societies in the Spreckels Theater Building. Certificates may be exchanged for annual tickets up to May 1.

March 22,1961, San Diego Union, A-17:1-3. NATURE OR HATFIELD: 1916 Flood Cause Discussed in County Control Study, by Charles Ross.

April, 1916, The California Garden, 8-9. Monthly Excursion Through Exposition Grounds, by G. R. Gorton.

The majority of visitors to the Botanical Building are impressed more by the masses of color than any other feature, still it would seem as if the collection of ferns were entitled to consideration from those who have the necessary time to observe them.

Entering the building from the front and turning to the right in the lath section are specimens of Gymnogramme sulphurea, Sulphur Fern, so named because of the sulphur-like spore on the back of the fronds. On the left, across the walk from these, is a specimen of Pteris inequalis with fronds very variable in character.

Next to this is Cyrtomium Rockfordianum, one of the Holly Ferns, a very interesting genus, in appearance not in the least fern-like, but strongly suggesting the holly whose name it bears, very fresh and attractive in appearance and useful for the purposes of contrast in fern plantings.

Still turning to the right, just before entering the east wing of the building, the attention is directed to Pteris serrulata, var. ouvardi, reposing in the shelter of a tall Dracaena indivisa. On the south side in the center bed of this wing the most conspicuous ferns are the several Dicksonia squarrosa, Australian Tree Ferns.

These were grown to their present height in their native country, and were then uprooted, packed, and , with about the same elaborate care which characterizes the handling of railroad ties, were shipped bare-rooted to San Diego. In spite of this consideration which was shown them, several of them lived, and now grace our Botanical Building. Nearby, adjoining a Phoenix rebelini, are one or two Pteris flabellata, rather an unusual Pteris, andCrytomium falcatum, similar to Crytomium Rockfordianum mentioned above, excepting that the fronds are longer and about one-half as wide, not quite as holly-like as its relative.

Having circumnavigated this portion of the house and returning to the circular bed under the dome in the center of the building, one finds several specimens of Lomaria gibba, a smaller genus of tree ferns and very attractive. Alsophila Australis, another Australian tree fern, and Sitalobium cincutarium, these last two not as similar as appears when viewed separately. On the north side of this bed, opposite the entrance to the glass section is a group of Blechnum occidentale, not easily distinguished from the Lomarias.

On the right hand, as the west wing is entered, the corner is ornamented by Woodwardia Americana, our own California Brake, which abounds in certain portions of the back country and transplants very nicely if handled with reasonable care.

Passing on to the extreme west end of the building, the attention will be arrested by a very fine specimen of Alsophila Australis enshrined in the arch together with other ferns, palms, etc. Alsophilas ought to be more grown where sufficient space is available, but allowance must be made for their enormous spread or they will be crowded and the effect spoiled. Properly grown, however, as a background for smaller ferns, begonias, cinerarias and cyclamen in season, the result will be all that could be desired. Near the southeast corner of the center bed are one or two Polypodium Mandalanum or glaucum, as you prefer; the main difference between the several varieties of this type being financial rather than botanical. One of the interesting features of this fern is the curious arrangement of the spore, resembling diminutive brass buttons on a gray coat.

The glass house contains its share of the collection, including some excellent specimen plants of different species of ferns. The oval bed on the east side of the house contains more Alsophla Australis, while underneath Club Moss, Selaginella denticulata lends a charming touch as a ground cover. On the bench along the side is Nephrolepis elegantissima, much ruffled and crested, and when well grown very decorative. Very distinct from these species are two sword ferns, Nephrolepis Tuberosa and Nephrolepis Exaltata which are to be found together on the opposite side of the Conservatory along the west wall. In the former, the fronds are narrower and shorter and of a darker shade of green that Neprholepis Exaltata. It is from latter the crested type are bred. But it does not need the ruffles and crests to make it an attractive fern, as witness several immense hanging baskets in different portions of the house.

On the same side of the building is a choice specimen of the Bird Nest Fern, Asplenium nidus-avis which in its habitat grows to such proportions that a full-grown man may be concealed in the “Nest,” which is merely the fiber at the base of the fronds. Its resemblance to a bird’s nest gives the fern its name. The fronds of this species are upwards of five inches in width and except for the spore on the back bear no especial resemblance to the conventional type of fern.

Borne aloft on the portion of the steel structure south of the pool is another unfernlike fern, Platycerium grande, the Moose Horn Fern (nothing to do will Bull Moose, T. R. etc.). A decided resemblance to the antlers of the moose makes this fern conspicuous among the other plants also making their home on the same steel column. One characteristic which distinguished the Moose and Elk Horn ferns from most others is their epiphytic habit, growing as they do on live or dead tree trunks or smaller support, sustenance solely to be obtained from the moss in which they are rooted. Several species of Platycerium Alcicorne, in which, however, the resemblance is not nearly as perfect, may be seen on the column rising out of the center of the pool.

Nearby, supported on a pedestal so that its fronds hang out over the water, is a very typical specimen of Goniophlebium subauriculatum, the fronds of which are as long as its name, frequently attaining six or eight feet in length.

About the center of the bench along the west side is a specimen of one of the species of the famous Japanese Fern Ball, Davallia Canariensis, while near the northwest corner of the oval bed on the same side of the house is a specimen of another species of the genus, in this case being Davallia lucida. On the steel column at the extreme south end of the center of the house is a specimen of Lygodium Japonicum, the climbing fern, really quite a dainty little plant twining its way upward on a support whose very strength serves to attenuate the delicate foliage of this very attractive species.

The above is by no means a comprehensive account of the fern collection in the Botanical Building, and a careful observer will find, scattered through the lath house and conservatory, many species not mentioned, for instance, there are many other species of Pteris, such as Pteris Victoriae, with the narrow almost grass-like fronds with silver variegation; Pteris Tremula, almost a tree fern in habit; and the same is true of the other genera.

The gardens of the Montezuma have been completely reconstructed; but, in the language of the poet, that is another story.

April 1, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 2:3. Annexation of Encanto and bonds win in light vote.

April 1, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 3:5. Schoolboy soldiers and sailors of the San Diego Army and Navy Academy at Pacific Beach to pitch camp near the model camps for the marine battalion for eight days, beginning April 7.

April 1, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 3:3-4. Miss Mae Murray premier dansuese of the Metropolitan opera house, New York engaged for one week at Cristobal Café.

April 1, 1916, San Diego Sun, 12:8. Almost 1,000 schoolchildren, April 29, will present a pageant at the outdoor organ which will include scenes in pantomime from Shakespeare’s plays.

April 1, 1916, San Diego Sun, 15:6. April Fool’s Day; gift zones along Isthmus, in Pepper Grove, in Exposition corridors and on motor demonstration field; concessionaires’ parade downtown starting at 11:30 a.m.; masquerade carnival on Isthmus beginning at 7:30 p.m.; second appearance of 21st Infantry Band today at U.S. Government building on Plaza de Panama; German and Austrian exhibit being installed; cadets of San Diego Army and Navy Academy to be on grounds for eight days beginning April 7; will pitch their camp near the quarters of the regular army men.

April 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 16:1. April Fool’s Day parade to have many features; parade to begin at noon; gift hunt in morning at Exposition..

April 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 16:2-3. Elephant in the Robinson animal show is a gunner; fires off Gatling gun to prove it.

April 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 16:3-4. Schools enter many contestants for today’s model aeroplane contest on motor demonstration field; trophy cut offered for the school making the best record in distance, height and duration of flight.

April 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 16:3. 21st Infantry band will play at concert at Exposition today.

April 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 16:3. H. G. Kauffman, zoo keeper, to lecture on wild animals for tots.

April 1, 1916, San Diego Union, Woman’s Section, 7:1-2. Notes among concessionaires: Miss Elizabeth, the charming Lilliputian lady; new show may be attempted in War of the Worlds building; Lee Chong, Chinese dramatic actor, secured for Underground World; exact reproduction of the Panama Canal as it is today; old ’49 Camp of last year rejuvenated by L. M. Quinn; Patio Café, located next to War of the Worlds; Oriental dancers by real artists in their liven given at Sultan’s Harem; beautiful models in living poses of famous subjects in Paris After Midnight; Tokio Café, located midway on the Isthmus, offering copy suey.

April 2, 1916, Los Angeles Times, III, 2:1. Women play a great part in Exposition; official board noted for hospitality and unique social functions, plans for this season complete and many prominent persons are to be entertained; efficiency of systems makes duties easy, by Mary S. Gulliver.

April 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:6, 5:1. Toy aeroplane race at Fair; schoolboys enthusiastic over contest; another scheduled Saturday.

April 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:5. Beautiful mosaic work done with cigar bands on display in Foreign and Domestic Industries Building.

April 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:4. Isthmus parade comes downtown.

April 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:5-6. Miss Mae Murphy, dancers, begins engagement at Cristobal.

April 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 15:1. Tommasino’s Royal Italian band contracts to play at Fair until September.

April 3, 1916, San Diego Sun, 12:4. State tour will leave city April 24 carrying 125 San Diegans, a special band, the Exposition’s Spanish dancers and singers, a quartet, and a baggage car filled with fruits and gifts.

April 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4-5, 5:2-3. Exposition City Special to begin whirlwind tour of state on April 24.

April 4, 1916, San Diego Sun, 6:5. Girls of San Diego will be shown how to use “Court of Leap Year” by Miss MaeMurray, dancer, at two exhibitions tomorrow; Princess Lei Lokelini will show how Hawaiian maidens propose; Harold Lloyd and Beebe Daniels will be on grounds making pictures for Rolin Film Company; Philippine exhibit in Pan-Pacific building to be dedicated Saturday afternoon.

April 4, 1916, San Diego Sun, 12:3. Benefit at Isthmus tonight in Hawaiian Village for widow of Ben Crockett; 35 acts and 2 bands; probably biggest vaudeville program ever given in San Diego.

April 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3-4. New baby arrives at Fair; proud mother guards monkey carefully.

April 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:4. Added exhibits are arriving daily at the Pan-Pacific building; those from Australia and New Zealand are being installed and the first of the Hawaiian schoolhouses is now in position.

April 4, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:1. Councilmen endorse “Exposition Special.”

April 4, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:3. War? Word unknown at Fair. “Allies” to aid German reception.

April 4, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:4. San Diegans prove it easy to direct Tommasino’s Royal Italian band.

April 4, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:5. Big benefit on Isthmus tonight; Indians from Painted Desert to give war dance; proceeds go to Mrs. Crockett.

April 4, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:5. Leap Year court event Wednesday afternoon; Mae Murray and Princess Lei Lokelini to demonstrate; Spanish singers will aid.

April 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:7-8, 3:4. Ready to herald arrival of “Al Bahr” baby camel.

April 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Enthusiasm for Exposition tour of state grows.

April 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2-5. War chasm bridged at the Exposition by “peace party” given at German exhibit.

April 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Coupons will be given with admission tickets at Fair as experiment.

April 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Ice-skating rink to open on Friday night.

April 6, 1916, San Diego Herald, 1:6. Eventful Week at Exposition

Three events of unusual importance took place at the Exposition grounds this week. Monday the stork brought a baby simian to the zoo family, which is highly prized by its mother and fully appreciated by the throng of visitors who paid their respects to the new arrival.

On Tuesday afternoon, Mr. and Mrs. Walter W. Schultz, who are in charge of all the German exhibits, held a “peace party,” in the Foreign Arts building, which was the most brilliant and successful event that has been staged since the Exposition opened. Exposition officials, city and county officials, army and navy officers, professional and business men and a good sprinkling of women made up an interesting crowd.

That is was a success was evidenced by the presence of the representatives of all the other European nations, who fraternized as cordially as if they were one family. The English, French and Russian representatives heartily congratulated the German exhibitor and seemingly forgot the little unpleasantness across the big pond. The only notable absentee was President Davidson, who is absent from the city but is expected back in time for the christening of the newly-arrived baby camel.

On Wednesday the stork visited the zoo at the Exposition grounds and brought Miss Al Bahr, the youngest camel in America, which has been adopted by the Al Bahr Temple and will be christened at the Cristobal Café on Friday, April 7, at 6:30 a.m. The celebration attending that event will be made a royal occasion by the Shriners and their friends.

April 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3. Stork swooped down upon the John Robinson trained animal menagerie yesterday morning, leaving baby “Al Bahr” there.

April 6, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:2-5. Infantry ready to join chase in Mexico; soldiers dig trenches for water pipe at Fair.

April 7, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners: Document No. 98114 being a communication from Mr. J. A. Robinson in regard to the use of Balboa Park for the location of moving picture studios was read and by unanimous vote the Secretary was instructed to advise the Common Council that this Board went on record as being in favor of upholding the integrity of the City Park and opposed to commercializing it, and protested against any action on the part of the Council in favor of the suggestion referred to in the above named document (Commissioners Forward, Ferris and Chandler).

April 7, 1916, San Diego Sun. Shriners to christened baby camel “Al Bahr” tonight; dinner at Cristobal Café; camel will be a speaker’s table; moniker to be attached in such a manner that it cannot be removed; parade to Robinson’s Animal Show after dinner; command performance of Robinson’s animals will be given for benefit of visiting Shriners and their wives; tour of new $20,000 ice rink; dancing at Cristobal Café; sacred concert will be given in Chapel of Saint Francis Sunday afternoon, April 8, by Sunset Male Quartet; high school boys and girls will act as leaders of Tommasino’s Royal Italian band Monday night at 7:30 concert in from of U.S. Fisheries building.

April 7, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:2-5. Shrinedom bows low tonight at throne of baby camel; christening at Exposition.

April 8, 1916, San Diego Sun. Chairman Smith of County Supervisors urged a city/county building in Balboa Park yesterday; “the southern entrance to the park would probably provide a fine site for such a building. Another site would be the ground west of the high school buildings.”

April 8, 1916, San Diego Sun, 11:5. Philippine exhibit is dedicated; Long Beach boosters planning two special days, April 21 and 22.

April 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4, 8:4. Mayor Capps rips $5,000 check Scripps gave; incident follows argument between city officials and members of Flood Relief Committee.

April 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Two baby camels at christening oust pretender; Shriners had substitute, but stork brought rightful heir; crowd on Isthmus.

April 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2-3. Cadets prepare for two weeks’ encampment.

April 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. San Diego expected to attract big percent of tourist travel this year.

April 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Male quarter to sing at Chapel of St. Francis tomorrow.

April 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Experts skate on ice; public next; trouble with generating plant, but expect better results at rink tonight; Stanley Hale, manager..

April 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Los Angeles Chamber lauds Exposition officials.

April 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Philippine exhibit in Pan-Pacific building to be dedicated this afternoon.

April 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Boys busy with air boat models; entry list for aeroplane meet at Exposition today includes 12 fast machines.

April 8, 1914, San Diego Union, 5:4. Proposed additions to the New Mexico exhibit.

April 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:2-5. Army and Navy Academy cadets given instruction at Exposition; “Camp G. A. Davidson” is established; two companies and band added attraction; take mess with Marine Corps.

April 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:1-2. Notes Among Concessionaires: New system to be inaugurated on Isthmus tomorrow night, coupons issued with each ticket; Elizabeth, the living doll, arrested for speeding on Isthmus; Patio Café owned by Imperial Concession company; Alhambra Café moved a little further down next to motor chair concession; Chamber of Art in Paris After Midnight; C. Shellaberger to take charge of store in the Painted Desert; Sultan’s Harem one of the sensational shows on the Zone at San Francisco; dance floor and table d’hote at Casino; Madame Ellis and Captain from San Francisco; Mr. Harrison in the character of Joe, the hophead, in Underground World; concessions in the streets of Grizzly Gulch; Madam Isabell, palmist, opposite the Cawston Ostrich Farm..

