Balboa Park History July – December 1916

Note: Because of the large size of the section for 1916, it has been subdivided into two parts.

January to June, 1916 ~ July to December, 1916

July 1, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:6. Oregon troopers detrain; Troop A of Second Battalion, Third Oregon Cavalry and Infantry go into camp east of Exposition; first section of Oregon National Guard arrived yesterday and went into camp on high ground overlooking Tijuana valley.

July 1, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:3. Foresters own great Fair today. . . . At 1:30 this afternoon the Foresters marched from Maryland hotel to Exposition; at 2:30 fancy prize drills by crack teams and concert by Tommasino’s Royal Italian band; candidates to “ride goat,” wrestle, box and be executed by shots from 5-inch brass cannon during initiation ceremonies beginning at 8:30.

July 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Foresters will be honored at Exposition today; parade will move from Maryland Hotel to grounds at 1:30 this afternoon; fancy prize drills in afternoon; band concert and public initiation in evening; carnival on Isthmus.

July 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:24. Miss Bessie Killeen, San Diego High School girl, Goddess of Liberty; chooses nine schoolmates for her attendants.

July 1, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:1-2. Parade totals mounting; plenty of martial music assured for thousands in preparedness line; scores of organizations promise big representation; plans for sections are prepared.

July 1, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:3. Girls couldn’t get away with gold; Exposition visitors stagger under $4,000 bar; all a joke perpetrated by commissioners of New Mexico building; it required the strength of both girls to hold the bar and the two were not able to carry it out of the building.

July 1, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 14:1. Absent troopers responsible for throng at Fair; Oregon militiamen guest of honor at Fair; few who arrived rushed to border.

July 1, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 14:4-5. “Jumping Jack” Little is to make a sensational automobile leap Monday night and twice Tuesday at the Exposition; San Diego young woman who will defy death prefers to remain unknown.

July 1, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 14:5. All Saints’ Choir will give a program of sacred songs at the Exposition organ pavilion tomorrow.

July 2, 1916, Los Angeles Times, IV, 10:8. Swedes guests of Exposition; bonds of amity drawn closer during celebration; many thousands participate in three-day events; music is prominent feature of the program.

July 2, 1916, San Diego Sun, II. W. A. Clark, former senator, entertained at Fair; not in mood to talk railroad, but says copper is booming in Arizona where he is building the town of Clarkdale.

July 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 9:1. Automobile Day at Exposition tomorrow.

July 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:1. Foresters throng Exposition of Fraternal Day; parade, drills, concerts and initiations given to entertain visitors.

July 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:6-7. Program of stirring events for celebration at the Fair tomorrow and Tuesday.

July 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 11:3. Ellen Beach Yaw will sing at the Exposition on the afternoon and evening of the Fourth; Mrs. Helen Engel Bosworth will play the violin obligato..

July 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 12:1. Esther Palliser, well-known dramatic soprano, will sing at Exposition this afternoon.

July 2, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:3. W. A. Clark, former senator of Montana, entertained at Fair.

July 3, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:1-2. Exposition ready to entertain thousands with big Independence Day program; 1,600 militiamen from Oregon now encamped on grounds at the First Cavalry and 21st Infantry sites; open-air ball on Plaza de Panama tonight in honor of visiting soldiers; pavement will be soap-stoned; Pathfinder twin-six leaves Plaza de Panama at 12 today; Esther Pallisher, soprano, sings at organ at 4; at 4 p.m. and 10:15 p.m. “Jumping Jack” Little makes his leap covering ____ feet and clearing 22 barrels of flaming oil; at 5:30 p.m. and 10:30 p.m. George Gray gives his wildfire dive on locks of Panama Canal at Isthmus; July 4 parade from foot of Broadway to Exposition grounds starts at 9:30; formal exercises at Organ Pavilion at 11:30.

July 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:5-6. Girls barred from auto leap; Little will make plunge alone.

July 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 9:2. This is Auto Day at Exposition; varied program offered; open-air ball tonight.

July 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 9:4. Mme. Esther Palliser, soprano, sings at Exposition organ this afternoon.

July 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:1. Classical dances will be feature of Teachers’ Day; leading musicians of California to participate in program.

July 4, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:8, 5:1-3. 15,000 men, women and children marched for Old Glory and Preparedness today. In the place of the nation’s regulars, who have been called to face a serious threat at the border and showing the whole-souled enthusiastic support that the boys in khaki and blue may expect from the folks now at home, was a great, eager, loyal army — an army made of men and women and children in every walk of life, of every calling and profession, of every religion and creed.

July 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:4. Big fireworks display at Exposition will begin at 9 o’clock tonight.

July 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Exposition ready for great crowd of patriots today; dynamite blast to announce start of big parade; 350 children will drill.

July 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Throng delays Pathfinder’s start; thousand cheer as big car leaves Exposition; machine will make no attempt to break record on trip across continent.

July 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3-4. High spots at Exposition today.

July 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:7. “Jumping Jack” Little did not leap a 40-foot canyon yesterday; he leaped seven barrels instead.

July 4, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 14:6-7. Ellen Beach Yaw will sing today.

July 4, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 14:8. Exposition crowd nears 15,000 mark; estimated that more than 1,000 automobiles entered grounds during day.

July 5, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:3. Independence Day was greatest ever; attendance of 45,259 or, by actual count, 32,259; cash receipts up; between 9,000 and 10,000 marchers in parade and between 2,000 and 3,000 automobiles and floats.

July 5, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:1. Arthur Blakely, who is to given an organ recital at the Exposition at 4 o’clock tomorrow afternoon in the Music Teachers’ Day program, is considered Canada’s foremost organist; Miss Helen Morgan and six assistants to present a series of interpretive dances in front of the Court of the Leap Year.

July 5, 1916, San Diego Sun, 6:2. Ohio Week at Exposition, July 14-20.

July 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:2. Loyal San Diego citizens thrilled by Spirit of ’76; preparedness slogan’s patriotic appeal stirs enthusiasm in city.

July 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:1. July 4 program ends in fireworks; more than 10,000 persons saw celebration pass into history.

July 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:5. Big program for Music Teachers’ Day at Exposition; first concert will begin at 10 o’clock tomorrow; seven pretty girls to dance.

July 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:1. Musicians will convene here today; California Teachers will begin Sixth Avenue gathering; many recitals planned.

July 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:3. Drills by pupils entertained crowd at Exposition yesterday afternoon; children went through evolutions without hitch; spectators applaud.

July 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:5. Ellen Beach Yaw gave two recitals at Exposition; “California Nightingale” draws crowds; patriotic songs and “Skylark” on program.

July 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3, 5:3. Music teachers open state convention; world-famous artists on program at Fair today; organ recital by Oakland man first on list of attractions.

July 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:8. Glimpses of past in San Diego’s life: excerpt from Union of July 6, 1876.

July 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Attendance record at Exposition; Chairman Heilbron estimates that 45,259 persons passed through the gates.

July 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Deiro, accordionist, to pay at Exposition Sunday.

July 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Pacific division of American Association for the Advancement of Science met at Exposition.

July 7, 1916, Los Angeles Times, II, 6:8. “Artist’s Model” stirs soldiers.

San Diego, July 6. — There will be no more Paris after midnight at the exposition, nor Streets of Algeria. Paris after midnight got so “wuff” last night that the place was raided by the police, much to the chagrin of the soldier boys from Oregon who packed the show.

The trouble was brought about because May Hayden, a 22-year old girl, discarded everything but Mother Nature’s garb and appeared on the stage. She was greeted with a shower of coins and shouts of approval. The girl was arrested today for vagrancy and stated that she is an artist’s model. She was released on $25 bail.

The Streets of Algeria, which was running in the same place as the former Harem, partook so closely of the characteristics of the preceding show that the District Attorney ordered it closed, and the police took it in hand last night also.

July 7, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:4. Native Sons and Daughters of the Golden West planning Admission Day celebration, September 9.

July 7, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:6.

Fletcher replies to City Attorney

Accused of being a “knocker” by City Attorney Cosgrove, Colonel Ed Fletcher came back at Cosgrove in a long statement in which he justifies claims made at Washington during El Capitan water controversy.

Fletcher said in part:

“I stated to Secretary Lane that the city of San Diego had approximately a four-year’s supply of water on hand in its reservoirs, and read the report of Manger of Operations Lockwood for June 1, 1916, showing on hand at that date 14,252,000,000 gallons of water, which is more than a four year’s supply, including leaking and evaporation, as the entire demands on the San Diego system last year was 3,117,000,000 gallons.

“What I did say was, ‘I am in a position to show that the city of San Diego is absolutely assured of an eight year’s supply of water at the present time; and that no emergency exists.’

“It is my opinion that San Diego has 10,000 less population today than at the commencement of the depression. I will let people be the best judge of that, and I expect San Diego will lose 5,000 more within the next 12 months, after the exposition closes.

“We can have our fairs, our municipal piers, our Tijuana race track and everything possible to draw people to San Diego, but in the last analysis, sooner or later, the people of San Diego will become convinced that until a large scheme of water development of San Diego’s back country is completed, and water put on our suburban lands, San Diego cannot expect to have any permanent prosperity or appreciable growth.”

Colonel Fletcher said he was sorry to see so much publicity given to a matter of comparative unimportance.

July 7, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2-5. Enthusiasm at music meeting; artists heard in six concerts at Exposition; business this morning at 9 and banquet at Hotel del Coronado tonight.

July 7, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:1. L. J. Wilde’s reason for leaving city is “no reciprocity”; banker says he has been popular when money was sought, but not honored; building deal spoiled; plan for skyscraper broken up, he adds; no singing swan song yet, he says.

July 7, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 14:3. Classic selections by Pietro Deiro, accordionist, feature Fair concert Sunday afternoon.

July 7, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 14:4. Many long distance buttons distributed; Exposition gives bronze emblems to 150 motorists traveling over 500 miles.

July 7, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 14:5. Admission Day celebration at Fair : Native Sons and Daughters plan elaborate program and parade for September 9.

July 7, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 14:5. Thousand see Netherlands’ exhibit; new shipment of war paintings recently received from Holland are proving of unusual interest

July 7, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 14:5. The California division of the United Boys’ Brigade of American will drill on Plaza de Panama tomorrow afternoon..

July 8, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:6. Oregon National Guardsmen to drill on Plaza de Panama at 3:30 Sunday afternoon; at conclusion of parade and drills, regimental band will give a concert on the Plaza.

July 8, 1916, San Diego Sun, 2:5. Spalding Park overlooking Ocean Beach accepted by city.

July 8, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:2. “Automobile and Invalid Day” will be offered again Monday; permits automobiles to remain on grounds from 8 a.m. until midnight on payment of 25 cents for the car and the regular admission price for each occupant.

July 8, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:4. United Boys Brigade Association of America drilled and played music in Plaza de Panama at 3 o’clock this afternoon; cadets numbers 140; have been encamped at Ocean Beach this past week.

July 8, 1916, San Diego Sun, 8:1. W. M. Irwin, director of publicity for the supervisors, returned from a 2,500 mile automobile publicity tour through the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys in a car decorated with Exposition streamers; showed moving picture exhibit depicting scenes at Exposition to large audiences in cities he visited.

July 8, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:1-2. San Diego is second in state in building permits so far in 1916; San Francisco is first.

July 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 11:5-6. Oregon guards to drill at Exposition today.

July 9, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 8:2. Daivo, piano-accordionist, gave recital.

July 10, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:7. Secretary State of Chamber of Commerce announced today that at the regular weekly luncheon of the Chamber to be held tomorrow at the San Diego Grill, Colonel D. C. Collier would discuss San Diego County road matters.

July 10, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:7-8, 2:3.

To keep the Exposition intact; new plant for permanent structures to replace temporary buildings.

What’s going to happen to San Diego’s fine exposition next year?

Will it be necessary to close the gates, and let the grounds and buildings go to rack and ruin?

Will it be possible to get the U.S. Government to establish a military or naval academy on the grounds?

Will it be possible to get the State Legislature to locate on the Exposition grounds a department of the state agricultural college?

Will the cost of maintenance of the grounds be in excess of the value of the Dream City to the city?

That’s just a few of the questions asked by San Diego citizens.

What’s the answers?

It became known for the first time today that numerous San Diegans of prominence, backed by local civic organizations, are working the problem out along the most practical lines.

For one thing, a movement is on foot to have those exposition buildings which are temporary reproduced in exact detail by permanent structures, to serve as memorials to wealthy and public-spirited San Diegans. Carl Heilbron, who saw the preparedness parade through to success and who has been a prominent worker on the exposition board, has taken this proposition up. The idea is to have the names of the reconstructed buildings changed in honor of the men of wealth who pay for the new buildings. It is estimated that many of the structures can be torn down and rebuilt permanently at a cost of from $100,000 to $150,000.

It is believed that a number of San Diegans will be bound who will help boost the game along by taking over a building.

The California building, the Fine Arts building, the Southern California Counties building, the Oregon building, the beautiful Horticultural building, and the ideal ranch house are some of the structures that are already permanent. These will remain for many years as a monument to the exposition builders.

It was said today that a number of the foreign exhibitors will agree to leave in the buildings some of the most attractive exhibits. The permanent buildings will also be used as museums for the preservation of the products of the arts and industries. San Diego, in this way, will be able to preserve and to further build up one of the most magnificent museums in the country.

The cost of the upkeep of the grounds will, according to present plans, be taken over by the city park board. The council will be asked to supply free of charge the water needed to keep the grounds. It was said today that, under these conditions, the upkeep cost will not be excessive. A small admission fee should be charged on special occasions, it was pointed out, and a tidy sum realized from time to time to help defray expenses.

In this way, the beautiful grounds of the exposition would in reality become a part and parcel of the splendid city park system, and would serve as a playground for the men, women and children of this city.

The exposition boosters were also planning today to have the attention of the state legislature called to the fact that the section of the exposition grounds now devoted to agriculture would be ideal for use as a state experimental agricultural station or college.

It is also probable that the exposition grounds will be put to a use first advocated here a number of months ago by W. C. Bobbs, Indiana publisher, who was an enthusiastic exposition visitor here. This would provide for the maintenance of an annual fair of Southern California, for the exhibition of the products and the exploitation of the advantages of the most wonderful section in all creation. This one attraction alone would draw thousands to San Diego annually, and would be of inestimable value to the southern part of California.

Congressman Kettner has also agreed to keep things moving at the nation’s capital and to have a U.S. military or naval academy or training school established on the exposition grounds, as soon as such an institution is located in the west. The U.S. army authorities will also be asked to station a guard of marines or regulars on the exposition grounds.

These, and many other plans, are being worked out.

One thing is certain, the San Diego exposition grounds, comparable to the most beautiful gardens of the old world, and one of the most remarkable show places on the globe, are not destined, after 1916, to perish from the face of the earth.

July 10, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:2-3.

Oregon militia wins praise by splendid drill at Exposition.

San Diego paid homage to Oregon yesterday on the Exposition grounds. When the Third regiment, Oregon National Guard, under the command of Major T. Bowman, gave a splendid series of drills to the music of its own regimental band. Exposition visitors are accustomed to the parades and drills of the marine corps, the Fourth regiment at that — and the United States service can offer nothing better — but those Oregon boys gave Exposition visitors one of the big surprises of their lives yesterday.

Every movement was done with precision. The applause was enthusiastic and broke out many times during the drills. If the National Guard of every state is as efficient as the troops from Oregon, which has the credit of being the first to mobilize, Exposition crowds will be quick to place a stamp of approval on these volunteer defenders.

Following the drills the Oregon band remained on the plaza and played a short concert, which proved its merit and increased the popularity of Oregon. It was, in fact, Oregon Day on the Exposition grounds, although it had not been so designated on the Exposition calendar. President G. A. Davidson was one of the first to compliment Major Bowman and his staff on the excellent showing of the Northerners.

It was a big day at the Exposition. In addition to the regular concerts by Tommasino’s band and the organ recital by W. W. Carruth of Oakland, who played an excellent concert in place of Doctor Humphrey J. Stewart, Guido Deiro, piano accordionists, was one of the hits of the day. Deiro gave a half-hour concert of classical numbers, without even a ragtime selection as an encore. So insistent was the crowd the Deiro had one of the hardest afternoons of his career, and when he concluded the warmth of the afternoon and his exertions had given him the appearance of a man who had taken a shower bath fully clothed.

The crowd was one of the best of the year and was estimated at better than 8,000. The exhibit buildings were thronged during the day and the Isthmus had a big play.

Among the Exposition visitors yesterday were Mr. and Mrs. Irving J. Smith of Los Angeles. Mr. Smith is excursion manager of the Times-Mirror and predicts big Los Angeles travel for the remainder of the period.

July 11, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:6.

Local people support plan to keep Exposition; favor establishment of State Experiment Station.

Keep the gates of San Diego’s exposition open during 1917!

With this as a slogan, a large number of San Diegans were today discussing with interest The Sun’s exclusive story yesterday on plans for the maintenance of the exposition grounds next year.

Improvement clubs and civic organizations are today planning through the appointment of special exposition committees to cooperate with the exposition board, the city council and with others in this city, with a view to keeping the grounds in trim at the smallest possible expenditure.

State Senator Edgar Luce said today that he is heartily in accord with any effort that will bring to San Diego’s exposition a department of the state agricultural college. It is planned to have Senator Luce head the combined campaign of San Diegans at Sacramento for the establishment here of such a agricultural station. Ranchers in Southern California, it became known today, have been “sounded” as to their interest in an annual Southern California products fair at the exposition, and many of them have fallen in enthusiastically with the plan.

“While the permanent buildings at the exposition will always be there,” said Carl Heilbron, who is prominent in the movement to keep up the exposition grounds, “it will be a good many years before even the temporary structures crumble away. These, I believe, can be replaced from time to time; and renamed in honor of the loyal citizens who contribute to the work of reconstruction.”

It is planned to have the park board assume the expense of maintenance of the exposition grounds while the city council is to be asked to supply water free of charge.

July 11, 1916, San Diego Sun, 6. Writes in defense of Oregon boys.

Editor, Sun: The visiting Oregon militiamen who have been encamping here, arriving not long ago, have naturally tired of the constant camp routine and have sought recreation by visiting the local fair. A few days ago some of the boys were invited by a “California” showman to view a nude California girl for the price of “ten cents.” It was in a concession located on the Isthmus, known as “Midnight in Paris.” This was indeed a curiosity to some of the boys, as such exhibitions are unknown in their native state. It is only natural that out of any large body of men some will be found who would view such a disgusting exhibition. The interior of this show house is very small, accommodating only about 40 or 50 persons, and after investigation the writer has found from reports that there were only two of the shameless exhibitions viewed by the Oregon boys, and they were not all Oregon boys at that. For this and other reasons, it is respectfully requested that you withdraw your statement about the “howling mob of Oregon militiamen.” The boys of Oregon would ask if there has been any record of arrest for drunkenness or disorderly conduct, or any reports of same in this city.

It appears to the visiting troops that such a splendid fair as the local exhibition would offer some recreation other than dances now being conducted on some parts of the grounds, where one must mingle with an element beneath the moral standard of any respectable man. We wish to call your attention to that fact that a heavy percentage of the Oregon boys represent some of Oregon’s most prominent men. Should it become necessary for the “howling mob of Oregon militiamen: to shed blood for the protection of the “Native Sons,” we sincerely trust that the sacrifice will be received with more spirit than their entrance into this city. If it becomes necessary for the California militia to visit the state of Oregon, they are assured a warm and hearty welcome.

  1. A. Adams

July 11, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:6. CORRECTION: San Diego leads Los Angeles not in total permits issued, but in percent increase over 1915, according to figures of the California Development Board. Permits issued since the first of the year total $1,117,305.

July 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:6. Attorney James C. Needham chosen chairman of Republican Day at Exposition.

July 11, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 14:4-5. Freddie Olson, boy violinist, will direct Tommasino’s band today.

July 12, 1916, San Diego Sun, 6:3. Exposition commercial car endurance contest to be run from Los Angeles to Exposition, Friday and Saturday; Saturday named Commercial Vehicle Transportation Day; program of motor tests and novelty contests on motor demonstration field in afternoon; open-air ball in evening.

July 12, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:2-3.

Netherlands’ art exhibit to leave in three weeks.

The opportunity for viewing the $100,000 Netherlands art collection in the Fine Arts gallery at the Exposition will be offered only three more weeks. July 31 has been set as the date of departure for this collection of Dutch masterpieces.

Of all the paintings in the Netherlands collection it is doubtful if any have met with more popular approval than those of Herman Hayenbrock, known throughout Europe as the painter of the great industries. The paintings of this artist of men and machinery, of which “New Building,” “Steel Work,” “Belgian Colliery,” “Factory in Winter,” “Extinguishing Coke,” and “Belgian Glass Factory” form a part of the Netherlands collection are the result of an intensive study of conditions in the industries and factories of Europe.

Concerning the life and work of Hayenbrock, Miss Florence Larrabee Lattimore, art critic, writes in the “Survey” magazine:

“He wanted to demonstrate what may be called a twentieth-century genre — not the conventional genre showing the people in their cottages at homely tasks or a work in the fields, but a genre of the changed life, depicting the people as they were in the long days of labor in mines and factories and mills.

“To carry out his dream he needed a better understanding of the people and the best way to gain it was to study them at their tasks. So he picked up his easel and followed them into the great industries. From the Botinage he went into other mining and factory districts of Belgium. Then he sketched in the copper, iron and chemical works of Wales, Newcastle, Middlesborough and Glasgow. He traveled to Germany to visit the giant Krupp works at Essen and those of Horder Verein and then back to Belgium again. At Charleroi and Mariemont he gained vivid insight into the daily life of the children employed in the glass factories.”

July 12, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2-3. Conservatory of Music Day yesterday at Exposition.

July 12, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 10:1.

Feminine visitors admire two ocelot kittens at Exposition zoo.

Villas has been captured in Mexico and is in a cell at the Exposition. Along with him is Zapata, who has succumbed to the Americans. They were turned over to the Exposition authorities for exhibition yesterday after they had been taken in a fight fifty miles below Tijuana. They are known technically as ocelots, although Zoo Keeper Frank Coffman [sic] says they are a cross between a mountain lion and a lynx. The pair are about seven weeks old.

The two cunning little bandits were taken in a fight after the mother had killed a valuable colt belonging to an American resident. Later the three kittens were found and were stunned into submission.

Every feminine visitor to the Exposition zoo at the north end of the Isthmus wants to pet the “cunning little kittens.” Yesterday when this privilege was accorded Miss Elvira Kirchhoff, it resulted in Villa stabbing her hand and causing a stream of blood to flow. Villa and Zapata were promptly put into a sack and returned to their cell, where they are providing entertainment for Exposition visitors, along with the lions, leopards, hyenas, bears, and other Exposition animal celebrities.

July 12, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 14:2-5. Wilhelm Reiss collection is attracting many art lovers to German section of Foreign Arts building; portrait of Von Hindenburg at Fair.

The collection of paintings by Wilhelm Reiss, now on display in the German section of the Foreign Arts building, has attracted great attention during the last few days.

Included in the collection is a portrait of von Hindenburg by Karl Berg, which Reiss bought in 1914. This is a striking painting of the great German general and gives a true conception of the giant size of the German hero. While a Union photographers was photographing this likeness, a group of German women passed the painting and each, quietly believing herself unobserved, wafted a kiss toward the painting.

“Lobster Hole,” a painting of the rocks at Ocean Beach is one of the productions by Reiss, which was painted in May. “The Three Mourners” — a dog, squaw and horse at the grave of the Indian chief — was painted in 1894 in Wyoming, and is considered by Reiss one of his best. “The Doll Maker,” depicting an Arapaho Indian girl making an Indian doll, was painted in 1912 in Wyoming.

Reiss, in addition to being an artist of great ability, is the editor of the “People’s Post,” a monthly magazine published in Indianapolis. He has his studio in the exhibit section of the Foreign Arts building and may be found at work there displaying his paintings every day.

July 13, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:6. Troop A of cavalry at Exposition camp to be moved to a point on the border.

July 13, 1916, San Diego Sun, 4:2-3. James F. Brooks writes letter urging Exposition buildings be used for United States military and for an agricultural college.

July 13, 1916, San Diego Sun, 8:4. Burlesque horse derby on Isthmus Saturday night; famous scenes of Tijuana will be reproduced in minute detail; first event at 8:30 p.m.: a Shetland pony race of three heats — the length of the Isthmus — following moonlight dance on Plaza de Panama in honor of employees of Los Angeles stores; paddock being built in arena in front of ’49 camp; second race will be for saddle ponies; goats will provide motive power for last even with simians from free zoo doing the encouraging.

July 13, 1916, San Diego Sun, 8:4. Free night after 6 o’clock this evening; Tommasino’s Royal Italian band to give concert; dance at Cristobal Café; cabaret shows and movies on Isthmus free stage at 8:30.

July 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:6. Free admission at Fair tonight (Thursday); band concerts, entertainment by Spanish singers and dancers.

July 13, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:2. Bernice Pasquali, dramatic soprano, to sing at Fair, July 23.

July 13, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:5. Children are trained in Pepper Grove kindergarten; out-of-door school held on grounds surrounded with low fence, growing vines.

July 13, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 14:1. Informal opening of Tent City at Mission Beach Saturday.

July 14, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:2-3. Ohio Week at Exposition begins today.

July 15, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:1, 8:3. Community Center at Exposition, Plan.

The ball will be started rolling on Tuesday in the question of keeping the big exposition intact as a perpetual monument to the achievements of San Diego and Southern California.

Ever since The Sun opened the subject a week ago local citizens have been busy on the matter.

The Reverend R. D. Hollington has made a thorough and painstaking study of the whole subject. He is anxious to point out to members of the chamber of commerce and friends of the city and the exposition that there are many things in favor of making the exposition grounds and buildings into something permanent that few have thought of. He will tell about them at the Tuesday chamber of commerce luncheon at the San Diego grill.

Doctor Hollington’s plan, as indeed it is the plan of thousands of San Diegans, is to make the big place a community center for the culture and education of the Pacific coast.

This “community center” idea also embraces the formation here after the close of the exposition of a nucleus for a “University of the City of San Diego,” starting first on a modest scale and gradually working up in a period of years to a really large institution, the center of education and culture on the Pacific coast.

“Oakland paid some $2,000,000 for her auditorium. Other cities have expended similar amounts for other educational advantages,” said Doctor Hollington today. “If we were New York and wanted something like San Diego wants, it would cost us $20,000,000 to begin from the bottom.

“But here it is different. We have the grounds — beautiful grounds. And we have buildings on them that will last 20 or 25 years as they now stand, and in which our great undertaking could be started. As it progressed, the present structures could be replaced with new and permanent ones and thus eliminate the expense customary in starting such a big undertaking on a large and flashy scale.”

It is expected that the largest and most interested gathering of the year will be present to hear Doctor Hollington. It is a certainty, too, that following the many new, unthought of points he will present, the question will be taken up throughout the city with the enthusiasm that has made possible the original successful “dream city.”

July 16, 1916, San Diego Sun, 13:4. Great times at Exposition as many come.

The “Burlesque Derby,” which is to be offered on the Exposition Isthmus at 8:30 o’clock tonight, promises to be one of the greatest free amusement attractions every seen on the Joy Street, and is expected to prove the biggest feature of Ohio Day, Commercial Vehicle Transportation Day, and Los Angeles Stores Day, which are being observed today.

The Isthmus presents the scene of a veritable race track and the paddock in front of the ’49 camp, the judges’ stand near the Isthmus stage, and the “betting ring” at the head of the street provide the evidence to show that nothing has been overlooked to make the scene realistic and complete. Four events will compose the big racing card. The first will be a pony harness race of three heats; the second, a running handicap with ponies; the third, a sprint with donkeys, and the fourth or exposition handicap, a race between goats with monkey jockeys.

At 7:30 o’clock this evening there will be a grand moonlight dance on the Plaza de Panama in honor of the 2,000 employees of Los Angeles stores. The plaza has been attractively decorated, and spotlights have been placed which are expected to add to the beauty of the scene. From 9:15 to 10 o’clock free motion pictures will be shown on the Isthmus open stage, and at 10 o’clock there will be five dive exhibitions in the locks of the Panama Canal.

More than 20 trucks arrived at the Exposition this noon from Los Angeles on the Panama-California International Exposition commercial car endurance contest. This afternoon the final mechanical tests will be made on the motor demonstration field, and certificates of merit awarded by the Exposition to trucks who made a perfect score on the two-day run from Los Angeles. At the completion of the tests a program of novelty motor events was to take place on the demonstration field.

This afternoon on the Plaza de Panama the Ohio Day program was being held with special music and addresses. The speaker of the day is Judge William A. Spill, the silver-tongued orator of Ohio. From 4 o’clock until 5:30 there was to be a reception in the Woman’s Board Headquarters to all Ohio residents and former residents.

Mrs. Pope, who is in charge of the Aged People’s Day at the Exposition, Monday, July 17, has obtained the names of more than 100 aged persons who have expressed a desire to visit the Exposition. With this number of persons, many of whom have never had the opportunity to view the beautiful grounds and buildings, eager to make the trip, Mrs. Pope believes that the movement has proved itself a worthy one. Automobiles have not been offered in sufficient numbers to assure everyone of the 100 persons being cared for, and Mrs. Pope, at the Proctor telephone Main 1008 would appreciate the loan of automobiles for Monday morning.

July 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:2. Burlesque Derby at Exposition tonight; monkeys, donkeys and goats among speed burners.

July 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Exposition art collection is enriched; 35 new paintings added to $350,000 exhibit of Spanish paintings; gold medal winner added to Spanish exhibit; “The Brown Flower” and “The Key to the Bull Pen” are attracting much attention.

July 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Lecture program at New Mexico building; subjects for next week cover scenery, early history and industries of state.

July 15, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 14:3. Mission Beach opened to public today.

July 16, 1916, Los Angeles Times, 11:1. “Egyptian Wiggle” hangs woman jury.

San Diego, July 15. — Although an entire venire of women was called for the jury for the trial of Miss May Hayden, because it was thought her own sex would be more unbiased than the opposite sex in this particular trial, a hung jury left the case unsettled last night.

Miss Hayden was accused by Police Sergeant Ed Forbes, who arrested her, of dancing perfectly nude at the Paris After Midnight concession on the Isthmus at the exposition and of giving a lewd and dissolute exhibition.

Miss Hayden and her witnesses today denied that she did the “Egyptian wiggle” or “Harem Rotary,” as the policeman termed it, and said she merely ran across the stage to make her exit after posing as “Stella” in a picture.

She insisted to the satisfaction to some of the jury that she did wear “something known as a theatrical band” or guard. Walter W. Praul, her attorney, challenged so many of the venire women that a jury of but ten tried the case as no more women were present in Police Judge Puterbaugh’s courtroom.

July 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:3. Vaudeville actress says Fair fine site for Woman’s College.

July 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 9:1-4. New car line runs directly to Mission Beach Tent City.

July 17, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 6:1. Hugh J. Baldwin, former County superintendent of schools proposes State University branch for Exposition grounds.

July 18, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 14:3-4. Willis Polk, noted designer, praises California Building architecture.