April 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:4. Events at Fair today for Sunday patrons.

April 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:4. Music schedule for week at Exposition.

April 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 9:3. Official Philippine exhibit dedicated.

April 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 13:3. Ice rink at Exposition is thronged.

April 9, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 2:5. $15,000 residence present for Mrs. Wegeforth by father; Louis J. Gill, architect.

April 9, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 8:4, 9:1. ON THE MARGIN by Yorick: Palms of San Diego.

April 10, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. Sunday’s attendance record at Fair for 1916 shattered; Saturday’s mark is 7,000.

April 10, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Support the Exposition.

There was a large attendance at the Exposition yesterday, much larger it appeared than is usual on a day when perfect weather invites us to an outing. It was a good-natured gathering, and everybody seemed to have no lack of enjoyment. And there is especial gratification in the fact that the great throng was largely composed of San Diego people, their presence suggesting that to residents of the city the Exposition in its second year has not become an old story, but is as alluring as in the early weeks of 1915. Of course, there were many outsiders in the crowd. There is no lack of visitors in the city, and naturally for all of them the superb display in Balboa Park is a strong attraction. But it is obvious that if the Exposition is to be the success this year that is hoped, reliance must not be placed mainly on the transient population — the people of San Diego must continue their generous support.

It has been generally noted that much of the success achieved by the San Francisco Exposition last year was due to the loyal support given to it by the people of the northern metropolis. While it is true that tens of thousands of men and women journeyed to San Francisco, many of them from the far Atlantic coast, for the sole purpose of beholding the wonders of the great world’s fair, it is also a fact that the volume of the gate receipts was in large measure swelled by the attendance of San Franciscans. San Diego people may well take a lesson from what their brethren of the northern city did last year, and contribute generously toward the success of the Panama-California International Exposition of 1916.

Besides, the Exposition this year is incomparably superior to that of 1915. The new features, some of them of exquisite beauty, are a pleasing revelation to all who see them. Many of them have never been surpassed by any world’s fair displays, no matter how pretentious. The beautiful exhibits that were shown last year are retained, of course, and the Exposition as a whole, with its artistic setting in charming Balboa Park, now leaves nothing to be desired.

It is worth noting, too, that the Isthmus this year presents a more varied program of attractions than its predecessor of 1915. The better features, which have been retained, are now supplemented by new sources of diversion. This is as it should be. An avenue lined with popular attractions, whether it is called a “midway,” or a “zone,” or an “Isthmus,” or what not, is now recognized as an indispensable feature of a modern Exposition. It is a place designed to entertain with harmless fun and manifold features of human interest. It caters alike to amusement seekers and more serious-minded persons. There is something for all. And it is probably not exaggeration to say that the success of an Exposition is usually in proportion to the success of its amusement avenue. The Isthmus of the Panama-California International Exposition is one of its best features.

San Diego’s Exposition will continue for more than eight months. When it shall have closed, one may safely predict it will be missed as an attraction that has served so good a purpose that it cannot be spared without regret. So, looking to the near future, San Diego people will do well to make the most of their beautiful Exposition while they may.

April 10, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:5. Alfred J. Goodrich writes Exposition standards lowered; objects to attempts of amateurs to lead the Italian band.

April 10, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Helen R. Hewitt, Carmel, California, praises rose garden and potpourri.

April 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Many attractions at Fair today (Tuesday); three band concerts; Army and Navy cadets will give first drill on grounds.

April 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Rush for seats at symphony concerts still on.

April 12, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. “Bargain nights” at Exposition prove popular; free vaudeville acts given; ostrich egg one of prizes to be given away this evening.

April 12, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. San Diego Army and Navy Academy Day to be observed.

April 13, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:6. This is San Diego Army and Navy Academy Day; drill in Plaza de Panama; Spanish exhibit will be informally dedicated Saturday afternoon, April 15.

April 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Four band concerts at Exposition today.

April 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. La Belle Seville’s heart weakens as she starts to enter leopard cage at Robinson Animal Show.

April 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Reopening of ice rink on Saturday and Sunday; two crack skaters engaged.

April 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Embryo soldiers to drill at Fair; cadets from San Diego Army and Navy Academy to have a full day at Exposition.

April 14, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:6. San Diegans honor Spain at Exposition; reception in Spanish section of Foreign Arts building in afternoon; La Belle Seville, leader of Spanish dancers and singers, will give a special dance in the cage of the leopards at the Robinson Animal Show at 8:30 this evening; Ford Motor Company will install exhibit on motor demonstration field within the next 30 days.

April 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. San Diego Army and Navy Academy competitive drill on Plaza de Panama yesterday.

April 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Spanish exhibit to be dedicated in Foreign Arts Building tomorrow afternoon; exhibits of fine arts, liberal arts, manufactures and agriculture; fine arts collection of over 60 masterpieces of Spain.

April 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:6. Within 30 days the Ford Motor Company will have five cars and a big exhibit on the motor demonstration field.

April 15, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:4. Spectacular Shakespeare pageant planned at Dream City April 29; occasion of Shakespeare’s tercentenary.

April 15, 1916, San Diego Sun, 11:2-3. Ten coaches to comprise train that leaves San Diego April 24 on grand tour around state.

April 15, 1916, San Diego Sun, 15:2-4. San Diego, in addition to being the home of the Exposition Beautiful, has at the same time one of the most beautiful and attractive parks in the world.

While folks back home are still buttoning up their coat collars and shivering under the blast of a biting north wind, San Diego’s great Balboa Park — 1400 solid acres of it — is blooming in all its verdure and with the glory of its many and vari-colored blossoms.

Probably no one spot in the entire world is so worth seeing 12 months out of the year.

Like a frame in which the Panama-California Exposition is set off to best effect, the public park has fascinated hundreds of winter visitors.

From the aviary at the south end, to the great lawn that stretched for blocks in the center, to the trees brought from all corners of the earth, that spread their branches in the sheltered places, and to the rose garden near the exposition entrance, with its hundreds of blooms, Balboa Park is at the same time the workingman’s playground and the tourist’s paradise.

April 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Dedication of Spanish exhibit draws a big crowd; Commissioner Jose Fernando and Managing Director A. Bruno praise San Diego Exposition.

April 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 9:1-2. Notes among concessionaires: Billy Carmen and 50 chorus girls from San Francisco to put on special numbers at Casino between dances; Hawaiian Grill in Hawaiian Village has opened its doors; questions people as Elizabeth; every line of business that goes to make up a mining camp in Grizzly Gulch; Frank Johnson and family of the Acoma tribe, Henry and his wife, Tula; David and wife of the Hopi tribe, and Henry Starr and family of the Apaches tribe at the Painted Desert; Edward Fesser, proprietor of the Alhambra Cafeteria, wants to spring alligator eggs on the bunch of Odd Fellow coming here soon; Captain Ellis, the equine wonder, and Madame Ellis, the telepathist, drawing crowds; dining room of Tokio Café decorated in cherry blossoms and lanterns; radical changes are to be made in Sultan’s Harem; famous models in Paris After Midnight; ice rink tea room located at southern end of Ice Rink building; new show in the War of the Worlds building on Monday evening; Frederick Harrison in role of Joe, the dope fiend, in Underground World..

April 17, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:8. More than 600 boys and girls of San Diego High School were dismissed because they did not present their vaccination certificates.

April 17, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:6. A children’s day nursery opened today in the garden back of the

April 18, 1916, San Diego Sun, 12:5. California building; charges of 50 cents a day and a minimum of 25 cents; a quarter spent at the admission gates tonight will be good for 25 cents in coupons to be spent anywhere on the grounds.

April 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:6. Palace of Mines robbed; gems are taken; stolen specimens, accumulated by Dr. C. C. Valle in 30 years of collecting; valued commercially at $1,000; cut and uncut specimens of opal matrix, turquoise, hyacinth, jasper, tourmaline, barite, agate and other precious and semi-precious stones chosen to represent San Diego County among similar exhibits from western states..

April 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1. Interest keen in “Thank You Train”; northern cities anxious to show appreciation to San Diegans for making trip.

April 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:2. Among musicians: next appearance of People’s Chorus at Exposition expected to be the latter part of May.

April 17, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 8:5. Nursery to be opened today; consists of tent house surrounded by a wire fence; charge made.

April 17, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 8:5. Model of tungsten plant at Fair, plan for Palace of Mines; will show the resources of Pima County, Arizona.

April 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Noted educators guests at Dream City today; Mrs. Ella Flagg Young will speak; Mrs. Lucy Flower to attend reception; former president of Wellesley expected by Woman’s Board this afternoon.

April 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Rest Haven of rest for kiddies is ready; little Robert Mansfield is first visitor..

April 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Three hundred Angelenos coming April 29.

April 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:7. Programs sent for two New York Symphony concerts; cream of numbers will be given here; rush at Monarch Drug Store for seats.

April 19, 1916, San Diego Sun, 2:5. Palace of Mines to open May 1; jewels to be used to decorate exterior; exhibits to include Borden collection valued at upwards of $50,000.

April 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Board of Park Commissioners opposed to allowing the Door of Hope to use city lands near Ocean Beach on which the institution now stands; says this land is a part of Collier Park.

April 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 16:2. Mrs. Ella Flagg Young of Chicago spoke to noted educators.

April 19, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:2-5. Exhibitors at Fair organize; Foreigners pledge hearty cooperation; representatives of 17 out of 20 nations form association with elongated name; Walter W. Schultz, representing the German section, was chosen president; L. H. Hymans of the Netherlands, secretary, and J. C. Donaldson, of the Pan-Pacific countries, treasurer.

April 19, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:5. California Art exhibit on view in Fine Arts gallery at Exposition; interesting paintings will remain until arrival of Holland exhibit next month.

April 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2-3. Exposition City Special will visit 30 cities; 125 prominent San Diegans on board..

April 21, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:4. Walter Damrosch and New York Symphony give first of two concerts at organ tomorrow at 8 p.m.

April 21, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:4. No standing room at New York symphony concerts, decision.

April 22, 1916, San Diego Sun, 2:3. District Attorney Marsh says “Sultan’s Harem” on Isthmus must close; charges “indecent exposure.”

April 22, 1916, San Diego Sun, 11:1. Long Beach captures Exposition City; almost 500 headed by major and city commissioners are here; Long Beach band played in downtown streets and at fair grounds.

April 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. Long Beachers take city; 50 autos bring 250 persons.

Last night the Long Beach people were guests at a banquet at the Cristobal café. Tommasino’s band played several numbers, Miss Mae Murray gave exhibition dances, the Long Beach band played several selections, President G. A. Davidson delivered an address of welcome, and Mayor Lisenby of Long Beach responded briefly.

April 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Damrosch party will arrive here this afternoon; first concert will be given at Exposition tonight.

April 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Model air ships in decisive meet; boy builders and designers of flying craft confident of winning loving cup; Harley Knox has been declared winner of the cup offered for distance and duration by Ariel Millaise, principal judge of the meet.

April 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Miss Ruth Roland, Easter lily of filmdom, to attend Photoplayers’ ball at the Exposition; special motion picture dance to be attended by 50 leading screen favorites.

April 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. George Gray and his Diving Girls, late of the Zone in San Francisco, are to give diving exhibitions in the locks of the Panama canal in front of the Panama Canal Extravaganza on the Isthmus.

April 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. 1500 delegates to the eighth California State Conference of Social Agencies to visit Exposition, May 6 and 7.

April 23 1916, San Diego Union, 1:5. Suffrage squadron in city, will speak at Exposition this afternoon.

April 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:!. Booster special leaves on state tour tomorrow.

April 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:5-6. “The San Diego Garden Fair” by Eugen Neuhaus, volume on Fair, out. Book concludes: “The atmosphere of sanguine Spanish life will prevail, under the same skies which led Father Serra to feel at home in a new country full of promise and danger alike. The effect of the Exposition, in a country scarcely shaped into a permanent type, cannot but yield the benefit of this revival of an old, impressive civilization. It will be considered a milestone in the civilization of the West.”

April 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. ON THE MARGIN by Yorick: Goodhue’s Dream City of Balboa Park.

The wonderful composite which we praise without knowledge in this architecture of the San Diego Exposition, is the reality of Goodhue — the outward semblance of that which was the man and the artist; the visible expression of a beautiful conception. . . . Somewhere, let it be mentioned in simple phrase plainly writ so that the curious may read, that these clustered sonnets of the builder’s art were from the inspiration of Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, Architect.

April 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:3-4. Night festival on Shakespeare program; pupils to give “Romeo and Juliet” and “Taming of Shrew” at Organ Pavilion.

April 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:1-2. Notes among concessionaires: Patio café, a wonderful “bower of flowers”; Captain and Madame Ellis, their power seems supernatural; George Kuman will do portrait work and cartoons of people in Tokio Café; a cinnamon bear, attracted by the smell of good cooking, has taken up residence in the Alhambra Cafeteria; Princess Lei Lokelani’s hula dancing is such that many visitors return to see her time and time again; Horsemen’s and Jockey’s Ball at Casino tonight; three suspicious characters found hanging around (from?) a cedar tree on the edge of the Grizzly Gulch Camp; several Navajo families arrived at Painted Desert last week; Madame Isabelle knows all about your past, present and future; Elizabeth has shown at all the world’s expositions since 1910.

April 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:5-6 Symphony orchestra greeted by throng of music lovers; anticipations fostered by fame of organization and Walter Damrosch, fully realized in excellence of performance last night, by D. D. Whedon.

April 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 11:2-3 Free-standing room for 10,000 at concert today.

April 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 12:2. Walter Damrosch and New York Symphony Orchestra at Exposition.

April 24, 1916, San Diego Sun, 2:2.

Saturday, April 22, attendance 10,264

Sunday, April 23, attendance 12,948

Large attendance due in great part to New York Symphony concerts; these two days, barring Dedication Day and the Sunday following, are the records for 1916.

April 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:1. Church, like park, is right in John Morley’s line; takes hand in decorating White Temple for Easter.

April 25, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:1. Shakespearean celebration Saturday to be greatest in United States; program of the night’s festivities will be presented by the San Diego School of Expression under the direction of John Lane Connor.

April 25, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:1. Shakespeare pageant is delightful.

April 25, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:4. New York Symphony’s success leads to plans for other big musical events at Fair; concert by Madame Melba and John McCormack being considered; sale of seats for two concerts of New York Symphony had amounted to $3,285; total attendance for the two days was 23,212 with 10,264 on Saturday and 12,948 on Sunday. The cash income for the gate for the two days was $2,800.

April 25, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:6. Mrs. Carrie Jacobs Bond is first to have day at Exposition; program Saturday will include singers own productions.

April 26, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:4. Colonel D. C. Collier, United Republican delegate to national convention, presided at banquet in Los Angeles attended by more than 700 supporters of Theodore Roosevelt.

April 26, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:1. Shakespearean Festival program at Exposition ready; tree planting ceremony in Montezuma gardens will precede pageant; Queen Elizabeth and her court, King James and his court, and William Shakespeare will be impersonated at organ in afternoon; scenes from “As You Like It” and “The Taming of the Shrew”; Carrie Jacobs Bond day tomorrow.

April 26, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:2-4. Photoplayers’ Day, May 6.

April 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3, 3:4. President E. P. Ripley of Santa Fe stirs commotion among Indians on visit to Painted Desert.