Goodhue’s chief motif of the design of the Panama-California International Exposition — the California building, its tower an dome, and the quadrangle is, without the slightest doubt, the finest architectural expression in the whole world.

July 19, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:3-4. Madame Bernice de Pasquali to be heard at Exposition, July 23.

July 19, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:5. Dr. Hollington urges people at Chamber of Commerce luncheon to make Exposition permanent; wants Exposition center to be “the artistic, literary and musical center of Southern California; replace temporary buildings with concrete structures; use buildings as a civic center and as branch of University of California; turn Southern California Counties Building to a permanent auditorium..

July 19, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:3. Plans for Admission Day.

July 19, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:3. Kites will fly August 1.

July 19, 1916, San Diego Sun, 12:1-3. Art exhibition week of July 19 to 26.

July 19, 1916, San Diego Sun, 12:5. Exposition program.

July 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:4. Head of Indian affairs goes to Capitan Grande; Commissioner Sells refuses to discuss city’s plans to obtain reservoir site.

July 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Reverend R. D. Hollington, pastor of the First Methodist Church, urges turning the Exposition site into a civic center; municipality gain in rental saving shown; $250,000 in endowments promised.

July 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2-3. Mme. Pasqauli allowed to select two prisoners at San Quentin for pardon; to appear at Organ Sunday.

July 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. William E. Bowker asks for damages in the sum of $25,000 for alleged permanent injuries sustained by him while he was an employee of the Exposition through alleged malpractice of the Late Dr. Charles L. Caven, who was in charge of the Exposition emergency hospital..

July 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Catholic Days at Exposition, August 12-13; YMI drill team from Los Angeles to be present; big mass planned.

July 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Rehearsals are being held daily at Berkeley for the big Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn pageant. “The Life and After-Life of Greece, Indian and Egypt.”

July 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5-6. Big noise at Isthmus Saturday night.

July 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:6. More than 100 aged people view Exposition as guests Mrs. B. M. Pope.

July 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:8. Free night set aside at Exposition; dance is feature.

July 19, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:3-6. Democrats hold stage center at Exposition yesterday; Senatorial candidate George S. Patton was chief speaker.

July 20, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:4. Dances featured at Exposition free night.

July 20, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:6. Cut children’s admission charge.

July 20, 1916, San Diego Sun, 8:5. Exposition as place for boxing bouts.

July 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3, 2:6. Noise-making devices to be unleashed on Exposition Saturday night.

July 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:3-5. San Diegans rallying to plan to make buildings at Exposition part of a civic center.

July 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2-5. Free kites for boys at Exposition today; lots of fun promised at competition, August 2.

July 21, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 5:3. Dance tonight free to all.

July 21, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 5:5. Dancers coming from Brazil.

July 21, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 6:1. Ruth St. Denis to dance at Exposition.

July 21, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 6:5. Madame Pasquali here for concert.

July 21, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:1. Grand ball tonight at Exposition; “corn dance” and barbecue will be held in the Painted Desert tomorrow night; 259 paintings by American artists, from the Trask collection, will be displayed in the Fine Arts Gallery for several weeks, beginning August 1..

July 21, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:3-6. Prominent businessmen oppose plan to establish municipal civic center on site after Exposition is over; John Forward, Jr., George W. Marston, C. L. Williams, Carl H. Ferris express opposition..

July 21, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:3. Souvenir ball at Fair tonight; no admission to be charged; arrangements have been made to care for 10,000 visitors.

July 21, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 14:2. Two Negro orators to speak at Exposition; colored residents of Los Angeles and San Diego to celebrate here on Sunday..

July 21, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 14:3. Brazilian dancers to come to Fair in August.

July 22, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune. Pasquali concert to be feature tomorrow.

July 22, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:2. Citizens plan permanent Exposition.

July 22, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:5. Exposition program.

July 22, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:6. Noise will be kind at Exposition tonight.

July 22, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:4. Automobile Day at Exposition.

July 22, 1916, San Diego Sun, 12:5-6. Art and Artists at Exposition (week of July 24 to 31), by Beatric de Lack Krombach: Spanish artists in the furthest corner of the Foreign Arts building.

Our final conclusions reached from viewing this collection is that it is excellent and instructive — that the artists of Spain prefer figures, as did their forebears; that land and seascapes are not a much loved subject with them — and that they should by all means be placed where they may be seen to better advantage.

July 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 9:3. Society women will assist in pageant to be presented at Exposition August 5; Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn at head of spectacle depicting wonderful dances.

July 24, 1916. (712.5) Exposition: Letters and Minutes/Committee of Preservation of Exposition Buildings

Minutes of general committee to discuss preservation of present exposition grounds and buildings; reference made to play of Rev. R. D. Hollington as recited in his address before the Chamber of Commerce, July 21, 1916; first official meeting of general committee to be held August 3, 1916.

July 24, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 6:5.

Madame Pasquali heard by an estimated 10,000.

Mme. Bernice de Pasquali’s concert at the exposition organ pavilion yesterday proved one of the greatest musical events at this famous out-door concert pavilion. An audience estimated at 10,000 persons was held throughout her generous and varied program, and then was loath to leave without further numbers, so entranced they had become with the rippling song of the coloratura soprano, Metropolitan prima donna.

Mme. De Pasquali was accompanied by S. Camillo Engel at the piano, Mrs. Freida Foote Chapman with the violin, and Warren D. Allen at the organ. Tommasino’s Italian band also contributed to the program, and in one instance served as accompaniment to Mme. de Pasquali. This was when the band played “Star Spangled Banner” at the close of the program and the singer was heard singing it within the organ pavilion.

A remarkable feature of the concert was that the rare quality of the singer’s song was not lost in the wide expanse of the open-air pavilion, her voice carrying to its far reaches with fine clearness.

July 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Madame Bernice de Pasquali, prima donna, is heard by 10,000 at Exposition.

July 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2-4. Burro is first prize in kite contest; many other valuable awards offered.

July 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Auto Day at Exposition.

July 25, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:1. A committee consisting of Carl Heilbron, chairman, Julius Wangenheim and Stanley Hale appointed today at meeting of seven delegates from Chamber of Commerce, Cabrillo Commercial Club and others to investigate the phases of maintenance of San Diego’s Exposition buildings and grounds after 1916; proposal to incorporate the Exposition as part of the city park system leaving the cost of maintenance to the Park Board, and looking to the city to supply water for the grounds free of charge.

July 25, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:4. Plan to preserve Exposition buildings; committees appointed at meeting of civic bodies, will report August 3.

July 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:2-3. Mrs. Maud Godelia Magee, contralto, sang at Exposition yesterday during farewell concert of Warren D. Allen, a San Jose organist.

July 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1. Kettners to have Exposition Day if plan carries.

July 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:2. One hundred pretty girls to aid dance spectacle.

July 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:3. Negroes enjoy day at Exposition; hundreds attend barbecue and hear addresses by members of own race.

The principal event in the evening was the address on “The daring charge of the black regiments at San Juan Hill in 1898,” by the Rev. J. Gordon McPherson, nationally known as the “Fighting Parson,” and the “Black Billy Sunday.”

July 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:4. Los Angeles Elks to be honored at Exposition.

July 26, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 10:2-4. Eagle dance to be given on Isthmus; three new lion cubs to join zoo at Exposition; amateur night program offers visitors much amusement.

July 27, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 1:4. Park work hampered by city law.

The good work of the park board bids fair to be disrupted through civil service activity, according to Carl I. Ferris, a member of the park commission. The civil service board has called an examination for general foreman to be held August 24. The park board yesterday asked the council to exempt General Foreman F. A. Bode and nine other employees from civil service rules because of their efficiency. This the council refused.

The park commission requires efficiency and does not question an employee’s place of residence or nationality, according to Commissioner Ferris. All employees have for several years resided in or near San Diego, he claims.

Park Commissioner Ferris said this morning he was under the impression that when the council was ready to act the park commissioners would be notified so they could be heard. Instead the board was not represented when the matter was considered by the council yesterday afternoon. Ferris said he would ask that it be reconsidered so the commissioners could state their reasons why the present force should be continued. The request that they be exempted from civil service rules was in writing. Ferris declared the council could do this by ordinance.

In addition to calling an examination for general foreman, Secretary Ernest Davies stated this morning that this would be followed with examination for gardeners and other employees.

According to Park Commissioner Ferris the technicalities by which at least six park employees may be barred from the examination include non-residence and non-citizenship. Three employees live in Normal Heights, just outside the city. This could be overlooked by ordinance, according to Ferris. A half dozen employees have taken out their first naturalization papers and must wait a certain time before they are granted full citizenship.

“The park forces are well organized and it appears to me to be foolish to disrupt all that has been accomplished by the present force,” said Commissioner Ferris.

“There is no better man to be found in San Diego or elsewhere for that matter than Foreman Bode. He was in charge of the exposition grounds for Frank P. Allen when the present commission took over the park. Perhaps the only men in the city who might qualify are Otto and Bernard, and I doubt if they would give up their business for $100 a month salary. It is true that Bode lives in Normal Heights as well as do some of the others. They spend their money in San Diego and Normal Heights should be regarded as a part of San Diego.

“Sam Harvey is an expert powder man. He is a Canadian who has taken out his first papers. He also lives in Normal Heights. We know that he is an expert and the board does not feel like trusting such risky work to someone who might be able to answer questions but not be able to protect the lives of a number of workmen. We know that all the men under us are efficient, for if they were not they would not be kept on the payroll.

“A visit to the park and exposition grounds would satisfy any resident that the park board has in its employ only men who know their business and who do not shirk. The civil service board might send us some man who has successfully passed a technical examination, yet he might not be able to do the work to the satisfaction of the park commissioners.”

In all ten men are involved by the council’s ruling. They are F. A. Bode, R. Grah, G. Call, Sam Harvey, C. Battista, G. Sharp, A. Stark, A. Anderson, W. M. Harrah and D. C. Pereler.

Bode has been the general foreman of the park department since February 1, 1915. Prior to that he was foreman of the nursery at the exposition. He is regarded as an expert in floriculture and horticulture.

Grah had charge of the botanical building at the exposition. He worked at the exposition from January, 1912 to February 1, when he was transferred to the park.

Sam Harvey has been with the park board three years and is regarded as a fine gardener.

Harrah and Battista have been with the park over three years. The latter is a blacksmith and looks after the repair of park tools.

Sharp has been a gardener in the park for three years.

Stark has been in the park over four years. He is an expert on lawns and has charge of the sprinkling service.

Anderson and Peveler have been worked on the exposition grounds two years and have been with the park since last February.

Gall is an expert tree pruner who has been regarded as one of the best men of the department.

July 28, 1916, Minutes of Board of Park Commissioners:

International Harvester requested privilege of selling and removing Company’s building and shed, now situated on Exposition grounds; granted, but buildings not to be removed until after the Exposition.

Request from Exposition for privilege of installing tennis courts on Plaza de Panama denied.

Chamber of Commerce requested camping ground inside Balboa Park; suitable camping grounds now provided by the Exposition for the accommodation of automobile parties; no action on request until after Exposition.

July 29, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 2:8.

Signor Giovacchini to give opera recital.

The half our operatic recital to be given at the exposition organ pavilion tomorrow afternoon at 3 o’clock b Signor Michele Giovacchini, dramatic baritone, will mark the appearance of one of the most popular present-day opera singers of the United States.

Of Signor Giovacchini’s voice the Chicago Tribune recently said: “Mr. Giovacchini’s voice is warm and sympathetic. It is well schooled and faultlessly controlled. It accomplishes every dynamic nuance with ease and becomes the servant of an admirable interpretive intention.” The San Francisco Examiner said: Giovacchini is a genuine artist, worthy of any baritone place in the Metropolitan.

Giovacchini studies seven years in Bologna, under the great maestro and composer, Donzelli, a brilliant pupil of Rossini, and made his debut in Pavia 24 years ago. After spending eight years in Spain, in which country he sang a repertoire of 50 operas, he came to Mexico City with a noted Italian grand opera company headed by Helen Fons, the greatest genuine Spanish “Carmen.” At the outbreak of the revolution the company disbanded and Giovacchini joined the Lombardi opera company in San Francisco.

Signor Giovacchini will be accompanied in tomorrow’s recital by Charles R. Stickney on the piano, and will sing among other selections the “Canzone-Barcarola” from “Gioconda: (Ponchielli), Tosti’s “Serenade” and the “Credo-Monologue” from “Otello” ( G. Verdi).

July 29, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 16:4. Visiting Elks join in big carnival.

July 29, 1916, San Diego Sun, 12:5-6. Art and Artists.

July 29, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:2-3. Elks will take charge of Exposition today.

July 29, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 10:1. Signor Michele Giovacchini, baritone, to sing at organ recital tomorrow afternoon.

July 30, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4, 6:1. Joy reigns supreme at Exposition as Los Angeles Elks celebrate; merriment reaches zenith during races and baseball game.

July 30, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1.

ON THE MARGIN, by Yorick: The romance of a heroic age is written by this architecture.

San Diegans who love their city, who have faith in its destiny, and glory in its inspiring traditions, will welcome two sumptuous volumes issued by the press of Paul Elder and Company of San Francisco descriptive of the salient architectural and garden features of the Panama-California Exposition, Historically San Diego is the genesis of all things Californian; the Panama-California Exposition is a culminating memorial of this history stretching across five generations from Junipero Serra to G. Aubrey Davidson — a retrospect, a fulfillment and a promise. Or if we would go back to the beginning, we may trace the lineage of the city to the vague vision of Balboa when with eagle eyes he stared at the Pacific; or to the far-flung ambition of Cortez dreaming of empire on these mysterious shores of El Dorado; and we may date the reality coincident with the coming of Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, more than three centuries before the American flag was raised at the Old Town of San Diego — more than two centuries before Padre Serra planted the palms that mark the place where he founded the Mission of San Diego de Alcala.

Books That Tell the Story

The books published by the Elder company deal chiefly with the esthetic features of the San Diego Exposition. The volume entitled, “The San Diego Garden Fair,” was written by Eugen Neuhaus, assistant professor of decorative design at the University of California, from personal impressions of the architecture, sculpture, horticulture, color scheme, and other esthetic aspects of the Exposition. The later publication, entitled “The Architecture and the Gardens of the San Diego Exposition” is a pictorial survey described by Carleton Monroe Winslow, together with an essay by Clarence S. Stein, with an introduction by Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, advisory and consulting architect of the Exposition, and illustrated from photographs by Harold A. Taylor. Both works are authoritative, but the last named is explicitly so, and we are informed as to the designers and builders of each structure — a phase of the great enterprise that has been but vaguely comprehended even in San Diego. We now know, for example, that the permanent buildings of the California Quadrangle, the California State building, and the Fine Arts building, were from the designs of Architect Goodhue; that the noble approach to the Exposition from the west, across the Puente Cabrillo, was designed and constructed by Frank P. Allen, Jr., director of works, who also designed and laid out the pergolas and walks of the Montezuma Gardens; that the Administration building and the Foreign Arts building were designed by Carleton M. Winslow, as was the Serra Memorial at the end of the chapel apse of the Foreign and Domestic building, facing the Botanical Garden; that the landscape gardening is largely the work of John Morley, the superintendent of parks; that nearly all the decorative features were designed and modeled by the Piccirilli brothers, New York sculptors; and that John Olmsted was the consulting landscape architect. Nothing has been omitted except the myriad detail which, after the general effect, engages the delighted attention of the observer, be he connoisseur, amateur, or uninstructed layman. But what the text cannot depict the Taylor photographs amply supply to the finest minutiae of line and form. Those pictures, of which there are sixty-nine in the volume of Architecture and thirty-two in the book of the Garden Fair, are more than admirable. Each little illustration is a little work of art which will serve as a fond recollection and cherished souvenir for this generation of San Diegans and all who have found their idea of rest and beauty amid the gardens and palaces of this unique Exposition; and when posterity shall look back to this event in the city’s history, they will see it as we saw it, but mellowed and interpreted through an artist’s vision.

July 30, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1. Felix Peano, local sculptor, makes improvement upon lost-wax molding process.

July 30, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 1:6. Michele Giovacchini, noted baritone, to give half-hour free recital at the Organ Pavilion today; a reception in his honor will be held at the Woman’s Board Headquarters at 4 o’clock.

Signor Giovacchini is a big man, weighing 262 pounds, and possesses a voice of immense volume which is admirably suited to open-air singing and to the renditions of operatic selections which require a dramatic interpretation. Although his voice is one of unusual power, it is smooth and well modulated, warm and sympathetic.

July 31, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3-4. Hundreds of autoists given Exposition’s bronze button.

July 31, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Music was chief Exposition attraction yesterday; half-hour program of operatic music given by Signor Giovacchini in afternoon; many take advantage of last opportunity to view the Netherlands paintings.

July 31, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:5. Automobile Day at Exposition; varied program arranged for motorists and invalids.

July 31, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:6. “Group of Cattle” by Hendrikus Alexander van Ingen, the honor painting of the Netherlands art collection, has passed into the private art collection of Appleton S. Bridges of Point Loma.


August 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Fifteen hundred kites expected to fly; Chinatown will send unique designs; children’s gala day at Exposition tomorrow to begin at l o’clock.

August 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:3-5. Russian carved toys at Exposition valued at $20,000; odd amusement devices in lot.

August 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:6. Ted Shawn, who studied for ministry, says his mission is to express religion in dance.

August 2, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 12:1. Kites dot Exposition skyline.

August 2, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:4-8. Art and Artists, week of August 2 to 9.

August 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:1. Fleet of kites to hover over Exposition today; expected greater part of 4,000 contributed will be represented in contest; Chinatown to take part

August 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:2. “The Life and After-Life of Greece, Egypt and India,” dance success from Greek Theater in Berkeley with Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn to be repeated here; local dancers to assist.

August 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:2. Reunion dinner in Cristobal café Friday night of those who took part in April tour of “Thank You Special.”

August 2, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 10:3. Miss Viola Le Clair to christen three baby lions at Exposition tonight.

August 3, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 2:5. Kites dot sky.

August 3, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:1. Kite Day voted success.

August 3, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:2. Permanent Exposition plans underway.

August 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3, 5:1. Squadron of kites swarm in sky at the Exposition; boy, 13, wins burro as first prize in contest; design made of postage stamp given palm of victory in race of small fliers..

August 3, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 9:2. Exposition building committee to meet; Lyman J. Gage expected to head organization.

August 4, 1916, Los Angeles Times, 6:4. Act to Preserve the Exposition; Former Secretary Gage heads general committee.

San Diego, August 3. — The first definite step toward retaining permanently the beautiful grounds of the Panama-California International Exposition in their integrity, with the buildings subservient to the general scheme, were taken today by representative San Diegans.

Lyman S. Gage, former Secretary of the United States Treasury, was elected chairman of the general committee of the organization formed today to preserve the exposition permanently. Earl F. Drake was elected secretary. Mayor Capps and other members of the civic government, representatives of the Chamber of Commerce and other business organizations and musical organizations, the San Diego Historical Society, the Art Guild and many other organizations were represented at the meeting.

A report submitted by Julius Wangenheim, Carl H. Heilbron and Stanley Hale urged the preservation of the gardens as a whole, with the buildings subservient for an auditorium, a hall for grand opera, an art gallery, a museum and similar purposes.

August 4, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 7:3. Dance pageant rehearsals begin.

August 4, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:1-2. Permanent Exposition plans: Lyman G. Gage chosen general chairman of committee; Earl F. Drake, permanent secretary; special committee composed of Heilbron, Hale and Wangenheim reported: “We believe the integrity of the park should be preserved and that the buildings should be incidental to park treatment, if not necessarily to park purposes. We believe that to this end the street effect should be broken up and that the planted section of the park to the north and south brought within the general scheme, and the road system adapted to park requirements.”

August 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:3-5. “Les Cohortes,” carpet ordered made in Tournay by Napoleon for the palace of Meudon, prize of French exhibit at Fair; four silk Gobelin tapestries also have places of honor in California building at Exposition.

August 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. John E. D. Trask, new chief of fine arts exhibit at San Diego, arrives at Exposition; brings with him between 300 and 400 paintings by American contemporary artists.

August 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:1. General committee considering future use of Exposition buildings urges study of park problem; report of special committee establishing guidelines unanimously adopted.

August 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:4. Heavy calls for tickets to new dance pageant; music especially written for Miss St. Denis will be played by large orchestra.

August 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:8. To baby deer have been loaned to the Exposition and have been placed in Pepper Grove.

August 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:2. Two special dinners at Cristobal tonight; “Thank You Special” banquet and Society Souvenir dance to be given.

August 5, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 2:7-8. Dancers to give pageant tonight.

August 5, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 8:2. Plan to exempt park employees from examination.

August 5, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:6-8. Art and Artists, week of August 5 to 12.

August 5, 1916, San Diego Sun, 8:1. Dancers to appear at Organ Pavilion.

August 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:6.

Women jurors fail to convict “Stella” poser; second trail of girl accused of appearing in nude ends in disagreement.

For the second time in a month a jury of women in Justice George Puterbaugh’s court yesterday failed to convict Miss Linda Weatherbee, also known as May Hayden. The jury disagreed and was discharged.

On the complaint of Sergeant E. F. Forbes of the police department, Miss Weatherbee was arrested July 3, after a performance at the Paris After Midnight concession, where it is alleged she posed in the nude as “Stella.”

The first jury, also entirely of women, failed to agree. At the second trial of the case yesterday nine women composed the jury. They were said to stand seven to two for acquittal.

The members of the jury yesterday were: Mrs. J. Fishburn, Mrs. George Swain, Mrs. Ida Stickney, Mrs. Hilda Temple, Mrs. H. G. Muller, Mrs. W. J. Fulkerson, Mrs. L. Greene, Mrs. W. C. Cling, and Mrs. E. Graham.

Several police officers who testified yesterday were of the opinion that Miss Weatherbee appeared to be nude. Members of the Oregon cavalry camp testified that the lights were turned dim and they were unable to tell whether there was a violation of the law or not. The soldiers testified that Miss Weatherbee did not perform any objectionable dances. Other performers at the Paris After Midnight show said that Miss Weatherbee wore a flesh-colored piece of satin.

The jury was out for about two hours and when it was reported that the members were not able to agree, it was dismissed by Judge Puterbaugh. It is unlikely that the case will be tried again, according to police officers.

August 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2-6. Classic dancers would bar free spectators; Exposition compelled to rope off space at Organ Pavilion.

August 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:2. Five thousand cheer Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn dance pageant; glory and fall of Egypt depicted; East Indian idea of reincarnation presented..

August 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1-3. Fort Rosecrans defeats Oregon National Guardsmen at push ball.

August 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 9:2. State treasurer and family motor to Exposition.

August 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 9:2. Glacier National Park subject of lecture in Montana building tomorrow morning.

August 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 9:3. High churchmen to officiate at Military Mass next Sunday, Catholic Day.

August 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 9:4 Auto and Invalid Day at Exposition tomorrow

August 6, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 11:1. Famous Trask collection of paintings on view at Fine Arts Gallery today.

August 6, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 11:1. Dr. George Wharton James to take in New Mexico building today.

August 6, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 11:1. Otto Jeancon will sing with Tommasino’s band this afternoon.

August 6, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 11:2. Big Elks’ Days at Exposition planned, October 9 and 10.

August 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Miss Dorothy English will whistle at souvenir ball tonight; attendance at dance will be free; moon will provide the light.

August 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Eight pretty young women to officiate at open-air Catholic Day ball on the Plaza de Panama Saturday night.

August 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Hawaii Day at Exposition November 16.

August 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Crippled Children’s Day at Exposition being planned.

August 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Chula Vista man given Exposition bronze button; Mr. and Mrs. T. B. Frost are awarded trophy after making boost trip to Iowa.

August 9, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 6:6. Trask collection of paintings attracts much attention.

August 9, 1916, 9:4. L. J. Wilde again taking over presidency of United States National Bank; Frank C. Spauling retiring; stockholders also elect Fred Jewell, vice president and chairman of the board; J. G. Cash, vice president; Alexander Reynolds, Jr., cashier; Earl I. McClintock, assistant cashier; U. S. Grant, Jr.; Matthew E. Gleason, James H. Holmes, August Schizenbrenner, and Charles P. Pritchard.

August 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Hundreds of visitors praise Trask art collection in Fine Arts Gallery: “Dorothea and Francesca,” by Cecilia Beaux placed in first rank by critic; 400 canvases are shown.

Of the California painters in the Fine Arts gallery, Arthur F. Mathews and Joseph Raphael are well known in art circles.

August 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Carl I. Ferris appointed assistant to President G. A. Davidson.

August 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:2-3. Mass in planned at Organ Pavilion; Y. M. I. drill team and band of Los Angeles also feature of Catholic Day celebration.

August 10, 1916, (712.5) Exposition: Letters and Minutes/Committee of Preservation of Exposition Buildings:

Meeting of General Committee and Executive Committee . . . Chairman, Lyman J. Gage; Secretary, Earl F. Drake; members: Julius Wangenheim, George W. Marston, G. Aubrey Davidson, Dr. R. D. Hollington, Carl H. Heilbron, W. S. Dorland and Stanley Hale.

Mrs. Fred W. Buskirk and Mrs. E. I. Kendall added to committee.

Hollington wanted Administration Building used as a temporary city hall and other buildings used for a city university.

August 10, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1. Presidential candidate Charles Evans Hughes to speak at city stadium Monday afternoon, August 21, admission free.

August 11, 1916, (712.5) Minutes of First Meeting of Executive Committee; Lyman J. Gage elected permanent chairman and Earl Drake secretary; Wangenheim, Marston, Hollington, Hale, Heilbron and Dorland present; committee adopted as its name “Committee on Preservation of Exposition Buildings”; committee of three appointed to report on physical condition of buildings: George W. Marston, Carl H. Heilbron and W. S. Dorland.

August 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. President Davidson seeks to have marines return to Exposition; cruisers Maryland and Pittsburg will be here Saturday from Mexican waters.

August 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:1. Republican presidential candidate Hughes to be center of Exposition program, August 21; bid day planned for Republican Presidential candidate by Exposition; Ellen Beach Yaw to sing a special solo as part of the program to be offered on the Exposition grounds.

August 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:4. Catholic Day committees attend to details for Saturday and Sunday celebration..

August 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:5. Meeting at Chamber of Commerce to discuss plans to preserve Exposition buildings; executive committee chosen.

August 12, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:1-6. Art and Artists, week of August 12 to 19.

“Black, Gray and Rose,” by F. Luis More.

Continued study of the present exhibition in the Fine Arts building brings appreciation of the unusual catholicity of selection evidenced throughout the entire exhibition.

Have you been to see the potter cast his clay in the Southern California building?

August 12, 1916, San Diego Sun, 13:1-3. Catholic and State Society Day.

August 12, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Brazilian officials coming to Exposition.

August 12, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2-3. Today and Sunday Catholic Days at Exposition.

August 12, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:4. To engrave spade used by Hughes in planting oak August 21 on the lawn back of the Montezuma gardens; Commerce Chamber to keep implement used by candidate in historic function.

August 12, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:5. Preservation committee organizes: Lyman J. Gage selected chairman and Earl F. Drake made secretary yesterday; sub-committee composed of G. W. Marston, Carl H. Heilbron and W. S. Dorland to report on condition of Exposition buildings and probable cost of their upkeep.

August 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:3. Hockey game will be played at the Exposition ice rink Wednesday night between the Oregon Cavalry Troop and the San Diego Exposition team.

August 13,1916, San Diego Union, 2:45-. Trask paintings on display at Exposition, fount for study.

August 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:1-4. Y.M.I. drill teams wins applause at Exposition; Catholic Day celebration draws crowds; military mass today.

August 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:2, 5:1-4. Spirit of early days clothes military mass; thousands attend services at Organ Pavilion.

August 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:6. Billy Webber the “Human Fly” to scale California tower at Exposition tonight.

August 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:5-6. Playground Commissioners and Superintendent Frank Marsh’s summer work in establishing a mountain resort at Descanso praised by E. R. W.

August 15, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:7. Lyman G. Gage, chairman of committee on preservation of Exposition buildings sends letter to Sun asking readers for suggestions.

August 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Poppy Glide Dance attraction on Admission Day.

August 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Hughes guest of Exposition Monday; Republican candidate will be at the Exposition for one hour; following the address in the stadium, he will go to the Exposition for the exercises which have been arranged in his honor.

August 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Cristobal will stage cabaret potpourri; “ginery, raggy, dancy” music promised.

August 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Moonlight dance on Plaza de Panama Wednesday night.

August 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Saturday Riverside day at Exposition.

August 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Lodge men pitch tents at marine camp; Fraternal Brotherhood Day to be observed Saturday..

August 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Throng watches “human fly” scale California tower; task requires half an hour; uses rope to climb up smooth sides..

August 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:1, 2:1-2. Hughes to speak at Exposition; no admission will be charged at Exposition gates; buttons to be sold as means of repaying the expense of bringing visitor to city.

The Exposition gates will be thrown wide open an hour before he begins to talk, and every man, woman or child that wants to hear Mr. Hughes is invited to walk in without paying a cent.

August 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:2. Complete plans for cat exhibit; felines from all over West expected to compete in big show at Exposition, August 21-23.

August 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:3. Hockey teams will cross sticks at Ice Rink this evening.

August 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:4 Tea and reception of John Doane after his final recital at the Exposition organ.

August 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:5. Cristobal gets cabaret acts of high standard; four new excellent turns will be seen at Café beginning tomorrow.

August 17, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners: Board hoped Southern Counties Commission would present buildings to park; Commission would be allowed to maintain exhibits in buildings indefinitely.

August 17, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:5. Sara Bard Field, suffrage worker, will speak at Organ Pavilion this afternoon.

August 17, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:5. Brazilian dancers to appear tonight.

August 18, 1916, (712.5) Minutes of Executive Committee for Preservation of Buildings: Marston reported on his interview with G. E. Chase, general foreman of construction, employed by Frank Allen; Chase said buildings with proper care would all stand for fifty years; the walls were in good shape, but stucco ornament and roofs needed repairs.

August 18, 1916, San Diego Sun. Hughes tries for peace in California politics; regular Republicans and ex-Moose row problem before him, by Perry Arnold.

August 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4, 5:5. Miss Sara Bard Field, speaker of the Women’s Congressional Union, addresses audience of 1,000 persons at Exposition during meeting for nation-wide suffrage for women; war upon Democratic party is battle cry..

August 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:2-3. Cabaret acts de luxe at Cristobal Café; Margot and Milton, dances from Brazil, scored a hit.

August 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:3-5. Drill teams of Fraternal Brotherhood to compete for Exposition loving cup; hundreds expected tomorrow for special day; will reinforce campers at barracks.

August 19, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:5-7. Hughes to be our guest; royal welcome planned; Hughes won’t meddle with California feud; fight with democrats is only one he’s interested in, by Perry Arnold.

August 19, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:7. Welcome to Hughes will be hearty; busy time planned Monday for presidential candidate.

August 19, 1916, San Diego Sun, 4:3-7. What about these Mr. Hughes? (reprint from St. Louis Republic).

August 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Fire Chief’s Day at Exposition Friday.

August 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1-4. The North for thrilling athletic contests at the stadium today; fast bouts as coast’s meet opens; enthusiastic fight fans witness thrilling contests; San Diego represented on program; only 9 fights waged.