Ripley visited the Painted Desert and when the Indians learned that their “Big White Chief” was a visitor, they poured from their dwellings to busy themselves at their various tasks. The Indian boys quickly saddled their burros and held a race through the village. Navajo Sam a three-year old Pueblo land, insisted that Ripley become acquainted with his pet goat. The big railroad man complied with the request gingerly.

April 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:2-3. Setting for night performances at the Organ Pavilion will be true to time of Shakespeare; first evening rehearsal at Pavilion proves satisfactory; 500 children this morning will begin preparing for pageant; verse is written for tree planting.

April 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:3. Cecil Fanning day at Fair is called off..

April 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:2. Carrie Jacobs Bond Day; concert and other events given in honor of composer.

April 27, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:1. A protect on the part of members of the local Socialist party against the refusal of the Panama-California executive board to allow Eugene V. Debs, Socialist orator, to speak at the Exposition during his recent visit here, was made public today.

Secretary Penfold of the exposition said: “The executive board have nothing against Mr. Debs, nor against the Socialist party. They have simply drawn the line against speeches advocating any special propaganda whatever.”

April 27, 1916, San Diego Sun, 6:5. Mrs. Carrie Jacobs Bond, composer, honored at Exposition today, the first person to be honored with a special day during the present year; Olive day, May 16.

April 27, 1916, San Diego Union,, 5:2. Exposition will pay tribute to Mrs. Bond today; special organ recital.

April 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. For the benefit of their employees, San Diego business men may obtain a limited number of Exposition annual tickets and pay for them on the installment plan.

April 27,1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Los Angeles Exchange to hold jinks at Fair; produce dealers’ annual outing to take place on April 29 and 30.

April 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:6. Association of International Representatives to hold meeting in Holland section; pledge aid to the Exposition.

April 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:1-4. Handsomest man in world to be in San Diego for Photographers’ Day at Exposition, May 6.

April 28, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners: Board of Education unwilling to pay an equal amount to clean up and plant the strip between the railroad tracks and the high school grounds.

Superintendent authorized to improve aviary and duck ponds.

April 28, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:1. Record-breaking crowd turned out to honor Mrs. Carrie Jacobs Bond. She sand “What You Can’t Help Forget,” “I Wish I Had a Dog,” “My Pussy Cat,” “I Want To Go Home,” and “Practicing Piano.”

April 28, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2-4. Mrs. Bond given record-breaking reception at Exposition.

April 28, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Mile-race is being staged at Ice Rink tomorrow night.

April 29, 1916, San Diego Sun, 11:3-4. Men of First Regiment, U.S. Cavalry, have experimented with elephants and camels at Robinson’s Animal Show at the Isthmus.

April 29, 1916, San Diego Sun, 11:5. Avon bard is honored by pageant; observance of the tercentenary of this birth; masque presented this afternoon by over 500 school children; tree-planting ceremony; tonight pupils of San Diego School of Expression present “Romeo and Juliet” and “Taming of the Shrew.”

[July, 1967, San Diego Magazine, 54-55. 104-105. A perfect day: In 1916, 500 San Diego children were entangled in a monster Shakespeare Pageant in the park, by Roberta Ridgely.

William Shakespeare’s (1564-1616) tercentenary in 1916, the 300th anniversary of the playwright-poet’s death, was celebrated in various metropolitan centers throughout the United States and Europe but nowhere with more determined enthusiasm than in San Diego, California. San Diego was just emerging from town into city. The previous year, the southland port has joined with even-then-cosmopolitan San Francisco in fostering a Pacific International Exposition in each city. Our Exposition, of course, centered in Balboa Park, where Spanish-Renaissance buildings rose swiftly. It was here that the world for the first time saw San Diego. And San Diegans felt that they, too, were seeing the world.

In 1916, the second year, San Diego’s population numbered about 50,000 as against San Francisco’s half million. Vast naval and military installations were still part of our future, to come with the sudden impetus of our country’s entry into World War I. There was little industry. A few people were predicting that fisheries someday might be important to the Southern California economy. But just as much attention was paid to the vaticination that San Diego would become the flax center of the world. Or the motion picture capital of America. Balboa Park, with its Fair buildings and tropical shrubbery, was impelling many a fly-by-night movie producer to utilize it for location shooting and to announce grandiose plans for a new motion picture company to be established here.

As Chicago had discovered with its Century of Progress in 1893, there was nothing like a Fair to quicken a city’s “I will” spirit. San Diegans, as well as outsiders, formulated ambitious designs for utilizing their Exposition, its grounds and its visitors. In 1915, pupils of John Lane Connor’s San Diego School of Expression (this was the age when every town had its teacher of “elocution”) had commandeered the Park and its lush garden setting for an outdoor performance, the high point of which was the rendering of the balcony scene from Romeo and Juliet. Perhaps it was the favorable reception of this venture which stimulated such high-flown plans for the Spring of 1916. San Diego High School pushed a full-scale production of As You Like It, set for the Park’s Botanical Gardens in May. It was rehearsed with so much gusto that Jo Kilpatrick, the HS athlete recruited by Drama Class to play Charles the Wrestler, had his ankle broken when hero Orlando (Irwin Schlink) threw him against a fountain.

Meanwhile, scheduled for a prior Balboa Park unveiling to catch tourists arriving in late April before the Exposition officially reopened, 500 of the town’s grade-school children were enmeshed in a Shakespeare pageant and masque of unprecedented magnitude. At the same time, in a bristling expression of intercommunity rivalry, La Jolla (often called the Little City of Heart’s Desire) and Coronado each whipped up an early festival of its own. Many of greater San Diego’s most distinguished residential areas were adopting a competitive, more-cultured-than-thou attitude toward one another. Mount Helix took pride as the dwelling place of Carrie Jacobs Bond (“composer of heart songs”) and the great diva, Madame Ernestine Schumann-Heink. On Coronado the mansion called Bello Sguardo was the home of opera singer Chevalier Scovel, who had been married to Peggy Roosevelt, T. R’s cousin, and wore a ring on his thumb. La Jolla got the drop of the opposition by unfolding a Shakespeare Festival at the Woman’s Club on April 26. “Miss Mary A. Richmond scored a triumph as the Bard of Avon himself,” declared a San Diego Union communique. Indeed, theUnion stated, Miss Richmond’s make-up and costuming were so perfect that many club members were quite shaken to find themselves gazing upon Shakespeare’s apparition. Second hit of the matinee was Mrs. August Knudson. Perhaps harboring certain scruples about transvestitism, Mrs. Knudson elected to appear as Lady Macbeth while giving a selection from Hamlet.

Five hundred kiddies in the elementary grades of both public and private schools having been drafted to appear in a monster pageant in which they were required to wear Shakespearean costumes proclaimed to be “locally dyed and largely made by the children themselves,” many homes in the city had already been touched by that ordeal which invariably accompanies the birth of art, and were acutely aware of the up-coming red-letter day of April 29. The heretofore uniformed head of the impending spectacle when the Union broke the story on April 23, it revealed how the children had been working all semester on costumes, posters and maypole and Morris dances, as well as rehearsing a complicated pageant composed by Mrs. Virginia Church, local aesthete and San Diego High instructor. All would be part of a daytime extravaganza at the Spreckels Organ Pavilion. Further, it was announced that the schools had joined with Mr. John Lane Connor. He would direct the afternoon spectacle. Then, as part of the package, his students from the San Diego School of Expression would star in the evening’s offering.

Like many facilities in Balboa Park today, the Organ Pavilion was booked heavily and not often available for rehearsal time. The first attempt to coordinate the performance of half a thousand children took place on one harrowing Sunday morning between eight a.m. and noon, about a week before opening. Director Connor already had his troubles. Because of “family illness,” Romeo had dropped out of the cast and the director had been obliged to assume the role.*

After four hours, with five hundred shuffling, snuffling, squirming, prodding, whispering, tittering youngsters, Connor-Romeo and Chesley Mills, conductor of the 45-piece children’s orchestra from the San Diego Conservatory of Music pronounced themselves “greatly pleased with the ability displayed by the principals in impersonating the characters of the pageant, and by the grace and ease shown by the children in the various figures and poses.” However, Connor reversed himself at the children’s last dress rehearsal when, growing testy under tension, he somewhat snidely remarked to the press that the speaking parts would be heard to better advantage at the evening performance. He may have been piqued because he himself had to donate a tree — a live oak — for the pageant’s important tree-planting ceremony.

Another snag developed after the Union report than Duncan McKinnon, Superintendent of Schools, who had been seriously ill, was pulling himself together to be on hand for Shakespeare’s big day and would read the following especially-written verse in conjunction with the tree-planting ceremony in back of Montezuma’s Garden:

Since Nature’s own memorial we be

Most meet for him who loved her passing well,

We plant today this fair young greenwood tree

To men unborn our Shakespeare’s fame to tell.

And like that fame, may it still grow and grow

A year shall come and years shall go.

Did someone in English Lit snitch to the committee that the last line did not scan? Or was it simply a typo? Be that as it may, the composition summarily was scratched. In its place, Superintendent McKinnon was handed a 23-verse poem entitled “Shakespeare Radivus” and written for the occasion by Fannie Hodges Newman (Mrs. Harry).

According to the Union, out-of-town spectators already had been noting the Park rehearsals and commenting upon the real extraordinary talent of San Diego progeny. The 1915-1916 Exposition welcomed such luminaries as Mme. Nella Melba, Ann Pavlowa, Rabindranath Tagore, Ruth Roland, Douglas Fairbanks, William Randolph Hearst and family, Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn, Geraldine Farrar, J. Warren Kerrigan and Dustin Farnum. However, since this was early in the 1916 tourist season, not many dazzling names yet had arrived in town. But there was on hand al least so august a personage as the venerable General William Gates Le Duc, 92, who had just checked into the New Palace Hotel. A front-page story in the local press lauded him as the Exposition’s oldest tourist, an ex-Indian fighter, and, perhaps no less remarkable, a man who only a few years ago had survived being hit by a Los Angeles streetcar. (He had been unconscious for about seven hours and had awakened to find himself being laid out for burial.)

Distinguished visitors and townsfolk alike filled the Organ Pavilion on April 29 to do tribute to the Bard. The house had many free seats, although the first 23 rows had been rather stiffly priced at twenty-five cents each and the ticket sold at the Thearle Music Company. The day was sunny but a harsh wind ruffled the little ones and their costumes. Nevertheless, the performance went off with a single hitch. So insisted an enthusiastic review splashed all over the Union’s page one. Thing started off with the tree-planting ceremony. The first spadeful was scooped up resolutely by little Betty Church, as she posed for news photographers. Little Betty Church’s mother just happened to be the author of the delightful Shakespeare masque. After the live oak had been planted, bending to the wind, the entire procession of children in “bizarre costumes” wended their way to the Organ Pavilion. In contrast to the brightly arrayed young performers, were the ladies of the committee. It was an era of dark suits for women, long narrow skirts falling to the ankles and high-topped shoes. The committee ladies shouldered and bosomed their way along with the marching children to all attention to an organizing job well done. Once at the Pavilion, William Shakespeare and sever other costumed figures sat with the stage shell and reviewed the procession of Shakespeare’s plays in chronological order. This merits enumeration if only because such an effort today, with its cost in dressmaking hours, damaged manicures and frayed nerves, would precipitate a march on the Education Center.

First, dressed predominantly in red, swarmed children from Grant School (Love’s Labor Lost), Brooklyn School (Comedy of Errors), the Army and Navy Academy (King John), Sherman School (Richard II), Our Lady of Peace (rather inappropriately assigned Two Gentlemen of Verona). The second shock wave was garbed in yellow: Franklin and Lowell Schools (A Midsummer Night’s Dream), the Bishop’s School of La Jolla (Much Ado About Nothing), Washington School (A Merchant of Venice), San Diego School of Expression (Seven Ages of Man — this was an effort of the school’s evening class and included some housewives) and Florence School (As You Like It). Francis W. Parker School performed Morris dances, Part three (?), all in green; YWCA Campfire Girls (All’s Well that Ends Well). Roseville School (Othello), Fremont School (Henry V), Lincoln School (Macbeth), YMCA Boys’ Department (Julius Caesar), and Jefferson School (Twelfth Night). Violet was the color of the fourth and final onslaught by costumed kiddies: Emerson and Stockton School (The Tempest), Normal Training School (King Lear), Garfield School (Winter’s Tale), Logan School (Henry VI), the Bishop’s School of San Diego* (Hamlet) and Ocean Beach School (Cymbeline). Children trained at Golden Hill Playground staged a Maypole dance.

How’s that for openers?

Next on the program came the delightful masque, the original work of Mrs. Virginia Church, president of the local branch of the Drama League of America. Here is the synopsis, in the authoress’ own arch words:

“It is April, birth month of the Bard of Avon. The children from his plays, on learning that the Clowns and Fantasticks are to celebrate the Master’s birthday at fairy headquarters in the Forest of Arden, pursue their schoolmaster Pinch into the woods to demand a holiday. They plot with Puck and Touchstone to drop the juice of a flower, Love In Idleness, on Master Pinch’s eyelids so that awakening he may dote on some woodland creature and leave them to their own devices. The result is unexpected. Pinch, lulled to sleep . . . is aroused, sees the children about him. But instead of giving them a holiday, he falls so in love with them that he resolves to increase their work, giving them lessons everyday in the week, including Sundays and holidays. With this resolve, he rushes off to procure books. In despair, the children call upon the Macbeth witches for a fatal brew . . . ”

Before the little blighters could cash in their Mr. Chips, Shakespeare himself appeared and — well you get the idea.

The evening entertainment was devoted to a cutting from Romeo and Juliet, the Seven Ages of Man tableaux again, this time as an entr’acte; andThe Taming of the Shrew, in a mutilated “tabloid” version handed down by Edwin Booth.

The Union critic found the balcony scene from Romeo and Juliet “especially excellent” and remarked with apparent surprise that despite a twenty-five cent admission charge, the evening show was almost as well-attended as the matinee.

In a fairly blunt statement in an early publicity release, Director Connor had blurted, “On account of lack of stage facilities, both plays will be given in as nearly Elizabethan fashion as possible.” Nevertheless, the production was not without embellishment. “In the ball scene, a pretty gavotte was introduced.” The juvenile orchestra had “made a diligent search for Shakespearean music.” Among other selections they came up with Handel’sLargo and Verdi’s March from Aida. The orchestra was not led by little Master Frederick Oleson, as previously had been announced, but by conductor Chesley Mills himself. However, the orchestra’s 45 members were genuinely juvenile, “some of them scarcely big enough to hold an instrument.”

Thus ran the official account of San Diego’s first Shakespeare festival. To the adult mind, from the civic viewpoint, the day was a cultural triumph. How did it appear to one of the performers – say to little Harry Pflimlin (young Macduff), Lincoln School (Macbeth — green)?

“It is no easy matter to recall in detail the happenings in a day which passed into history more than a half-century ago. Events tend to take on a dream-like quality, there is considerable blurredness. . . . Now, please bear in mind that in writing of that April day, I am seeing it again through the eye of a twelve-year boy. I was not conscious of its significance. I endured it and its trials with the stout heart of one who is confident such things can’t go on forever. . . .

“The members of the cast were recruited (shanghaied?) from the several grade schools of San Diego at that time, and from San Diego High School. I was then in the sixth grade at Lincoln School. (This school was located at 12th and E Streets and later became a warehouse for the school system.) . . .

“The costumes were made by the Domestic Science classes at the High School, by the teachers, and by any other easily-swayed unfortunates who happened to be in the vicinity at the time. . . . I would say that the material used was of a quality that could be worn only one time, and seemed little better than cheesecloth, but Joseph’s coat had nothing on us for variety and brilliance of coloring, and I am sure we were a dazzling sight. . . .

The Lincoln school contingent of players walked up the hill to the High School, which was the assembly point for all the participants. Here adult females laid eager hands upon us and literally sewed us into our costumes. There was much squealing, shouting and confusion. Model T Fords labored up the hill to deposit loads of the stricken from other schools.

“The costuming complete, we were taken to Balboa Park, some by the old streetcar that used to run past the High School, and some by other conveyances. We were deposited at the Organ Pavilion, and formed into a processional at the right. We proceeded slowly across the pavilion stage from right to left, and I believe there was a narrator to identify the characters, who said nothing. Certainly, no one in the role of Macbeth exhorted me to “Lay on!” I did not . . . know that I was Macduff; had I known it at the time, I would surely have sought out the blackguard Macbeth and given him his comeuppance for murdering my family.

“When the processional was over, the players were free to wander about among the spectators. The event had drawn a capacity crowd, and I the warm, soft sunshine of a beautiful San Diego day in April, people were in a gala mood. There were murmurs of delight and good humor everywhere, cameras clicked, and for a time there in Balboa Park all was right with the world. . . .

“When the afternoon began to wear off, the players were gathered together and returned to their respective points of origin. The Lincoln School group were deposited at the High School and left to their own devices. When I tried to remove my costume, I found that the leg parts, which resembled the leggings worn by the doughboys of World War I, were so thoroughly sewn to my pants that they could not be removed. To the jeers of the boys I met on the way, I ran all the way home, stopping now and them to try again to remove those accursed wrappings. When I got home my mother cut me loose, and I was speedily off to the old Rose Park playgrounds at 12th and Island, there to take up for a time the really worthwhile things of life. . . ” .#

April 29, 1916, San Diego Sun, 14:1. Los Angeles produce men arrive by special train today; met by circus parade made up of displays from Isthmus concessions which escorted visitors to Cristobal Café.

April 29, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:6. Series of lectures on forest conservation, fire prevention, development of west at New Mexico building.

April 29, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:2-3. Shakespearean characters to people Exposition today; 500 children to take part in pageant in honor of the great dramatist on his tercentenary.

April 30, 1916, Los Angeles Times, 9:1. Fair boosters dispense joy; San Diegans back from tour of triumph in north; glad welcome everywhere for Exposition party; Los Angeles entertained by band, singers, dancers.

The Spanish dancers and singers, headed by La Bella Sevilla and La Bella Toledo, and under the management of Eduardo Cota, made a big hit at the Alexandria.

April 30, 1916, Los Angeles Times, 9:6. Sultan’s Beauties Cause of Dispute.

San Diego, April 29 — Although the Sultan’s Harem on the Isthmus at the exposition has been ordered closed by the District Attorney, the Sultan’s beauties continue to draw the crowds. Today the hearing of an application before Judge Andrews by District Attorney Marsh for an injunction to stop the show was postponed one week at the request of the proprietor, Joseph Weiss.

Throughout the week the show has been off and on. First the Mayor has the show stopped; then, after viewing a special performance given for him and the exposition officials, he decided the show was all right, as the proprietors had promised to “be good” and he ordered it opened.

Later, at the request of the District Attorney, Assistant Chief Wright closed the place, but it was immediately opened by other officers under orders of Chief Wilson and the Mayor. “The concession is to be closed,” says the District Attorney, but Mayor E. M. Capps holds that the District Attorney has no jurisdiction over the Isthmus, which is in the city.

April 30, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3-4, 4:2-4. Brilliant spectacle for memory of Shakespeare; performers in pageant and masque depict days of three centuries ago.

April 30, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:3. H. J. Penfold, secretary, answers District Attorney’s criticism of Fair.

April 30, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:4. Three hundred produce man invade Exposition; Los Angelans met by reception committee and Tommasino’s Italian Band.

April 30, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:4. Reverend F. M. Preble of Auburn, Maine charmed with Exposition, City and its attractions.

April 30, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:4. Police hunt for gem lost in Cristobal Café.

April 30, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:5. “Thank You” train homeward bound; tour is a success.

April 30, 1916, San Diego Union, 9:1-2. Notes among concessionaires: Princess Lei Lokelani to offer a new dance at Hawaiian Village starting today; four parasol stands at Tokio Café; Silver Bell Concert Hall at Grizzly Gulch honored baseball teams of the First Battalion, 21st Infantry Wednesday night; Captain and Madame Ellis, one of the best things on the Isthmus; Manager Barrett put the horses and ponies through their paces at Robinson’s Animal Show during trainer Captain Harrison’s absence; steaks and pork chops at Patio Café; Sinking of Titanic will open Thursday, May 4, in War of the Worlds building; Elizabeth is a Lilliputian, not a dwarf; Theatrical Masquerade Banquet and Ball at Casino, May 3; opening cut out for a front entrance to Alhambra Cafeteria so passers by can view the interior; Painted Desert, an interesting and educational exhibit.

April 30, 1916, San Diego Union, 9:2. Invalids’ morning program arranged; popularity of weekly event at Exposition shown by large number attending.

April 30, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:3-4. Mrs. H. H. A. Beach, woman composer, to be honored by Exposition.

May, 1916, The California Garden, 8-9. Monthly Excursion Through Exposition Grounds, by G. R. Gorton

May is one of the perfumed months where flowers grow. Especially is this true on the Exposition grounds where the honeysuckle, Spanish broom, roses and other odoriferous flowers hold sway. South of the Organ Pavilion, a spot which hitherto has been innocent of verdure — either wild or cultivated — has been grades, walks have been laid out, and planting is in process. Many old favorites will be seen among the bedding plants, such as would be found in and old-fashioned “scented garden,” like Lavender, Stocks, etc. The multi-colored Zennias, the cheerful Marigolds — this, you know, is the “Marygold” of Shakespeare’s time, the bright Gazanias, the humble Geranium, the ever-present Marguerite — a goodly assemblage suggesting the days of Paisley shawls, hand-wrought hosiery, cameo brooches, tintypes, etc. However, the plants are small just yet and if one wished to revive such memories, he had better wait until the garden had had time for further development.

The opposite condition prevails in the Gardens of Montezuma as practically everything there is in flower.

As mentioned last month, the gardens have been completely remodeled, having this time been given the formal treatment which the shape of the beds indicates. Just now — Decoration Day — lilies form the dominant note in all the beds. The same design obtains in all corner beds, viz. that next inside by formally pruned border of Veronica elleptica, which surrounds all the beds. The edging consists of dwarf blue Ageratum, Floss Flower, flanked by Vernon begonias, petunias — the type known as Ruffled Giants, Salvias.

The four side beds (two on each side) are edged with the new Lilas Alyssum, surrounding Phlox and Penstemons.

The larger center bed contains the tall Jerusalem cherry interspersed with Pelargoniums and Anchusa italica, a blue-flowered plant with somewhat mullion-like leaves, and is bordered with Amberboa, whose pale lilac flowers suggest the common corn flower (Dentaurea cycanea), together with Vernon Begonia and Scarlet Verbenas.

Gladiolus in several varieties is to be found in each of the beds. Skirting the outer edges of the gardens, across the walks from the formal beds, the planting is variously composed of Hibiscus, Heliotrope, Marguerites, an occasional specimen of Lion’s Tail (Leonotis leonurus), the inevitable Geranium, etc., while on the shady side there is a considerable showing of Fuchsia recartoni.

The usual seasonal changes are taking place inside the Botanical Building. the Cinerarias, Azaleas, Rhododendrons, etc. are on the wave and the tuberous Begonia, Gloxinias, Streptocarpus, etc. are commencing to put in an appearance. The “Orchid” vine (Stigmaphyllen ciliatum), close under the roof of the conservatory, has covered itself with canary-yellow flowers. Here and there potted plants of Saintpaulea ionantha — the so-called South African violet — are beginning to put forth their violet-like flowers. The plant, however, bears no relation to the true violet, but is a “cousin” of the Gloxina, ord. Gesneracae.

Hydrangeas will soon play a prominent part in the color scheme of the lath section, several groups being already in place and in bud. In the northeast corner of the west wing there is a considerable showing of Achyranthes brilliantissima, very popular in many parts of the world as a foliage plant for bedding. Its brilliant red foliage with veination of a lighter shade renders it a very useful and attractive subject for this purpose.

Dracaena braziliensis, at the entrance to the east wing, is in flower. There are two varieties of this species, both bearing lavender shades of flowers. In front of the building the mosses of Sallya heterophylla — the graceful Australian Blue Bell creeper — is plentifully sprinkled with tiny flowers.

May 1, 1916, Los Angeles Times, II, 2:5. Alaskan guide shames nation; installs territorial exhibit at own expense; typical Alaskan display at the San Diego Exposition came into existence after government had refused appropriation; founder was pioneer of the Yukon.

There are not many citizens of any State or nation as patriotic as Capt. L. L. Bales, guide, big game hunter, and a 27-year resident of Alaska, who is in charge of the Alaskan exhibit at the San Diego Exposition.

To say that Capt. Bales is in charge of the Alaskan exhibit is not fair to him, as he is in reality the “founder” of the display. When he learned that the United States government had made no plans for an Alaskan exhibit at either exposition, he took it upon himself to get the indorsement of Gov. J. F. A. Strong, and started out to see that the territory that meant home to him should be known to the exposition visitors.

Wholly at his own expense and without the aid on one dollar from the territory of Alaska, United States government of private individuals he has collected a typical Alaskan display, taken it to San Diego, and had it installed in the Pan-Pacific building.

In addition to a few exhibits loaned by the government, he has brought his own collection of fur skins, ivory carvings and pictures of Alaska. A pretty Eskimo maiden, No Lu La Ka Masak, born at Mary’s Eagle, Alaska, 125 miles northeast of Nome, and educated in the government schools, gives demonstrations of wonderful needlework. Capt. Bales had a shipment of imitation “Totem Pole,” which he refused to place on display, claiming that he would not “disgrace Alaska.”

Samples of grass basket weaving by the natives of the Aleutian Islands is another feature of the northern exhibit, and Bales insists that this art is fast being lost despite the encouragement given it by the government. When Capt. Bales presented his letter of indorsement to the head of the government exhibit at San Francisco, he was told there was no room, but after talking on Alaska for three days, other exhibits were discarded and the Alaska exhibit used.

May 1, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:5. Mrs. H. H. A. Beach, composer, to be honored at Fair tomorrow.

May 1, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:8. “Thank You” special to reap good; booster trip through state put Exposition City on map.

May 1, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:8. Saturday attendance 11,010; Shakespearean pageant presented in afternoon; Sunday attendance 5,680.

May 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4-5, 2:6. “Thank You” special returns; lessons learned in boosting.

May 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:7. This is Invalid Morning at Fair; automobiles will be allowed to enter grounds after paying fee.

May 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Mrs. H. H. A. Beach, composer, to be honored at Fair today.

May 2, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 11:3. D. C. Collier boosted Theodore Roosevelt last night for three-quarters of an hour at a sparse gathering in a theater of small dimensions.

May 3, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:1. Mrs. H. H. A. Beach was guest of honor yesterday; reception on steps of California building at 2:30 p.m.; recital at Organ Pavilion at 3 p.m.; Mrs. Beach played two of her piano compositions, “Scottish Legend” and “Fantastique.” “Fairy Lullaby,” “Song of Love,” “Romance,” “Suena Van,” and “The Year of the Spring” were sung; guest at military review at 3:45 p.m.; second program in Woman’ Pavilion in California building followed by tea.

May 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Woman composer honored at Fair; admiring throng gives tribute to Mrs. Beach.

May 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:6. Painted Desert Indians to have part in motion picture acts this morning; football scenes for drama to be taken at stadium; Indian drama being made by Lubin Manufacturing Company.

May 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:2. Director-general of Film day at Fair busy staging big event; motion picture stares Blanche Sweat, Dorothy Gish, and Kathleen Williams to be present.

Los Angeles Times, May 4, 1916, II, 6:4. Movie players to have day at Fair; will show crowd how film drama is made; special train to carry members of 26 companies of Southland to San Diego for weekend of entertainment and outing.; Mrs. Ruth Rowland, the Balboa star, is to sing from the rotunda of the organ. Miss Myrtle Stedman of the Morosco studio is to give several popular songs.

May 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3. Attendance for 1916 passed 400,000 mark; April admissions were 9,564 more than the same month in 1915..

May 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:4. Varied attractions on program at Fair today.

May 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Model school from Hawaii displayed at Exposition.

May 4, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 13:3. Senta, the dancer who is appearing at Cristobal Café, enters leopard’s cage.

May 5, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

Board requested to set aside 50 foot strip of land on the eastern boundary of Balboa Park between Thorn and Upas for the purpose of widening 28th street, making it conform with same street between Palm and Redwood streets; granted.

Superintendent John Morley advised that grade for 28th street between Thorn and Upas, established by Board, should not be changed.

Board of Playground Commissioners requested use of lawns at 6th and Juniper in Balboa Park for May 30th “Decoration Day” festival; granted.

May 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Music teachers to be honored at Exposition; one of the greatest programs ever given here is being arranged for July 6.

May 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Miss Mildred Leo Clemens, cousin of Mark Twain, lectured at Exposition.

May 6, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:1. Photoplayers’ Ball at Cristobal Café tonight; special train from Los Angeles bearing players of film world to arrive at 6:30 p.m.

May 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Photoplayers to throng Cristobal at ball tonight.

May 7, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2-3. ON THE MARGIN by Yorick: The dire consequence of a misplaced tribute.

Joe Sefton writes letter objecting to Yorick’s giving Goodhue credit for Exposition:.

To begin with, Mr. Goodhue did not conceive the general architectural style of the Exposition. The Spanish Colonial was selected by the Board almost as soon as the Exposition itself was conceived, and Mr. Goodhue was employed merely because we were told that he was the best authority on this particular style. In other words, the architectural style was first conceived and then Mr. Goodhue was employed to carry it out. If the idea was good, the credit belongs to Charlie Collier. And now as to the carrying out of the idea itself. Mr. Goodhue designed the California State Building and the Archaeological Building, the two permanent buildings at the east end of the bridge. * * * (The other buildings) were conceived, designed and built by Mr. F. P. Allen, Jr., who undertook this work at the suggestion of the Board of Directors after Mr. Goodhue had failed to submit tentative sketches in time to complete the buildings for the opening. Mr. Allen undertook and carried this work to a successful conclusion without any increase in compensation. Furthermore, Mr. Olmsted, who was originally the landscape architect, and Mr. Goodhue both favored sticking the Exposition into the canyon back of the High school. It was only through the untiring efforts of Mr. Allen that it was finally located on the plateau where it now stands.

Eugen Neuhaus, is assistant professor of decorative design at the University of California. He has written a book on the architecture of the Panama-California Exposition. . . . In this book (which is an authority until something better is offered) Mr. Neuhaus devotes more space and larger praise to the California Quadrangle than to all the other architectural features combined and on page 48 I find this explanatory and critical paragraph:

It will be observed immediately on leaving the California Quadrangle that a somewhat different spirit pervades now in the architecture. One’s attention is first drawn to the differences in texture and color of the buildings outside the California Quadrangle. The cement finish in the permanent group has a darker tone, while a certain smooth and light plaster of paris quality seems to be the controlling note of the temporary buildings. But it is not this alone. The architecture, while it has the same constructive dignity as the California Cathedral, has not the refined reserve that one so greatly admires in that building. This is particularly true of the ornamental detail. It will readily be seen that a decorative style of architectural ornamentation, such as the Baroque, can very easily become over-elaborate and loose, forgetting its true function of supporting the constructive forms of the buildings. While Mr. Goodhue was the guiding mind of the (whole?) ensemble, it becomes very evident that other workers interpreted his ideas, and not always in the spirit of the reserve style of the master. There is a great deal of variance in feeling and scale in the many buildings. They are not all equally successful.