August 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:4. Fair preservation subject of report from George W. Marston; part of buildings can be saved; committee will employ an expert to make a more extended and technical examination and report on the cost of repair and restoration.

August 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:2-6, 3:1-4. Records shattered in Amateur Athletic Union track and field meet in the San Diego stadium yesterday afternoon.

August 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:4-5. Five hundred fire-fighters expected at Exposition tomorrow.

August 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:3. Music to feature opening of Irish Day at Exposition; songs of Erin will be given at Fair today.

August 21, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:3. Candidate Hughes in action here today.

August 21, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:3. Hughes to meet the Governor? Didn’t known Johnson was in the same hotel with him yesterday, by Perry Arnold.

August 21, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:4-5. Sidelights on Hughes visit.

August 21, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:6. Questions submitted to Hughes; local Germans ask candidate his views on “Open Door.”

August 21, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:7-8. Candidate enjoying visit in Exposition City; speaks at the Fair; by Charles M. Raymond.

August 21, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:1-4. “Yes!” or “No!” Mr. Hughes?

August 21, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:3-4. Deeds vs. Talk: In the fall of 195, President Wilson made a special trip from Washington to Princeton to register and another special trip to vote for VOTES FOR WOMEN.

August 21, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:5-6. Oregon regiment to get $62,000 today, representing two months’ pay of the 1200 troops stationed at Imperial Beach; expected to stay at Imperial Beach until November; officers of the regiment say that approximately $31,000 a month is spent in San Diego for provisions and supplies.

August 21, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:7-8, 2:3. Charles Evans Hughes to be San Diego’s guest at Hughes Day; Exposition gates will be thrown open to public at 12:30 with no admission to hear Republican candidate speak; parade will start from Santa Fe station at 10 o’clock; Point Loma trip and other entertainments prepared.

August 21, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Irish fete at Exposition.

August 21, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:1. Wonderful meet, verdict for the stadium event, athletes enthusiastic over track, field and boxing contest held in San Diego.

August 21, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:4. Boosters for 1916 Fair back from trip to Atlantic states.

August 22, 1916, Los Angeles Times, 5:1-5. Visit of Hughes marks Exposition’s greatest day; 25,000 persons, record admission.

San Diego, August 21.

— A period of unalloyed pleasure, one that made me forget the labors of the campaign is the way Charles Evans Hughes described his day at the exposition. For the San Diegans it was also a red-letter day, for the largest crowd that was ever within the gates turned out to see and hear the Republican candidate for President and his charming wife. More than 50,000 passed through the gates, and an eager crowd of 25,000, the largest the standard bearer had addressed up to that time during his tour, packed and jammed the big, open-air organ pavilion, the peristyles of the organ and every available space within hearing distance, when Mr. Hughes made his address this afternoon.

From 9 o’clock in the morning until 1:30, the time of the speech, at least 1,000 persons sat patiently waiting in the sun to hear Mr. Hughes. They came early to get seats and had their lunches with them in boxes. And they were well repaid, judging from the enthusiastic shouts and applause with which they greeted Mr. and Mrs. Hughes and punctuated his address.

Many who did not get close enough to hear the speech had the pleasure of shaking hands with Mr. and Mrs. Hughes at the great public reception of the plaza, and so it was a red-letter day for them, too.

And if the San Diegans were happy, the guests of honor, Mr. and Mrs. Hughes were equally so, and entered into the program prepared for them with all their hearts. They were graciousness personified, and whether it was shaking hands by the hour with countless people, posing for kodak fiends, viewing the exposition, visiting with the Indians of the Painted Desert, or watching the Hawaiian hula hula girls and the Spanish senoritas dance, the were intensely interested and pleased.

If San Diegans thought the Presidential candidate is cold and haughty, the idea was dispelled today a hundred different times. As the auto bearing Mr. Hughes to the exposition was passing the Grant Hotel this morning a good-natured Irishman from the crowd on the sidewalk shouted:

“Have you seen the harbor yet, Mr. Hughes?”

And the former Justice smilingly nodded that he had. Later he referred to the incident to those about him as the best thing he had heard today. Again he said in his address he was glad to be able to say he had seen the magnificent harbor, which he described as a great national asset.

Their graciousness was seen again when Mr. and Mrs. Hughes posed repeatedly for people with kodaks, while seeing the Point Loma view. When in front of the old lighthouse, Mr. Hughes posed, as requested for some kodaks, and then as he was leaving an eager mother rushed up and asked him if he would please pose with her little boy, and he did with the same happy manner.

At 5:30 o’clock this morning the Hughes train arrived and by 8:30 o’clock Mr. Hughes was ready for the day’s program, having had breakfast on the train, prepared under the direction of Mrs. Hughes, who assumes personal charge of every meal served aboard the train to her husband.

Shortly after 9 o’clock, the distinguished visitors were greeted by President and Mrs. G. A. Davidson of the exposition, John A. Akerman, chairman of the committee in charge; Mrs., Akerman and the reception committees and the woman’s board for the exposition. Mrs. Hughes was presented with a huge bouquet of carnations by the woman’s board. The visitors were then whirled away for a drive to Point Loma and Fort Rosecrans escorted by eighty members of the reception committee.

They viewed the beautiful scene of city, harbor, ocean and the Coronado islands in the distance, while numerous aeroplanes from the government aviation camp at North Island whirred over their heads.

“Wonderful, wonderful!” said Mr. Hughes, and he then fired question after question at Colonel W. A. Glassford, commander of the North Island aviation school, who was in the party.

The same keen interest was displayed by him at the exposition where the high cultivation of the shrubbery and plants in so short a period seemed to impress him strongly.

At 10 o’clock they returned to the train and Mr. and Mrs. Hughes were transferred to an elaborately flower-decked auto, which carried them to the exposition. All along the way of the procession of automobiles the crowds on the streets shouted and waved to Mr. and Mrs. Hughes, who smiled and bowed in a pleasant manner.

The distinguished guests were quickly taken through the French building and to the beautiful rooms of the woman’s headquarters where coffee was served by Mrs. George McKenzie and other ladies of the board. Mrs. Hughes was presented here with an exquisite bouquet of Los Angeles roses, a new variety, by Miss Teresa Morley, daughter of the park superintendent. A small reception was held, the public being excluded, that Mr. and Mrs. Hughes might rest a little.

The great reception on the Plaza de Panama followed and there more than 2,000 persons shook hands with and spoke to the standard-bearer and his wife. As many more were turned back by the guards as the time for luncheon approached.

Before the handshaking began, Ellen Beach Yaw, the California songbird, sang her “Skylark” and “California.”

From the plaza the party was escorted to the Cristobal, where 600 guests were assembled. Republicans, Progressives, men and women of every party, were in the crowd. Mrs. Vernon Root presented to Mrs. Hughes a handsome bouquet, in appreciation of the latter’s attitude on women’s suffrage.

Then the candidate’s party visited the Painted Desert exhibit.

When Mr. Hughes talked to his vast audience at the organ, he was introduced by Lyman J. Gage. The standard bearer spoke gracefully of his reception and impressions of San Diego, and then launched into a telling arraignment of the Underwood tariff, especially as it strikes at the sugar industry of America.

“Our friends,” he said, “discovered their mistake after awhile, but we desire to be represented by those who have foresight and not simply hindsight.”

He declared against any action that involved the crippling of American industry, saying:

“I protest equally against any abuses. I protest against any use of tariff schedules in favor of the few at the expense of the many or rather to build up private privileges at the expense of public interests.

“There is not going to be an grip on public privileges or right for any corporate interest, or any combination of interests, at the expense of the people of the United States if I can prevent it.”

The speaker then referred to conditions that will be faced after peace comes to Europe. Then it is that America must find itself, he declared — when Europe is recalling her strength from trench to factory.

Continuing, he said in part:

America must be sound and honest in its public life and it must have business-like administration; it must be direct, it must be patriotic with America first and the America efficient. I believe that we are going to lay a broad foundation in this work. I would lay that foundation deep in a consideration of human needs and the requirements of the betterment of human life. I do not look upon men and women as mere economic factors. We are cooperating as human beings to build up the standards of human living and to diffuse happiness and prosperity. (Applause)

The man who looks upon the laborers in his employ as mere economic units has not caught the vision of the twentieth century. (Applause)

I should see to it that our race is protected. You may be sure that there is not a great nation in the world but what is going to look after that. I should have the foundation of our security laid in protecting women from extortion, in preventing children from being imposed upon by being drawn too early into the hardships of industrial life.

I believe we can control public utilities in a straightforward way. You need not suppose that I favor in the slightest way any interest getting the best of the public interest. (Applause) At the same time I favor justice in public enterprises as well as in individual work outside the scope of ordinary regulation, I have stated that firmly. And I shall continue to stand for justice to the man who has got his investment, and for justice to the laborer who is laboring for his wages, the preservation of individual incentive and the strength and paramountcy of the public interest in all public concerns. (Applause)

I desire to see this nation inspired with a respect for American citizenship. I deplore the way in which, down in Mexico, American lives have been sacrificed because of our failure to protect them. American citizenship, you must hold in the highest esteem, whatever the individual may be who bears the name of American citizen. (Applause) If we ever lose that sense of national obligation we shall become a decadent people.

I spoke a moment ago of Mexico. It is not necessary to deal with the facts before this audience. You know perfectly well what the conditions were and are. But the administration has not right to attempt to control Mexican politics, and to destroy the only government Mexico had, and leave the people of Mexico and our citizens to the ravages of revolution. (Applause)

We had one clear duty. That duty was to see that American lives and the property of American citizens were protected in Mexico. (Applause) That duty we could insist upon performing, and Mexico should have understood that. That is the primary duty of nations. We lost not only the friendship of the Mexicans, but we lost their respect when we failed to do that which they knew it was our duty to do.

My friends, we have got to begin, in a sense, over again. We want Mexico to understand that we are friends. We desire a stable government there. We do not desire to meddle with what does not concern us. We are anxious that the past shall be retrieved. Those people are starving — they need assistance; they need every sort of aid that we can given. We want them to be established with a firm government and prosperous. We want to do all that we can properly to assist them to that end. Mexico, however, must understand that first and last American lives and the property of American citizens are going to be safeguarded. (Applause and cheers)

I wish I could go into some matters that I wanted to speak to you about with respect to our reasonable preparedness. I believe that this nation should have the strength which self respect requires. Not threaten anybody, but that we may not be misunderstood because of obvious weakness unrelated to our real power. (Applause) I want not simply appropriations. I want competent administration, military and naval, under leadership that is efficient, competent and qualified for the task.

This great country cannot afford to have its great departments in charge of those who are unequal to the task of administration. I make no criticism of individuals so far as personal character is concerned. But I want to see this whole government set up to a standard of efficiency which will command the respect of the world and satisfy the just ambitions of Americans. (Applause)

From this remote corner of our country, I shall turn to another remote corner of our country with a new inspiration and an intense desire, if you wish it, to serve to the best of my ability our common country — the United States. (Applause and cheers)

August 22, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune. Thousands welcome Hughes; candidate and wife inspect exposition and take auto ride.

August 22, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 4:1.

EDITORIAL: The Essence of An Able Statesman’s Utterances.

Charles Evans Hughes is not an orator of the “spelling binding” class; he appeals to reason rather than to the emotions of the man and women whom he addresses.

His vocabulary is ample, but he does not waste it in ornamental rhetoric or use it to tinsel generalities already glittering! Nor does he adorn it with meaningless epithet after the manner of those silver-tongued orators who delight to draw the thread of their verbal finery than the stable of their argument.

He is eloquent, but it is the eloquence of a thinking man who has resolved the questions which he discusses by deducing his conclusions from incontrovertible data through processes of cold logic.

Mr. Hughes does not ask his hearers to agree with him unless they are convinced that he had stated his proposition truthfully, in the first place and argued it accurately thereafter.

No person going away from a Hughes speech will ask himself why he yielded to the “spell” of the speaker in his presence, seeking to analyze in cold blood the substance of what he has heard divested of the florid emotionalism that held him while listening to mere words artfully combined to produce a factitious effect.

The keynote throughout all that Mr. Hughes utters is efficiency.

It is not enough, in his opinion of what constitutes good government, that a public official should be honest and capable — those are qualities that are presupposed in all officials — he must know how to apply his knowledge and energy to the best purpose.

This purpose must be the highest well being of those whom the official is elected to serve.

The personality of the public servant must sink in the office with which he has been entrusted; he must become the embodiment of the will of the State.

In his public addresses thus far during this campaign Mr. Hughes has made it clear that he knows thoroughly the duties of the chief executive of the nation, and he has also made it clear that he has no desire to usurp any of the functions of the coordinate branches of the government; but he insists that in the exercise of his executive functions it is part of the duty of the chief magistrate of the Republic to see that all the other departments perform their full duty within the limits prescribed by the Constitution and the statutes.

As Mr. Hughes expounds the science of government to his audiences competency is the very first requisite; and incompetency through political favoritism has been the chief defect in the present administration — to many spoils have been appropriated by victors unfitted to transact the business of the State.

He does not think that “the voice of the people” is ever uttered through an incompetent administration of the people’s affairs; not does he believe that the people are ever satisfied with such administration.

When a great national party persists in conducting the affairs of the nation in an incompetent manner because it permits the administration of those affairs by . . . incompetents it admits its own incompetence; it admits that it lacks the proper material of efficiency in its ranks; and it confesses to the indictment that its sole purpose as a political organization is the procurement of emolument for its leaders and their political serviceable following.

No person who listens to the clear thinking of Charles Evens Hughes on this phase of his exposition of principles will have the slightest doubt that he not only knows what he is talking about but that he means what he says, and that if elected to the executive control of national business he will see to it that fitness shall be the first desideratum of public service; that economy shall be the moving feature of the administration; and that the greatest good for all concerned shall be the dominant policy.

August 22, 1916, San Diego Sun, 4:6-7.

Hughes’ speech refers to many of the great problems of the nation.

Candidate Hughes has come and gone.

Probably the biggest crowd in the exposition’s history heard the distinguished guest speak at the exposition yesterday. Hughes praised our city and harbor, scored the Democratic tariff policies and flayed Wilson’s Mexican policies.

“What sense is there,” he said, “in enacting tariff laws that will destroy American industries, so that we can buy goods abroad? This is the policy of the Democratic party. The Republican party stands for protection of our home industries, a doctrine which we are particularly in need of at this time. Our friends on the opposite side do not believe in protection to build up industry, but only to raise revenue. The Underwood tariff was not enacted for the benefit of United States industries — in fact, it proved injurious to many of them, notably the sugar industry.

“We must all work together at this critical time to mold an efficient and capable nation. This great nation must hold to unswerving loyalty, one allegiance to one flag, and overcoming all prejudice of race and creed, work together for the common welfare of our country.”

Speaking on the advantages of San Diego harbor, Mr. Hughes said:

“While I was riding though your streets this morning, an enthusiastic citizen ran alongside of my automobile and asked me, as soon as he could catch his breath, if I had seen your harbor. I am very proud to say that I have seen the harbor. I am very proud to say that I have come to understand its wonderful advantages. If I am entrusted with official powers by the American people, I will know to what good purposes your harbor can be put.”

In speaking of the exposition, Mr. Hughes said:

“In this beautiful exposition we have exemplified the unswerving loyalty and progress of the people of San Diego.”

“This is the most beautiful auditorium from which I have ever spoken. Within the grounds of your exposition you have nature enabled by art. There is no more beautiful spot on the face of the globe. Regardless of the result of the political campaign, I shall feel that I have been repaid for the strenuousness of this trip by the beauties of this favored spot. I have yet to meet a San Diegan who does not hold first a spirit of allegiance to his city.

In taking the crack at the Democrats for their lowering the sugar tariff and then later raising it, Mr. Hughes said: “The Democrats came to see their mistake. The Republicans knew that the sugar tariff reduction was a mistake from the start. We ask your support for a party that displays foresight and not simply hindsight.”

While Mr. Hughes was speaking, the platform, the peristyles on either side of the organ, and the great open space in front of the organ as far back as the Plaza de Panama was jammed and packed with a tremendous crowd. Thousands there were who came too late to get within sound of Mr. Hughes’ voice. Half an hour before Mr. Hughes started to speak a great crowd was jammed for half a block in front of the Laurel street gate. A crowd almost equally as large was forcing its way through the gate at the east entrance.

In referring to the Mexican problem, he said it was not a question of Huerta or no Huerta. That was a question for the judgment of the administration in power, he said. But he declared the administration had no right to attempt to control Mexican affairs, destroy the only government Mexico had, and leave Americans in Mexico to the dangers of anarchy.

“It was our duty to see,” he said, “that American lives and American property in Mexico should be protected. Out of it all we have lost Mexican respect and in its place is only Mexican contempt for us.”

He reiterated former statements of the “blunder” at Veracruz. “There was no salute, no reparation, and nothing but hatred from the Mexicans.”

Hughes’ statement about Mexico brought the biggest applause of the day. He warned all to prepare against the cooperation which the European nations have learned to use and which after the war will be turned from military to industrial pursuits. He again warned the United States to prepare against the “inevitable industrial invasion.” He then left in an automobile for his train.

August 22, 1916, San Diego Sun, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Mr. Hughes Did Not Answer.

San Diego entertained in her usual hospitable style a distinguished visitor yesterday.

We refer, as you may have guessed, to Charles Evans Hughes of New York, who aspires to succeed Woodrow Wilson as president.

Disagreeing with Mr. Hughes in many of his policies, and differing still more with the Big Interests that are shouting the loudest for him, The Sunrefrained yesterday from printing an attack on our city’s visitor. Had we followed the lead of our contemporaries, who have on a number of occasions insulted men high in office on the day they came at our invitation to open our exposition, and to similar affairs, we could have been just as disagreeable as that. But we didn’t.

Mr. Hughes has come and gone. We heard him tell what this country should have done on different occasions, but not HOW it should have been done. We heard strenuous protests against the policies of one man who sits far away at Washington and wrestles conscientiously and devotedly with non-political problems affecting every man and woman in that great audience, as well as every man and woman in America.

But we did NOT hear Mr. Hughes answer any one of the half-dozen pertinent questions propounded to him by a coterie of distinguished non-partisan writers in an advertisement in yesterday’s Sun.

We did not hear Mr. Hughes say what HE would have done in specific instances. The eternal question: “What would you have done?” remained in the mind of every fair listener. Mr. Hughes offered no solution to our great national problems.

San Diego ever delights in honoring her guests. We did so yesterday to our everlasting credit.

But no political history was made!

August 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Hughes and Booth.

It was entirely apparent long before Mr. Hughes came to California that Hiram Johnson would be a misfit in a Republican senate. Mr. Hughes’ tour of the state has emphasized that fact. If he is deserving of the vote of Republicans — and none of them doubt that he is — they also owe it to him to do what they can to secure to him a senate whose majority shall work with him. California has only one senate seat to fill. Republicans should make sure that it is filled by Willis H. Booth, the only Republican who is a candidate for it.

August 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:8; 3-1-6.

Charles Evans Hughes, Republican candidate for president, spoke at Exposition; text of address; account of visit to San Diego.

Charles Evans Hughes has seen San Diego. San Diego has seen Charles Evans Hughes. Neither was disappointed.

To the contrary, Mr. Hughes and the Exposition City seemed to blend perfectly. They were friends from the very start and when his special train shot away for the north yesterday afternoon, fully 40,000 San Diegans who had seen him and heard him speak joined in the verdict that the Republican standard bearer is even bigger and better and more generally lovable than they had so fondly pictured him.

“Hughes Day” was a four-ply success from beginning to end. Not a single hitch was recorded. A veritable sea of humanity surged into the Exposition grounds yesterday to welcome the presidential candidate. It was not only estimated as the largest crowd that ever thronged the Fair grounds to greet any speaker, but was declared to be without doubt the most enthusiastic. A great patriotism and love of country seemed to swell in the heart of every person there. Republicans of city and county, who heard the candidate’s inspiring, sensible, masterly address, went home with a new and mightier pledge to work untiringly for his election until the last vote is cast.

Scores of the leaders of the united party were in evidence to pay their personal respects and give assurances of support to the standard bearer.

To meet Charles Evans Hughes is to admire him. He has a genuine personality. His eye is clear as a cloudless sky, merry at times, severe at others, but always kind and sympathetic. His famous whiskers are neatly trimmed and really becoming, hiding to no extent a strong set of regular, white teeth. His smile is radiant, and his handshake is firm and cordial. Even after he had shaken hands with fully 3,000 San Diegans, who formed in line, he displayed no sings of weariness, and hand-shaking is hard work. Moreover, a smile went with every shake of the hand, and he smiled in such a way to show that he meant it.

That the sentiment of San Diego is overwhelmingly for Hughes was manifested by the tremendous ovation that was accorded him when he stepped on the platform in front of the great Spreckels organ pavilion. The air literally rang with cheers, and hats, parasols and handkerchiefs were waved in wild profusion. On the speakers’ platform with the candidate were Mrs. Hughes, John D. Spreckels, President and Mrs. G. A. Davidson, Lyman J. Gage and Senator M. L. Ward. On the organ platform in the rear were others of prominence.

The candidate made a masterly address, which will be found in full elsewhere in today’s Union. No more convincing speaker has ever visited San Diego. He felt free to criticize the Democratic administration, but he did so with a simply dignity, eliminating personalities.

Speaking with a sincerity that was easy to see, Mr. Hughes indulged in the highest praise for San Diego and its Exposition, pointing out that the people of this city should be an example to the people of the entire nation because of their patriotism, loyalty and manner of doing business. In fact, he took the “San Diego Spirit” as the text for his remarks.

The speaker was not slow to enthuse over San Diego harbor. He declared that he had seen it, and knew what he was talking about.

“As I came along the streets of San Diego in the parade this morning,” he said laughingly, “an enthusiastic citizen ran alongside the car and, as soon as he was able to speak, shouted, ‘Have you seen the harbor?’ I was glad to be able to inform him that I had seen the harbor. That harbor is a great national asset. One cannot fail to consider its potency, its importance, its available national uses. I am glad that I have seen something of the Pacific coast, and I would not willingly have missed a visit to San Diego harbor, in the company of those who could tell me about it, so that in the coming days if I am entrusted with official responsibility, I shall know something of the uses to which it should be put in the interests of the United States.”

Did San Diego appreciate this coming from a man like Hughes? San Diego certainly did. The crowd cheered the speaker until he was forced to desist and hold up his hand for silence. Governor Hughes’ visit to Point Loma, where he viewed the harbor, was one of the features of the day. It is fully described in a separate article in today’s Union, as are also the happenings at the Hughes luncheon at the Cristobal Café at the Exposition.

Hughes told of his desire to give both capital and labor an equal chance. He denounced the Democratic tariff and explained that Californians are well able to judge as to its effects, without being told. He flayed the administration’s Mexican policies. He declared that regardless of the results of the election he would always consider that his visit to San Diego was worth his long campaign tour. And to President Davidson, on parting, he said, looking that official squarely in the eye:

“Mr. Davidson this is the red-letter day of my trip. It is one of the biggest days of my life. I am glad that I came. I hope to come again.”

Mrs. Hughes, just a plain American woman, sweet of manner, intelligent, thoughtful of others, and at all times modest and sincere, voiced the same sentiments.

The American Indian went on record as being strong for Hughes. Mr. and Mrs. Hughes and party visited “Poor Lo” in his wigwam at the Painted Desert, following the luncheon at the Cristobal. They had a typical reception.

“Ugh!,” grunted one of the oldest chiefs, sizing up the candidate and admiring his beard. “Hughes, him big man.”

As Hughes seated himself to watch the weird Indian dances started for his benefit, Chief of Police J. Keno Wilson picked up a papoose and thrust it into the candidate’s arms. The papoose was delighted. So was Mr. Hughes. He placed it on his knee and chucked it under the chin until it crowed with delight. At the same time Mrs. Hughes put one arm over the shoulder of an older Indian child and kept it there during the dances. A mountain goad, owned by the Indians, strolled over for a look at the candidate and happened to sight a large bouquet of roses carried by Mrs. Hughes. He “bahed” expressively as if to say, “This is great. I haven’t eaten a rose this year,” and proceeded to munch on the bouquet. Mrs. Hughes and her husband both laughed merrily. As the candidate and his wife made their way back to the automobile, the Indians followed, chanting their approval. Later they sent a painted, feathered delegation down to the organ pavilion, to give the candidate a final send-off. Hughes was tickled. He smiled upon the Indians like a great big boy, and the crowds smiled with him.

“I have always wanted to see San Diego,” said Mr. Hughes to a Union reporter. “I feared at first that I should not be able to include this city on my trip, but when it was announced that we could make it, my heart rejoiced. You have a wonderful city. It is one of the most beautiful spots I have ever seen. I hope that sometime I may become better acquainted with San Diego and its people.”

The candidate talks little on national affairs with the newspaper men, holding this for his speeches.

Regarding the Republican party he said:

“I am glad to stand as the spokesman for a party that stands for the protection of American industry. I desire to see the United States hold up its head among the nations of the earth.”

Charles Evans Hughes is just like a man from home. Get “the governor” away in a corner somewhere and talk about anything sensible, and he’ll talk right back and make you feel so much at home that you might be induced to try to borrow money from him. He seems like a next door neighbor, quiet and dignified, but as easy as an old shoe. His laugh is cheery, although a bit husky after he has delivered an address. He meets all sorts and conditions of people, but he plays no favorites. When asked a question, he answered quickly as the snapping of a steel trap. He has the ability to remember names as well as faces. He says a great deal in a few words, and, whether you agree with him politically or not, you leave his presence convinced that he is a fine type of American gentleman. Hughes has not difficulty in making himself agreeable. He is naturally that way. He is particularly fond of children and went out of his way yesterday to speak to the little folks.

One small boy wanted to shake hands with “the governor,” but seemed afraid. Hughes’ clear eye took in the situation. He walked over to the boy, grabbed the little hand in his, and said, “How are you this morning, my little man? I am glad of the chance to shake hands with you.”

Despite his dignified appearance, you feel sure after meeting Mr. Hughes that if you were a little better acquainted, he would insist on calling you by your first name. It wouldn’t take much to make you call him by his, big as he is, if you only dared.

As the writer talked with Hughes, he couldn’t help recalling a little occurrence said to have happened back East, shortly after the governor was nominated.

The newspapermen at that time began calling him, “Mr. Justice.”

“That will hardly do, boys,” he said. “I am not entitled to that honor anymore, you will recall.”

“What is it them, Mr. Hughes?,” they asked, “shall we call you judge?”

“No,” he smiled. “I am no longer that either.”

“It must be ‘governor’ then,” they said, “or would just plain ‘Mr.’ be best?”

Hughes told them they could take their choice of the two last, and among those best associated with him it has since been “the governor.” But, of course, when they are personally addressing him, they always drop the “the.”

Men and women were heard to compare Hughes to Lincoln up at the Exposition yesterday. In fact, one old Republican was heard to say, “He looks like Lincoln all over again and talks like him. He’s more handsome, that’s all.”

“Governor” Hughes sticks to facts and logic, as he sees them. He seldom resorts to anecdotes or stories to hold his audience. Yet once in a while, behind the scenes, he enjoys these little pleasantries as much as anyone.

Traveling together on this long tour, Mr. and Mrs. Hughes seem to be repeating their honeymoon. His hair is shot with gray, and Mrs. Hughes is not as young as she once was, but they are just like boy and girl when in each other’s company.

Not far from the press box, where a Union reporter was covering a big part of this story, a woman with a black parasol said something about Mrs. Hughes that made me think she is almost as popular with her sex as the “governor” is with his. She remarked:

“I think Mrs. Hughes would make a good neighbor.”

It is pretty hard to beat a compliment of that sort, paid to one woman by another.

To those who yesterday met Charles Evans Hughes it appeared that he has read a great deal and forgotten nothing. He seemed to know almost as much about the San Diego Exposition as the men who built it. The one gloomy thing, he declared, in connection with his visit here, was that he was to be torn away just as he was getting started on his Exposition explorations.

Talking with the newspaper boys who have been with the candidate since the day he set foot on the campaign trail, the writer of this found that they were all fond of him as a traveling companion. He was one of them, they said, and frequently came back to the newspaper car to talk with the correspondents after work hours. At these times he talked socially, and for a few hours at least he seemed to be willing to forget that he is probably the most conspicuous man in the United States today. Everywhere he went in San Diego he was the mark for movie men and camera artists. He stood up under the fire nobly, scarcely seeming to notice that they were there. The motion pictures of the candidate taken here will be shown all over the United States within the next few weeks — with captions telling of the different points in the Exposition grounds where they were taken.

The writer of this story paid special attention when the governor stood in front of the United States Government building shaking hands with the long line of his admirers as they passed in single file before him. Hughes seemed to enjoy it as much as they did. A man with grease-covered overalls received the same hearty grip and cheery word as the man next to him in the Palm Beach outfit. A ragged woman, carrying a baby, received even more of his attention than the fashionably dressed woman a few feet behind.

The candidate was closely guarded. At the reception where he was shaking hands, the secret service men paid keen attention to every person that passed. When a pocket seemed to bulge, it was cautiously felt. At the Cristobal a suspicious-looking character who had made his way close to the candidate and who was muttering under his breath, was quietly ejected. Outside he said that he meant nothing and was merely excited. He carried no arms. Letters written elsewhere threatening Hughes and sent out in the press dispatches were hardly ever taken seriously. Yet precautions against a possible attack upon the candidate by a crank were increased. Mr. Hughes, himself, only smiled when he heard of it. It didn’t seem to worry him at all.

When the Hughes special pulled away at 3:10 o’clock just behind the regular train, a crowd of prominent San Diegans had assembled to say farewell. At almost the last moment, Mrs. Claus Spreckels arrived, accompanied by her husband, and presented to the candidate a huge bouquet of California poppies. Mr. Hughes gracefully acknowledged the gift and shook hands with many of the persons gathered to bid him goodbye. As the regular 3 o’clock train pulled out, the passengers crowded to one side and waved from the windows and platforms at the candidate, who bowed and waved his hand in return. Just as the candidate’s special pulled away three rousing cheers were given. He answered with a last wave of farewell. Mrs. Hughes smiled goodbye. Then the two turned and went within the car for the next leg of their journey.

Members of the Hughes committee and vice presidents of “Hughes Day” are entitled to no little credit for the splendid manner in which the entire affair was conducted. It was clock work all the way.

Aside from Mr. and Mrs. Hughes, an executive staff of fifteen men and the newspaper correspondents were included in the Hughes’ party. Charles W. Farnham, who has wide experience on campaign tours, is the manager of the present Hughes’ trip. W. R. Van de Bogart, of the New York Central, is the manager of transportation, and with Mr. Farnham is responsible for much of the arrangements of the tour. Dr. Norman E. Dittman is the physician of the party.

Lawrence H. Green is the private secretary of Mr. Hughes and Carl D. Shepard is the director of publicity for the tour. Sergeant Brierton, whose whiskers somewhat resemble the candidate’s and Frank W. Tyree, formerly a member of the Roosevelt parties and later United States marshal of West Virginia, were the secret service men of the party. A part of Mr. Shepard’s work is to furnish all local newspapers and the correspondents of the party with transcripts of the candidate’s speeches, and three shorthand reporters, James G. Marsiott, Charles A. Morrison, and Frederick D. Elmer, worked in relays when Mr. Hughes delivered his addresses.