Wherefore I am much puzzled; for if, as Friend Sefton says, Mr. Goodhue is not responsible for anything except the Quadrangle and the Archaeological building, he cannot be blamed for anything wrong with the “interpretation” of the other buildings. But if, as herein stated, he was “the guiding mind,” there can be no excuse for him. In the matter of “conception,” too, perhaps I used the wrong term: I said that Goodhue “conceived” the architecture of the Exposition; maybe I should have credited him with the “composition.” Anyway, whatever it is, Friend Sefton says it was badly “interpreted.” I am glad I didn’t mix in with the Olmsted row; for I would have been almost certain to have argued in favor of “sticking” some of the Exposition at least “into the canyon back of the High school.” — I am that contrary; but I am glad for Mr. Goodhue’s sake that it wasn’t buried in that sunken garden; for if it had been so hidden, his chef d’oeuvre, the California Building, the masterpiece of the Exposition, would have been completely lost to view, however dear to the memory of those who took the trouble to climb down to it.

May 7, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:4-5. Moviedom stage big dance at the Exposition.

May 7, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:5. Italian display in Foreign Arts building is dedicated.

May 7, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 8:3-4. Screen stars to enact scenes at Fair today; Exposition crowds will appear in motion pictures to be filmed this morning; lectures by George Wharton James and Waldo C. Twitchell on attractions of California and New Mexico will be given during day.

May 7, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 8:3. Dr. George Wharton James to be guest on “clover leaf trip; lecturer at the San Joaquin building will take first outing since coming here for engagement at Exposition.

May 7, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 8:4. Automobile and Invalid morning at Exposition today.

May 7, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 8:4. Reception and tea at Woman’s Board Headquarters Tuesday afternoon in honor of the foreign commissioners now at the Exposition.

May 7, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 8:4. Women of the Social Service Delegation were guests at a reception and tea at the Woman’s Board Headquarters yesterday afternoon.

May 7, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 8:5. Italian display in Foreign Arts building dedicated.

The Italian section is considered one of the most impressive on the grounds for its display of marble statuary, ceramics, paintings and laces.

May 7, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 7:4-5. Notes among concessionaires: new cowgirls at Grizzly Gulch; Alhambra Cafeteria this year is in the former location of the aquarium last year; theatrical ball at the Casino Wednesday night was a success; “The Dance of the Red Poppy,” part of hophead’s dream in Underground World; inaugural performance of the Sinking of the Titanic at War of the World’s building Thursday; parasols for sale at east gate by S. Sekiguchi.

May 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4. Pied Piper of Hamelin coming to Fair May 27.

May 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:6. Film folk pass day at Exposition.

May 9, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:5. Arrangements are being completed whereby Colonel D. C. Collier is to become a member of the legal firm of Henning and McGee, occupying a suite of offices on the seventh floor of the Timken building.

May 9, 1916, San Diego Sun 5:5. Miss Kate Sessions spoke for an hour and three-fourths last evening at the parlors of the First Congregational Church on the chaparral and wild flowers of San Diego County. She took occasion to say that she thought a strip of 100 feet in width on each side of the road through the “municipal farm” of several thousand acres between La Jolla and Torrey Pines, devoted to the natural growth of shrubs and flowers, would form a parking which would be a vast improvement over the present conditions. The few exotic trees which struggle here and there at present are, she declared, a disgrace to the roadside.

The speaker dwelt upon the tendency of real estate promoters to grub off all the native shrubbery from subdivisions, for instance, the large and handsome Rhus integrifolia [Lemonade Berry}, with its dark green leaves and spreading branches. A very fine specimen of this plant may be seen at the 25th Street entrance of Balboa Park.

May 9, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:1. Our harem is getting San Diego famous: Its troubles go up to Appellate Court in Los Angeles. “A superior court injunction is the only way to close the show,” ruled Judge Andrews yesterday.

May 9, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3-7, 2:3. Army of Rebekahs and Odd Fellows storms city; 401 California lodges represented at convention; hotels thronged.

May 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 12:2. Hawaiian Village

The Hawaiian Village as usual is presenting an excellent program, and the sweet singers and players from the islands are giving a program that cannot be excelled anywhere. The beautiful scene effects of the village, constructed by Kenneth Croft, are always interesting, particularly that portion representing the beach at Waikiki.

The charming Princess Lei Lokelani is winning favor with her wonderful conception of the famous hula, and, together with her co-workers, presents a most interesting entertainment. The fact that the hula dance is given in the hula house adds much to the charm of the performance. Eddie Shaw, with his Hawaiian steel guitar, continues to please and it adding new numbers to his repertoire.

The grill is serving excellent meals and it is now the proper idea to dine at the village and enjoy the excellent program offered by the troupe of native entertainers. Visitors can dine at the grill without entering the village if they so desire as an entrance has been arranged from the Isthmus proper.

May 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 12:3. Baby animals delight children at Exposition; two coyotes are latest arrivals at the Isthmus zoo.

Baby animals are arriving at the Exposition in such numbers that President G. A. Davidson is considering a proposal to hold a baby day on the Exposition grounds with the Exposition babies as the entertainers. The muster of babies that could be called upon to entertain visitors include baby coyotes, bears, burros, goats, a sacred ox, camel and monkeys.

The latest arrivals are the two coyotes at the Exposition zoo, at the north end of the Isthmus, and the birth of these little animals Saturday has brought out a peculiar situation in the coyote family. Following the arrival of the coyotes, the mother refused to own them and a new task has developed for the zoo superintendent F. J. Kaufman. The first hours Kaufman used a bottle in feeding the coyotes, but they are now willing to take their nourishment from a plain saucer filled with milk,

In the Canadian building, the four tiny black bears are considered “the cutest things on the grounds,” and the big cage alongside the beavers is surrounded from morning until night by visitors. The bears were captured a few weeks ago in the northern part of Canada. Although not yet acclimated, they are beginning to cut antics about the cage, and never fail to respond to the lure of honey.

On the days that the Exposition’s babies appear as the principal attraction on baby day, it is possible that names will be asked for the various animals not yet given fitting cognomens, and among these yet to be christened are two burros, four bears, two coyotes, and the sacred ox. Although the christening ceremonies will not be as elaborate as those for the baby camel, Al Bahr, which was named by the local Shriners, the events will be made important.

May 10, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:1. Companies A, B and D and band of 21st Infantry leave Exposition today to join bandit hunt.

May 10, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:5. Friday evening has been named Tommasino night in honor of band leader whose compositions will make up entire program; presentation by San Diego Choral Society at Organ Sunday afternoon.

May 10, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:2-3. Who will be Pied Piper at Exposition?

May 10, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1. Pupils rehearse “As You Like It”; will be given on evening of May 17.

May 10, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:4. Italian band to play in exhibit buildings.

May 10, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:1. Odd Fellow and Rebekahs to plunge into work of convention today; confer degree of Grand Lodge on 284 candidates.

May 10, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:3. History room of the Pioneer Historical Society in basement of Fine Arts building will be closed this afternoon.

May 10, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:5. May music festival to end next Sunday.

May 10, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:5. Julius Wangenheim and William Templeton Johnson give visions of a City Beautiful yesterday at weekly luncheon of the civil bureau of the Chamber of Commerce.

May 10, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:5. Portrait of W. A. Clark in Montana building done in minerals of Montana.

May 11, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:5. John Ezra of Jerusalem Isthmus concession booked at jail yesterday for fighting with Isaac Yuker, who has a concession in the Foreign Arts building; Judge Puterbaugh fined both fighters $15.00; Yuker was trying to sell two ladies some rugs when Ezra interrupted him; Ezra tried to get the ladies to come to his place to buy.

May 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3-4, 2:3. Two hundred and forty-five officers and men of the First Battalion of the 21st Infantry hurry from Fair to border; soldiers eager to hunt for Mexican bandits.

May 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:2. Animal school to be conducted at Exposition; visitors will see how beasts are trained.

May 11, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:1. Odd Fellows to control Isthmus tonight.

May 12, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:2-3. Sun route carriers, 70 strong, will be entertained at a banquet at the Cristobal tonight; Mr. Gillespie of the Green Auto Line has donated two green buses to convey the boys to the Exposition; after a big feed, the boys are to be the guests of the concessionaires on the Isthmus.

May 12, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:1. San Diego Choral Society at Organ Sunday afternoon, the final event of the San Diego May Music Festival; Exposition visitors will act as judges Saturday evening at a special dancing competition to be given by four colored couples on the Isthmus stage at 8:15 p.m.; Fraternal Brotherhood will camp at Exposition August 14 to 19, occupying camp site prepared by 21st Infantry, visiting drill teams will give daily parades and drills; Pied Piper will appear at Laurel street gate at 11 a.m. Saturday, May 27, and will lead a throng of children through the gates of the Dream City; Alameda County day, June 10, cherries to be given away.

May 12, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:1. Pied Piper’s identity well-guarded secret; crippled little folks to be carried across bridge in his wake on motor cars.

May 12, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:3-7. Rebekahs, Odd Fellows take possession of Joy Street.

May 12, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:3. Dr. Wharton James enthusiastic over “Clover Leaf” tour to Point Loma.

May 12, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:5. Foresters’ day, July 1, to be big event.

May 13, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:6. $100,000 Netherlands’ art collection to open in Fine Arts Gallery Monday morning; system of artificial lighting is being installed; upstairs and downstairs to be used.

May 13, 1916, San Diego Sun, 6:3. Motor demonstration will begin Saturday, May 20; 45 makes of automobiles represented.

May 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 16:2. Olive day to be observed May 26.

May 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 16:3. Schoolchildren visit zoo inmates at Exposition.

As usual, the first stop of any considerable length was made with the pigeons, where the children insisted on feeding them for a full half hour. The four tiny bears in the Canadian exhibit, the pet burros in the Painted Desert, the baby monkey, the coyotes, the sacred ox, and the camel at the Exposition zoo came in for a long visit later in the afternoon.

May 13, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:2-4. Odd Fellows-Rebekah Convention ends; officers installed; day at Exposition and Hotel Coronado banquet last night conclude festivities; Visitors express thanks to hosts.

May 13, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:3. Imperial Valley day is set for June 10.

May 13, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:4. Rehearsals for “As You Like It” please directors; elaborate lighting effects to transform setting into moonlit forest of Arden.

May 13, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:4. Superior Court Judge C. N. Andrews yesterday continued The Sultan Harem’s suit to May 26.

May 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:2-5. Thousands of pupils in music pageant; annual May festival at stadium crowned with success.

May 15, 1916, San Diego Sun, 8:1. “As You Like It” to be presented by San Diego High School and Junior College on Botanical Gardens, Wednesday evening at 8; exposition electrician C. S. Harper has provided a number of electrical effects which will flood the court in “moonlight” splendor.

May 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:6. 8,000 autos to be at the Exposition; 45 makes of cars granted space on motor demonstration field for May 20.

May 15, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:3. Cristobal Café changes management.

May 15, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 16:3-4. $100,000 Netherlands art collection in Fine Arts Gallery at Exposition will be opened to public view this week; 251 paintings in the lot; position of honor to be given work of Anton Mauve, recognized as one of best; artificial lighting has been installed and all openings closed; plush settees will be placed in each room; the honor paintings by Mauve are “Returning Home,” “Sheep Shearing,” “A Warm Day,” and “Sunset in Winter”; other painters are N V. D. Waay, Jacob Dooyewaard, J. van Essen, M. A. J. Bauer, C. F. Balive, Jan Jans, Herman Hayenbrock, and Miss Robert Janseen.

May 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4, 9:1. Ripe olive to reign today; big celebration at Exposition.

May 17, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:2. Citizens vote down road, bridge and hospital bonds.

May 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:7-8. County bonds for roads and hospital beaten by wide margin in yesterday’s election.

May 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:4. Merchants urged to patronize Exposition; Secretary Penfold speaks at Commerce Chamber luncheon; Olive Day observed.

May 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. College Women’s Club day observed.

May 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Alfred Hartz, former Metropolitan orchestra leader, and Mrs. Hartz honored by tea at Woman’s Board Headquarters.

May 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:6. Exposition pays tribute to olive; program offered; many visitors join in exercises in patio of the Southern California Counties building in honor of California product..

May 17, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 14:2. “As You Like It’ to be given tonight at the Exposition.

May 18, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:1. “As You Like It”: The artistic entrance of the Varied Industries building, located on the east side of the lagoon, with its classical columns, its velvety lawns and its pretty fountain, formed an effective setting for the scene at Duke Frederick’s court, while the Forest of Arden was represented among the trees and shrubbery to the right of the entrance.

May 18, 1916, San Diego Sun, 6:1 Swedish day, June 25; 4,000 to 5,000 visitors expected.

May 18, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:1-2. Eagles of state to be next at Exposition; 5,000 to 6,000 coming; convention will bring visitors from all over California next week; program arranged by local lodgemen.

May 18, 1916, San Diego Sun, 8:1-2. Motor car will be king at Exposition on Saturday; big parade and all kinds of contests on program; races, tire changing, gasoline, hill-climbing contests; maneuvers by California Automobile Reserve Corps and drills by Los Angeles Military Academy cadets; automobile carnival in evening on Isthmus; cash prizes for best costume representing a make of automobile, an automobile accessory, and for small noise-maker capable of creating the greatest amount of noise.

May 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2 Motor demonstration field to be opened Saturday.

May 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1. Young actors and Arden forest delight throngs.

The production, which was under the direction of W. Luzerne Grandall and Clarence W. Bowers of the High school was a highly praiseworthy one.

May 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:2. Want to act? Exposition will give you a chance. First amateur night scheduled for Monday; theatrical firms looking for “find.”

May 19, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:3. Automobile night on Isthmus expected to bring forth mass of striking effects.

May 19, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 10:6. Germans will throng Exposition June 25; Teutonic gymnasts and singers to compete for prizes.

May 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:2-3. Mrs. Susan Egan, centenarian celebrates birthday at Fair; tours Exposition in auto; is delighted by pigeons in Plaza who feed from her hand.

May 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:2-3. Modern Dutch school of art represented at Fair.

May 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:2. King Automobile reigns at Fair today; thousand cars expected in line; carnival tonight on Isthmus planned.

May 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Piper’s identity still a mystery.

May 21, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:5. Throngs attend auto demonstration.

May 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4. Piper sends his photograph; identity of flute player still a mystery.

May 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Value of automobiles in warfare shown in maneuvers yesterday at Exposition.

May 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:7. Big attendance at Exposition; special Sunday night dinner at Cristobal proves popular with patrons; official count for Saturday, 6,281.

May 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 12:3. “Thessalian Fantasy” to be presented at Organ Pavilion, June 16 and 17.

May 23, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:2. Commercial Vehicle Transportation day is planned for Saturday, July 15, in honor of 30 or more contestants who are expected to participate in the truck run from Los Angeles to the Exposition on that day.

May 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4. Eagle convention opens today.