In San Diego the stenographers did not have time to conclude transcribing the speech, but The Union had its own stenographer on the ground and later an official transcript of the candidate’s remarks, typewritten on the train before it reached Oceanside, was brought to The Union office from Oceanside by a special messenger. It appears in The Union today.

August 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 5. Mrs. Hughes wins way to hearts of San Diegans.

August 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 5. Aviators make novel escort for Hughes; brilliant display of feats adds to pleasure of his trip to Point Loma.

August 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 5. Governor Hiram Johnson reiterates pledge to aid Hughes.

August 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 5. Republican victory in Texas possibility; Lone Star State dissatisfied with Mexican policy, says national committeeman.

August 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Takes south by storm; Hughes sentiment at flood tide following tour of nominee.

Mr. Hughes has characteristically adapted his subject matter to the peculiar interests appertaining to each community in which he has appeared and in every place he has shown a remarkable knowledge and grasp of local conditions, together with sound judgment and convincing pledges touching on the manner in which they should be cared for.

August 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1

“Lark Ellen Day” at Exposition Thursday; first concert scheduled at Organ Pavilion at 3 in afternoon; autos admitted.

The appreciation of the Exposition and San Diego for the generous service given Exposition celebrations during the year by Ellen Beach Yaw, California’s popular singer, will be expressed at a special day in her honor at the Exposition Thursday. Miss Yaw will give two concerts during the day for the invalids and crippled children who are to spend the day at the Exposition through the efforts of Dr. Belle M. Pope.

The first concert will be given at the organ pavilion in the afternoon at 3 o’clock, and for the first time in the history of the Exposition, automobiles will be permitted to park near the organ pavilion for a concert. While preference will be given to automobiles carrying invalids and crippled children, all cars will be allowed to take advantage of the special privilege.

Miss Yaw will appear again at the evening concert of Tommasino’s band at the United States Fisheries building at 7:30 o’clock, and will sing the aria, “A Fors a Lui” from La Traviata and the “Swiss Echo Song.” At 10 o’clock she will sing the “Star Spangled Banner,” accompanied by the band.

Ellen Beach Yaw Day will begin at 2:30 o’clock in the afternoon with a reception to Miss Yaw by the women’s board of the Exposition in the California Quadrangle. A singing and dancing entertainment will be given by the Spanish troubadours as a part of the entertainment. From the reception the party will go to the organ pavilion for the special concert. Assisting Miss Yaw will be Walter E. Hartley of Pomona, who will play several selections on the organ. Miss Grace Bowers will be the accompanist.

At 4 o’clock there will be a reception and tea in the women’s board headquarters, and a musical program in which Miss Yaw will participate. At 10 o’clock, immediately following the singing of “The Star Spangled Banner,” there will be a special Ellen Beach Yaw supper at the Cristobal café.

The program to be given Thursday afternoon at the organ pavilion for the invalids and crippled children is as follows:

“Queen’s Aria” from Les Huguenots (Meyerbeer)

“Queen’s Aria” from The Magic Flute (Mozart)

“My Mother Bids Me Bind My Hair” (Haydn)

“Who is Sylvia” (Schubert)

“You” (Mary Carr Moore)

August 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Mrs. Josiah Evans Cowles, head of Federation of Women’s Clubs, entertained.

August 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1-2. Ellen Beach Yaw Day to be celebrated tomorrow; singer makes special request that crippled children and invalids hear her program of songs; automobiles will be admitted into grounds on payment of usual fee

Miss Yaw is spending a few days in San Diego and offered her services Monday at the special reception for Mr. and Mrs. Charles Evans Hughes. It was following her special number that Mr. and Mrs. Hughes shook her hand and congratulated her enthusiastically. When they were told that she was known as the “California Nightingale,” Mr. Hughes replied, “I should say “American’s Nightingale.’ ”

August 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Free lecture Thursday afternoon at 4 o’clock in Southern Counties building by Dr. Paul Bornson of Washington, D.C. on the production from samarskit deposits and uses of radium; $500,000 worth of radium will be displayed.

August 24, 1916, San Diego Herald, 2:3-4. EDITORIAL: Hughes’ Presidential Qualifications.

The splendid, forceful and inspiring address made by Charles Evans Hughes at the Exposition grounds Monday afternoon made a good impression on the great audience which showed its appreciation by hearty applause each time the speaker made a telling point.

That Mr. Hughes is fair-minded and that his feeling, his sympathies and his heart, are with the great mass of people was plainly evident in his speech. He stands for all the things which help humanity and is as progressive as anyone could demand. When he told the audience that he was opposed to special privilege which benefit the few at the expense of the many, but that he demanded justice for all, he made a telling point.

Mr. Hughes is a broad-minded American who believes the people should rule, but he is in no sense a demagogue. His idea is that the productive power of the people is so great that it is possible to so administer the government that the general condition of all people can be improved and the whole county made prosperous without doing injustice to any interest.

Mr. Hughes is for protection to all American industries. Not only a tariff, but those wise laws that will encourage every man to do his best and to get his full reward. We should build up and not destroy, but the great workers of the country are entitled to such remuneration as will make them all comfortable. Mr. Hughes insists on justice to the people without injustice to the big corporations. It is these ideas, forcibly expressed, which command the respect of every fair-minded person.

August 25, 1916. Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners: Commissioners Ferris and Forward pay tribute to Commissioner Chandler.

August 25, 1916 (712.5) Minutes of Executive Committee for Preservation of Buildings: Mr. Bouet submitted a plan for group of Exposition buildings.

August 25, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:7-8. Mayor appoints Progressive to Park Board; O’Hallaran named to place; Council surprised, but votes confirmation; Mayor silent as to Ferris.

August 25, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:2-4. Throngs hear Ellen Beach Yaw sing at Organ Pavilion.

August 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:6. Chamber of Commerce committee would preserve most of the Exposition buildings; recommend making them a recreation center.

August 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:4. Fire Chiefs have day at Exposition.

August 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:1-2. Chandler says Mayor made change in Park Board to create strife.

August 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:5. Federated Trades Council fixes plans for Labor Day; arrange sports and entertainment.

August 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:3-4. Dr. Dahne kicked out of home by wife’s “hired man” charge; Brazilian exhibit manager swears out complaint against San Diego man for alleged assault and battery.

August 28, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:4. Invalid Day program at Exposition today; concert by band of USS San Diego.

August 29, 1916, San Diego Sun, 6:5. The sad news of the death in San Francisco of Mrs. Ruth Everson Collier, wife of Colonel David Collier, local attorney and first director-general of the Exposition, has been received today; followed operation; her husband was at her side when end came; married November 14, 1915 at the home of the bride’s parents in Oakland.

August 29, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4-5, 2:4. Citizens give Congressman Kettner rousing welcome.

August 29, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:2. Great Dane, rescued from pound, trains with zoo lions.

August 29, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1. Council scores Mayor Capps’ act with Park Board.

August 29, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:2-4. Honolulans protest Hula Hula dancing on Isthmus; display which has charmed many called “Chicago hoochi-koochi.”

August 29, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:5 Mrs. Collier, second wife of first Exposition president, will be burned in Oakland.

August 31, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Admission Day celebration at Exposition being planned.

September 1, 1916 (712.5), Minutes of Executive Committee to Preserve Exposition Buildings: Frank Allen took exception to Marston securing information from Mr. Chase regarding condition of Exposition buildings as Chase was one of Allen’s employees; Allen opposed to proposed grouping of Exposition buildings; believes buildings should come down with qualified exception of California Building as an auditorium and possibly the Administration Building; believes park should be center for recreation and not buildings; stated even California Building was not constructed for permanent use.

Voted that Canadian Building could be taken down and also Varied Industries Building, with possible exception of church facade; voted that the Cristobal Café be removed.

September 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:8. Labor Day program announced; sports committee arranges events; schools requested to close.

September 1, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:4. President Davidson denies Exposition will close before end of year; will keep open until 1917; is big success.

September 1, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:4. Orange County Day tomorrow.

September 1, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:4. Tommasino given scarf pin by admirers.

September 1, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:4. Luis Garcia, tenor in the Spanish troupe, will depart for Havana.

September 1, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:4. Dr. Eugenio Dahne to enter plea to battery charges.

September 2, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 5:1. Labor to have big holiday Monday.

September 2, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:5-6. Great Labor Day here; Exposition will be thronged; Workers will celebrate.

September 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Leading native daughters in Admission Day program.

September 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Court authorizes damages to L. J. Wilde; formal order to prepare findings in Jamul ranch case given to attorney.

September 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. George Wharton James to relate wonders of west; announces lectures for next week.

September 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Dancer’s mother denies hula is vulgar display; Hawaiian Village show at Exposition declared modified by American spectators

September 2, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1. Exposition will offer novel program on Labor Day; tug-of-war contests, concerts, Pepper Grove picnic among attractions.

September 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:4. Dr. William C. Carl, famous organist, to be heard tomorrow.

September 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:5, 3:5. San Diego Army post proposed; resolution to be introduced into Council to given government free 9,000 acres of pueblo lands for site.

September 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:5. Townsmen of 30 years ago to meet at Exposition.

September 3 1916, San Diego Union, 3:1. Labor will cease toil for outing at Dream City.

September 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:1. Oregon companies on way to home camp.

September 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:2-4. Orange County sends 500 to Exposition; camped in San Diego last night waiting to spend two more days at Exposition and in city.

September 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:1. Admission Day parade will be unique event.

September 4, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 1:6-7. Thousands here for Labor Day.

September 4, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 7:4. Souvenir ball to be finish; Labor Day celebration at Exposition closes tonight with dancing on the Plaza.

September 4, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:2-4. Greatest Labor Day in history of Exposition City.

September 4, 1916, San Diego Union. Dr. Carl, organist, and David Upright, baritone, charm thousands at Exposition, by Main 2 K.

September 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:7. Kettner favors San Diego site for Army post.

September 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:7-8. Visitors crowd hotels, park autos in streets.

September 4, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 7:1. Military forces will parade on Admission Day.

September 4, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 7:1. No automobiles at Exposition today; “Invalid Day” postponed until tomorrow.

September 4, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 7:5-6. Toilers ready for big day of sports at Exposition grounds.

September 5, 1916, Los Angeles Times, 5:5. Thousands enjoy day at Exposition.

September 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:4. Mayor closes three Exposition concessions; objects to “Wheels of Fortune” and other games on Isthmus.

September 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:5.

Carly gives concert at Exposition; dramatic baritone heard in opera airs; songs by Mrs. Gage rendered.

Victor Carly, dramatic baritone, was heard yesterday afternoon before a large audience at the Spreckels organ pavilion in a concert consisting of opera airs — and seldom, if ever, has Mr. Carly been heard to better advantage. Miss Ethel V. Widener acted as accompanist.

A feature of the concert was the baritone’s rendition of two songs, “Because I Love You,” and “Consecration,” both by Mrs. Lyman J. Gage and in both of which Mrs. Gage accompanied the singer.

The program was an exceptionally attractive one, well elaborated and very interesting, representing the classic, romantic and modern tendencies in operatic music. It was given in six different languages — English, French, Spanish, Latin, German and Italian.

Many among the audience thought Mr. Carly was heard to best advantage in the arioso from “Benvenuto,” by Diaz and the canzone from Verdi’s “Falstaff.” The former is a soul-stirring air that does justice to the vocal attainments of a dramatic singer; Benvenuto Cellini, the great sculptor and chiseler of the Renaissance, being a political prisoner and becoming blind, in asking for light to his eyes so he can see once again his masterpieces. The rhythmic and gay canzone of Falstaff gives a fair and impressive illustration of modern Italian music, when it is considered that the number which preceded it was the descriptive prologue from “Pagliacci,” by Leoncavallo and Puccini’s pathetic solo of Colline in “La Boheme.”

The first number presented the “Air of Hidraot” from “Armide,” by Gluck, the great reformer in musical drama, who established the French school on solid foundations, and who gave the inspiration to Wagner in the rebuilding of the lyric style. A very important number was the grand air from “Henry VIII,” by Saint-Saens, a masterpiece of modern lyric music, full of intense dramatic power. These two numbers were new to the San Diego audiences. The brilliant song of Mephistopheles, the golden calf, is a splendid example of the great composer, Gounod, in “Faust.”

The next number was from Rossini — one of the best musical pages from that composer’s immortal “Stabat Mater.” The beautiful invocation to the evening star, representing the second period in the evolution of lyric music in Wagner, is always deeply appreciated by discriminating audiences. The good American music has a standard in the MacDowell song, “Thy Beaming Eyes,” while the Spanish song, “La Paloma,” gives just a touch of local color in harmony with the surrounding atmosphere of the Exposition.

September 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1. Public marriage feature on Isthmus Day, September 23.

September 5, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:3-4. Great caravan of automobiles moves on Exposition for holiday festival.

September 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 12:4. Pollard Movie Picture Company locates in the old Panama Village next to the Panama Canal Extravaganza on the Isthmus; concern expects soon to release “The Pearl of Paradise,” filmed in San Diego.

September 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 12:4. Management of Exposition Ice Rink sets Friday night aside for women.

September 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 16:1. This is Auto Day at the Exposition.

September 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 16:2-3. Twenty thousand visitors at Exposition pay informal tribute to labor.

September 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:3. San Diego pioneers will tell of city’s early days at homecoming banquet; Madame Schumann-Heink to be present.

September 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1-2. Admission Day celebration plans nearing completion.

September 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3-5. Kiddies will dance on Isthmus stage tonight.

September 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1-2. Dr. William C. Carl calls organ at Exposition among world’s greatest.

September 7, 1916, Los Angeles Times, II, 4:1.

EDITORIAL: San Diego Fair Will Continue

The myriad tongues of rumor have been busy telling this, that and some other thing about the exposition at San Diego, and numbers of people have heard and believed that the fair is likely to close before December 31.

As a matter of fact, according to a statement recently issued by G. A. Davidson, president of the exposition, it will not only continue to December 31, but it has been more successful this year than last. Some of the exhibitors are even seeking permission to remain on the ground in 1917.

The average daily attendance during this summer was between three and five thousand paid admissions, and, according to President Davidson, the report of the auditor shows that June, July and August have produced such substantial profits that even though the remaining months should fall far below expectations in attendance, the financial condition is such that the exposition will be able to continue to the end of the year.

Numbers of big events are planned for the closing months, and preparations are already being made to present one of the most remarkable demonstrations every seen on New Year’s Eve, when the Panama-California International Exposition will end.

September 7, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Miss Dorothy Deverell, ingenue of movies, finds delight in canna gardens of Exposition.

September 7, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:5. Songs of early days will feature Pioneers’ dinner; Chairman Marston selects many old-timers to entertain guests at feast.

September 7, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:6-7. One thousand autoists win 500-mile buttons at Exposition.

September 7, 1916, San Diego Union, 24:1. La Belle Seville, Spanish dancer, observes birthday; friends shower her with presents.

September 7, 1916, San Diego Union, 24:2-3. Bear Flag to wave on route of Admission Day parade.

September 8, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

President Forward and Ferris go on record stating: “We consider the removal of Commissioner Charles T. Chandler a distinct loss to the welfare of the Park Department”; Commissioner O’Hallaran absent; Resolution No. 21830 of City Council commending Commissioner Chandler entered into minutes.

Mr. Barnson and his associates granted privilege of grading 28th Street from Thorn to Upas to width of 65 feet at the present time, including the sidewalk on the east side.

September 8, 1916, San Diego Union. Interesting photos added to historical collection; Mrs. Margaret Allen, in charge of exhibit at Exposition, finds likeness of first California sheriff; also picture supposed to be that of Sutter who discovered gold in 1849.

September 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:3. September 18 designated as Mercy Hospital Day.

September 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Mayor Capps will have own probe into drug purchases; admits dissatisfaction; Mayor severely criticized for attitude toward Board appointed by Council; Marston willing to serve; Frye and Heilbron call upon city attorney for ruling.

September 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5-6.

Council considers offer to sell Exposition zoo to city; owners ask $2,500, declare animals are worth $15,000; Park Board favors purchase, but lacks funds; City Attorney instructed to find method of raising money.

Up at the Exposition zoo yesterday, although the inmates didn’t know it, the fate of the entire menagerie hung in the balance.

The monkeys chattered just as usual, the lions roared, the leopards purred, and the sacred cow chewed his cud in the old accustomed style, but down at the city hall, office holders and men of affairs debated for more than an hour the question as to what is to become of the big and widely assorted animal show when the Exposition closes January 1.

It was finally decided to keep the entire lot as an added city park attraction, if funds can be found for their purchase and money for their upkeep provided.

  1. C. Collier, representing the old Mission Bay Beach corporation appeared before the Council and announced that the inhabitants of the zoo, loaned to the Exposition by his company, could be purchased by the city for $2,500. The animals, consisting of beasts and birds from almost every corner of the globe, were once the property of the Wonderland Amusement Company. Since they have been taken to the Exposition they have been better fed and tended and have become positively rejuvenated.

Councilman Fay was strong for the purchase, declaring that the city park zoo is one of the chief attractions of the park and should be enlarged through the taking over of the Exposition collection. Other Councilmen thought the same way about it. John F. Forward, Jr., president of the park board, declared that although the park commission would gladly take over the entire outfit, it has so many other things to do with its funds when the Exposition closes that it cannot be expected to foot the bill. Mr. Forward told of all the things that the commission would be compelled to look after, and said that even more money than is now in sight would be needed.

It was finally voted to have the park commission confer with the city attorney as to the best means of raising the $2,500 for the purchase. Collier said that the money could be paid in installments of $100 a month. He said that the animals were fully worth $15,000 and cost the Wonderland people more than that amount. He declared that he did not want to see them sold to an outside concern as they were too valuable a municipal asset. The cages, costing $4,000, now used for the animals on the Isthmus could be moved to the present park zoo, near the Laurel Street entrance to the park, it was agreed.

September 8, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1-2. Throngs of visitors expected in city for holiday tomorrow.

September 8, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:4. Old Timers may dance Virginia Reel at dinner.

September 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:5, 2:2-3. Tales of pioneer days blend with stories of modern success at banquet of city’s “old-timers.”

September 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:3. James E. Wadham, former mayor, relates history of years gone by; was first carrier on The Union; prepares for Pioneer Day.

September 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:3. Old Town history shown at Exposition; proclamation of Commodore Stockton among exhibits in the California History Room in the basement of the California Building.

September 9, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1. Observance of Admission Day to equal all past ceremonies.

September 10, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4-6, 7:1-3. State’s birthday celebrated here; pageant and exercises make glorious tribute.

September 10, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:1. Carranza to be represented at Exposition fete September 16.

September 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:7. Andrews relates Ferris’ position in drug sales; opinion of former city attorney exonerates park commissioner of wrong doing.

September 11,1916, San Diego Union, 2:6. Admission Day throng at Exposition numbers 11,000.

September 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Mexican holiday will be observed at Exposition Saturday.

September 12, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:2. Who are couple to wed at Exposition on Isthmus Day?

September 12, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:4. Fine program at Exposition is promised for Mexican Day.

September 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:7-8. Students hiss educational film shown at high school.

September 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1. George Wharton James will lecture on Rabindranath Tagore on Thursday evening at 8 o’clock in the ballroom of the U. S. Grant Hotel.

September 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1. Collier given charge of Brazilian exhibit.

September 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1. Paintings by Jules Guerin will be placed on display in the small main floor gallery of the Fine Arts building Friday afternoon for a three-week exhibition.

September 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:6. Father Serra Day set for September 24 at Exposition.

September 13,1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 10:1. Mexican Fourth will be observed at Exposition.

September 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Mexican girls rehearse Independence Day fete.

September 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1. Harry Andrews, managing editor Los Angeles Times was visitor at Exposition.

September 15, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

Mr. F. G. Kaufman proposed to set up a zoo in the park provided he was given a 5-year contract and $25.00 per day, furnished living quarters, and given a concession to sell refreshments, etc., proposition declined.

Football team of San Diego High School refused to obey rules and regulations of Stadium and to vacate the field when same had been reserved for other teams; caretaker to be appointed as a special police with authority to arrest offenders and Board of Education requested to instruct football teams to observe rules and regulations of Park Board.

Board of Education to be charged $100.00 per month, beginning September 1, for use of Stadium.

Mrs. Brown of Montessori School given permission to erect a tent house in Pepper Grove, provided site did not remove or disturb any of the trees or shrubbery.

September 15, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:3. Colonel D. C. Collier for mayor? Others mentioned were G. W. Marston, O. E. Darnall, L. J. Wilde, John Forward, Jr., H. R. Fay.

September 15, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:3. Mexicans to observe Independence Day.

September 16, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:4. Executive committee of preservation committee met yesterday; all state and county buildings except the Southern California and New Mexico Buildings and those comprising the California Quadrangle will probably be done away with, leaving but these two to be used for exhibits; nearly $30,000 available for the preservation policy for the next year.

September 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Mock bull fight will feature today’s Mexican Exposition program.

September 16, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:5.

Plan to preserve Exposition buildings nears realization.

Preservation of the buildings and conservation of the grounds of the Exposition for the benefit of the citizens of this city and county came a little nearer realization yesterday when the executive committee of the “Preservation Committee” met at the rooms of the Chamber of commerce and heard a report from a sub-committee. It was adopted with thanks.

The report will be presented to the full committee next Friday afternoon at 4 o’clock. It is said that the work of the general committee and the executive committee has been performed with great thoroughness, opinions of experts in various lines having been obtained as to the performance of buildings, cost of upkeep, etc.

The executive committee of the Exposition board has signified its willingness to set aside a day between now and the close of the Exposition, or to name January 1, 1917, as “Preservation Day,” and to devote receipts from all sources on that day to the purposes of the committee in setting aside the more permanent buildings for park use.

Hon. Lyman J. Gage, chairman of the general and the executive committees, reported that Chesley Mills is willing to organize a new orchestral association which will give concerts without pay if accommodations for the association are established. This was referred to the general committee.

The executive committee is said to oppose the preservation of any parts of the Exposition as an exposition, except possibly the New Mexico building, which might be used as a home for a permanent exhibition of the mineral and other resources of the southwestern part of the United States.

It is thought that recommendations will be made to do away with all the state and county buildings at the Exposition, except the Southern Counties building and the New Mexico building. The buildings comprising the California quadrangle are of a permanent character and have not entered into the discussion.

It is said there will be available for carrying out the preservation propaganda, between $25,000 and $30,000 from the operations of the first year of the Exposition, provided a fair return from unpaid subscriptions is received, and after certain liabilities are liquidated.

September 17, 1916, Los Angeles Times, 12:1. New San Diego Awards: James E. Babcock, in charge of the Palace of Mines at San Diego, has just telegraphed Secretary Swindeli, of the Chamber of Mines and Oils, as follows: “Following awards just announced: Boss mine, platinum ores, the grand prize; one gold medal each to Yellow Pine mine, Gail Borden Occidental College collection, C. C. Valle collection and Friday Mineral mine. Silver medal to Oatman Chamber of Commerce for display of free-milling gold ores. Boss award most important and a fitting tribute. Friday award also important Oatman award made possible only through assistance of you, Sprague and a few other friends of the camp.”

September 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3, 3:5.

Mexicans celebrate Independence Day at Exposition.

Many a pretty, happy crowd has taken and held the Exposition grounds on given days in the nearly two years of its existence, but none seemed more appropriate in the place and none more jubilantly happy than that made up of Mexican citizens who swarmed the Plaza and Prado all of yesterday and until late last night.

Against the background formed by the white buildings of Spanish architecture, the lurid red, white and green banners of the southern republic stood out in picturesque contrast, and the colorful holiday garb of many dark-eyed senoritas and laughing, bronze-skinned men added to the beauty of the picture. In corridors and low-roofed buildings the soft language that is called the language of the dons was heard one every side. Through the day the music and the fetes that are popular in the country below the border were in order everywhere on the grounds. And at night the Plaza was a great open-air ballroom where dancing continued until after the moon arose. Thus was Mexican Independence Day celebrated by the Mexican citizens of San Diego.

As in all Mexican festivals, children played a large part in the one of yesterday. The games and sport of Mexico were reproduced before applauding crowds. A mock bullfight, in which the bull was a joke and none of his blood was spilled, furnished amusement on the tractor field, And on the Plaza, “La Pinata,” a game in which blindfolded children break big jars of candy with sticks and scramble for the contents, occupied the attention of children and grown-ups alike for some time.

Programs of Mexican music were interspersed with American patriotic airs, and when the national hymns of each country were played the crowd rose to its feet and heads were bared, presenting a strange sidelight on the recent affairs along the Rio Grande.

Senor Teodoro Frezieras, Mexican consul to San Diego, made the opening address in the formal patriotic celebration of the morning. Addressing his speech to officials of the Exposition, he said:

“Your exquisite courtesy in inviting our chief, Mr. Carranza and his cabinet to attend these festivities on behalf of the Mexican people, has found in our hearts a sincere echo. It has rung the true note of international friendship based on mutual respect and esteem.

“In the name of our first chief and his cabinet, whom I have the honor to represent on this auspicious occasion, I avail myself of this opportunity to express to you our admiration of your spirit and enterprise, as well as your business energy, out of which this beautiful Exposition has sprung.

“On this occasion we Mexicans feel that there is a community of interest between the people of the United States and Mexico. That in the internal struggle which is now being waged in Mexico our country is dealing with the same problems that confronted your beloved Abraham Lincoln in 1860. These problems and your understanding of them will prove to be a bond that will draw us ever closer.”

The Senors David Zarate, Alberto Rodgers and Francisco Gonzales also delivered addresses. Senor Zarate said:

“Ladies and Gentlemen:

“For Mexicans — thousands of them — I speak in English to those who do not understand what is being said or done in these exercises today.

“On alien soil, enjoying the absolute liberty of the United States, we Mexicans who are only temporary residents of this country, revere and respect the liberty that the United States constitution gives all and everybody within its borders.

“We Mexicans are, as I said already, temporary residents, but when we go back to the land of our birth, we shall certainly remember the hospitality and kindness that have been bestowed upon us during our permanence in your midst, and it will be a debt of gratitude that we always will be too glad to reciprocate if the opportunity should be afforded us.

“We are about to have the rights of a free and independent people, same as you have. We are sure of a complete establishment soon that will give everybody regardless of their situation in life the sovereign right of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, as is exemplified in your Declaration of Independence and guaranteed by your constitution.

“To the real Americans within range of my voice, I wish to state a case to those who are citizens of this country. To those who do not reverence liberty, I have nothing to say.

“You claim to belong to the land of the free and the home of the brave. So do we, your brother Americans in Mexico. We of Mexico want for all time the same principles to obtain in Mexico that which you should always demand in this — your county. The good people of both the United States and Mexico demand untrammeled liberty — a liberty without license, borne of a sound constitution and universally respected.

“Permit me to tell you that fourteen millions of human beings in Mexico are, without exception, hungry for liberty. All they demand is the God-given right to go their respective ways in diligence and industry. That they will and shall have that simple sovereign privilege is destined by God. All right-minded people must necessarily admit it.

“Now, to go a little further, permit me to tell you that today is our day of liberty — the same as your Fourth of July. On the 16th of September, 1810, a humble Catholic priest, Hidalgo, appeared on the arena of Mexico, as your George Washington in 1774 — he left his priesthood for manhood and sheer love of country.

“He decided — as every good man should decide — that one’s nation is more than one’s life and infinitely more than a belief in dead people — even if they become saints in a religious sect. He was butchered by the evil partisans of oppression and died a martyr for liberty.

“The life of Hidalgo is a fine and beautiful page in the history of the world. That his life was given to the cause of Mexican liberty is wholly incidental, I say — and say as vehemently and as loud as I can — that the good, intelligent, philosophical man, trained from earliest opportunity for Rome and the best that the Romist church stood for, in prime of manhood, with the most careful deliberation, fully realizing he must be a martyr, finally decided that the liberty of Mexico was more than all else, and it was thus that he called his people to arms and fought and died.

“To all intelligent students of world history, Hidalgo necessarily stands out as a unique and glorious character for reason of his acts and fate, as I have just mentioned. So we are here today to pay homage to his splendid memory and are determined to live up to and ever maintain the spirit and principles inculcated by him.

“May his soul rest in peace. May the Almighty grant that all men may see as Hidalgo, not only in Mexico, but elsewhere, that folk will be better for his novelty of sentiment, his magnificent example, and his utter sacrifice. I say again, my his soul rest in peace! I mean so far as the hereafter is concerned, with which we mortals on earth have no governance. But so far as the good spirit of Hidalgo is concerned, it is as deathless as fame — worshipped by all true Mexicans and all other lovers of liberty, and, as time goes on, the sacrifice and splendid example of Hidalgo are more to us today than ever before. We are a patient, long-suffering people. The injustices and arbitrary acts of self-imposed authority beyond our sacred constitution has been the main, the sole cause of all the troubles which Mexico has gone through in the last six years. What we Mexicans desire is to have Hidalgo’s principles obtained forever. I sincerely believe that that is the desire of all others who, if not Mexicans, are for right and liberty.

“Long live the memory of Hidalgo. May the principles of liberty in the United States never conflict with those of Mexico. Finally, let us all abide by the glorious efforts of the patriots of Mexico!”

September 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:7. Exposition head sends greetings to southern Fair; officials of Centennial Celebration at Gulfport, Mississippi, return compliments.

September 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:2. Mayor of Los Angeles and other officials visited Exposition.

September 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4.

Fine Distinctions in the Immodesty of Art, Yorick discusses the original “Stella.”

My own objection to the original “Stella” was not that it was “immoral” or that it was bad art. Good art in sculpture or painting cannot be “immoral,” whatever may be the subject treated by the artist. “Stella” was the figure of a naked woman, but so is the Venus de Medici, and only the nastiest-mind prude would denounce the Mediciean Aphrodite as “immoral.” I am unable to pronounce on “Stella” as good or bad art, because it was fake art, and whatever is faked is beyond critical judgment. I would have to see “Stella” divested of her glamour of lights and shadows as she is divested of raiment before I could say whether she is artistically good, bad or indifferent. Honest connoisseurs of feminine beauty decline to pass upon specimens of it paraded for inspection half-attired, under the deceptive glare of the shadowed electrics of a society reception or a danzante of the “younger set.” The best time to judge a woman’s beauty is in the early morning after the curl papers have been removed and before the powder puff has been applied — in that unguarded hour, woman, lovely or unlovely, is all herself.

But perhaps I digress. What I intended to say was that Oakland (Cal.) is blushing furiously and paling spasmodically in contemplation of a “Stella,” which some of the purest moralists of the town say is absolutely unfit for publication, but which others insist is all right except in the salacious imaginations of the objectors. The remainder of the community, of course, did not miss the opportunity of crowding the exhibit hall to the doors in a avid desire to pass judgment on the controversy by personal observation. Consequently, the town is hopeless divided into the pro-Stellas, who declare that she is all right, and the anti-Stellas, who as emphatically insist that she is all wrong.

Perhaps I ought to explain that this Oakland Stella is not the one we saw in San Diego a few months ago. This Oakland thing — of beauty — is not a painted creature of an artist’s fancy from a living model; she is the real thing — of beauty — she is a model and painting all together in the altogether. At first blush this “Stella” seems to be a replica of the famous one — she might be “Stella” herself, so cleverly is the other fake faked in this fake. The chief of police of Oakland came and looked at the lady and approved. The chief of police of Oakland is not an artist — he is only a policeman — but he knows a good thing when he sees it; and this “Stella” looked good to him — until she moved. As a work of art the chief of police found “Stella” unobjectionable, but as an escape from the “life class” of an art school she was “immoral” under the rule of the police department of Oakland. Wherefore the chief told the “exhibitors” of the “work of art” that every little movements must be suppressed — there must be no hint to spectators that “Stella” was alive. He also suggested (and a hint is as good as a kick from the chief of police of Oakland) that future trouble might be avoided if the lady in the picture were clothed in conventional tights. Curiously enough that was the first intimation from any quarter that “the picture” was in puris naturalibus.

September 17, 1916, 9:2. Society to take tea at Exposition in aid of Mercy Hospital; parties being planned for Exposition Monday to swell fund being raised for cause.

September 18, 1916. Letter from Executive Committee to General Committee on Preservation of Exposition Buildings (1915 Exposition, Letters and Minutes/Committee on Preservation of Exposition Buildings, n. p., 1916).

All state and county buildings to be removed with the exception of New Mexico and the Southern Counties

Three groups of buildings on El Prado to be separated by planting

  1. California and Fine Arts group
  2. Five buildings around Plaza de Panama
  3. Southern Counties Building and surroundings

Horticultural building, Fisheries exhibit, organ and model farm to remain; Canadian and Varied Industries Buildings to be eliminated

Object — to make buildings adjuncts and appurtenances of the park rather than the remains of an Exposition

Park will flow into general scheme between California Building and central group on both north and south; a splendid vista of the park in both directions will become a feature of the landscape by elimination of Canadian and Varied Industries Buildings.

Isthmus to be abandoned, except for Painted Desert

U.S. Government Building to be used of music pavilion; Pan-America Building for county exhibits; Foreign Arts Building for industrial fairs; Southern California Counties Building for an auditorium.

Natural History Museum to go in one of the minor buildings.

Fine Arts Building for art; Russia and Brazil and Science and Education Buildings for anthropological displays

California Building use to be determined

Cost — $1,600 to repair staff work

$10,000 annually to preserve buildings in present condition

September 18, 1916, Los Angeles Times, II, 3:5. Imperial Cotton Wins.

The quality of Imperial Valley cotton has again received official recognition. The international jury of awards has given the exhibit of Mrs. Ella Swickard at the San Diego fair two grand prizes, one on long and one on short stable. Mrs. Swickard this year only made the two groups.

Miss Swickard’s exhibit and spinning wheel have attracted much attention at the fair. Her work for the valley product has spread the fame of the California Dixieland far and wide. She is particularly pleased with the United States Imperial Valley cotton.

September 18, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:5. Mayor Capps releases Carl Ferris, of Ferris & Ferris Drug Store, from his services as Park Commissioner and appoints L. A. Blochman; Ferris sold drugs to city in violation of a charter provision.

September 18, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:5. Aid for hospital expected today at Exposition grounds; Mercy Hospital fund committee to share in gate receipts; interesting program made.

September 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:1, 3:1-4. Night chase to get mayor fails; Ferris is exonerated and Capps’ act is criticized.

September 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1. Mercy Hospital Day held at Exposition; Miss Margaret Harvey, contralto, sings; 700 people have tea at Ridgeway Pavilion.

September 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:3. Southern District Federation Day at Exposition tomorrow.

September 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:2. Exposition attendance figures given; more than million and quarter persons pass through gates in 1916.

Exposition attendance for 1916 is a quarter past the million mark with a total to day of 1,240,175. The total attendance for the entire Exposition period, beginning January 1, 1915 is 3,270,131 and Exposition officials believe the attendance will reach close to the five million mark for the two-year period.

Up to and including July 4, the attendance for 1916 was 28,000 greater than for the same period in 1915. Although the attendance since that time has been extremely gratifying to Exposition officials and every big day of the period has been greater than the same day of last year, the total for August and the first part of September was slightly less than for those months of last year.

At present the daily attendance is equal to last years at the same period and as the special events department has a number of big days planned with special programs it is believed that the final months will be greater than those of 1915.

September 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:5. Hotel manager taught story of Exposition; Fair Board advises head of local hostelry grounds are open Sundays.

September 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:2-3. Miss Margaret Konig of Portland, bride-to-be, asks public to wedding at Isthmus Saturday afternoon.

September 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:3. Tommasino’s band will give request program today.

September 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:4. Mrs. C. C. Arnold, guest of honor at Exposition; president Southern District Federation Clubwomen arrives in San Diego.

September 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:5. Westlake Club artists of Los Angeles Exposition guests Saturday.

September 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:6. Miss Helen Bowles, San Diego soprano, to sing at Organ Pavilion Thursday evening.

September 21, 1916, Los Angeles Times, IV, 9:5. Gets the Grand Prize, Salt Lake Route-Union Pacific Building is declared by jury to be worthy of highest honor.

Word has just been received that the jury of awards, acting for the Panama-California International Exposition at San Diego, has given the grand prize for buildings of its class to the Salt Lake Route-Union Pacific Building, which has been operated by these two railway systems since the beginning of the exposition in January, 1915.

This building has been one of the features of the exposition, carrying with it a most interesting exhibit bearing upon the country tributary to the Salt Lake Route and also maintaining an efficient information bureau covering every section of the great West.

Two of the special attractions in this building are the massive maps, each occupying one end of the great reception hall. One of these maps covers in detail the entire country tributary to the lines of the Salt Lake Route, while the other is equally illustrative of the wonders of the Yellowstone. Each of these maps was last year awarded a gold medal by the Committee of Awards, and the building itself was given like recognition in 1915, to be followed this year by the award of the grand prize.

In addition to these exhibit features, the Salt Lake Route-Union Pacific Building has been noted for its entertainment features, its hospitality having been extended to all prominent visitors and its doors kept open for the entertainment of every gathering of importance that has made a tour of the fair.

September 21, 1916, San Diego Sun, 2:1. Forward denies he will resign from Park Commission; Council has refused to confirm Blochman and has attacked Capp’s appointment of Thomas O’Hallaran to succeed C. T. Chandler because O’Hallaran is inheritance tax appraiser for state.

September 21, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4. The breach between the mayor and the City Council grew wider yesterday afternoon when the Council for the second time refused to confirm the appointment of L. A. Blochman to succeed Carl I. Ferris on the Park Commission.

September 21, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: There will be general regret because of the withdrawal of Carl I. Ferris from the Park Commission.

September 21, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Jules Guerin art work displayed at Exposition.

September 22, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

Resolution No. 21896 of the Common Council of the City of San Diego regarding the purchase of animals now located on Exposition grounds and belonging to the Mission Bay Corporation was read and ordered filed.

Secretary was instructed to write letters to Senators Phelan and Works and Congressman Kettner asking their aid toward getting the U.S. Government to maintain the Fisheries Building permanently after the close of the Exposition.

September 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:4. Report today on Exposition buildings; committee to devise play to preserve Exposition is ready with its recommendations.

September 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Children to revel in Isthmus Day frolics at Exposition tomorrow.

September 23, 1916, Los Angeles Times, II, 3:3-4. Southern California prize winners named; many Los Angeles individuals and firms included in award list of Panama-California International Exposition for Southern Counties’ Building; grand prizes and medals given in a score of classes.

September 23, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 2:5. Ceremonies commemorating the first mass held in California in Old Town, September 24, 1769, by Father Junipero Serra and his band of followers will be held on the lawn in the rear of the Montezuma Gardens at the Exposition tomorrow afternoon.

September 23, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 5:4. Troops are quartered at the Exposition grounds again; the Second Battalion of the 21st Infantry arrived yesterday from the border. The First Battalion, at the Exposition early this year, is expected here soon when it will make camp near the Tijuana border.

September 23, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:1-2. Exposition buildings will be used for museums; all state and county buildings, except New Mexico and Southern Counties buildings, to be removed, those named to be used for exhibits of the southwest; grouping of buildings on the Prado in three distinct groups to preserve the harmonious landscape effect, eliminating the Canadian and Varied Industries buildings; the abandonment of the Isthmus except the Painted Desert; buildings chosen to stay will remain 15 to 20 years with expenditure for upkeep estimated at $10,000 a year; California State Building to be used for some purpose not yet determined; Fine Arts Building for periodic exhibits of paintings and other fine arts; the two buildings west of the central plaza for the installation of archaeological exhibits; the building to the north for a music pavilion and possible dance hall; the present Pan-American building at the northeast corner of the plaza for county exhibits, to be maintained largely by the county; the present Foreign Arts Building at the southeast corner for automobile shows, industrial fairs and other large exhibits; the Southern Counties Building to be used as an auditorium; the installation in one of the minor buildings of the exhibit of the Natural History Museum.

September 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3. Infantry arrives at Exposition grounds from Yuma camp.

First Battalion en route to San Diego

Border call issued three months ago for First Battalion, which was stationed here at the time

First Battalion expected to be ordered to camp at Imperial Beach.

Second Battalion headquarters established at Exposition

Second Battalion answered call from Vancouver barracks

Twenty-first Infantry Bank accompanied Second Battalion

Third Battalion, which has been stationed near Calexico, not under orders at present

September 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:2-3. Preservation of Exposition buildings, committee plan; recommends “middle course: in report to General Board.

Recommending a “middle ground: course of action between tearing down all the temporary or semi-temporary buildings of the Exposition after January, and preserving all of them, the executive committee of the general committee for the preservation of the buildings and grounds of the Panama-California International Exposition yesterday made its report.

September 23, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 7:1. Public wedding is feature of Isthmus program.

September 23, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 7:1. Antonius Salazar, the Provencal and head of the Franciscan order of the Pacific coast, to preside on Father Serra Day at the Exposition tomorrow; will plant two palms on the lawn back of the Montezuma Gardens and unveil bronze table placed between the trees in honor of padre.

September 23, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 7:2-3. Indians to celebrate Thanksgiving Day; ceremonies to be held at Exposition; barbecued goats, corn and squash, feature of Fiesta on Painted Desert today.

September 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:3. Charles T. Chandler, president of the University Avenue Bank, raps Mayor Capps; says he ought to quit; former Park Commissioner charges Mayor with “tearing down” policy.

September 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:2-4. Isthmus Day at Exposition voted success; auto race and public wedding day’s features.

September 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 11:4. Will honor memory of Father Junipero Serra; plant palms; unveil bronze table at Exposition.

September 25, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3-4. Father Serra Day observed before crowd at Exposition; anniversary of “the earliest San Diegan” celebrated at Exposition where church dignitaries consecrate palms and bronze tablet in Franciscan’s memory..

September 26, 1916, San Diego Sun, 4:2-5. F. Weber Benton wrote letter urging retention of all buildings as a repository of art and all the sciences known to man; wants limpid lakes and winding lagoons in park for gondolas and aquatic bipennates; rustic bridges, pergolas, driveways: “There is nothing here lacking in the combination and multiplicity of the natural advantages and charms to contribute to the perfection of the embryonic Eden.”

September 26, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:4-5. Hawaiian Islands’ needs told in Balboa Day address; anniversary of discovery of Pacific Ocean observed at Exposition.

September 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:4. Philip Morse, San Diego pioneer, has composed a special poem for Cabrillo Day which is to be celebrated at the Exposition today. The poem will be read by Otto Jeancon as part of the formal program to be held at the Organ Pavilion at 2:30 o’clock.

September 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:5. Camera contest for Exposition views arranged; valuable prizes offered in four classes to Kodak artists who visit Exposition.

September 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:5. Bringing a detachment of fifteen marines for duty at the marine barracks at the Exposition and mail, coal and supplies for ships in southern waters, the naval collier Nanshan arrived from Mare Island last night.

September 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:5. Grand prize awarded the French official exhibit by the Exposition superior jury of award.

September 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:5-6. San Diego zoo plan of animal life students; may form society to support large collection.

Drs. Harry M. and Paul Wegeforth are interested in the promotion of a zoological society for San Diego which will have for its object the development and support of a zoological garden to be maintained out of the funds that the society will raise through dues and subscriptions.

There are a number of physicians and scientists, such as Drs. Baker, Thompson, Gregg and Archie Talboy in this city and county, who are interested in the study of animal life and it is proposed to combine them in a nucleus which will later be developed into an efficient organization

“We already have a good start,” said Dr. Harry Wegeforth, “in the collection we have at the Exposition. The cost of maintaining these animals is not large.

“There are tons of animals from Mexico, Central and South America coming through our port and being distributed among cities like Chicago, New York and San Francisco. These animals are gifts. Why can’t we keep some of them here? Zoological societies trade animals with each other and we can do the same thing when we get a surplus of any one species.”

September 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 9:3. Many Elks coming for visit to Exposition following convention in Santa Barbara, October 9 and 10.

September 27, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:4. Cabrillo Day at Exposition celebrated.

September 27, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:4. Colonel Joseph H. Pendleton, of the Fourth Regiment, US marines, now in the midst of an active campaign in Santo Domingo, has written President G. A. Davidson that if there is any possibility of the marines “finishing their job” they want to be back in San Diego in time to take part in the close of the Exposition.

September 28, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:5. City Council again rejects Blochman for Park Commission.

September 29, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

Superintendent stated plans had been adopted earlier in the year for a pergola at the south side of the “Rose Garden: to cost approximately $1,400, but recommended construction be withheld until after the close of the Exposition as sufficient lumber from the salvage of buildings would be available to construct the pergola.

October 3, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 1:5, 5:3. Frank P. Allen says Exposition buildings must come down, by Bertram Holmes.

October 3, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:4. Fairbanks’ Day in honor of vice-presidential candidate Charles W. Fairbanks, running mate of Charles Evans Hughes.

October 3, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:3. Soldier Boys To Parade At Exposition.

Beginning tomorrow the second battalion of the 21st Regiment, U.S. Infantry, stationed at Camp Walter R. Talliaferro on the exposition grounds, will have an important part in the special events on the exposition grounds. Col. D. J. Baker has approved of drills, parades, reviews, band concerts and inspections as follows:

Every Monday morning the 21st Regiment Band, under the direction of C. Butler, will play on the Plaza de Panama at 10:30. Drills by one company in closed order will be given in the Plaza de Panama Wednesdays, Thursdays and Fridays at 10 o’clock. Other companies will drill near the Infantry camp. Parades, reviews and escort of colors will be held daily at 3:30 on the Plaza de Panama except Saturday, Sunday and Tuesdays. Inspection of troops will be held on the Plaza de Panama every Saturday morning at 10 o’clock.

October 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3. Charles W. Fairbanks, Republican vice-presidential nominee to speak at Organ Pavilion today; gates open to public without charge 1:00 to 1:30 this afternoon.

October 4, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:1. Fairbanks, Republican vice-presidential candidate, reception a cold one; spoke before about 3,500 people at Organ Pavilion; applauded once when he mentioned name of Roosevelt.

Following an enjoyable luncheon in honor of Vice Presidential Candidate Charles Warren Fairbanks at the Café Cristobal, the distinguished visitor spoke yesterday afternoon at the exposition organ before about 3500 people.

A good breeze blew and the sun stayed intermittently on the job as Mr. Fairbanks expounded the points upon which the party will go to the polls in November to attempt to wrest victory from the Democrats. He was applauded once, when he mentioned the name of Roosevelt. Very scantly applause greeting him at other times.

He said in beginning his speech at the organ pavilion, “The last four years of Democracy have been the longest years of my life. Time has dragged; progress has been halted; there have been uncertain delays. It is always thus when the Democrats are in power.

“Let us draw near to each other now, and discuss in an intimate way our mutual welfare as American citizens.

“We are at the present time facing a greater crisis than at any time since 1861. Great changes will take place after the war. Just reflect what it will mean when 30,000,000 men lay down their arms.

“Four years ago the Democrats forswore principles adopted by the Republican party and started in to pass laws of tariff for revenue only. To 100,000,000 people this meant virtually a revolution. The tariff principles of the Democratic party have already been felt, I am informed, on the coast. It would be a very foolish Californian who would vote to perpetuate that party in power.

“This country was never devised by the Maker of all things good to be a place of panics. For this reason, it was never intended that the Democratic party should be in power.”

Fairbanks left for the north following a trip to local scenic points with members of the reception committee.

October 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:2-6, 2:2-3. Fairbanks denounces Democratic policies in address before crowd at Organ Pavilion.

October 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:2. “Kings of Harmony” rival Spanish singing troupe at Exposition.

October 6, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:6. Claude Woolman, member of Board of Education, wants one of the Exposition buildings for a high school; would relieve overcrowding.

October 6, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 11:1. Park Board asks for conference on Exposition buildings; some doubt on preserving the Exposition buildings by Frank P. Allen’s published interview.

October 6, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 11:1. Verdi Day will be observed at Exposition October 9.

October 6, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 11:2-4. Ring Tail monkey born at the Exposition’s free zoo yesterday morning.

October 6, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 11:5. Illinois senator J. Hamilton Lewis to speak tonight to crowd at Organ Pavilion; gates will open to the public without charge after 6 this evening.

October 7, 1916, San Diego Sun, II, 11:3-4. Senator J. Ham Lewis is applauded to echo as he rips into Charles Evans Hughes; splendid speech before a crowd that jams War of Worlds at Exposition.

October 7, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:2-3, 3:2. Large audience hears Illinois senator J. Hamilton Lewis rap Republican opponents.

October 8, 1916, Los Angeles Times, II, 12:1-5. Plan preservation of Exposition buildings; San Diegans actively at work to realize dream of great park and permanent structures on Exposition site; growing beauty of grounds powerful argument in favor of perpetuation.

October 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 13:2. Henri La Bonte, dramatic tenor, to sing at Organ Pavilion today.

October 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:1. Five thousand Exposition visitors attend operatic recital by Henri La Bonte, well-known tenor.

October 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 11:1-8. Second Battalion of 21st Infantry has jumped into instant popularity with Exposition visitors. . . . The four companies of the battalion, fresh from their services on the Mexican border, have added greatly to the daily events of the Exposition grounds.

October 12, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:7. 104th anniversary of birth of Father Horton will be celebrated in the gallery of California history in the basement of the Fine Arts building today.

October 14, 1916, San Diego Sun1:1-2. Senator Phelan spoke to a big throng at the War of the Worlds building on the Isthmus last night; defended Wilson’s foreign and domestic policies and praised Kettner.

October 14, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:4. Plans for holding a Southern California products fair at the Exposition for a month each year; scheme would provide for a permanent experiment station under auspices of the state university; would advertise Southern California to the world.

October 14, 1916, San Diego Sun, 2:4-8. Art and Artists, by Beatric de Lack Kromback: Week of October 15th to October 21st.

October 14, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1. United States Senator James D. Phelan and George S. Patton, senatorial candidate, spoke to about 1500 people at the Exposition last night; denounced policies of Governor Hiram Johnson.

October 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:2. Joe Bocquel, world-renowned aviator, to fly at Exposition last of month.

October 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:4. Chrysanthemum garden, just back of Organ Pavilion, wins praise from numerous visitors; about 10,000 blossoms representing 40 varieties.

October 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:2. Los Angeles County Day draws record Saturday crowd at Exposition; Hollywood musicians give formal program at Organ Pavilion.

October 16, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:3. Sham battle feature at Exposition; Second Battalion of 21st Infantry to be seen Wednesday.

The Second battalion of the 21st U. S. Infantry, in command of Major J. P. Harbeson, will be inspected in heavy marching order and will attack a trench defended by an imaginary enemy on the Plaza de Panama at the Exposition Wednesday afternoon at 3:30 o’clock, in addition to presenting the regular review and parade. These drills are designed to show the various military ceremonies of the army and the preparations for war constantly being made by the army units.

The inspection of field equipment will precede the sham attack and will consist in each man preparing his individual equipment for the inspecting officer. In the attack one company will move towards the enemy under imaginary fire, supported by the other two companies, and will make the final charge with fixed bayonets.


The engagement of Enrico Aresoni, celebrated dramatic tenor, by the Exposition for a series of concerts with Tommasino’s Royal Italian Band, has met with numerous expressions of approval on the park of local music lovers, who view it as one of the most important musical events of the Exposition period. Signor Aresoni will make his first appearance at the concert tomorrow afternoon from 4 to 5 o’clock on the Plaza de Panama, and will sing several selections of operatic airs.

Aresoni has sung with many of the leading opera companies of American and Europe, including the Milan Grand Opera Company, the Boston Grand Opera Company, the Paris Grand Opera Company, and the Belgian Royal Opera Company, and has appeared as soloist with the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra. The Exposition engagement marks his first appearance in California, and will last one week.

October 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Varied program offered today.

A varied program of events including concerts and military drills will be offered at the Exposition today, which is automobile and invalid day. Automobiles will be allowed on the grounds from 8 a.m. until midnight.

From 10:30 to 11:30 this morning the band f the Twenty-first U.S. Infantry will play at the U.S. Government Building, and at 3:30 o’clock this afternoon the Second Battalion will present a review and parade on the Plaza de Panama. From 3 to 5 o’clock a tea and reception will be given for Exposition visitors in the blue room of the Southern California Building and Tommasino’s band will play in the patio of the building from 3:30 to 4:30 o’clock.

In addition to these events the regular program of band concerts, an organ recital, entertainments by the Spanish singers and dancers, lectures and demonstrations, and free motion picture entertainment on the Isthmus stage at 8:30 o’clock tonight will be offered.

October 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:6. Battalion plans sham battles at Exposition.

October 17, 1916, San Diego Sun, 4:2. The Twenty-first U.S. Infantry band will give concert tonight at the U.S. Fisheries Building.

October 18, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:2. Ex-park commissioner Charles T. Chandler appropriated park shrubs and labor to decorate 4th Presbyterian Church last June in preparation for the wedding of his daughter according to a bill placed before City Attorney Cosgrove by Mayor Capps.

October 18, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:8. Mayor Capps wants efficiency manger in charge of Park Board’s bills and expenditures; expert Hetzel discovered unpaid bill to San Diego Electric Company for $3,807.50 to be due for excavating work rendered to Spreckels Corporation in its park line.

October 18, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:1. Socialist Allen Benson to speak tomorrow evening at Organ Pavilion; directors declared a free night after 6 o’clock.

October 19, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:6. Forward resigned from Park Board yesterday afternoon, leaving Thomas O’Hallaran, Mayor Capps’ recent appointee, the only member; Forward blames O’Hallaran for creating furor in regard to $3,800 bill against Spreckels Railway. . . . Forward said: “Mr. Spreckels had agreed to put $2,500 toward building a new roadway, continuing 12th Street boulevard through the Exposition, the Park Board to do the work. On completion it was discovered that it totaled $3,800. The Railroad has not agreed to such an amount and was holding the bill pending some settlement.”

Charles T. Chandler said decorating church for his daughter’s wedding was not done at his request, but was performed as a courtesy by the Park Department. He said he would pay the bill rather than see anybody fired.

October 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3, 2:3. Forward offers to quit Park Board; President of Board sends in resignation to mayor.

October 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:6, 2:6. Chandler answers charges; park flowers sent to his daughter’s wedding as a courtesy; came as surprise to him; relates his version of the case.

October 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Mr. Forward’s Resignation.

The city cannot afford to lose Mr. Forward’s services in the position that he has filled so long and so creditably.

October 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:5. Explains matter of park grading; former official tells about bill to railway company and steps to adjust it.

October 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2-3. Infantrymen will rehearse sham battle at Exposition.

October 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:2. “Taking a Trench,” Exposition program a hit; Infantrymen and Italian tenor afford entertainment to big weekend crowd.

October 20, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:4. Mayor Capps will present names of two citizens before Council to succeed Carl Ferris and John Forward; Council had previously refused to confirm L. A. Blochman.

October 20, 1916, San Diego Sun, 2:2. Battle of the Painted Desert will be fought at Exposition tomorrow afternoon between the Second Battalion of the 21st U.S. Infantry and the Indians; scenario formulated by Major J. P. Harbeson.

October 20, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:1-2, Benson scores Wilson and Hughes; spoke to more than 3,000 men and women.

October 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:2-3. Frederick W. Taylor of Denver says San Diego hits new note in Expositions.

October 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Socialists hear standard bearer Benson speak at Exposition; hits Wilson and Hughes.

October 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2-3. Infantrymen to fight Indians at Exposition; sham battle tomorrow.

October 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Bret Harte Day today.

October 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1. Park secretary Pendleton assumes blame for floral gift to Chandler wedding.

October 20, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1. Mayor Capps to accept resignation of Park Board president.

October 21, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Roar of battle to sound at Exposition this afternoon.

October 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4-5, 3:5. American troops storm Painted Desert, driving Indians to surrender with big losses.

October 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:7-8. Big parade will feature Housewives’ Day program.

October 23, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:2. Governor Johnson to speak at Exposition tomorrow at War of the Worlds building at 8 p.m.

October 23, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:4. Expert Hetzel finds Park Board purchased large carp at $4.40 each.

October 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. Peace Day planned at Exposition October 29; Mabel Normand to be guest.

October 24, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:2. Chandler sends check for $95; railroad bill pending.

October 24, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:3-6. EDITORIAL: Consider California and Governor Hiram Johnson, her distinguished son.

October 24, 1916, San Diego Union, l:4, 2:3. Fish “scandal” hits snag; purchase made by Exposition officials, not Park Board.

October 25, 1916, San Diego Sun, II, 9:1-2. Governor Johnson fighting to carry state’s progressive laws to nation; declares he’s man who routed machine politics.

October 25, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:3. Edwin Markham, California writer, to be honored at Exposition tomorrow.

October 25, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:4. Governor Johnson addresses large audience at Exposition; says Republican party stands for “America First, America Fit, American Efficient.”

Governor Hiram Johnson spoke last night before an audience which not only filled every seat in the War of the Worlds Building, but which necessitated 200 extra chairs — all that could be added to the place – and then packed the aisles and stood two deep around the walls. The normal seating capacity of the building is 1,466. Governor Johnson spoke to urge the candidacy of Charles E. Hughes for president, in support of the Republican platform and for national preparedness of industry and government as well as for fighting, equal suffrage, protective tariffs, social health and social justice.

“My ambition is to write the glorious story of California’s political achievements in the last six years into the laws of the nation.”

October 26, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:6. San Diego today has a Park Board largely as the result of an exclusive story in The Sun last night that Councilman Fox and Schmidt were blocking the mayor’s plan to appoint George W. Marston and Arthur Cosgrove to fill the places of the former commissioners Carl Ferris and John Forward, Jr.; at 2:15 Fox changed his mind.

October 26, 1916, San Diego Sun, 2:1. Peace Day plans are completed; occurs at Exposition tomorrow; famous aviator flies today.

October 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:7-8. G. W. Marston and A. Cosgrove placed on Park Board.

October 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1-4. Housewives’ Day will be made regular event following success of initial event at Exposition.

October 27, 1916, Letter, F. H. Wurster, Wurster Construction Company to Mr. Stanley Hale and Mr. George W. Marston (1915 Exposition: Letters and Minutes/Committee of Preservation of Exposition Buildings, n.p., 1916).

By waterproofing the outside walls below grade, and giving the exterior plaster and staff sufficient preservative and paint and the roofs a layer of pitch and some minor repairs and by renewing the paint at the usual intervals the buildings in question can be preserved in good shape for a period of from 15 to 20 years.

Science and Education, Russia and Brazil, Panama-Pacific, Foreign Arts, Southern California counties.

October 27, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

Present: O’Hallaran, Marston and Cosgrove (Forward and Ferris had resigned)

0Marston: Mr. Wurster of Wurster Construction Company reported 18 inches of water was standing under the Panama-Pacific Building.

October 27, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:3. Nationwide Woodrow Wilson day is to be observed at the exposition tomorrow.

In all the cities of the country President Wilson’s message to his fellow citizens will be read at gatherings. In San Diego the meeting will be held at the exposition organ at 7:30. H. L. Moody will read the president’s message to the people, and Joe Rush, of Los Angeles, will give an address. W. F, Reyer will sing “My Own United States.”

Tommasino’s band will give a half-hour concert preceding the program. Because of the fact that it is Saturday, no free gate will be in force.

The committee in charge today requested all citizens to decorate stores and homes with flags in honor of Woodrow Wilson day.

October 28, 1916, San Diego Sun, 2:8. Peace Day plans completed; committee of schoolchildren to bury implements of war; to be held on lawn in back of the Montezuma Gardens at 4 o’clock; Miss Mabel Normand will plant an olive tree and make a short address; aviator Joe Boquel will fly over the spot and drop a wreath.

October 28, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4. Bulldog becomes foster mother to lion cubs at Exposition.

October 28, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:5. City officials quickly contradict William Templeton Johnson; deny that water system is polluted.

October 28, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:2-3. Charles C. Moore, northern Exposition chief, guest of San Diego Exposition.

October 28, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:3. Joe Boquel will fly above Exposition aviation field today.

October 29, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:2. Boquel startles crowd with evolutions in air above aviation field.

October 29, 1916, San Diego Union, Sports, 2:1-4. City playground work grows; extensive program arranged.

October 30, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:1. Superintendent MacKinnon appeared before the Preservation Committee recently and asked for the use of one of the Exposition buildings; after that, the question of selecting a site on the Exposition grounds for a new group of high school buildings could be undertaken; a similar report will probably be submitted to the Park Board.

October 30, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:4. Free dance night at Exposition casino; first public dance to be held; two concerts by Tommasino’s Royal Italian Band in front of U.S. Fisheries Building; motion pictures on Isthmus stage.

October 30, 1916, San Diego Sun, 6:1-2. Twelve thousand men and women listed to a debate on the wet and dry question at the stadium yesterday.

October 30, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3-4. Mabel Normand, movie star, presided at Peace Day exercises yesterday at the Montezuma Garden.

October 30, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:7, 5:1-7. Thousands hear liquor debate at City stadium; minister and attorney present “wet” and “dry” sides of prohibition question.

October 30, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:3-4. Moore’s plan is for annual Spanish festival at Exposition.

President Charles C. Moore of the San Francisco Exposition, who left Saturday by automobile for his home after he and Mrs. Moore had passed several days visiting the Exposition as guest of President G. A. Davidson, was greatly impressed with the wonders he found on the Exposition grounds. Before leaving San Diego Moore was asked for an opinion of the Exposition, and the following statements made by him show his wonderful grasp of fundamentals and offer of a constructive idea for the future. It also is a warning to every San Diegan;

“I am confident that the people of San Diego and California do not realize how near to a close is the beautiful exposition that for the last two years has been so much a part of all their lives, and their pride and their affection, that unconsciously the thought has come that it is going on just as it has indefinitely.

“While San Diego is be congratulated that no city — no Exposition city — ever before will be able to retain for permanent public use such a large percentage of the Exposition grounds and buildings, yet it must not be forgotten that an Exposition is something more than an material things — it is, in a sense, a spirit, and by such reasoning it has a soul. By the measure of earthly things, therefore, the Exposition finis is written for December 31 — New Year’s Eve —. Even if some of the exhibits remain, and though the lights are just as bright, and the shrubbery just as green, yet the Exposition will be dead. Its spiritual light is out, and all that its lovers will have is the journeys in the realm of memory.