May 23, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:1. United States Fisheries building formally opened; exhibits said to compare favorably with those at San Francisco last year

The exhibit of fish . . . includes rare fresh water fish from every port of the country, in addition to the rarest salt water fish which are indigenous to Pacific coastal waters of the United States.

May 23, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:2. Deep mystery still enshrouds identity of the Pied Piper.

May 24, 1916, Los Angeles Times, II, 4:2. EDITORIAL: San Diego and Tia Juana.

The Times notes that the people of San Diego are righteously and riotously indignant with the Earl newspapers because of their virulent attacks on San Diego with irrelevant regard to the race tract, the gambling and the vices at Tia Juana.

May 24, 1916, San Diego Sun, 6:1. Exposition ready for big events; United States day, Friday, May 26; Pied Piper day, Saturday, May 27; Imperial day, June 10.

May 24, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:2. May Festival will be held at 6th and Juniper in park; Playground Department in charge of event; Decoration day, Tuesday, at 2 p.m.; architect Winslow is designing throne for Miss. Kathleen McDonald, the May queen; Children’s Orchestra of San Diego Conservatory of Music will give a half-hour concert before the program.

May 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Government Day at Exposition Friday.

May 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5-6. Features planned for Pied Piper day at Exposition.

May 25, 1916, San Diego Sun, 6:1. Admiral Cameron McRae Winslow, commander of the Pacific fleet, will make plea for preparedness tomorrow at Fisheries building during United States day exercises; new aquarium to be dedicated.

May 25, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:2-3. Mayor Capps deems imitations of Charlie Chaplin to be detrimental to dignity of city.

“Imitations of Chaplin, like Chaplin himself, should be confined to the movie screen.”

May 25, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Dancing children will welcome the Pied Piper; thousands of kiddies will follow musician into Exposition grounds.

May 25, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1. Ad Club promised big day at Exposition, June 10.

May 25, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:1. Parade tonight crowning Eagles’ visit; drill feature.

May 25, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:3. Tommasino’s band to play at Cristobal Sunday evening.

May 26, 1916, San Diego Sun, 12:1. Eagles coursed through streets last night, ending at Exposition; drum corps competed for honors in Plaza de Panama; Isthmus celebration.

May 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4. Madame Rappold (?), American soprano, given reception at Woman’s Board Headquarters.

May 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:4-5. 48th anniversary Balboa Park founding is today.

May 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Tomorrow Pied Piper appears at Exposition; thousands of children will be gratified by sight of this strange character.

May 27, 1916, San Diego Sun, 2:4. Bicycle races to be held on Alameda-Isthmus race course on afternoon of Memorial Day.

May 27, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:5. Pied Piper leads tots to Fair; Pied Piper asked for payment of mayor, was refused, and then led children through the Exposition gates and up to the aviation field; an afternoon of pleasure had been prepared with peanut races, pie-eating contests, three-legged races, and other contests.

May 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4. Crowd applauds Admiral Cameron McRae Winslow’s plea for preparedness at dedication of United States Fisheries building.

May 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:5. San Diego marine base practically assured by House; $250,000 voted for site near Dutch Flats.

May 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Pied Piper to emerge today from Cabrillo canyon; eleven o’clock will be fateful hour when piper will lure children across bridge

May 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Bike riders anxious to enter Fair races Tuesday afternoon.

May 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Many entries received for bicycle contests at Exposition on Memorial Day, Tuesday.

May 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Fair to entertain credit men today; Los Angeles visitors to have big dinner at Cristobal this evening.

May 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Thousands visit art collection in Fine Arts Gallery at Exposition.

May 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Ad Club is out for record at Exposition, June 10; committee proposes to give all other occasions stiff race for place.

May 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Favorable comment heard on banquet given by Rotary Club Thursday night at Cristobal.

May 28, 1916, Los Angeles Times, 11:2-3. Pied Piper of Hamelin Town Delights Kiddies.

San Diego, May 27 — Like the children of Hamelin town of long ago, the children of San Diego, thousands and thousands of them, were lured by the music of the Pied Piper across the long Cabrillo bridge into the exposition today.

The beautiful story of the Pied Piper of Hamelin was enacted today at the exposition by the schoolchildren and the Pied Piper, impersonated by Attorney Hubert Collins, while thousands of persons witnessed or entered into the play.

The only difference in the story of the children of Hamelin town and that of the children of San Diego was that instead of forever disappearing, the San Diego youngsters returned to their homes tonight tired, but happy and filled with wonder at the things that the Pied Piper had shown them.

The day opened with the merry-making of the Mayor of Hamelin and his council on the lawn in front of the west gate of the exposition over the riddance of the town from rats. As children were dancing folk dances and their elders joined in, the entertainment was suddenly stopped by the Pied Piper who demanded his money from the Mayor for leading the rats into the river. Charles Jackson as Mayor and other leading citizens as the Council and the piper engaged in some witty dialogue in which San Diego’s recent experience with rainmaker Hatfield was referred to.

When the Mayor refused to pay the piper, the musician, announced he would take the children of Hamelin town away with him. He soon appeared in the Cabrillo Canyon playing beautiful music and garbed in the costume as painted by Max Parrish. As he advanced up the canyon and over the Cabrillo bridge, the children followed him, singing, shouting and blowing horns.

The great bridge and the Prado were a seething mass of arms waving in the air, caps of all colors that were thrown by the children in their merriment and bobbing hats and hair bows of the girls. The children followed the piper up the Prado and own the Isthmus where they disappeared into the mountain of the story, which, in this case, was the great mountain at the Panama Canal concession.

Here hobgoblins, strange gnomes and dreadful thunder and lightning storms were encountered by the children, who afterwards emerged safe and sound and went to the aviation field where the Pied Piper conducted a vaudeville show for them.

Children of the Hopi Indians of the Painted Desert gave their famous Katchina dance, clowns performed, boxers gave exhibitions, and the Tommasino Band, and other musicians played and sang as the piper commanded.

In the afternoon, after the children had eaten their lunches in the pepper grove, a program of sports was held. There was a pie-eating contest, a greased pig contest, and other games that delighted the youngsters. Every child was admitted free to the exposition and every attraction on the Isthmus was open to them at half price.

From morning until late tonight the children frolicked and romped, forgetting their elders so completely that many had to be delivered to their homes by the exposition guards when they admitted they were lost.

But all through their merriment not a child was seen to molest the beautiful gardens, flowers and shrubs of the exposition, and each seemed on his or her good behavior.

More than 13,000 children followed the piper into the exposition and spend the day there.

May 28, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3-7, 6:3-4. Happier San Diego reproduction of “Tragedy of Hamelin” puts ancient tale to shame.

Remoulded to the heart’s desire, turned from a deep tragedy to the most joyous and pleasant of comedies, the tragic tale of Hamelin town five hundred years ago was re-enacted, surpassed and outdone in a festival of make-believe in which some 13,000 juvenile actors of San Diego took hilarious part at the Exposition yesterday.

With a Pied Piper, whose garb was most gorgeously pied and whose piping must have been at least the equal of the magical player of old, an army of children, which numbered more than the entire population of Hamelin town and a scenic setting more resplendent than the ancient one a thousand times, the tale of Hamelin town was belittled and put to shame by San Diego’s children’s greater, happier reproduction of it.

As nearly as could be though, the woeful day of Hamelin as sung by Robert Browning, the immortal, was, with the woe left out, depicted yesterday. A tall, gaunt, strangely-clad musician who had in an imaginary chapter rid the town of Hamelin of a great pest of rats; a grotesque and arrogant City Council which denied him when he claimed his promised dues; and the enormous throng of children which followed the piper away, lured by enchanting strains from his magic pipe — all were there.

In San Diego the drama had its opening in the flat green park near the western gate of the Exposition. A big jubilee in celebration of the imaginary riddance of the pest of rats began the spectacle. The mayor of Hamelin, smug, and his four councilmen, complacent, sat viewing the jubilee when the Pied Piper appeared.

Out of a deep canyon, supposedly from the river to which he had lured and drowned the great rat herd, the piper came. A pretty dance by fairylike little girls was in progress when his red cap and its jaunty peacock feather arise from a faraway bush.

The dance stopped. On came the piper. The townspeople of Hamelin, in happiness over their delivery from rats, had forgotten the wonderful man who has accomplished it. On he came. The Council and the mayor squirmed in their chairs, conscious of something impending.

With his long red and yellow legs moving in a fascinating, fearsome fashion, his pipe dangling from a silken cord about his neck, his pied cape flapping in the breeze and his crest feather dipping and waving continuously, the towering piper drew to a stop before the awe-struck city corporation and demanded his pay.

“We won’t pay you any $5,000,” said the mayor. “We might consider giving you $10, but $5,000; no, never.” And he laughed and his Council laughed and the populace laughed. The piper shrugged his shoulders.

He who wrote the poem has it thus:

“So, friend, we’re not the folks to shrink

From the duty of giving you something for drink

And a matter of money to put in your poke

But, as for the guilders, what we spoke

Of then, as you very well know, was in joke.”

So they had it yesterday, with dollars substituted for guilders, but with all else as originally. They offered the Pied Piper $10 instead of a promised $5,000, and he refused it. So he threatened them all with the loss of their children, and they jeered him. The mayor spoke to him in this fashion:

“You threaten us follow? Do your worst,

Blow your pipe till you burst!”

From that point on, the poet has it thus:

“Once more he stepped into the street,

And to his lips again

Laid his long pipe of smooth straight cane;

And ere he blew three notes, such sweet

Soft notes, as yet musician’s cunning

ever gave the enraptured air.”

And, as it has been written, it was literally enacted. As the lank piper moved away, the mass of children that covered the great park lawn trooped after him. A swelling, surging, laughing crowd swept to a common center — the gate that leads to Puente Cabrillo and across it to the Exposition.

“Little hands clapping and little tongues chattering,

Out came the children running,

All the little boys and girls,

With rosy cheeks and flaxen curls,

And sparkling eyes and teeth like pearls,

Tripping and skipping, ran merrily after

The wonderful music with shouting and laughter.”

Across the long, high bridge that spans a deep canyon and crosses a little pond, and under which roads run that seem painted brown upon the green velvet, the tempestuous torrent of little humanity, led by the picturesque figure in red and yellow, flowed. The last were but entering the gate, more than a half a mile behind, when whose who closely followed the musician turned off the Prado and toward the Isthmus and the mountain cavern that was to swallow them up.

“When, lo, as they reached the mountain’s side

A wondrous portal opened wide,

As if a cavern was suddenly hollowed;

And the piper advanced and the children followed,

And when all were in to the very last,

The door in the mountain side shut fast.

Part way down the Isthmus, to the mountainous, mad-made duplicate of the Panama canal and its environs, they went. And sure enough, as they came to it, a portal opened wide. From within came a fierce red glare and the whistling of winds and hob-goblins’ eyes shone out of the darkness. But the piper never faltered, nor did one of his thousands of followers. Wide as the portal was, it was small for the vast herds that wanted entrance. It was a long time and an exciting time before they all were through.

And beyond the mountain! That is a point that the original tale has always lacked. A happy land it was where Indian papooses did war dances, Savoy trios sang, legless boxers boxed, a quartet of big men made sweet music, pretty girls and dark-skinned men in the strange costume of Spain danced and sang and played stringed instruments.

Beyond the mountain! Few adults there. Some got in, some way, but they were obedient and were seen and not heard, which is as it should be. Greased pigs in a pen, for catching, and a dollar for the catcher! Back another way to the long Isthmus with its wonderful sights. A race where you carried a spoon in your mouth and an egg on the spoon, and most likely dropped the egg and smashed it to smithereens, but spending money for the winner and plenty of places to spend it. And a peanut race where you roll peanuts down the pavement or carry them on treacherously unsteady knife blades, and always spending money for the winners, and a million places calling to you to come in and see the marvelous, the terrible, the beautiful, or to ride around and around and around!

Beyond the mountain! The Pied Piper didn’t have the only horn. Far from it! There seemed to be wagon loads of horns, and they gave them away. Most everybody got one. They were red, white and blue and made the loudest noise you ever heard. When you blew them at the monkeys, they would grab the sides of their cages and shake and scream as though they were trying to sing. The baby burro didn’t mind the noise and the coyotes were afraid of it. And when you get up in the Ferris wheel, you can see all over. They had half price or even less for children all up and down the Isthmus and lots of free things they don’t have every day.

The “beyond the mountain” part of the day, which was really supposed to have taken place on the inside of the fairy mountain, was the longest and best part of the day. It lasted until night when the Exposition men had a picture show — free — at the upper end of the Isthmus, and showed the piper’s parade across Puente Cabrillo and into the mountain. They must have made them in a hurry, but they were very good.

Oh, and the Pied Piper was Mr. H. A. Collins, who is a city trustee in Coronado. He got tired after awhile and took off his piper’s suit, but came back on the Isthmus gain, and a lot of the children knew him anyhow. The mayor of Hamelin was Mr. C. W. Jackson and the councilmen were Frank A. Frye, Will S. Hill, Stuart Kendall, W. F. Carpenter, and John Gillons, dressed up.

The Exposition people estimate that there were close to 13,000 children who followed the piper across the bridge and though the mountain. They couldn’t really count them, and maybe there were more than that. The people in all the buildings and along the Isthmus say they never had a better time in their lives. They like these children’s days.

When lunch time came, the Pepper Grove was the popular place. To get there you had to go down long winding paths between flower beds and under shady trees. There were swings and slides and pretty-colored funny birds there, and the nicest greenest grass to eat your lunch on. A lot of kids were tired and went to sleep on the grass, but were awake again when things started on the Isthmus in the afternoon.

Quite a few of the smaller children got lost in the crowd, and a few of them cried. At the headquarters of the Balboa guards they listed 20 or more. None of them was lost for very long though, for their people came right away to hunt for them. Nobody was hurt during the whole day. Police Sergeant Ed Forbes, who is in charge of the Exposition guard, says that that is a wonderful record for such a big crowd of children.

Some of the real little ones were afraid of the Pied Piper at first, but after he smiled awhile and talked to them, they were crazy about him and would have followed him anywhere.

Those singing numbers and dances on the tractor field on the other side of the mountain were arranged by Scott Palmer of the Savory Theater and Harry Hayward of the Spreckels Theater. And Carl Ferris, who is a park commissioner and who had charge of the events of the day, “worked his head off,” one of the Exposition men said.

The dancing on the grass before the piper came was done by 32 girls from the Jefferson school. They had been practicing it for a long time, instructed by Miss Norma Pierce and Theodore Treutlein, who is supervisor of physical education in all the schools.

It will be a long time everybody says, before there will be anything in San Diego or anywhere to equal the day of the Pied Piper at the Exposition.

May 28, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:3. Foreign Arts week inaugurated at Exposition today; $900 worth of gifts to be distributed.

May 29, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:3. Exposition heads open war on race track gambling in San Diego; request Council to pass ordinance making race-track betting in city unlawful.

May 29, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Pied Piper day attendance joy to directorate; more than 20,000 passed gates; Exposition’s second biggest day.

May 29, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Invalid morning at Exposition today.

May 29, 1916, San Diego Union, 12:2-3. Indians at Painted Village have time of lives at Coronado, by B. P.

May 30, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:8. L. J. Wilder, San Diego banker, says 1916 Exposition is not sufficiently advertised in the East.

May 30, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:2. Festival of Music will be offered; hundreds of schoolchildren to be heard at Organ Saturday; boys’ chorus of 250 voices; mixed chorus of 300 voices; 20 young ladies from National City High School to be a bird-whistling chorus.