“It is a beauty spot and, as so often expressed, a real gem. The transformation of the barren park acres a few years ago to the present entrancing picture shows the possibilities of California soil and sunshine. As such it is, and always will be, a real asset to the Golden State. I will not attempt to paint the lily, nor can I hope to embellish by words the great praise and beautiful word pictures that have been presented by master minds on the beauties of the San Diego Exposition; but Mrs. Moore and I have enjoyed our visit immensely — enjoyed the Exposition and the hospitality of San Diego people and carry away with us the most cordial and kindly thoughts and will hold for San Diego and its future always the warmest good wishes and as friends and fellow Californians.

“One final thought: I can see with the arrangement of the architecture, the beautiful grounds, the space available, the lordly setting, a chance on the part of San Diego to do not only a good to California, but really national — almost world service. San Diego is connected in the mind of the visitor with the early days of California, with the mission life. If it were possible to arrange to have held here annually for say two weeks a real festival commemorating the days of Spanish occupation, the mission life, presenting in true California spirit, and as San Diego can so well interpret such spirit, a portrayal of the life, the customs, the sports, the ideals of those early days, I believe earnestly that such an institution would in a short time become the Mecca for all those — and numbers legion — who will have the thought of early and romantic California and what the missions and the padres stand for.”

October 31, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:6. Halloween Ball to be held at Casino tonight.

October 31, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:1. Aviator Boquel’s life endangered by searchlight; giant beam turned on aeroplane in flight at Exposition Sunday night; there will be no flight tonight and none tomorrow.

October 31, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:2. Alaskan exhibit at Exposition adds seven samples of Arctic zone products; vegetables grow to full size in one day.

October 31, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:2. Tomorrow afternoon the organ recital will be given by Royal A. Brown.


November 1, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:4. Park gets valuable collection; Mrs. H. J. Tilden of Venice donated a collection of antiques to city last year; given into custody of Park Board; expert Hetzel and U.S. appraiser Furlong appraised there value at $5,450; some of collection were at home of Carl I. Ferris, ex-park commissioner, another portion in basement of Fine Arts Building; collection deteriorating because of neglect and poor treatment.

November 1, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:4. Ina Coolbrith Day tomorrow at California Counties Building; reading of poetry, songs and lecture.

November 1, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:6. Children’s Fair to be given December 1, 2 and 3 under auspices of Federated Teachers’ Association; more than 600 awards to be given for children’s work; open to every school child in San Diego County.

November 1, 1916, San Diego Sun, 6:5. Joe Boquel made 15 corkscrews yesterday afternoon.

November 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:5-6. A joint celebration in Honolulu and at the Exposition will be held Thursday, November 16, marking the 23rd anniversary of the abdication of Queen Liliuokalani, ruler of the former Hawaiian monarchy.

November 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:2. Harold Bell Wright to be honored at Exposition on November 9.

November 2, 1916, San Diego Sun, 2:3-4. Carl Ferris, the Park Board, expert Hetzel and The Sun.

The Sun denies inference of any crime or misdemeanor on the part of Mr. Ferris in the story regarding the Tilden collection.

November 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Ferris says Sun’s story is unfair and outrageous; former park commissioner makes statement on sick bed at St. Joseph’s Hospital; reference to his part in procuring and protecting a collection of antiques donated to the city park system by Mrs. H. J. Tilden of Venice, California.

November 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Children’s fete to be celebrated at Exposition, December 2.

November 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. People to vote on giving Dutch Flats to government.

November 3, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

City Auditor Moody showed a balance in the Park Improvement Fund of $27,315.14 as of October 31.

Secretary showed balance of $26,918.28, the difference due to 1915 bills payable in 1916.

Committee of Preservation of Exposition Buildings appeared before the Board (Mrs. Kendall, Dr. Hollington, Mr. Hale and Mr. Drake); recommendations accepted as a general statement for a tentative plan only.

President G. A. Davidson explained necessity of post-Exposition period; gates to grounds should remain closed for 3 to 6 months to protect property; Canadian, French, United States Government and other exhibits could be persuaded to remain for a least 90 days; 21st U.S. Infantry and band could be retained in its present quarters; efforts being made to secure early return of 4th Marine Corps with its band, and a squadron or more of the First U.S. Cavalry and band; admission fee to be charged but not to exceed 25 cents during post-Exposition period; small expenditure necessary to provide guards for exhibits.

Superintendent recommended:

planting front of stadium

planting 20,000 pine trees that are in Nursery rows in Switzer Canyon

planting about 2,000 oaks north of Cabrillo Bridge to the north boundary of Cabrillo Canyon

realigning, grading and surfacing Cabrillo Canyon Road

consolidating Park and Exposition nurseries

realigning east side of Golden Hill Road

regrading road from 18th Street to the foot of the grade near Cobblestone Bridge

widening Cobblestone Bridge in Switzer Canyon

enlarging aviary cage

providing quarters for bears donated by Colonel Hutchinson

building suitable cage of monkeys donated by J. D. Spreckels

Mr. Frank G. Kaufman petitioned to operate a zoo in park; proposition held in abeyance until matter could be discussed with certain citizens who are contemplating the forming of the San Diego Zoological Association.

November 3, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:1. Women’s Wilson Day is observed at Exposition; free hour in morning; Kettner and well-known women speak.

November 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4-5, 3:4-5. Hot protests meet District Attorney Marsh’s reflections on pupils’ morality; Parents Teachers Association expresses confidence in high school instructors.

November 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:6. Ferris to confer with attorneys on Sun attack; former park commissioner taken home; declares he will not tolerate stories.

November 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Plan to preserve Exposition buildings meets with favor; Committee to confer with Park Board on subject this afternoon.

November 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Exposition aviator claimed he wrote the name of next president on air lane; crowd is still in suspense.

November 4, 1916, San Diego Sun, 12:1-2. Enthusiasm for President Wilson is unbounded as speakers are heard at Organ Pavilion.

November 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Gold medal to be presented to Boquel by Exposition; daring aviator will write his farewell in sky at Exposition tonight.

Before Joe Boquel writes his farewell in the sky tonight at the Exposition the management will present him with a gold medal as a token of appreciation for his wonderful feats. The “sky dragon” will be honored this afternoon, following his flight at 3:30 when President G. A. Davidson will present him with a specially engraved medal.

A stand will be brought to the aviation field so that all may see the little program to show that San Diego appreciates Boquel’s wonderful work. Boquel’s night flight will be a 9 o’clock.

He established himself in San Diego at his first flight, and since that time he has given some new examples of brilliant daring every time he has gone into the air. His wing over wings, spirals, quick turns and low loops have startled San Diego residents and have aroused the admiration of the army flyers of the government aviation station at North Island. They concede Boquel to be “the best ever,” and there has not been a single flight without a good delegation of the army flyers on hand. In turn, Boquel has received many favors at the hands of these men who have aided him in repairing his motor.

November 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:3. Ina Coolbrith Day at Exposition Thursday afternoon great success; lecture by George Wharton James in Southern Counties Building.

November 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:3. Women speak for President during Woodrow Wilson Day yesterday at Exposition.

November 4, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1. Minutes of Fair Board show prosecutor Marsh’s charge to be baseless; March was not asked to wink at law, Belcher asserts.

November 4, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:2-3. Marsh opens mouth too wide and puts foot into it; then raises cloud to befog issue.

November 4, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:4-5. Protest at Marsh’s words continue; are regarded as reflection on school.

November 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:8, 3:5-6. Boquel, trying greatest flight, crashes to death; throng at Fair sees long drop; daring aviator, finishing one of sensational feats, is swept to earth in dizzy swoop; instantly killed; cause of drop unknown; flyer foresaw tragedy.

November 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 15:5. Park Board approves committee plans; preservation of several buildings at Exposition is discussed in conference.

Approval of the preservation committee’s plans for the retention of several of the Exposition buildings for recreational and other purposes substantially was given by the park board yesterday at a conference between that body and a committee from the preservation committee, consisting of G. A. Davidson, Mrs. E. I. Kendall, Dr. R. D. Hollington, Stanley Hale, and Earle F. Drake.

The reports of the Wurster Construction Company and John L. Bacon were submitted and discussed. These reports were in practical agreement that with comparatively small expense the buildings which it is desired to preserve may be put in condition to last from ten to fifteen years.

The park board unanimously agreed to accept the report of the committee as to its tentative plans and asked the committee to continue in an advisory capacity to work out the details with the board.

The suggestion has been made that Preservation Day be observed on the Exposition grounds, January 1, and this may be done to arouse public interest in the movement.

November 5, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:4. Miss Eleanor Lee, contralto from Claremont, will appear in ten numbers at Exposition today.

November 6, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners

Mr. Davidson and Secretary Pendleton requested to prepare a memorandum of the fixed monthly expense necessary to carry on a Post-Exposition period.

November 6, 1916, San Diego Sun, 11:1. Military honors were paid here to daring Joe Boquel, intrepid aviator, who fell to his death at the Exposition Saturday while doing his hair-raising “Falling-leaf: trick; military escort accompanied body from Johnson and Saum’s establishment to the train where it was shipped to Boquel’s wife in San Francisco; may have become dizzy in his fall and lost control of his facilities or may have encountered a pocket of wind that prevented him from righting his machine as he fell into a deep canyon; Boquel did the most hair-raising stunts of his entire career in Saturday’s flight. After writing “Farewell” in the sky he tumbled about like a madman, finally dropping west of the tractor field, across the canyon. He fell close to 300 feet in the final drop as thousands watched. Few of them realized he was going to his death, as he had done the same thing before in play. The aeroplane crashed with a thud into a small sapling and practically drove the radiator into the ground.

Boquel left a wife and 13-year old daughter in San Francisco. He was 32 years old, and had been flying since 1912. He was probably the most daring aviator in the business.

November 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3. Citizens to pay honor to airman; military funeral for Boquel to be held; body will be sent to wife in north; crowds visit wreck scene.

November 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:5-6. Treacherous air current dragged Boquel to death.

November 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:1. Kettner parade plans arranged; public invited; Democratic Congressional candidate will close campaign at Exposition.

November 7, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4-5, 3:4-5. Thousands bow heads in grief as funeral of aviator moves slowly through streets; San Diegans pay last farewell to Joe Boquel.

November 7, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:2-3. Kettner makes final speech of campaign; crowd cheers Congressman at Exposition following long automobile parade.

November 7, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:3. Hawaiian Day at Exposition; Queen Lil to press button; royal salute to be fired when flag of old monarchy is raised.

November 8, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners

Secretary reported that the monthly expense for a Post-Exposition period would be approximately $5,252.50, which would include the expenses the Exposition will be responsible for during the packing up of exhibits and winding up of all Exposition business; also a report showing the approximate monthly expense to the Park Board, should it undertake the management of a Post-Exposition of $1,575.00.

Motion carried that the Park Board is not in favor of conducting a Post-Exposition.

November 8, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:4-5. Woodrow Wilson leads County; Kettner wins.

November 8, 1916, San Diego Sun, 2:4. Thursday, November 9, to be Harold Bell Wright Day and George Sterling Day.

November 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:1-8. Election is in doubt; prohibition in state seemingly beaten; close contest being waged between Wilson and Hughes in California; Wilson leading with 232 electoral votes; Hughes records 218.

November 8, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:3. Hughes carries County by 450; prohibition amendment also wins here; Johnson gets a heavy vote.

November 8, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 10:6.

Plan for growth of high school; two propositions made: One is to give the board of education the use of the Southern Counties building and the model farm at the Exposition. The other is to donate 15 acres of ground in the vicinity of the Golden Hill playground, where a new building would have to be erected.

Superintendent MacKinnon said yesterday that it is imperative that the high school should have more room. He maintained that class rooms are needed and that the agricultural and horticultural departments should be separated from the present group and situated where the students can carry on agricultural pursuits on a large scale.

If it is found impractical to use the model farm at the Exposition grounds, Superintendent MacKinnon’s plan is to ask the City Council for the use of a part of the pueblo lands.

Plans discussed by the park commission in a tentative form is to cut off the south section of the park at Date Street and devote the strip from the high school to the Golden Hill playgrounds to locating public and semi-public institutions.

November 9, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:1. Exhibitors favor spring continuance of Exposition; officials not in favor because of $1,000 a day cost of operation aside from municipal services such as fire and police protection and street cleaning; indications from railroads and other sources is that after the holidays an unprecedented influx of eastern tourists will invade Southern California; Mayor Capps favors continuance as do French, Italian and Canadian exhibitors.

November 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:1-8. Hughes jumps in lead; state stays wet by substantial majorities; GOP leader has 239 electoral votes and President Wilson 232.

November 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:1-8. Wilson tops Hughes in California by 4,410 with race undecided.

November 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:1-8. Hughes holds slight lead in San Diego County vote; Republican candidate’s majority is slightly more than 100.

November 9, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:2-3. Isthmus attractions are setting for “The Butterfly Girl,” a movie comedy being filmed by the Pollard Motion Picture Company.

November 9, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:3. Model bungalow tea program this afternoon.

November 10, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

Dr. Harry Wegeforth and Dr. Thompson appeared before the Board regarding the handling of the park zoological collection; advised to put proposition in writing.

Dr. Wegeforth and his brother also interested in acquiring Exposition emergency hospital.

Change of grade of roadway at 28th and Date Streets on east boundary of park approved; Mrs. J. Frank Over to bear expenses of same.

Secretary advised to instruct Mr. F. G. Kaufman that his proposition regarding the park zoo was respectfully declined.

November 10, 1916, San Diego Herald, 1:2. Boquel buried with military honors.

November 10, 1916, San Diego Sun, 2:4. Saturday, November 11, Isthmus parade and taking of motion pictures; dance in Casino.

November 10, 1916, San Diego Sun, 4:2. “Welcome Day” to be observed at Exposition November 18; children of San Diego County schools to be actors; planned as a welcome to California migrants, including birds and people.

November 10, 1916, San Diego Sun, 8:3. George Sterling and Harold Bell Wright greeted at Southern Counties Building yesterday; George Wharton James talked about Sterling’s life and works.

November 10, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:1-8. Wilson re-elected; winner in California by less than 3,000.

November 10, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:2. French nation expresses thanks for Exposition award.

“The grand prize that has been awarded to the French national exhibit is a new and precious mark of your appreciation and the esteem in which you hold the efforts of our artists and manufacturers.”

(Signed) “Tirman”

November 10, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:4. Colonel Pendleton selected for Brigadier General.

November 10, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1. “Welcome Day” to be observed at Exposition, November 18; program being prepared for bird and people migrants by pupils.

November 10, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:4-5. Samuel Stack, city park gardener, recommends new rose.

November 11, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:2. George Sterling Day a success.

November 11, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:2. Leopold Godowski, famous pianist and his wife visit Exposition.

November 13, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:5. Exposition attractions are closed up; ’49 Camp and another beer garden, known as Weilands have suspended operation; O’Hallaran said: “Credit is due Mayor Capps.” The Park Board had been directed by him to order the “raw” attractions closed.

The exposition officials were warned by the park board to clamp the lid on some Isthmus attractions in conformity with state and municipal laws.

Secretary H. J. Penfold of the exposition board denied that the liquor concessions had been summarily barred from business.

“Their licenses expired,” said Penfold.

November 13, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:3. Mrs. Jane Litzenberg, dramatic soprano, appeared in concert at Organ Pavilion yesterday afternoon.

November 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Closing weeks of Exposition to be lively.

November 14, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

Proposition from Mr. Guy A. Reed, secretary of the New Mexico Exposition Commission, regarding disposal of New Mexico Building.

President Davidson stated Exposition was bound to give exhibitors and concessionaires 90 days to get packed up and out of the grounds; requested Board to grant Exposition right to close gates for four months from January 1 with authority to charge 25 cents for adults and 10 cents for children between ages of 6 and 16 for admission to grounds; Exposition would agree to turn over to Park Board all funds received over and above the actual operating expenses; Board not to be liable for any expenses in connection with the operating of the grounds during said period; Park Board to confer with Mayor.

Secretary instructed to notify Santa Fe Railway Co. it would gladly accept the Indian Village.

Secretary instructed to advise the Harvester people it would accept their building and planting.

Davidson recommended Board allow Pollard Moving Picture Co. picture studio on Isthmus.

Superintendent instructed to provide guard for the San Diego Museum collection after the close of the Exposition period.

Secretary authorized to purchase show cases in the Southern Counties Building to house the Tilden collection.

Tommasino’s Band permitted to continue playing in the park until the date of their engagement with the Coronado Beach Co., June 1; all expenses of said band to be taken care of by Louis Gasdia, manger of the band.

November 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:1. Camera contest to close New Year’s Eve; prizes to be awarded a few days later.

November 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:5. Hawaiian program arranged for Thursday.

November 14, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:2. Children’s Whistling Chorus will lead Bird Day program at Exposition Saturday.

November 15, 1916, San Diego Sun, 2:5. Thursday, November 16, Joaquin Miller Day and Hawaiian Day.

November 15, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1-6. Rufus Choate explains benefits of tidelands cession to United States.

November 15, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 10:2. Ice Rink at Exposition will close tonight with prize contest between masked skaters.

November 15, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 14:1. Hawaiian flavor will pervade Exposition tomorrow pressing of button in Honolulu by former Queen Lil to inaugurate program.

November 16, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:4.

Hawaiian Day dinner and dance tonight at Cristobal Café.

Hawaii is honored at the exposition today and the ceremony that is being held this afternoon and tonight is providing entertaining features to thousands of exposition visitors. Following the formal program on the Plaza this afternoon, the reception in the Hawaiian section of the Pan-Pacific building, and the organ recital by Dr. H. J. Stewart, featuring a fantasia of Hawaiian melodies of his own arrangement, a program of special interest is to be given tonight.

A Hawaiian dinner will be served at the Cristobal café and at 8:45 the big Hawaiian ball will begin at which every woman guest will be give one of the Hawaiian ilima leis. The music for the dance will be novel in San Diego and every number will be to Hawaiian song sung by natives of the islands.

At 7:30 a Hawaiian tableau will be given on the Mirror Pool where red fire will be burned, and motion pictures of Hawaii’s famous Kilaeuea volcano will be shown. Hawaiian singers in outrigger canoes will paddle about the waters of the Mirror Pool, lending a picturesque touch to the entertainment.

The program for this afternoon includes the unfurling of the flag of the Hawaiian monarchy by wireless flash from Queen Liliuokalani in Honolulu; concert by Twenty-first Regiment, U.S. Infantry band on the Plaza de Panama; reading of messages from Queen Liliuokalani and Governor Lucius E. Pinkham; addresses by Vice President Carl H. Heilbron and Frederick A. Halton. Today is the anniversary of King Kalakaua and the anniversary of the Queen’s abdication of the Hawaiian throne.

Among the dinner parties arranged for the Cristobal tonight is that of Frederick J. Halton, who will have as his guests exposition officials and several prominent San Diegans.

November 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:6. Birth mystery puzzles zoo Superintendent Kaufman; officials fail to learn number of cub lions born owing to mother’s disposition.

November 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Fairies and birds to dance, warble greetings on California Welcome Day; Exposition Board announces program for Saturday’s festivities on Isthmus.

November 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3. Unique hotel to be erected at Exposition; hostelry will cater to animals exclusively and be situated on Isthmus; will be occupied by dogs and monkeys exclusively as the Don Carlos show has just entered into a contract with Exposition officials for this novel attraction that appeared in the San Francisco “Zone.”

November 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Monty Austin, San Francisco baritone, will sing with Tommasino’s Band tomorrow afternoon.

November 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:3-4. San Diegans to honor Joaquin Miller at Organ Pavilion today.

November 17, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

Pollard Picture Plays Company wanted permanent use of buildings on the Isthmus for a motion picture studio; held over.

Executive Committee of Exposition asked to be relieved from further expenditure for the care and maintenance of Exposition grounds; Secretary asked to prepare financial statement of costs.

Mr. Victor Kramer wanted to use the entire Isthmus as a moving picture studio; held over

Commissioner O’Hallaran and Superintendent appointed as a committee to provide suitable signs and place same at various entrances to the west side of Balboa Park; said signs requesting citizens to protect plants and other property belonging to the Park Department.

November 17, 1916, San Diego Sun, 4:2. “Welcome Day” plans completed.

November 17, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:3. Famous cats are coming to Exposition; visitors will have reception everyday they are on the grounds in the Casino.

November 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2-4. Queen Lil extends greetings to San Diegans on Hawaii Day.

November 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:3. F. G. Kaufman, keeper at Exposition zoo, safes life of big leopard by antitoxin serum treatment.

November 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:4. Ice Rink at Exposition to remain open until end of year.

November 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:1. Children to take part in Welcome Day program tomorrow; will play, sing, speak and whistle at Organ Pavilion.

November 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:2. Dr. George Wharton James described life of Joaquin Miller; Lorin Reed read several of his poems, and Dean Blake sang “Columbus,” words by Joaquin Miller and music by Carlos Troyer, accompanied by Dr. H. J. Stewart on the organ.

November 18, 1916, San Diego Sun, 2:5. Joaquin Miller Day celebration; tea in patio of Southern Counties Building; program at Organ Pavilion.

November 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:1-2. Otay bonds carry more than 2 to 1; tidelands grant wins overwhelmingly; two bridges across San Diego River lost.

November 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:5-6. Exposition Board plans Mother Goose Day next Saturday; Old King Cole and other characters to be featured.

November 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1. Camera contest at Exposition to close December 1; rules announced to govern affair arranged for San Diego amateurs.

November 18, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:2. Children will frolic at Exposition today; program to show Southland’s various welcomes.

November 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:4. Treble Glee Club will give concert at Exposition today; thirty-two women will perform in program at Organ Pavilion.

November 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:2-4. Children prepare to give Mother Goose time of her life; Jack, Jill, Bo Peep, and other merry mates to visit Exposition.

November 20, 1916, 5:1. Simon Bamberger, Utah non-Mormon, Governor-Elect, guest of City; will be entertained at Exposition dinner today.

November 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Children present fanciful pageant at Exposition; juvenile actors and musicians please.

November 21, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:1-2. “Me-ee-o-ww,” that’s song you hear as aristocrats gather at Exposition; nearly 300 beauties in exhibit.

November 21, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Exposition’s Closing Days.

It would be well for San Diego people to do their utmost to make the closing days of the Exposition the most successful of its two-year career.

November 21, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2-5. Exposition grounds will be cat family Mecca today; 300 of the finest felines in West to be tagged and ready for judging.

November 21, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:1. Old King Cole is elected by safe plurality; noted monarch will lead Mother Goose parade at Exposition Saturday.

November 22, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

Request of Executive Committee of Exposition that the expense to the Exposition for maintenance and improvement of the Exposition portion of Balboa Park be reduced at least one-half the amount the Exposition has been paying for the months preceding October; decided that actual costs be borne equally by the Exposition and the Park Department.

Mrs. D. H. Haderman donated 7-month old fawn to park zoo; accepted.

Buffalo cow arrived from San Francisco; vote of thanks extended to Board of Park Commissioners of San Francisco.

November 22, 1916, San Diego Sun, 2:5. Friday, December 15, school pupils and teachers of San Diego will celebrate San Diego County School Day.

November 22, 1916, San Diego Sun, 12:4. Mother Goose Day, Saturday, November 25.

November 22, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1. Mother Goose brood ruffled residents’ calm; 150 children rehearse for dance pageant to be held at the Exposition Saturday.

November 22, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:2-3. Felines of royal lineage hold court in the Casino yesterday.

November 23, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:4-5. Program for School Day, December 15; pupils have been practicing drills and dances; mass demonstration in physical training in Plaza de Panama in afternoon.

November 22, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:2-3. Felines of royal lineage hold court at Exposition; winners announced.

November 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:4. Exposition arranges tea at modern bungalow; visitors to Exposition today invited to participate as guests of management.

November 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Mother Goose kiddies to dance at Fair; Old Woman again will dwell in shoe with 150 children.

November 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:2. Chamber of Commerce plans banquet to Admiral William B. Caperton, commander-in-chief of the Pacific fleet, at Cristobal Monday evening.

November 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:3. Exposition presented National City Bird Whistle Chorus with Badge of Honor because of its work at the Spreckels organ on the afternoon of “California Welcome Day.”

November 23, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:3. Governor Ernest Lister of Washington visits Exposition

November 23, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:5. Thanksgiving Services to be held at Exposition.

November 23, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 10:4. Judges to announce cat show awards.

November 24, 1915, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

The regular meeting of the Board of Park Commissioners was held in the President’s Office, in the California Building, at 4:00 p.m.

Present: Commissioners Marston, O’Hallaran and Cosgrove. Absent: None.

Mr. Guy a Reed, Secretary of the New Mexico Exposition Commission, appeared before the Board, requesting that his Commission be advised as to the disposition of the New Mexico Building, stating that he had orders from his Commission to sell same and unless the Board and Park wanted to purchase it, they would be forced to dispose of it to the highest bidder. Mr. Reed stated that his Commission would be pleased to present the building to the Park Board, providing they were reimbursed for the amount they were charged by the Exposition for planting and parking around the building, which amounted to $3,200. Mr. Reed was advised that the Board would take his proposition under consideration and notify him as soon as a decision was reached.

President G. A. Davidson, Senator Bulla, and Secretary H. J. Penfold, representing the Executive Committee of the Panama-California International Exposition, appeared before the Board, in reference to closing the Exposition grounds for four months while exhibitors and concessionaires were packing up and moving their wares from the grounds.

President Davidson stated the Exposition was in honor bound to the contracts with exhibitors and concessionaires, to give them 90 days to get packed up and out of the grounds, during which time, it will be necessary to keep the gates closed to the general public, and requested this Board to pass a resolution granting the Exposition the right to close the gates to the general public for period for 4 months from January 1st with authority to charge 25 cents for adults and ten cents for children between the ages of 6 and 16 for admission to the grounds during this period.

As this period covers the session of heaviest tourist travel, it was believed that considerable revenue would be derived from the gates and the Exposition would agree to turn over to the Park Board all funds received from gate admissions over and above the actual operating expenses. This Board not to be liable for any expenses in connection with the operation of the grounds during said period.

President Davidson stated he had conferred with the Mayor regarding this matter, and he was favorable to same. He also stated it was absolutely necessary that the Exposition have an answer immediately to the Committee’s request, and upon motion duly made and carried, the Committee was advised that this Board would confer with the Mayor at the earliest possible moment and advise the Committee of its action as soon thereafter as possible.

President Davidson also advised the Board that the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Co. had signified their desire to present this Board with the Indian Village, located on the Isthmus, known as “The Painted Desert,” and requested this Board to advise said Railway Co. of its intentions regarding same. Upon motion duly made and carried, the Secretary was instructed t notify the Santa Fe Railway that it would gladly accept the Indian Village, expressing the Board’s thanks and appreciation for same.

President Davidson also advised the Board that the International Harvester Co. would present their building, together will all plants, trees, etc. on the grounds occupied by them to this Board, and upon motion, duly made and carried, the Secretary was instructed to advise the Harvester people that this Board would accept same, expressing thanks and appreciation for same.

President Davidson also stated that the Pollard Moving Picture Co. had been given a location on the Isthmus in the buildings known as “The Streets of Panama<’ and that they had spent considerable money in fitting up same as a moving picture studio, building a large stage in connection with it and they were producing moving pictures of a high type, and he understood they had requested this Board to give them permission to remain in their present quarters, subject to the pleasure of the Board. He stated these people were responsible and among the cleanest and best in the profession, and were spending considerable money in San Diego, and would continue to do so as long as they were allowed to remain, increasing the amount as they progressed in business, and he recommended to this Board that favorable action be accorded these people on their application.

Dr. E. E. Hewett, representing the San Diego Museum Association, appeared before the Board and stated that after the close of the Exposition it would be necessary, in order to give proper protection to the Museum collections, that a night guard be provided for the buildings in which the collections are housed. Upon motion duly made and carried, the Superintendent was instructed to provide the necessary guard for this collection after the close of the Exposition period.

Dr. Hewett also advised the Board that in order to install the Tilden collection, now in the custody of the Museum Association, suitable show cases would have to be provided. That he had been informed that the handsome show cases, now in the Southern Counties Building, would be disposed of during the month of December at a greatly reduced price, stating that these show cases were of the very best construction and could not, at this time, be purchased for less than twice their original cost, and recommended that the Board purchase as many of them as they possibly could, urging the purchase of all of the cases if possible.

Upon motion duly made and carried, the Secretary was instructed to draw a requisition for $475.00 for purchase of as many show cases as could be secured for this amount. Dr. Hewett and the Secretary to pick out the cases wanted, and the Secretary to be given full power to make the purchase when same were put upon the market.

The Secretary advised the Board that Tommasino’s Band, which has been playing at the Exposition during the year of 1916, desired a permit to continue playing in the park after the close of the Exposition until the date of their engagement with the Coronado Beach Co., June 1st; said Band to give 6 concerts each week and to be under the rules and regulations of this Board; said Board to be in no way obligated or responsible in a financial way to said Band, or any member thereof; it being agreed between the Band and this Board that all of the expenses of said Band will be taken care of by Mr. Louis Gasdia, Manger of the Band. Upon motion duly made and carried the request was granted.

November 24, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:3. San Diego voters last week granted government more than 500 acres of Dutch Flats; new marine base and barracks to be built on 232 acres of land on bay shore of Point Loma.

November 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:2-4. Second annual Children’s Fair to be held at Exposition, December 1.

November 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Mother Goose Day to be celebrated at Exposition tomorrow.

November 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:2-3. Cat show at Exposition closes; 6,000 persons view felines.

November 24, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:2-3. Indians of back country declared to be destitute.

November 25, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 1:4, 10:4. Spreckels Day at Exposition is plan.

November 25, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 10:4. Free admission for post-Exposition period is urged.

November 25, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:2. Spanish War Veterans to have permanent U.S. Army brigade camp at Exposition; would occupy four of the present buildings; to be composed of regiment of cavalry, four batteries of field artillery, and a battery of infantry; 2,000 men at the minimum.

November 25, 1916, San Diego Sun, 15:6. New Park Board met yesterday afternoon; payroll of city park system includes 127 employees and park acreage is over 2,000.

November 25, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:6. Stirring scenes of war will be enacted at Exposition on December 9.

November 25, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2-4. Mother Goose will reign today; children in Exposition pageant.

November 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4-5, 3:3. Mother Goose and family attract largest crowd of spectators during second year at Exposition; novel pageant given by schoolchildren.

November 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:4. Children’s Fair December feature of Exposition; thousand lads and lassies expected to take part in pageant next month.

November 26, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:2. Thanksgiving Day open-air services planned at Exposition; Los Angeles pastor will deliver sermon; buildings closed 1 hour.

November 27, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:2. Banquet given tonight at Cristobal Café in honor of Admiral William B. Caperton.

November 27, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:4. Thanksgiving open-air service at Exposition next Thursday, November 30; every building on grounds will be closed and every member of the Exposition family will be permitted to join at the service at the Organ Pavilion; Twenty-first Regiment with colors will be present; Reverend Edwin M. Locke, pastor First Methodist Church of Los Angeles, will give sermon; Ellen Beach Yaw will sing.

It will be the only place in the United States where Thanksgiving services are held in the out of doors.

Just before the ceremony, the Second Battalion of the Twenty-first Regiment, U.S. Infantry, will drill on the Plaza de Panama, giving the Butt manual

November 28, 1916, San Diego Sun, 2:1. Great zoo in Pepper Grove here; plans for permanent feature on Exposition grounds; Park Board has picked Pepper Grove as best available site; association is being formed to handle this permanent park feature.

November 28, 1916, San Diego Sun, 2:5-6. Admiral Caperton, U.S.N., commanding the Pacific fleet, with headquarters in San Diego, honored at banquet; Colonel Glassford, of the Aviation Corps, declared North Island the only place in the world for an aviation base; Spreckels, who owns the island, wants exorbitant sum; Los Angeles could furnish a site within the $300,000 Congressional appropriation agreed upon.

November 28, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:2. Twenty-first Regiment to defend their camp at Exposition against force of sailors, marines and aviators; attacking forces will swing up through deep canyons; land mines will be touched off; bayonet charge will take place with both sides wearing masks and padded coats.

November 28, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. School pageant at Exposition will be an elaborate one.

November 28, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Three lion cubs introduced to spectators at Exposition grounds; Cleo, the mother, was coaxed into an adjoining cage, the connecting door was closed, and the little cubs were taken out in a basket.

November 29, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

President Bard, Board of Playground Commissioners, requested Stadium be turned over to Board of Playground Commissioners; request taken under consideration.

President Bard advised Board that playground equipment in Pepper Grove was the property of the Equipment Co. who placed it there and that they had offered to sell it to the Board for $300; matter taken under consideration.

Twenty-first U.S. Infantry request by Colonel O’Neil, Captain Page and Captain Hart to continue the use of the grounds now occupied by them as a campsite take under consideration.

Request of Mr. Victor Kremer for use of Isthmus to establish a “film city” denied; Board has not legal right to lease any part of the park for commercial purposes.

November 29, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:1. Ellen Beach Yaw to sing at Fair on Thanksgiving; churches will unite in service at Organ Pavilion during afternoon.

November 29, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:2. Betrothal dinner held in Leap Year Court when motion picture company films new play, “The Devil’s Assistant,” being filmed by the Pollard Motion Picture Company.

November 29, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:5. Douglas Fairbanks, movie hero, will have day at Exposition, December 5; reception is planned; Fairbanks and his company will return to the Exposition grounds Thursday for ten days during which time the will take the final scenes of the motion picture drama they have been working on for several weeks.

November 30, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Mimic battle to be held at Exposition, December 9; Infantry, Marines and Aviators will take part in Army maneuvers.

November 30, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2-3. San Diegans to honor poet John Vance Cheney with reception at the Southern California Counties Building today.

November 30, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:1. Outdoor service at Exposition today only one in United States; motion pictures of event to be displayed throughout country.

November 30, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:2-3. Henry Rigoletto will try to catch potato dropped from California Tower with fork held in his teeth; the Rigoletto twins are appearing at the Savoy Theater and a feature of their act is catching potatoes and applies thrown to them by the audience.


December 1, 1916, San Diego Sun, 6:1-2. Children’s Fair to be held at Casino Friday, Saturday and Sunday; 7,000 exhibits; no admission charge.

December 1, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:2:3. Thousands attend service on Thanksgiving at Organ Pavilion.

December 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3-4, 6:2-8, 8:7-8. Great throng of 15,000 joined in giving thanks, Exposition audience heard Reverend Charles Edward Locke, pastor of First Methodist Church of Los Angeles; a union service participated in by San Diego churches; “the Infinite Father created the material world that here He might enforce his sublime purposes in a world of truth and spirit’; subject of sermon: “America, Child of Providence.”

December 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:3. Children to rule at Exposition; novel exhibits will be shown today; school pageant to feature three day’s program.

December 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. San Diego paid tribute to John Vance Cheney, California poet, at Southern Counties Building yesterday.

December 1, 1916, San Diego Union, 10:1. Henry Rigoletto, actor, expects to catch apple on fork in mouth, to be dropped from top of California Tower today.

December 2, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

Natural History Society requested use of Nevada Building; deferred.

Zoological Society of San Diego requested Board to set aside Pepper Grove and Emergency Hospital Building for the Zoological Gardens; the Board to furnish food and housing for the animals, and labor for the upkeep of the grounds; the Society to furnish a trained naturalist as Superintendent of the Garden, a licensed graduate veterinary surgeon to examine and care for the animals; to purchase and place on exhibit the best collection of animals on the Pacific Coast; to play and stock a Reptile House, and to maintain a collection of reptiles that will be second only to New York; to place scientific and descriptive labels on the cages; to place labels on exhibit cases showing the life history of bees and local insects; to open a free library; to publish guides to the Zoological Garden, and to give each year a series of free lectures on Natural History; Board would take proposition under consideration and the Secretary would advise Committee on its decision.

Motion carried that playground equipment on Pepper Grove be purchased.

Playground Commission given exclusive management of Stadium beginning January 1, 1917.

Twenty-first Infantry, U.S. Army, permitted to occupy Isthmus, Indian Village, Alameda, tractor field and cavalry field from January 1, 1917 to June 30, 1917 with the privilege of renewal for one year, at the rate of $1.00 per year.

Mr. Spreckels to maintain organist and organ tuner during 1917.

Mrs. C. H. Lynn, custodian of the Model Bungalow, requested a free lease for 1917; deferred.

December 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Douglas Fairbanks Day at Exposition; movie star will show how pictures are made next Tuesday.

December 2, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1. School pageant will be held today on Plaza de Panama.

December 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3, 6:1. Children parade in beautiful pageant; Miss Mabel Smith exhibits clay modeling in “The Rodeo,” which took first prize.

A pageant of the schools presented at the Exposition yesterday by several hundred children, organized by the Parent-Teachers Association, provided the spectacular feature of the three-day Children’s Fair. Twelve schools were represented by floats which proceeded through the principal streets of the Exposition and to the Plaza de Panama where they were reviewed.

The judges, who were Mayor Edwin M. Capps, O. E. Darnell, Mrs. E. D. Miller, Mrs. S. R. Flynn, Mrs. O. W. Cotton and Mrs. George S. Barker, awarded first prize to the Brooklyn School, representing “San Diego, Old and New”; second prize to Garfield School, showing California history; and third prize to the children of the Normal Heights School, who represented “Peace Abiding All Nations.” The awards were blue, red and white official ribbons.

The Brooklyn School, in presenting “Old and New San Diego,” showed the Indians and miners of the early days and the rough equipment of this time in contrast to the wonderful flowers of San Diego’s gardens.

(Names of children representing schools given.)

Following the pageant a program was offered at the organ pavilion at which Prof. J. A. Cranston, superintendent of the Santa Ana city schools, gave an address on “The Purposes and Possibilities of the Parent-Teachers’ Association. Mrs. Joy Babcock played a number of violin solos.

The children’s fair being held in the Casino will close this evening at 8 o’clock and has proved one of the biggest features of the year, by far excelling the 1915 display.

December 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:1. Hatfield sues city for “filling Morena reservoir”; asks $10,000 payment of alleged contract with Council.

December 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 13:2-4. War map prepared for night flight; Exposition to be field for strife Saturday; officers prepare men for affair.

December 3, 1916, San Diego Union, II, 8:1. Pacific Coast Historians end sessions at Exposition; new officers chosen; visitors entertained at Cristobal.

December 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:2. Los Angeles Transportation Association to visit Exposition, December 9.

December 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 12:3. Della crew of New York City travels by auto 18,000 miles to see Exposition.

December 3, 1916, San Diego Union, 13:3. Map of battle maneuvers to be held at Exposition next Saturday.

December 4, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

Resolution turning management of Stadium to Playground Commission held in abeyance; Board of Education to be consulted.

Panama-California International Exposition granted a 90-day extension of their agreement with Board of Park Commissioners subject to following conditions.

Selling of merchandise to be discontinued after January 2, 1917.

Isthmus to be closed to general public after January 2, 1917.

Gates to be opened at 8 a.m. and closed at 5 p.m.

Exposition to assume expense and liability in connection with Exposition grounds and buildings during this period.

December 4, 1916, San Diego Sun, 4:6. Sham battle at Exposition next Saturday; night battle will open with an aerial bombardment by fliers from North Island aviation station; searchlights of defenders will show marks for the anti-aircraft guns.

December 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:1. “Reel” revolution program at Exposition tomorrow.

December 4, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1. Bird House Day to be observed at Exposition, December 16; children to be given prizes for handiwork.

December 5, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:4. Southern California Counties Building to be used as a public auditorium; measure decided at joint meeting of Park Board and Preservation Committee yesterday; former Sacramento Valley Building to be used as headquarters of San Diego Society of Natural History; question of turning stadium over to High School or to Playground Commission discussed; stadium now controlled by Park Board, although a caretaker, employed by the High School, maintains it.

December 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Exposition will honor movie man Douglas Fairbanks today.

December 5, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1. Park Board urges Exposition building for auditorium; Society of Natural History to have quarters in Nevada Building.

December 5, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 14:1. Troops to defend Exposition in mimic attack.

December 5, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:2-6. Awards in Children’s Fair at Exposition announced.

December 6, 1916, San Diego Sun, 4:1. EDITORIAL opposing giving High School control of the stadium.

December 6, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:2. Fairbanks Day delayed; sun fails to shine and movie actors go back to studio near Los Angeles.

December 7, 1916, San Diego Sun, 2:3. The State Legislature granted the right to maintain an Exposition and to charge admission to public park grounds; this right expires January 1 and Park Commissioner O’Hallaran does not favor a continuance.

December 7, 1916, San Diego Sun, 4:2. F. A. Binney writes letter protesting lease of park for military purposes or for motion picture business: “The Council has no power to lease the park.”

December 7, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:5. Exposition to close at midnight of January 1, 1917; exhibitors and concessionaires notified that sales will not be allowed later.

December 8, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

Superintendent Duncan MacKinnon and Mr. Leo M. Schiller, representing the Board of Education, appeared before this Board and protested against the management of the Stadium being turned over to the Playground Commission. Petitions, signed by the Principals of the Grammar Schools of the City of San Diego and from the Parent-Teachers’ Association of the Garfield School, were presented requesting that the management of the Stadium remain in the hands of this Board, but should this Board desire to relinquish the management of the Stadium that said management be placed in the hands of the Board of Education, believing that a larger number of citizens would derive benefit thereby.

Superintendent MacKinnon outlined the work of the students of the High School, also the various grammar schools in connection with the Stadium, showing that the Stadium was used every day in the year for the benefit of some 11,500 school children and under the management of the Park Board the affairs at the Stadium had been handled to the entire satisfaction of the Board of Education, and said Board most earnestly requested the Park Board to continue the management of the Stadium; but if they desired to relinquish said management, the Board of Education desired that their request that the management be turned over to their Board be given careful consideration before taking final action.

Superintendent MacKinnon also stated that if the management continued in the hands of the Park Board, the Board of Education would make arrangements whereby a large part of the expense of maintaining the stadium would be raised by their Board. Upon motion duly made and carried, final action in regard to the management of the Stadium was deferred until a special meeting to be called by the President.

Mr. Reed, Secretary of the New Mexico Commission, appeared before this Board and requested a decision in regard to the final disposition of the New Mexico Building. Mr. Reed was advised that the Board had failed to reach any decision regarding the matter and would have to defer action on his request until another meeting.

The Secretary was instructed to take the disposition of the New Mexico Building up with the Exposition, and to request the Exposition to secure the building and present it to the Park, as this Board did not want the building wrecked or removed from its present location.

Upon motion duly made and carried, the Secretary was instructed to advise the Exposition that this Board most urgently requested that the admission fee to the Exposition grounds during the Post-Exposition series be placed at 10 cents for all ages.

December 9, 1916, Los Angeles Times, II, 4:3-4. EDITORIAL: Bravo San Diego!

. . . San Diego kept a first-class exposition healthy and prosperous for more than twice as long as the longest hitherto; San Diego with a population of 70,000 souls, with none of the historic glamour of metropolitan dignity of the cities of other expositions. It was a great feat of civic enterprise, civic courage, civic management and efficiency. It has placed San Diego on the map for all time and forever associated her with all that is best in civilization.

December 9, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:1. Battle rages in San Diego; enemy repulsed at Exposition; fighting tonight; Douglas Fairbanks Day at Exposition tomorrow; scenes of production Fairbanks is working on to be filmed at north end of Plaza de Panama; a revolution will be incited and Fairbanks will leap from a balcony to a tree many feet below.

December 9, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:1. Jack London was honored Thursday, December 7, at Southern Counties Building; Dr. Wharton James spoke.

December 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:2-3. Park Board defers action on management of stadium.

December 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:1. William Randolph Hearst sees big future for San Diego; praises Exposition.

December 9, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:4. Day for Douglas Fairbanks arranged by Exposition; movie actor to stage scene for reproduction; will make famous leap.

December 9, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1. Four military aeroplanes to take part in mimic raid on Exposition.

December 9, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:2. Zoological Society formed in San Diego yesterday.

December 10, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:5, 2:4. Actual war maneuvers feature sham battle; Exposition is successfully defended against enemy by Army.

December 10, 1916, San Diego Union, 11:4. Leap to feature Douglas Fairbanks work before cinema; Exposition officials arrange unique program in honor of movie actor.

December 11, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:1-2. Four killed at park grade crossing; lives snuffed out as street car hit automobile near Exposition main gates; southbound Exposition street car crashed into an automobile loaded with tourists which was crossing the tracks on the road to Inspiration Point, just south of the main gate of the Exposition.

December 11, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:2-3. Letter from “San Diego Bird Colony” tells plans for Birdhouse Day to be held Saturday, December 16, at Exposition.

December 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: An Outside View: The astonishing inconsistency of many California voters at the recent election has attracted attention outside this state as well as in it.

December 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:5. Thousands see Douglas Fairbanks make movies at Exposition; daring leap for balcony and wedding scene feature films made.

December 11, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:1. Coronadans raise funds to aid Indians; destitute at Mesa Grande owing to cold weather in mountains.

December 12, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

After thoroughly considering the request of the Board of Education regarding the management of the Stadium, a motion was duly made and carried to reconsider the action of this Board on December 2, whereby the exclusive management of the Stadium was given to the Playgrounds Commission and same hereby revoked and the management left in the hands of the Board of Park Commissioners as heretofore.

The Superintendent reported an accident which occurred December 11, between a car of the San Diego Electric Railway Co. and an automobile, at the first crossing south of the nursery in Balboa Park, whereby 4 people were killed and one injured, and recommended that necessary action be taken with the Railway Co. to safeguard the public at the crossings in the park.

Upon motion duly made and carried the members of this Board were appointed a committee to visit and investigate the railway crossings in Balboa Park in company with the superintendent and take such action as they find necessary to safeguard the public.

The Superintendent reported that Colonel O’Neill had notified him that the First Battalion of the Twenty-first Infantry would shortly be added to the camp in Balboa Park and requested the privilege of placing the kitchens on the northwest side of the park in order to make proper sewer connections, and recommended that the request be granted. Upon motion, duly made and carried, the request was granted and the superintendent so instructed.

December 12, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:4-5. Plan to preserve buildings at Exposition takes definite shape; Park Board members discuss arrangements of structures after Exposition closes; Canadian Building and Varied Industries Building (except for west portion) to be leveled..

December 12, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:8. Schumann-Heink to sing final song at Exposition.

December 12, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:1. San Diego holds world’s record for expositions; Los Angeles paper editorial shows no other Exposition has run one-half the time.

December 13, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

The account of this Board against the San Diego Electric Railway Co. was taken up for consideration, and upon motion duly made and carried, the President was instructed to confer with Managing Director Clayton of the Railway Co. and try to effect a settlement of the claim before the 22nd day of December.

The President was empowered to make the settlement on a basis of $2,500 agreed between the former Board and the Railway Co. for the work done on the High School hill, which allows a credit of $795.81 for dirt used on the road work in the park, plus the cost of work done on the parking strips and club house cut, the total amounting to $3,011.69 as per statement below.

To blasting parking strip north of High School 321.13

To finishing 12th Street Road (Midland Drive) 45.00

To replacing 3″ water pipe near Country Club 55.92

To grading Russ Hill, as per agreement 2500.00

To drains from railroad track across Midland Drive 89.64


The budget for the maintenance and upkeep of the Park Department for the year 1917 was submitted by the Superintendent and Secretary, and after considering same item by item, a motion was duly made and carried, approving the budget, which totaled $113,310.20, and instructing the Secretary to file same with the City Auditor.

A motion was duly made and carried, instructing the Superintendent to purchase necessary dwarf roses to border the paths of the formal Rose Garden in Balboa Park.

December 13, 1916, San Diego Sun, 4:3-4. Fifteen thousand schoolchildren to participate in Exposition events Friday; program arranged.

December 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Schoolchildren to hold sway at Exposition today.

December 13, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:4. Clothing funds for destitute Indians needed.

December 14, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:2. Plan post-exposition for winter; matter of keeping gates open longer to be decided.

December 14, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:1-2. Schoolchildren ready to flock to Exposition for biggest day; 4,200 children will participate in games on the Plaza de Panama; no automobiles will be permitted on grounds tomorrow as a precaution against accident.

December 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4-5, 4:5. Josephine Clifford McCrackin, 78, woman writer to be Exposition guest today.

December 14, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:4. Fifteen thousand children to have day at Exposition tomorrow; youngsters will sing, drill, play games, dance and inspect various exhibits.

December 15, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

A communication from Bennington Camp. No. 20, United Spanish War Veterans, was read, requesting one or more buildings in the Exposition grounds for Brigade Headquarters for the United Spanish War Veterans of the Southern District of California. Upon motion duly made and carried, the request was referred to the Preservation Committee.

A request from Mr. Zera Snow was presented desiring a site on the west side of Balboa Park, on one of the lawns, for a clock golf course. Upon motion duly made and carried, the matter was referred to the Superintendent for investigation and report.

A request from the County librarian was read, asking this board for the use of the Kern-Tulare building for the San Diego County free library. Upon motion duly made and carried, the Secretary was instructed to advise the County librarian that the building desired was one scheduled to be removed, but the board felt favorable to her request and advised her to have the Board of Supervisors make a formal application for space in some one of the buildings, to be used as a County library.

In view of the fact that the asphalt pavements within the Exposition grounds are of very light construction, and, as it will be necessary to permit heavy hauling over same during removal of exhibits, concessionaires properties and building materials, a motion was duly made and carried instructed the Superintendent to prohibit all heavy teams or any light teams, unless flat shod, from hauling said asphalt pavements, confining, as much as possible, the hauling inside of the grounds, to automobile trucks.

The request of the Panama Supply Co. for the privilege of removing two buildings from the Isthmus out through the north gate, was respectfully denied; also their request that the Casino building, owned by them, be allowed to remain as it now stands for a period of 5 years, and the Secretary instructed to so advise them.

December 15, 1916, San Diego Herald, 1:1-3. Councilman Benbough, as censor, will regulate cafes and clubs.

December 15, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:7. Thousands of schoolchildren at Exposition on last day of school before Christmas.

December 15, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:-4. Birdhouse Day at Exposition; exhibition in Foreign and Domestic Products Building.

December 15, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1. Exposition will be host to 15,000 schoolchildren today.

December 16, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:1-2. Exposition grounds to remain open; 10-cent admission; decision by Park Board allows exhibitors a post-period of three months to remove exhibits.

December 16, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:3. Car Company pays bill to Park Board; allowed $795.81 for material from cut used in streets; check for $3,011.69.

December 16, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:7. Southern California Counties commissioners decided yesterday to donate their building to the park; main building cost $80,000 and bungalow $4,000.

December 16, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:5. Josephine Clifford McCracken, vice president of State Audubon Society, was honored at Southern Counties Building on Thursday, December 14.

December 16, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:2, 2:2-3.

Sixteen thousand children attend school at Exposition; Christmas vacation period inaugurated under sun’s warm rays at Exposition.

There are official figures to prove that sixteen thousand San Diego children has the time of their lives yesterday at school. The figures are for the attendance records of the Exposition. The proof of the pleasure of the day was expressed in at least 15,000 different and emphatic ways.

The Exposition grounds formed the vast school room. Every grammar school pupils in the city, practically, was enrolled in one great class and the 600 city teachers supervised the happy, hilarious, new studies.

The school records of yesterday saw no tardiness, and a very small number of absentees. Almost every pupil named on the roster that is kept in the office of the board of education was present in the big, pretty, our-of-door school room.

The course of study was greatly revised, too, to meet the requirements of the place and occasion. The sting was taken out of history by romance; geography was magically turned into a most interesting subject by visible objects in the displays from all parts of the world, zoology suddenly became popular under the influence exerted by monkeys, wolves, bears, etc. on the Isthmus and arithmetic, when it comes to counting marching soldiers in pretty blue uniforms, is not the doleful matter that it has been reputed to be.

A thousand or more new studies were placed in the curriculum of the San Diego schools yesterday. An absolute innovation was the presence of ice cream and candy stands within the school precincts. But they were no more unusual and no more unpopular with the masses of pupils that were the merry-go-rounds and roller coasters, which were among the principal items on the study courses of kindergartner and eighth grader alike.

School began yesterday at almost the customary hour. The classes and their teachers having come from all parts of the city, gathered at the several gates of the Exposition and were admitted in a body. The “studies” of the morning were not at all tedious. They consisted chiefly of wandering through great buildings filled with the most wonderful things. There was just one admonition — “keep out of mischief” — and people connected with the Exposition said, when the great day was over, that mischief had been almost entirely lacking during the day.

It was a perfect day for out-of-door schooling. It easily might have been called a summer day, even in San Diego, which means that weather conditions could not have been improved at all.

Children were everywhere. Each nook and corner of the uncountable nooks and corners in the Exposition grounds was all during the day alive with children and noise with the noises that children make when busy at play.

In addition to the great crowd of children, there were, it is estimated, about 10,000 adults on the Exposition grounds yesterday. They were in the background of the picture, though. The foreground almost was overcrowded with laughing, dancing figures in short dresses of knickerbockers.

The Plaza, when one was there, seemed to be the place of all places. The pigeons were crowded clear off by children, but there was something riotously joyful going on all the time, and none missed the pigeons. And then when one went back to the Isthmus again it seemed that the center of things had been moved there from the Plaza. Those who conduct the places of amusement along the fun street provided and were provided with all sorts of amusement yesterday. Juvenile jollity abounded.

By their banners and the colored bands they wore on their arms one could know from which school almost every child came. The banners, in the hands of appointed color guards, waved in the breeze on the Plaza most of the day. The standard was a rallying point for the children from the school whose initial the banner flaunted, and yellow L’s — meaning Lincoln — and E’s and G’s and other letters traveled together in bunches.

In one big assembly all of the schools gathered at the organ pavilion in the morning. Accompaniments to songs, which all knew and could sing lustily, were played on the organ by Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart. Some of the songs were “My Old Kentucky Home,” “America,” “Santa Lucia,” “The Merry Life,” and “Dixie.”

Thousands of lunches — 10,000, perhaps — were spread out on the lawn and in the groves at noon. Schools kept together until luncheon was over. After that the school parties separated.

The nearest approach to regular school work came in the afternoon when, on the Plaza, more than 4000 (?) boys and girls, under the direction of Theodore Treutlein, supervisor of physical education, gave exhibitions of their physical training. There were wand drills and Indian club drills and, later, indoor baseball games between teams of girls. Eight such games were in progress at one time. No record was kept of the winners, but the games were nonetheless exciting. The baseballs were kept merrily popping for an hour or more.

Because the moving picture cameras have taken scenes of San Diego children at play before, and because the world has signified its liking for such scenes, moving picture photographers were on hand all day yesterday, twirling the handles of their instruments. Pictures were made of almost everything that was done, and the pictures will be sent broadcast to show the last day of school before Christmas, 1916.

By a special order all automobiles and other vehicles which may have caused accidents were ruled off the Exposition grounds yesterday. There were no accidents. A dozen of more of the smaller children became separated from their guardians during the day, but all were quickly and carefully returned. A headquarters for the lost ones was established at the Exposition police station. There was little grief from the lost ones, for they were furnished with entertainment by the officers on duty at headquarters.

It was one of the greatest children’s day in the two years of the Exposition, said officials of the Fair. They placed yesterday on a par with Pied Piper Day, which is recognized as the most successful of children’s days.



Seldom has such a tremendous strain been placed on the operating department of the San Diego Electric Railway Company as was experienced yesterday between the hours of 7:30 and 9:30 a.m. The task of getting the children back to their homes was not quite so difficult as many of them made a comparatively early start from the Fair to avoid the rush hour.

Five extra cars carried the children coming in on the 1o:05 a.m. S. D. & A. E. Railway train in addition to the regular 9 cars; two 2-car trains in addition to the regular cars handled the Stockton school and from one to three extra cars each took care of children from the Logan Heights, Sherman, Grant, Normal Heights and East San Diego schools.

Pupils who went in a body from their respective schools in the extra equipment were taken direct to the entrance of the Exposition without charge and this convenience offered on the part of the railway company was largely responsible for eliminating any delay which might have been caused in transferring from one car to another.

Approximately 15,000 Exposition visitors were carried on the cars of the San Diego Electric Railway Company yesterday within less than two hours.

At a late hour last night, after most of the conductors’ reports were turned in, not an accident involving any of the youngsters had marred their special day, a noteworthy achievement considering the immense crowds of children of all ages handled.

The duties of railway employees were not confined entirely to the handling of patrons to and from the Exposition. There lost and found department to the Exposition grounds, and representatives of the company took care of several little fellows who had strayed from their parties and saw to it that they reached home safe. Many lost their tickets in one way or another and these also were taken care of by the company’s men at the gates.

December 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:5.

Board considers Post-Exposition period to April 1.

After a meeting of the park board yesterday it was announced formally that the board had granted the Exposition an extension of three months as a post-Exposition period extending until April 1.

According to Exposition officials, no formal action has been taken regarding a post-Exposition period extending until April. A resolution of the park board of December 5 granted the Exposition directors an extension of three months with certain restrictions.

According to officials of the Exposition this means that three months will be given for the removal of all exhibits and the restoring of the grounds to proper condition for use by the city park board.

Whether the gates will be open to the public will be determined by Exposition directors. Already notices have been sent to all Isthmus concessionaires and exhibit sales managers ordering them to close their business January 1.

“The Exposition closes January 1,” said Carl I. Ferris, member of the executive committee of the Exposition and assistant to the president yesterday. “If the directors of the Exposition decide to open the gates during the time that exhibits are being removed on a post-Exposition period, announcement will be made through proper Exposition channels. As I understand it, the park board has extended the Exposition management until April 1, with certain restrictions, and for that reason the program for the three months following January 1 is entirely in the hands of the Exposition”

Following is a text of the notification of December 5 sent by the board of park commissioners to H. J. Penfold, secretary of the Exposition:

“Mr. H. J. Penfold, Secretary of Panama-California International Exposition City.

“Dear Sir. Beg to advise you that at the adjourned meeting of the board of park commissioners held Monday, December 4, the following action was taken:

“Motion made and carried that the request of the Exposition for an extension of the agreement between the park board and the Exposition, regarding the use of that part of Balboa park for Exposition purposes be granted subject tot he following conditions:

“That the selling of merchandise by discontinued after the second day of January 1917.

“That the Isthmus be closed to the general public after the second day of January 1917.

“That the gates be opened at 8 o’clock a.m. and closed at 5 o’clock p.m.

“The Exposition to assume all expenses and liability in connection with the Exposition grounds and buildings during this period.

“Yours very truly.

(Signed) “J. B. PENDLETON, Executive Secretary.”

December 17, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:4. Christmas night program planned; carols and living pictures portraying Story of Nativity will be included.

December 18, 1916, San Diego Sun, 8. Miss Lena Frazee, contralto soprano, sang at Organ Pavilion yesterday afternoon.

December 19, 1916, San Diego Herald, 1:1-3. Chamber of Commerce closes successful year.

December 19, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:5. Army and Navy Day to be observed December 27; John D. Spreckels Day, December 28; D. C Collier Day, December 29; and G. A. Davidson Day, December 30.

December 19, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:8. Mayor Capps wants City Attorney Cosgrove’s salary cut from $6,000 yearly to $3,500; Council lopped $900 a year from salary of Mayor’s secretary.

December 19, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:3. Christmas program at Exposition; morning will be for children; big tree pageant in afternoon at Organ Pavilion; pageant written by Katherine Howard includes King of the World, Fairy of the Christmas Tree, Old People, Dragon, Piper, Hawthorn Tree Dryad, Pepper Tree Dryad, Cassia Tree Dryad, Eucalyptus Children and Pepper Tree Children; old-fashioned Christmas dinner to be served at 4:30 in Cristobal Café; Christmas carols will be sung from balconies of Plaza de Panama; story of Nativity will be told by tableaux at Organ Pavilion.

December 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:4. Boy Scouts pitch tents at Exposition for one week.

December 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 7:1. Christmas tree pageant features Exposition program.

December 19, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:1. John D. Spreckels, D. C. Collier and G. A. Davidson to be honored by Exposition Board.

December 20, 1916, San Diego Union. 5:4. Story of Nativity will be shown in special tableaux.

December 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:2. Miss Marguerite Caperton, daughter of Admiral W. B. Caperton, presented colors to soldiers at Exposition yesterday.

December 20, 1916, San Diego Union, 16:3. Plans underway to honor local men at Exposition.

December 21, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:3. On December 30 The Sun will issue a special edition devoted to San Diego’s parks.

December 21, 1916, San Diego Union, 2:1. Davidson back; reports city is in eye of East; marine base assured; President is hopeful of coming here.

December 21, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1. Kiddies and Peter Pan will rule at Exposition on Saturday; 250 San Diego children to take part in pageant.

December 21, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 10:2. Music program at bungalow planned.

December 22, 1916, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

Mr. Louis Gasdia, manager of Tommasino’s Band, appeared before the Board regarding the concerts to be given by said band in the Exposition grounds, during the Post-Exposition period, and requested the Board appoint a committee to solicit subscriptions for the maintenance of said band. Mr. Gasdia was informed that the Board would give their approval to his scheme, but thought it best for a committee of citizens to be selected outside of Board members to solicit subscriptions.

Captain Offer, representing the foreign exhibitors at the Exposition, appeared before the Board and requested permission for those exhibitors who are bona fide importers of foreign exhibits, or representing foreign government, to sell their goods during the Post-Exposition period, giving as their reason that on account of the war in Europe, these exhibitors are not able to return home, and will either have to open up stores down in the business section, or be permitted to continue doing business on the Exposition grounds. Captain Offer was advised that the Park Board was favorable to his plan if the Merchants’ Association would endorse same, and was instructed to take the matter up with the Association.

The President reported the payment of the bill against the San Diego Electric Railway Co. for $3,011.69, as per instructions of this board upon date of December 13th.

A letter from Mayor Capps recommending Mr. Frank Thomas for a position in connection with the reconstruction work on the Exposition grounds, was read, and the Secretary instructed to advise the Mayor that Mr. Thomas’ application would be given favorable consideration.