May 30, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:3. L. J. Wilde says Fair and city are not well advertised.

May 31, 1916, San Diego Sun, 6:1. Ad Club to stage Exposition doings on June 10.

May 31, 1916, San Diego Sun, 12:4. Music of Ernest L. Owen trio of piano, violin and cello to be offered every afternoon in Foreign Arts building during Foreign Arts week. The $900 worth of gifts which are being displayed daily in various sections of the building were inspected by thousands of persons at the inauguration of Foreign Arts week, Sunday afternoon. The gifts will be awarded next Saturday afternoon in the Foreign Arts building; list of exhibitors contributing gifts.

May 31, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:1. Greek pageant at Exposition, June 16 and 17.

May 31, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1. Ad Club, Imperial Valley, Alameda County, and Los Angeles Times days, June 10.

May 31, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:3. “Roulette Dance Nights” will be introduced at Cristobal Café; a number of special gifts will be given to visitors in a novel manner; Café is now under management of George A. Cheney, formerly of Hotel del Coronado.

May 31, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:4. Potpourri charms visitors to Exposition; more than 10,000 visitors to the Fair last year carried away some of the potpourri..

May 31, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:5. Nona Malli, mezzo-soprano known in private life as Mrs. Kenneth Croft, delights audience with recital at Organ, by Main 3 K.

[She] has a voice of charming quality, particularly in the lower and middle registers, which she knows how to use. The full round tones carried perfectly despite the handicap of being sung in the open air, and the more serious disadvantage of having persons in the outskirts of the audience keep up a constant chatter while the music was in progress.

May 31, 1916, San Diego Union. 10:3. Everett Lloyd won two bicycle events at the Alameda-Isthmus race course yesterday afternoon.

June 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Musical program to be given by schoolchildren; grammar grade pupils will illustrate class room work at Exposition.

Ensemble singing by more than 500 grammar school pupils of songs which are illustrative of the class room work in music in the public schools will be one of the many features of the Children’s Day program Saturday afternoon at the Exposition. All children will be admitted to the Exposition free Saturday and another day of pleasure is assured the children who attend.

The musical program at the organ pavilion at 2:30 p.m. will be participated in by Chesley Mills’ Juvenile Orchestra, the girls’ bird whistling chorus of National City high school, Wesley Peterson, 11-year old pianist, Julia Gardner, 8-year old violinist, Dorothea Hull, 11-year old cornetist, and Helen Morgan, 13-year old dancer.

June 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Louis Hels, talented French artist, sketched President G. A. Davidson, Secretary H. J. Penfold, and Director of Publicity Guy R. Kingsley the other day (sketches).

June 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. The civic bureau of the Chamber of Commerce at its regular meeting indorsed the attitude of the Exposition directors in their expression of disapproval of the racing and attendant gambling at Tijuana.

June 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3-4. Take off your hat Mr. Ad Man to be slogan at Fair, June 10; prizes offered visitors who identify mysterious man; also for best displays in parade and costume ball; Imperial Valley, Alameda County to celebrate; there will be six mysterious men on the grounds who will have emblems on their hats; each finder will be given a dollar bill except for the finder of the Ad Man with an emblem on hat redeemable for $20 in gold; a pushball contest will be held on the Plaza de Panama with marines and sailors as competitors; children’s contests will be held on Isthmus.

June 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. A new song “From the Quaker City up to Bunker Hill has been dedicated to the Panama-California International Exposition by Cassius M. Loomis of San Diego.

June 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Large crowds are being attracted daily to the Foreign Arts Building to view the hundreds of gifts, valued at $900, which are to be awarded Saturday afternoon at 3:30. These gifts are on display in the various exhibit sections and are labeled so that visitors can see the articles that are to be distributed.

Among the gifts that are attracting attention are the head of “Mignon,” constructed of three-color marble and valued by the Italian commissioner at $100; the embroidered table cloth in the Italian section valued at $66; the silk matinee suit in the German section valued at $20 and vases in the Japanese section.

The daily recitals by Ernest L. Owen’s trio of violin, piano and cello are proving exceedingly popular as a part of the entertainment which is being given each day of Foreign Arts Week.

June 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:7. “Roulette” new dance will be given at the Cristobal Café tonight; numbers being painted in circles on the dance floor; a special orchestra will supply music and valuable souvenirs will be given.

June 2, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:4. Fifteen gold nuggets worth $2,000 taken from ore case in New Mexico building yesterday afternoon.

June 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:2. Elizabeth, Exposition’s littlest woman, arrived at twenty-third milepost; celebration held; giant birthday cake, messages, gifts gladden tiny girl.

June 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Charlie Chaplin and his goat coming to Fair.

June 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Imperial Valley prepares for day at Fair; spirited contests are waged in Imperial County for Queen of the Exposition.

The program includes receptions and entertainments in honor of the Queen of Imperial Valley and her princesses, a cantaloupe feast at the Southern California Counties Building, lectures at the building on the Valley’s resources, and a ball in the evening for Imperial Valley people.

Many car owners who desire to make the trip are awaiting work of repair work on the San Diego County end of the highway so that the run may be made smoothly.

June 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Dr. Hector Aliot, director of the Southwest Museum of Los Angeles, makes Fair tour; studies Exposition from education standpoint; pleased with trip.

June 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. J. A. Marshall and J. F. Gallagher, Alameda County representative at the San Diego Exposition, want glare of limelight on Alameda County Day, June 10; pretty girls in costume will distribute Alameda county cherries and other products of county; reception and dance in evening.

June 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2-3. Miss Helen Morgan, toe dancer, will be seen at the Organ Pavilion in connection with the Children’s Music Festival tomorrow afternoon (photo).

June 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2-3. Children will give music program at Fair tomorrow; two big choruses, one with 300 voices will be heard at Organ Pavilion; Children’s orchestra and young soloists to aid festival; National City girls to whistle.

Though maintaining a high musical standard, the program is composed of the popular home songs, plantation melodies, standard instrumental selections, semi-classics, and the classical selections which appeal to all musical tastes.

June 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:7. “Burlesque Derby” feature on Isthmus tomorrow night; the track will be full length; the “ponies” will be of several kinds that will appear in the over-night entries; the betting ring will be reproduced in all its glory.

June 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 5;7. Announcement by the Exposition that annual tickets would be placed on sale June 1, for thirty days, was received with popular favor yesterday, the first day of the sale.

June 3, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:1. Fourth Regiment of U.S. Marines, Colonel J. H. Pendleton, commanding, to leave today on special Santa Fe train for New Orleans where they will said for Port au Prince, Santo Domingo, to put down Art’s revolution against the government.

Orders for the Fourth Regiment came unexpectedly yesterday. Tents were promptly struck and the work of packing baggage and equipment was continued from an early hour today.

June 3, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:3. Children’s program pleases thousands; for near two hours Saturday schoolboys and girls entertained one of the largest crowds that has ever assembled at the Organ Pavilion with singing, dancing, orchestral music, and special numbers by choruses and individuals.

June 3, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:3. Charles Rann Kennedy’s great drama, “The Servant in the House,” will be presented at the Organ Pavilion next Thursday at 8 p.m. by Tyrone Power and an excellent supporting company.

June 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Charlie Chaplin coming to Fair; also his goat; Flicker comedy cut-up to pass day with children; Woman’s Board plans to increase membership of the auxiliary board to stimulate interest in the Exposition and gain the support of women in whose power it is to send many talented artists here for entertainments to be held on the Exposition grounds.

June 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Mixed program for Southern Counties Building this afternoon.

June 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Dutch exhibit is highly praised.

June 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3-4. Best stables represented in Fair’s Burlesque Derby.

June 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Schoolchildren will entertain at Fair today; chorus numbering more than 500, with soloists, will render extended program.

June 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Lecture on “Moral Hygiene — Race Betterment — Life’s Vital Question” by Mrs. Sara Walrath Lyons tomorrow in New Mexico Building.

June 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:6. Montessori method to be shown at Fair; work begins on outdoor plant under eucalyptus trees for demonstrations during the summer months near Pepper Grove.

June 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:6. This afternoon at 2:30 o’clock the $900 worth of gifts donated by exhibitors will be awarded in the Foreign Arts Building.

June 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:2-5. Children’s music magnet for throng; five hundred take part in program at Organ Pavilion; record crowd greets the efforts of pupils of city and county schools; program consists of choruses by hundreds of children, orchestral music, whistling, instrumental music and dancing by individuals.

June 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:3-4. Interesting program at Exposition today; popular Sunday 75-cent supper to be served at Cristobal with music and entertainment; all exhibit buildings will be open; Royal Italian Band to play; baseball game also.

June 5, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 2:4-5. The “Servant in the House,” English play, to be seen at Exposition.

June 5, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:1. Marines bound for Haiti; Exposition camp is deserted, but boys will return.

June 5, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:4. Children’s program pleases thousands.

June 5, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:4. Tyrone Power will present great play at Organ Pavilion; an ignorant, wronged and embittered man is so regenerated he leads his brother, a vicar of the church, to a realization of his duties as a servant of God and a brother of man

June 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:1, 2:3. Rush local marines to Haiti; telegram from Washington hurries Fourth Regiment to West Indies; will entrain this evening; Colonel Pendleton says men will return here when their services on the island are over.

June 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. San Diego Ad Club to set Isthmus aglow; grand parade will be feature of fete Saturday night; prizes offered.

June 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. “Servant in the House” at Organ Pavilion Thursday; Tyrone Power to have “drainman” role; gifted players in company.

June 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. James B. Whittemore, amusement promoter, employed on Isthmus.

June 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Amateurs will act at Isthmus tonight; cash prizes to be offered to performers; contest open to vocalists, monologists.

June 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 12:3. Former rule by which automobiles were required to leave the grounds abolished; Automobile and Invalid Day at Fair to last until midnight.

“Automobile and Invalid Day” will be inaugurated at the Exposition today to supplant “Automobile and Invalid Morning,” which has been offered in the past. By this action the 1 o’clock rule, by which automobiles were required to leave the grounds, is abolished and automobiles may enter the grounds from 8 p.m. until midnight and enjoy the same privileges for the entire day which pertained to “Automobile Morning.” The same fee of 25 cents for the car and the regular admission price for each occupant will be charged.

This change of policy, which comes at the request of hundreds of motorists who have expressed a desire for more opportunity to view the grounds and exhibits by automobile, is expected to be welcomed by Automobilists generally.

At 10:30 o’clock there will be singing and dancing entertainments on the Calle Cristobal by the Spanish troupe. Lectures will be given in the Southern California Counties building at 10:50 and 11:15 o’clock, and in the New Mexico State building at 11 o’clock. There will be motion pictures in the Kern-Tulare building at 11 o’clock, the making up of the daily weather map in the United States Agricultural building at 11 o’clock, a submarine mine demonstration at 11 and a mine rescue and first aid demonstration in the United States Government building at 11:10.

Tommasino’s Royal Italian band will give a concert in the Plaza de Panama from 1:15 to 2:15 o’clock. Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart will give an organ recital at 2:30 o’clock, the Spanish dancers and singers will entertain at the United States Fisheries building at 2 o’clock, and a reception and tea will take place in the blue room of the Southern California Counties building from 3 until 5 o’clock. Tommasino’s band will play again at 4 o’clock.

There will be offered during the afternoon a number of practical demonstrations in the United States Government building and several interesting and instructive lectures in the Kern-Tulare building, the Southern California Counties building, and the New Mexico State building.

The evening program consists of a band concert from 7:30 o’clock until 10, with three-quarters of an hour intermission for viewing the Isthmus attractions and “Amateur Night” on the Isthmus open stage at 8:30 o’clock.

June 6, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 12:5. Great drama to be produced at Exposition; Tyrone Power and company of artists to appear in “The Servant in the House” at the Organ Pavilion.

June 7, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 2:2-4. Company of stars to appear in dramatic triumph at Exposition.

June 7, 1916, San Diego Sun, 6:3-4. Tyrone Power appears at Exposition tomorrow night.

June 7, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:7-8. Advertisement: “The Servant in the House,” 8 o’clock, Thursday night, all seats 50 cents.

June 7, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:1-2. Awful menace of Tijuana’s dives and track related at city hall conference; Mayor Capps, Julius Wangenheim, George W. Marston, Colonel Fred Jewel, Reverend R. D. Hollington and others deplore conditions.

Carl Ferris, exposition director, said: “It is not wickedness, but spirits and life that attracts our people to such things.” As a counter-attraction Ferris suggested cafes and cabarets in San Diego be allowed to stay open until 2 a.m.

June 7, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:4-5. Foresters Day set for July 1: Southern California Independent Order of Foresters will initiate candidates in evening on Exposition grounds; parade, fancy drills, concert by Tommasino’s band in afternoon.

June 8, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 2:1. Greek fantasy to be given at Fair; beautiful theme woven into plot of “Admetus” which will be produced at Organ Pavilion June 16.

June 8, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 2:2. Many visitors are expected for Alameda Day, Saturday.

June 8, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 2:2. George Burnham is confident that the bills for a marine base here and for government dredging of the municipal pier channel will be passed.

June 8, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 2:3. Mrs. Lillie Stibolt Hanssen, soprano, to be heard tomorrow night in classic night concert with Tommasino’s Royal Italian Band.

June 8, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 2:3. Chamber of Commerce will handle big special; agrees to take charge of booster excursion to Pasadena June 24 to capture annual Ohio picnic.

June 8, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 3:3. “Servant in the House” to be given at Organ Pavilion tonight.

June 8, 1916, San Diego Sun, 6:3. Special coming events:

June 9. Ad Club Day, Imperial Valley Day, Los Angeles Excursion Day, and picnics of Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont State Societies.

June 13. Escondido Day

June 14. Elks’ Tag Day.

June 15. Laundryman’s Association Convention Day, bringing 2,000 visitors.

June 16 and 17. Production of “Admetus” by Normal School

June 17. Bunker Hill Day and California Druggists’ Day.

June 18. California Motorcycle Day.

June 24. Swedish Day and Knights Templar’ Day.

June 25. German Day, Swedish Day, and Knight Templar’ Day.

June 28. Federation of State Societies Day.

June 8, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:1 “The Servant in the House” to be given at Organ Pavilion tonight; a distraught, defiant wretch is made to see the sweetness, the righteousness and the nobility that is in life.

June 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:2-3. Stage is ready for play at Organ Pavilion this evening.

June 8, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:1. Entire Pacific Coast urged to back advertising plan; $150,000 fund proposed to boost Exposition in the East.

June 9, 1916, San Diego Sun, 11:4. Fine production is given at Exposition. In the last act the obnoxious drainman makes his dramatic entrance direct from the defective drain which undermines the church.

June 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Strong play is well presented by Tyrone Power, by Main 3-K.

June 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:4-5. Three-barreled entertainment at Exposition tomorrow: Ad Club, Imperial Valley and Alameda County to hold forth at same time.

June 10, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 2:2-3. Nona Malli to render Puccini selections in the Hawaiian Village on the Isthmus tomorrow night; she will be accompanied by Dr. H. J. Stewart and assisted by Master Freddie Olson, an accomplished boy violinist of this city.

June 10, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 2:4. The paintings of Hendrikus Alexander Van Ingen, notably “Head of a Cow,” in the Netherlands’ art collection at the Exposition, are the subject of much study and admiration by art lovers.

June 10, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:7-8. San Diego Ad Club, Imperial Valley boosters cheered as fine parade winds through city.

June 10, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:2-3. Nona Mali, star of “Gypsy Love” fame, will sing at Hawaiian Village Sunday; Dr. H. J. Stewart will accompany her on piano.

June 10, 1916, San Diego Sun, 11:7-8. State convention of Music Teachers’ Association to be held here July 5-8; Thursday will be Music Teachers’ Day at Exposition; People’s Chorus to given concert at Organ Pavilion, Sunday, June 18.

June 10, 1916, San Diego Sun, 12:2-3. Pan-Hellenic banquet, June 22, when members of Greek letter fraternities and their guests will dine in the evening at the Cristobal Café.

June 10, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:1-2. Imperial Valley caravan in; Ad Club ready for parade; Alameda County program ready.

June 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:1. Season tickets at low rates to be sold at Fair; directors believe reduced price will result in larger crowds.

June 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:4. Mrs. Davidson, as camera woman, joins motion picture colony for a moment during the taking of moving pictures at Universal City near Los Angeles.

June 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:5. Pageantry rules in Greek play; “Admetus: A Thessalian Fantasy” will be participated in by Normal pupils.

June 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:2, 9:2. Multitude revels in three celebrations; Imperial Valley, Ad Club and Alameda County fill day with events.

June 12, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:3. Majority of Exposition’s guests are visitors; strangers contribute 85 percent of cash admissions; members of Elks Lodge to build Liberty Bell with flowers for Flag Day exercises at Organ Pavilion, Wednesday evening, June 14; more than 12,000 persons visited Exposition Saturday; combined Ad Club-Imperial Valley-Alameda County Day was one of the most successful celebrations yet held at Fair.

June 12, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:5. Exposition lures 12,000 persons in single day; Saturday proves big drawing card; winners in Isthmus parade announced.

June 13, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:1-2. Preparations being rushed to safeguard San Diego Exposition against attack:

A military map of the Exposition grounds is in the hands of the proper authorities. The possible use of some of the buildings as citadels of defense is being looked into. The troops will be on hand for the defense of the Exposition. This is assured today.

The attack will be made July 4. This will be in the midst of a sham battle by Uncle Sam’s regulars stationed in and near San Diego.

“Liberty Queen” is to be selected for July 4 celebration; festivities to last four days, July 1 through July 4; preparedness parade on July 4.

June 13, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:2-3. Blaming San Diego citizens in general and the city and Exposition officials in particular for the evils of the Tijuana race track, editor E. T. Earl, millionaire publisher of The Los Angeles Express and Tribune, has opened a campaign of vilification and abuse of this city in his newspapers. He has refused to pay his pledged subscription of $5,000 toward the Exposition on this flimsy excuse. Among his charges is that the local newspapers have slighted the Exposition in their columns; G. A. Davidson denies charges, cites attendance records: Dedication Day, March 18, 45,000 against 30,000 for the biggest day in 1915; other figures given.

June 13, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:3-4. Marguerite Buckler will sing at Elks’ Flag Day ceremony at Exposition tomorrow night; recital by Dr. H. J. Stewart, parade of colors.

This is the first time the Flag Day ceremony has been given outside the Elks’ lodge room.

June 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:2-3. Bunker Hill Day, Saturday, June 17; Mrs. Frank K. Gray to be “Goddess of Liberty.”

June 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Elks celebrated Flag Day at Exposition.

June 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Miss Marguerite Buckler, grand opera singer, to aid Flag Day show tomorrow.

June 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:1. Russian skaters gave exhibition at Exposition.

June 14, 1916, San Diego Sun, 12:5. Mrs. Frances K. Gray will be “Goddess of Liberty” in Bunker Hill celebration, June 17.

June 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3-4. Elks will honor the flag at Organ Pavilion tonight.

June 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 16:2-3. Girl athletes to compete at Exposition; Turners planning many events for German Day.

June 15, 1916, Los Angeles Times, II, 10:2. May close the Harem; Appellate Court denies writ sought by amusement man to prevent San Diego District Attorney from closing “Isthmus” show.

June 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3, 8:1-2. Thousands cheer, pay homage to nation’s flag.

June 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:2. Fair to send message across United States; first auto to start for eastern states on booster trip will leave here Sunday.

June 16, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

Deed of conveyance to certain property located in Balboa Park by Panama-California Exposition, dated March 31, 1916, accepted by Board of Park Commissioners.

Board allowed property owners on east side of Balboa Park between Redwood and Upas to open 28th street to a width of 60 feet, with the understanding that said roadway is to be extended to 80 feet at the pleasure of the Board; property owners to pay cost; engineering work to be done by the Engineer of the Park Department; said improvements shall not interfere with any plans of the Park Department for the future improvement of 28th street.

Messrs. Gabrielson and Carl Heilbron appeared before the Board regarding the purchase of animals formerly at Wonderland Park, but now exhibited at the free zone at the Exposition, requesting the Board to make arrangements to purchase said animals; upon being advised that this Board had no funds for the purpose, they asked the Board if they would care for the animals in the City purchased the same and presented them to the park zoo; upon being informed that the Board would do so, they requested that the Board recommend that the Council purchase these animals and present them to the park zoo; request granted.

Secretary requested to make a request for one full-grown buffalo and one two-year old male buffalo from the San Francisco Park Department.

Superintendent instructed to purchase one pair of white swans and place same in the lagoon in front of the Botanical Building.

June 16, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:1. Bunker Hill Day will be gala event; parade in afternoon will form inside west entrance and march across Cabrillo Bridge; soldiers from Fort Rosecrans; sailors from U.S.S. Pittsburgh; naval reserves; Civil War veterans; Ladies of Grand Army of the Republic and Daughters of American Revolution; sons of American Revolution; children of public schools; afternoon concert at Organ Pavilion and evening concert at United States Fisheries Building by Tommasino’s Royal Italian Band.

June 16, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:5. Irving E. Outcalt’s Greek musical drama and pageant play “Admetus” at Organ Pavilion tonight and tomorrow night at 8; presented by senior class at state Normal School.

June 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3, 8:1-2. Thousands cheer, pay homage to nation’s flag; Admiral Fullam in speech at Organ Pavilion voices pleas for preparedness in United States.

June 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:1. To give Greek drama at Organ Pavilion two nights; elaborate illuminating effects will enrich play on which much effort was spent.

June 17, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:1. Canadian and San Diego ice hockey teams tied score at Ice Rink last night.

June 17, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:3-4. Pathfinder “Lena,” the Exposition’s official car, will start from Plaza de Panama late this afternoon for Denver, Omaha, DesMoines, Fort Wayne, Chicago, Pittsburgh and Philadelphia along route of Lincoln Highway; twin six will start from Plaza de Panama Monday afternoon on first trans-continental high-gear run; New York City to be destination.

June 17, 1916, San Diego Sun, 8:4. George Wharton James to lecture on California literature in the entrance hall of the San Joaquin Building each Saturday and Sunday beginning June 24 and 25.

June 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:6, 4:6. Bunker Hill celebration to be held at Organ Pavilion this afternoon.

June 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:3-6. Earl’s Los Angeles paper now refers to Davidson as sycophant and liar.

President Davidson himself we find carrying water on both shoulders. He is a quibbler. In one breath he admits that the Exposition appealed to the outside world for $150,000 in order that it might be perpetuated for another year. In the next breath he tells us that the Exposition is making money, and adds that he has no fears for the success of the Fair. Moreover, this remarkable president would have us believe that the Exposition is not losing admissions as a result of the establishment of the race track at Tijuana.

June 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:2-3. Great preparedness parade assured at rousing meeting; expect at least 15,000 in line of march on July 4; marching, not riding, to be order of day for all those able to walk; G. A. Davidson, grand marshal of the day.

June 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:4. “Sultan’s Harem” is seized on attachment suit.

June 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:5. Five thousand motorcycles expected at Fair; chug-chug riders will assemble for special day tomorrow.

June 17, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:2-3. In night as perfect as Attica ever produced Eros conspires toward success of “Admetus,” by D. D. Whedon.

June 17, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:4-5. Ministers denounce race track at Tijuana.

June 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:5-6. Davidson refutes Earl’s calumnies.

The Panama-California Exposition in San Diego is bigger than Mr. Earl’s attack. It is bigger than Mexican vices; it is an institution international in character. Eighteen foreign nations are represented in the exhibits. The Fair is beautiful and it is building for the greater prosperity of all Southern California.

June 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:4. Knights Templar to be honored at Fair today; advance program will be given for the 500 lodge men expected in city.

June 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:2-4. Official Exposition advertising car starts on tenth transcontinental trip.

June 18, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 8:3. Liberty hailed by thousands at Organ Pavilion; Bunker Hill Day celebrated.

Mrs. Francis K. Grey appeared in the costume of the “Goddess of Liberty” and wore a buckle, half of which had been shed away, which had been worn by General Vogdes in the battle of Bunker Hill

June 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Auto Day at the Exposition.

June 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 12:2. Motorcycle Day held at Fair; 150 enthusiasts make run from Los Angeles; events staged.

June 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 13:6. “Ramona” shown in pictures at local theater.

June 21, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:4-6. Patriotism stirs San Diegans to enlist in preparedness parade on July 4; fifty auto trucks in line of march; one out of every six residents expected to march.

June 21, 1916, San Diego Sun, 4:2-3. “The Architecture and Gardens of the San Diego Exposition,” published by Paul Elder & Company of San Francisco.

June 21, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:6. Salt Lake Building to be official headquarters of Knights Templar, Saturday, June 24; special drills by landing force of United States reserve fleet on Plaza de Panama at 10:30 a.m.; concert by Tommasino’s Royal Italian Band at organ at 11 a.m.; welcome by President Davidson in Southern California Counties Building from 3:30 to 4:30 p.m.

June 21, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:7. Male chorus and mixed choir to sing Swedish national airs at Organ Pavilion at 2 p.m. Saturday following parade through downtown streets in honor of Swedish Day; reception in Southern Counties Building and banquet at Cristobal Café at 7:30 p.m.

June 21, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:5. Clement B. Stern, Milwaukee, Wis., commends plan to advertise Fair.

June 21, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:6. Knights Templar to throng Fair; several thousand visitors expected from Los Angeles Saturday to see Exposition.

June 22, 1916, San Diego Sun, 4:6-7. Mrs. A. G. Spalding offers Sunset Cliffs esplanade to city for public park system; land lies between main boulevard and ocean.

June 22, 1916, San Diego Sun, 12:3. German Day program Sunday morning, June 25, will begin at 8 a.m. on Plaza de Panama with gymnastic dancing, dumbbell exercises and model drills; from 9 until noon there will be competitive gymnastics and track and field events for men and women on marine parade grounds; formal exercises at 2 p.m. on Plaza de Panama will include raising of German flag; music by massed chorus of 100 voices and addresses by President Davidson and Emil Roedel of Los Angeles.

June 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:1. Mrs. Spalding gives esplanade to city for park.

June 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Swedish Day to be celebrated at Exposition Saturday.

June 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:3-5. “The Architecture and Gardens of the San Diego Exposition” describes architecture of Fair, by B. P.

June 23, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:4-5. Knights Templar’ Day tomorrow.

June 24, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:1-2. Swedish people will assemble at Plaza de Panama tomorrow to hold devotional services presided over by Swedish pastors of Los Angeles and San Diego; services to be conducted at Organ Pavilion beginning at 10:30 a.m.

June 24, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:1-2. Impressive events at Exposition as Knights Templar arrive.

June 24, 1916, San Diego Sun, 12:3. “Jumping” Jack Little, engaged for July 3 and 4, to jump through the air seated behind the wheel of a Maxwell 25 touring car.

June 24, 1916, San Diego Sun, 16:5. The second match of the Exposition’s amateur wrestling tournament will be held in the Robinson Animal Show arena on the Isthmus Monday night at 8:30.

June 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Knights Templar celebrate today.

June 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:7-8. Swedish hosts to capture Exposition today; big program this afternoon and evening.

June 24, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:1-2. Sawtelle, California minister retracts libels at Exposition heads; parson accuses Fair officials of boosting Tijuana race track and gambling; after being threatened with suit, he admits he reached “mistaken conclusion”; apologizes..

June 25, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:1. Knights Templar honored at San Diego Fair.

June 25, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:1. Turner Societies best card at Exposition today; athletes of both sexes; exercises on Plaza de Panama this afternoon; in their honor this is German Day at the Exposition..

June 25, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:2-5. Swedes loyal to Stars and Stripes; crowd cheers sentiment.

June 25, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 8:2. Exposition honors Pavlowa who attended a reception and tea given by the Woman’s Board of the Exposition.

June 26, 1916, Los Angeles Times, 5:1. Annual sports of Turnverein; German Day at Exposition attracts thousands; men and women take part in athletic games; John Burholter, San Diego Turner, winner of the most points.

June 26, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:1. An hour of grand opera will be presented at 2:45 tomorrow afternoon at the Organ Pavilion by Signor Italo Picchi, Madame Paola Picchi and H. E. Van Surdam.

June 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:6. This is Invalids’ Auto Day at Fair.

June 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:5-6. Athletic events feature German Day at Fair; more than 1,000 members of Turnverein attend exercises; prizes are awarded.

June 27, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:4. Exposition boosted in Yosemite Valley; special commissioner Irwin stages big celebration at Camp Curry.

June 27, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:5. G. A. Davidson asks people of San Diego to wear Loyalty and Preparedness badges Tuesday, July 4 at Independence Day celebration of the Exposition grounds.

June 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:6. City’s newest park on Soledad Hill as yet unnamed.

June 27, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:4. Preparedness Day badges on sale today.

June 29, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:5. Tomorrow is free night for all at the Exposition; it is hoped that the Oregon National Guard will be here by that time and in camp at the Exposition

June 29, 1916, San Diego Sun, 4:6-7. Great celebration to mark Independence Day:

Foresters’ Day, July 1 — parade and fancy drills, initiation ceremony in afternoon, carnival on Isthmus in evening.

Sunday, July 2 — concerts by San Diego choirs and Tommasino’s Royal Italian Band

Monday, July 3 — “Jumping Jack” Little to hurdle 20 burning barrels; Pathfinder twin-six car starts from Plaza de Panama at 1 p.m. on first high-gear transcontinental run even attempted.

Tuesday, July 4 — 1,500 marchers to march from Broadway through Exposition gate without charge; 350 schoolchildren on Plaza de Panama present patriotic drills; Ellen Beach Yaw gives concert in afternoon at Organ Pavilion and two at night in front of United States Fisheries Building; D. C. Collier reads “Declaration of Independence and an orator delivers Fourth of July oration; “Jumping Jack” makes two of his leaps in the afternoon and evening; night fireworks.

June 29, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3-5. Colonel J. H. Pendleton leads Fourth Regiment of Marines against Dominican rebels.

June 29, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. Gravity of Mexican situation slightly relieved by action; General Carranza heeds demand for liberation of American captives, but question of attitude toward Pershing’s troops unsettled preparation for was continues despite apparently favorable turn.

June 29, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:6. Exposition’s camp sites offered to Oregon soldiers.

June 29, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:8. Three-day patriotic celebration outlined.

June 30, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:1-2. Enthusiasm high for parade July 4.

June 30, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:3. Admission is free tonight; concession made so citizens may welcome troops who will camp at Exposition; “classic night” concert by Tommasino’s Band.

June 30, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:4-5. Fourth of July program liveliest ever planned in San Diego.



1915 2,050,030

1916 1,697,886

Total 3,747,916

1915: Six state buildings; no foreign nations

1916: foreign exhibitors: Canada, Hawaii, Alaska, Philippines, France, Holland Germany,

Austria, Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Japan, Turkey, Russia.


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