A letter from Herbert R. Fay, Lieutenant Colonel, Coast Artillery Corps, requesting that the Southern Counties Building be wholly or in part turned over to the National Guard, to be used as an Armory, was read, and the Secretary instructed to advise Colonel Fay that nothing would be done along these lines until after the Post-Exposition period.

December 22, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:1. Novel plan for holiday exposition fetes; tree pageant to be given on lawns back of Montezuma Gardens at 3 o’clock Monday, December 25; at conclusion, Old Folks of San Diego’s Homes will be guests at a reception in Woman’s Board Headquarters; carols to be sung from the balconies of Plaza de Panama following dinner at Cristobal Café; out-of-doors spectacle at Organ Pavilion at 8:30 will include tableaux telling story of Nativity.

December 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:5-6. Los Angeles Graphic editorial of December 16: “A Brave and Beautiful Dream Appreciated.”

December 22, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:5-6. D. W. Craig proposes public fund to maintain Exposition band.

December 22, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 10:2-3. Plans prepared for Collier Day at Exposition.

December 23,1916, San Diego Sun, 9:1-2. San Diego preparing of happy holiday; Christmas will be observed at Exposition.

December 23, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:3. Harold Bell Wright Day at Exposition Thursday, December 21; Dr. Wharton James spoke in auditorium of Southern Counties Building.

December 23, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:7-8. Colonel D. C. Collier to be guest at Exposition, Friday, December 29; special program in his honor; George W. Marston, chairman of the day, will preside at luncheon to be given in Cristobal Café at 12:15 and at formal exercises to be given at Organ Pavilion at 2:45.

12;00 Collier will be met at west gate by President Davidson, George W. Marston and Exposition officials and escorted by Tommasino’s Royal Italian Band to Cristobal Café

12:15 Luncheon

2:00 Review of troops, Plaza de Panama

2:45 Formal ceremonies, Organ Pavilion; Opening Remarks by George W. Marston; Address by George Burnham; Address by Dr. Edgar L. Hewett; Talks by A. D. La Motte, president Merchants’ Association; F. M. White, past president Manufacturers’ Association; O. E. Darnall, president Cabrillo Club; W. S. Dorland, president Chamber of Commerce; Address by President Davidson.

December 28 John D. Spreckels Day

12:00 Meet at west gate

12:15-1:45 Lunch, Cristobal Café

2:00-2:30 Review troops, Plaza de Panama

2:45 Formal ceremonies, Organ Pavilion

6:30 Dinner, Cristobal Cafe

December 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:6. Story of Nativity to be given at Exposition Christmas.

December 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:4. Harold Bell Wright Day celebrated at Southern California Counties Building on Thursday.

December 23, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1. John D. Spreckels Day Committee completes plans.

December 23, 1916, San Diego Union, 14:3-4. Cast for floral pageant at Exposition completed.

December 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:2. Exposition officials insist on day for Davidson; committee opposes president who objects to honor.

December 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 11:1. Carols, tableaux, tree pageant for Exposition, Christmas.

December 24, 1916, San Diego Union, 12:1. Committee named for Collier Day exercises; Marston, chairman.

December 25, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:3. Local merchants will say farewell to Exposition Thursday evening at Cristobal Café.

December 25, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:4-5. Peter Pan to rule over pageant of flowers to be given at Exposition, Saturday, December 30, as part of closing ceremonies; San Diego dancers to take part in spectacle.

December 25, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:5-6. Coming events

Tuesday, December 26 Rose Hartwick Thorpe Day

Wednesday, December 27 Army and Navy Day

Thursday, December 28 John D. Spreckels Day

Friday, December 29 D. C. Collier Day

Saturday, December 30 Floral pageant presented by 250 children; Alaska Day, G. A. Davidson Day.

Sunday, December 31 Tommasino-Gasdia Day

Monday, January 1 THE END: parade in morning; sham battle in afternoon; day fireworks; closing program at Organ Pavilion; lights out at midnight with Mme. Schumann-Heink singing “Auld Lang Syne”; display of set piece surmounted by flags of all nations released in bombs.

December 25, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Christmas program marks beginning of last week of San Diego Exposition.

December 26, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:8. Praise for Christmas program at Exposition last night; curtains at Organ Pavilion parted to show Christmas tableaux; names of participants.

December 26, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:1-2. Tree pageant at Exposition, under auspices of The Sun; witnessed by 3,000 on lawns of the Montezuma Gardens; bird houses presented to trees and old people given tokens of love by school children; King of the World played by H. J. Penfold, secretary of Exposition, opened program; tree dryads represented palm, oak, olive, acacia, eucalyptus and olive trees; youngsters from Children’s Home served as pepper and eucalyptus tree children.

December 26, 1916, San Diego Sun, 9:1. Army and Navy Day tomorrow; picnic luncheon for enlisted men at Pepper Grove; luncheon at Cristobal Café at noon for officers; field sports and games on marine field for enlisted men at 2 p.m.; reception at 3 p.m. at Woman’s Board Headquarters for officers and retired men and their wives; Tommasino’s Royal Italian Band will provide music and California Quadrangle will be prepared for dancing.

December 26, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Children’s tree pageant pleases crowds; fairies and dryads dance and sing under trees.

December 27, 1916, Los Angeles Times, 6:2. Final plans for closing of Exposition; will honor the president G. A. Davidson.

December 27, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 12:2. Demolition of Exposition buildings delayed; first to come down three months after Exposition closes will be concessions on Isthmus, it is stated.

December 27, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 12:2. Monday to be Davidson Day; date of honoring Exposition head changed from Saturday on account holiday.

December 27, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 12. Officers and men of every branch of the United States service are the guests of the exposition today where Army and Navy Day is being celebrated.

December 27, 1916, San Diego Sun, 3:1. Exposition will close with roar; “Dream City” to go out with a blaze of glory; sham battle will be one of features; task of capturing “Dream City” will fall to Major William A. Brock and the men of the First Battalion of the 21st Regiment, U.S. Infantry, now encamped in Imperial Beach. Colonel Joseph P. O’Neal and the Second Battalion will defend the grounds; will begin at 2 p.m.; more than 1,000 men will be engaged.

President Davidson will be honored by a special ceremony at 10 a.m.; military parade will arrive on grounds at 11 a.m.; sham battle at 2 p.m.; reception for President Davidson and Mrs. Davidson at Woman’s Board Headquarters at 3 p.m.; formal dinner at Cristobal Café at 6:30 p.m.; formal closing ceremonies at Organ Pavilion at 11:30 p.m.

December 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:1-2. Spectacular battle to mark San Diego Exposition close.

December 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 4:2-3. Reuben B. Hale, father of San Francisco Exposition, visits city.

December 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Exposition to honor Davidson with program, January 1.

December 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3-4. Exposition to honor George Wharton James today.

December 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:5. Army and Navy to hold sway at Exposition today.

December 27, 1916, San Diego Union, 8:2-3. $2,500,000 shipbuilding plant planned; lease sought for 75 acres of local tidelands.

December 28, 1916, Minutes of the Park Commissioners.

The Secretary reported that Mr. F. G. Spalding had agreed to act as Chairman of the Band Committee to assist Manager Gasdia in securing subscriptions for the purpose of maintaining the band in the Exposition grounds. The Secretary was instructed to advise Mr. Gasdia that this Board desired to have the band known as the “Balboa Park Band.”

The Secretary read a letter from J. T. Butler, County Clerk, in reference to a location in the Exposition grounds for the County Library. Upon motion duly made and carried, the Secretary was instructed to advise the Board of Supervisors that quarters for the library would be furnished in some one of the buildings, said location to be determined at a later date.

The application of the employees of the Park Department for raise in salaries was read, and, after taken under consideration, a motion was duly made and carried that all $2.50 men should be raised to $2.75 per day; all $2.75 men should be raised to $3.00 per day; the general foreman raised from $100 to $125; foreman of roads and teams from $90 to $100 per month; foreman of the nursery from $85 to $93.50; caretaker of the organ pavilion form $75 to $85; caretaker of New Town Park from $80 to $90; caretaker of La Jolla Park from $80 to $90; foreman of the water service from $85 to $90; blacksmith from $3 to $3.25 per day; Superintendent from $275 to $300 per month.

December 28, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 9:1. Collier Day to be celebrated tomorrow; program begins at noon with luncheon to be followed by review of troops on Plaza.

December 28, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:5. President Davidson announced a 25 cents admission fee will be charged after January 1; Park Board members favored a 10 cents gate.

December 28, 1916, San Diego Sun, 5:5. Dance Festival at Exposition Saturday at 2 o’clock when 250 San Diego dancers will appear in colorful pageant which will represent the outdoor beauties of California in midwinter; to be held at Organ Pavilion; Master Billy Whitten, 7 years old, as Pan will open action.

December 28, 1916, San Diego Sun, 6:2-3. Colonel D. C. Collier to be honored tomorrow; President Davidson to give him an embossed testimonial.

December 28,1916, San Diego Sun, 6:3. Spreckels paid honors at Exposition today.

December 28, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4-5, 3:3-4. Exposition and city to pay tribute to Mr. Spreckels and his work.

December 28, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Exposition directors to give D. C. Collier unique token tomorrow.

December 28, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:3-4. Army and Navy attachés thanked for aid to Exposition.

December 29, 1916, Auditor’s Daily Report of Revenue and Expenses

Total revenue month to date $45,976.25

Total expenses 32,792.39

Gain $13,183.86

Cash receipts $33,931.08

December 29, 1916, Los Angeles Times, 6:2-3. San Diegans do honor to John D. Spreckels.

December 29, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 2:3. D. C. Collier honored today.

December 29, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 2:4. Record breaking crowds at Cristobal yesterday where John D. Spreckels was the guest of honor.

December 29, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 6:1. Writers’ day is celebrated at Exposition; program is held in honor of authors and poets in Southern Counties building.

December 29, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 6:6. Big farewell to Exposition; Merchants’ Association holds closing event to John D. Spreckels Day.

December 29, 1916, San Diego Herald, 1:4-5. Superiority demonstrated as Exposition and Convention City.

December 29, 1916, San Diego Herald, 4:1. Closing days of Exposition.

December 29, 1916, San Diego Herald, 5:2.

Beauty and expanse feature of parks, by Jerome H. Pendleton.

During the construction of the Exposition a bond fund of $1,850,000 was expended for park improvement, consisting mainly of constructing the permanent buildings and grounds for the Exposition, also magnificent Stadium, and general improvements of Balboa Park. Most of this fund was expended under the supervision of the Park Board; the construction inside the Exposition being by the Exposition management, with the exception of the Fine Arts Building, which was built by contract under direct management of the Board, as was the Stadium, which was constructed under the personal supervision of Commissioner Ferris.

The department has a complete up-to-date nursery where a majority of the trees, plants and flowers are propagated for use in the entire park system. During the Exposition period, a continuation of flowering plants has been furnished for the grounds, Botanical building, and the outside park, from the park nursery.

The Stadium is controlled and managed by the Board of Park Commissioners through the executive secretary’s office. The Stadium is for the use and benefit of all citizens of San Diego and can be reserved by any organized club or team by making application to the executive secretary. Application blanks can be secured either at the Stadium or at the office of the Park Department in the Administration Building. There is no favoritism shown in reserving the Stadium — first come, first served, yet the Park Board retains the right to cancel any reservation of the Stadium is desired for some purpose or attraction which, in the opinion of the Board, is of greater importance than the one for which reservation had been made.

San Diego has twelve parks besides the Plaza, varying in size from two acres in the smallest one to 1400 acres in the largest. During the past six years more money has been spent in beautifying San Diego’s parks than in all the former years of the city’s history, and today San Diego has the most comprehensive park system of any American city, and, its largest one, Balboa Park, may be said to be the most beautiful and attractive on the coast, if not in the whole United States.

The park improvements were designed as a setting for the great Exposition which is just now drawing to a close, and vied with it for the plaudits of the millions of visitors who came to see the Exposition, and departed with fond recollections of Balboa’s famed beauty. Some of the other parks of San Diego are still in their pristine “beauty,” while some others are in a partial state of development. It is the intention of the park authorities to beautify all the parks of the city as rapidly as money is available. And, as the people of San Diego seem to appreciate fine parks, it will be but a short while until the whole park system in San Diego will be made as beautiful and attractive as Balboa already is.

December 29, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:2. Colonel D. C. Collier honored guest at Exposition.

December 29, 1916, San Diego Sun, 7:1-2. Spreckels is honored guest at Farewell Dinner given by Merchants’ Association at Cristobal Café last night; President La Motte, of Merchants’ Association, referred to Spreckel’s $100,000 organ gift and $500,000 he spent to build the electric line into the park.

December 29, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3-4, 3:1-2.

High tribute paid to John D. Spreckels; largest crowd in months gathers at Exposition.

George W. Marston: . . . “I wish to thank Mr. Spreckels for this pipe organ on behalf of the present park board, the members of the park board when it was presented to the city, who took excellent care of it, and for the people of San Diego through the park board.

“I consider the giving o f this instrument greater than building railroads or steamships. We who live in San Diego can live without means of transportation, for we never intend leaving here anyway, but we cannot live without music. The pipe organ is the noblest musical instrument of them all and this organ has been and will continue to be the center of the great civic celebrations.”

December 29, 1916, San Diego Union, 2. Merchants’ Association of San Diego takes leave of Exposition at dinner in Cristobal Café.

December 29, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:1. Schumann-Heink to be presented homemade medal; famous diva to sing “Auld Lang Syne” as Exposition lights go out.

December 29, 1916, San Diego Union, 5:2. Juvenile orchestra will be heard at Exposition pageant; children rehearse for final floral festival of Exposition.

December 29, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:2-3. Exposition Board to honor Collier, whose dream came true.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 1:7-8, 10:8. Big program to mark Exposition close.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Evening Tribune, 10:7. Children give dances today.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun, 1:6. Great Exposition will close with roar.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun, 15:5-6.

Citizens pay loving tribute to Collier; dreamer of Exposition; watch is presented at Exposition.

“He dreamed a dream, and then he did his whole splendid part in making his dream come true.” In these words, toastmaster George W. Marston spoke of Colonel D.C. Collier, the “father of the Panama-California Exposition,” at the luncheon given in his honor at Cristobal Café yesterday noon.

Two hundred business and professional men, with their wives, were present. The day was “Collier Day,” set aside by the exposition directors to do special honor to the man who more than any other one, is responsible for the beautiful exposition which has brought fame and honor to the city of San Diego.

“I knew Charley Collier, when he was a little curly-headed boy messenger to a bank at Fifth and F streets, where I was cashier away back 30 years ago,” said Mr. Marston, “and I said then that that little boy would someday make his mark in San Diego, and my prediction has come true. Without the services of Colonel Collier I believe we would not have the exposition here today.”


Senator M. I. Ward spoke briefly and eloquently of the splendid services of Colonel Collier, and he was followed by Colonel Fred Jewell, who told of being present at the first meeting of 30 businessmen in the fall of 1909, when he offered the resolution declaring in favor of holding the fair and of calling it the Panama-California Exposition. That meeting was called by President Davidson of the chamber of commerce, and Colonel Collier was the most enthusiastic member of the gathering.

Afterwards, when Colonel Jewell made a trip around the world at his own expense in 1913, as a special commissioner for the exposition, he found in every one of the 19 foreign lands he visited that Colonel Collier has been there before him, spreading the fame of San Diego and the exposition that was to be.


Colonel Collier’s old friend, Douglas White, of the Salt Lake Railroad, paid his friend a great compliment when he said it was a source of the greatest honor to him to be permitted to be present and pay his tribute to the worth of Collier.

Carl Ferris also spoke in a similar strain.

After the splendid parade and review of the troops of the 21st Infantry on the Plaza de Panama, the crowd adjourned to the organ pavilion where speeches were made by George Burnham, Dr. Edgar L. Hewett of the Science of Man museum, W. S. Dorland, president of the chamber of commerce, and many others.

Resolutions of thanks for the work done by Colonel Collier were presented the guest of honor by President A. D. LaMotte, of the Merchant’s Association, on behalf of the various commercial organizations of the city.

President Davidson of the exposition presented Colonel Collier with a beautifully engraved and jewel-studded watch and fob, as a gift of love on the part of the exposition directors.

Colonel Collier, when called upon to respond, was visible moved and for a moment unable to speak. The crowd cheered and yelled and vented its enthusiasm vociferously.


When the crowd had quieted down somewhat, Colonel Collier said:

“I have sat here today with mingled feelings. I have been deeply touched by this demonstration of your kindliness to me and it is harder for me to speak to you than some of you realize.

“Back in the old days when we stood on the roof of the Administration building and showed visitors the beauties that were to be and sent them back to their home cities as boosters — Ah, that was living indeed. I am not much of a hand to live in the past. I like today, for yesterday is gone and tomorrow has not yet come. I did not do my exposition work for pay, but I was amply repaid while I was doing it, for, I give you may word, those years were the happiest of my life.

“I would like to go back through the years and give credit where credit is due and tell of many things the public does not know in connection with the sacrifices others have made that the exposition might be a success. Many besides me worked from daylight until midnight every day for several years t make this dream of ours come true, and I would like to tell you all about them. But the sun is sinking fast and I cannot tarry. I thank you for your kindness and appreciation and I assure you that this day will be a never-to-be-forgotten time in my life.”

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun, 16:1-2. EDITORIAL : The Exposition and Parks: It is for the purpose of bringing to the attention of the world the possibilities of our fine park system, one of our greatest assets, that this Park Edition of The Sun was conceived.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun.

Stirring scenes will mark close of Exposition; great sham battle to be feature.

The closing days of the exposition are expected to break all attendance records of the two-year period, according to exposition officials who have noted the great number of out-of-town visitors here. The program that will be offered from early in the morning until after midnight Monday will be one of varied interest, and will provide big entertainment for everyone.

It is announced that exposition officials have had a wonderful jeweled medal made of San Diego county precious stones, which is to be presented to Mme. Ernestine Schumann-Heink just before she sings “Auld Lang Syne” at the organ pavilion at midnight Monday. The medal will be inscribed, “To our beloved Schumann-Heink from the San Diego Exposition, 1916-1916.”

The great diva’s interest and support of the exposition has not been forgotten in the hour of its greatest success. Schumann-Heink day was celebrated March 22,1915, and at her night concert, June 23, 1915, 28,000 people were in the audience. New Year’s Day, 1916, she had part in the formal opening, and it will be her honor to close the great Exposition Monday.

The Program

The first event on the program Monday will be the honors bestowed on President Davidson, who for two and one-half years has been at the head of exposition affairs. As he enters the grounds for the last day of his untiring labors, he will be met by directors, officials and Tommasino’s Royal Italian Band, and escorted to the Plaza de Panama, where he will be in the reviewing stand for the great Army and Navy parade that is to move from downtown at 11 o’clock. Immediately following the passing of the parade, a formal ceremony will be held on the Plaza de Panama, at which time Mr. Davidson will be made the recipient of special honors.

The committee in charge of the program is composed of the directors of the 1915 and 1916 expositions and officials of the present exposition organization. At 3 o’clock in the afternoon, President and Mrs. Davidson will be honored at a reception held in the women’s board headquarters, and at 6:30 in the evening a formal dinner will be held at the Cristobal to which more than 400 have been invited.

At 2 o’clock Monday afternoon a great sham battle will be given at the north end of the exposition grounds in which the methods employed in the European war will be shown. Trench fighting, barbed wire entanglements, land mines and other spectacular features will be used in the engagement. The attacking forces will be made up of the first battalion of the Twenty-first regiment, U.S. Infantry, encamped at Imperial Beach, and under command of Major Wm. E. Brooke. The second battalion, under Colonel Joseph P. O.Neil, will defend the exposition grounds. More than 1,000 men will be engaged in the battle maneuvers. At the close of the engagement, day fireworks will be discharged.

The formal program will be held at 11:30 at the organ. Lieut. Gov. Wm. D. Stephens, Mayor James Rolph, Jr. of San Francsico, Mayor F. T. Woodman of Los Angeles, Gov. Wm. S. Spry of Utah, and R. D. Hale, vice-president of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition at San Francisco, will be among those having a part in the final program. As the lights are turned out at midnight, Schumann-Heink will sing “Auld Lang Syne,” and the audience will join in the chorus. As the last words of the song are spoken, a great set piece on top of the organ will be lighted, showing in a spectacular manner San Diego’s message to the world. Above the set piece giant bombs will be exploded and the flags of all nations will float away and present the last act of the Panama-California International exposition.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun.

Medals for Heads of Exposition Band

Tommasino-Gasdia day will be observed at the exposition tomorrow when President G. A. Davidson will present to the leader and manager of the exposition’s official band beautiful gold medals, fittingly engraved.

Tommasino’s Royal Italian Band will have established a record of 43 continuous weeks with the close of the exposition Monday, and this is said to be the longest engagement of any band in the United States. Considering the two parts of each afternoon and evening concert, the band has given 1200 concerts during this period. Although Tommasino and Gasdia lived with seven miles of each other in Italy, they did not meet until a few years ago in the United States.

The concert will be given at the organ pavilion Sunday afternoon and the following numbers composed or arranged by Tommasino will be given:

  1. March, “San Diego Exposition,” Tommasino
  2. “Second Hungarian Rhapsody,” Lizt
  3. “Mazurka Elegante,” Tommasino
  4. Operatic selection from “Tosca,” Puccini

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun.

Mayor pays fine tribute to parks of San Diego

Mayor Edwin M. Capps: Civic character is shown by the condition of a city’s parks, just as an individual’s character is advertised by the care he displays in maintaining attractive, healthful home surroundings. No finer public spirit has ever been displayed by any city than that of the citizens of San Diego in the superb development of our parks. It is the highest duty of present and future city officials to protect and foster San Diego’s park system.

I regard a highly improved system of parks as one of the biggest assets any city can possess; therefore, I have always advocated park development for San Diego. Parks form one of the most potent inducements to tourists and homeseekers; nothing can compete with them in make an alluring environment. The character of our people, their refinement and high type of citizenship are reflected in the parks of San Diego.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun.

Colonel D. C. Collier tells of days when park was desert; he did much to develop it.

Too much cannot be said by way of appreciation for the tremendous things Col. D. C. Collier has done for Balboa Park. As first director-general of the exposition his energy, ability and grasp of the large affairs under his control marked him at home and abroad as pre-eminently responsible for the carrying through of the exposition plans against such strenuous opposition as was encountered.

In a recent address at the exposition, Gov. Hiram Johnson stated that one man was responsible for the success of San Diego’s mammoth undertaking, and that man was Col. D. C. Collier,

What he did for the exposition has had a direct and important bearing upon the development of Balboa Park. One of his first acts as director-general was to authorize the purchase of all the larger trees and shrubs contained in the nurseries of the state. This acquisition made possible the wonderful growth in the exposition portion of the park.


In the fall of 1911, after the close of the session of congress, when the house of representatives passed the resolution giving recognition to San Diego — which was subsequently defeated by the senate — Mr. Collier went to Santa Fe, NM, to take the first, last and only vacation he attempted during the progress of his strenuous campaign in behalf of our exposition. There he was introduced to Dr. Edgar L. Hewett, head of the School of American Archaeology. After a discussion which extended almost through the night, Mr. Collier made preliminary arrangements for an exhibit under the auspices of the Archaeological Institute of America, which was later consummated after negotiations of several months between Dr. Hewett, Mr. Collier, the board of directors of the exposition, and the governing body of the institute. This science of man exhibit will be one of the permanent features of Balboa Park, and will spread our fame far and wide in educational circles. Its value, according to many eminent archaeologists who have visited here from abroad, is many times greater than the $100,000 for which it was secured through Mr. Collier’s efforts. The wonderful frieze in the California building — the only duplication of that in the Pan-American building in Washington ever permitted — is another of the permanent possessions the people of San Diego acquired through the effort and ability of Mr. Collier.

It was Charlie Collier, too, who fought for and won the state appropriation which erected the California building, one of the most inspiring monuments bequeathed by the exposition.

Some personal reminiscences from such an old and staunch friend of the parks will be welcomed by our readers.


“My earliest recollections of Balboa Park,” Col. Collier says, “go back to the spring of 1884, when as a boy I attended the Russ school, which occupied the position now held by the high school. None of the streets leading to the park were graded. There were no sidewalks, save for the plank walks in the business section, and our trail to school led over the hills and down across the canyons.

“One of San Diego’s earliest sources of water supply came from a well and old water works in what is now Cabrillo canyon, then known as ‘Waterworks canyon,’ also ‘Pound canyon.’ When I first visited the spot — just below the high school in the first canyon to the west — it had been abandoned for a small plant on the San Diego river at Old Town, but the engine and pumps were intact and still held in reserve, and the old reservoir was still on the hillside. Day after day, when the noon intermission came, I would go down with my lunch basket and sit in the shade of a pepper tree on the rim of the reservoir and eat my lunch, after which I would curl up and read The Golden Argosy. Ralph I. Conklin, now our sheriff, and Harvey B. Small, at present a mining engineer in Colombia, are among my chums of those days who have not passed into the Great Beyond.

“Within my recollection at this time, the only trees planted in the park were those surrounding the waterworks, where they still live to beautify the spot. There were no other houses near the park north of Cedar street, and no roads graded or any improvements of any kind in the park. It was a barren waste of sagebrush, cactus and hardpan.

“Among the early efforts toward beautification of San Diego, and, I think, toward the park was a movement headed y Matilda G. Bancroft, wife of Hugh H. Bancroft, historian, who organized a tree-planting movement which we helped, planting a line of Grevillea trees which today beautify upper Fifth street and other streets in that vicinity.


“I cannot speak of park development — or any other enterprise for the public good — without speaking of Mr. Geo. W. Marston. He is the man who first conceived the idea of harmonious and comprehensive development of our parks. The entire expense of employing Samuel Parsons, at that time the foremost landscape architect in the United States, was borne by Mr. Marston personally.”

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun.

City parks in use for entire year

There is no “closed season” in San Diego’s fine parks.

Chicago, New York and eastern cities may close their parks for half the year, while snow and sleet take possession, but in the sunny southland the flowers bloom and the sun shines the year around.

There are different flowers each month in the year, so a continual possession of blooms comes and goes in the public parks.

On most days of the year outdoor picnics may be held on the grass and in the pepper grove of the big Balboa Park.

But the parks never close for the winter.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun.

Park heads in last few years

The park commissioners since the first organization, public-spirited citizens who have directed park affairs in San Diego through our most active period of development are as follows with the dates of their appointment:

Ernest E. White, April 15, 1905; George W. Marston, April 15, 1905; A. Moran, April 15, 1905; L. A. Wright, May 9, 1907; U. S. Grant, Jr., May 23, 1907; Laurance P. Swayne, June 18, 1908; Thomas O’Hallaran, July 23, 1909; M. A. Luce, July 23, 1909; Clark Braly, May 3 1911; Patrick Martin, May 8, 1911; George R. Harrison, May 24, 1911; F. W. Vogt, May 29, 1911; Julius Wangenheim, June 28, 1911; John F. Forward, Jr., June 28, 1911; F. J. Belcher, Jr., July 31, 1911; Samuel T. Black, June 3, 1912; Carl Ferris, May 5, 1913; John F. Forward, Jr., May 5, 1913; Charles T. Chandler, May 5, 1913; Thomas O’Hallaran, August 24, 1916; Arthur Cosgrove, October 25, 1916; George W. Marston, October 25, 1916.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun. Romantic history of the city parks goes back to early days

Balboa Park, which we all know at the greatest of the units in San Diego’s system of public parks, was not the first plot of land to be reserved for recreational purposes here. Way back in 1850 William Heath Davis and his associates dedicated to public use the block bounded by F, G, Indian and Columbia streets, known as the “New Town Plaza.”

That was San Diego’s first park.

The site of Balboa Park was then an undeveloped stretch of mesas and wild canyons. Sagebrush and cactus covered the slopes which are now adorned by beautiful flowers, shrubbery and trees. San Diego had just become an incorporated city, about three years after the close of the Mexican War. The fact that our first park was so promptly dedicated goes to show that our present earnestness for improvements of public benefit must be an inherited trait of civic character.

To “New Town Plaza,” belongs the glory of being our oldest park. The flagpole from which Old Glory now waves above its shaded lawn was erected in 1869 (?), after being brought here from the territory of Washington by steamer. It was 125 feet in length the day it was raised, but decay necessitated cutting off its lower portion.

“New Town Plaza,” with its fine grass and shady trees, is a decided asset to a portion of the city which, owing to its situation closer to the wharves and railroad switching yards, needs just such a touch of nature to offset its commercial atmosphere.

It is extremely well patronized. Dinner-pail noonday meals of workers employed nearby are converted into picnic lunches by the refreshing greenness and wholesomeness of it. Such a park, in such an industrious locality, must always be of big value to San Diegans. It provides conveniently for those who most need and most deserve such an oasis of rest and fresh air.


Before Horton came and succeeded in transplanting the city from Old Town to its present location, San Diego owned so much land, valued at next to nothing — an official account of the sale of lands on June 3, 1867, tells of the sale of two 160-acre lots at $11 apiece, or less than 7 cents an acre — that her citizens did not consider it necessary to reserve any particular area for park purposes. In those days lands were being offered at public auction after 10 days’ notice, upon the petition of anyone desiring to buy. Pueblo lots were dealt out with prodigal generosity, as rapidly as the tracts could be surveyed. And it was not unnatural that a sparsely-settled community should adopt this means of encouraging settlement and raising money, for San Diego embraced 11 square leagues, amounting to 32,000 acres. The city treasury needed fattening.

Later, in Horton’s new town, came a larger population and an increased demand for city lands. It was then that a few far-seeing citizens began to realize that soon no land would be available for public uses. With the best interests of San Diego in mind, they took prompt action to reserve the proper site for a park.

February 15, 1868, is the date which E. W. Morse presented a resolution — Mr. Horton has said that he made the suggestion to Mr. Morse — to the board of trustees, “that the present board reserves two of the 160-acres tracts of the city lands for the purpose of securing the inhabitants of the city of San Diego a suitable park.”

That board of trustees consisted of J. S. Mannassee, president; Thomas H. Bush and E. W. Morse. The minutes show that the president requested Thos. H. Bush and E. W. Morse to officially select and map the park site. Minutes of subsequent meetings reveal no further mention of this transaction, save that, later on, the board “concluded to lay out a larger park.”

A growing number of influential citizens got behind the movement, and on May 26, 1868, the minutes of the board reveal that lots 1131, 1130, 1129, 1135, 1136, 1137, vacant part of 1144, 1143 and 1142, comprising an almost solid block of none quarter sections — all save 40 acres in lot 1144 — which the city had sold — “be for a park.” Guadalupe Estudillo, Marcus Schiller and Joshua Sloane were then the trustees.

The clerical entries of the secretary of the board on that day are not on the high literary and historical plane with present-time records of council meetings. They are very brief and incomplete.

The 40 acres missing from lot 1144, to quote Mr. Wm. E. Smythe in an interesting bit of park history — one might properly call it an interesting bite of park history — shows that the value of the present park as a real estate holding was appreciated by the pioneer antecedents of our present wise real estate dealers. Mr. Smythe’s history says:

“In the meanwhile, however” — before the appointed committee selected the lots to be reserved — “on the 15th of February, 1868, Isabella Carruthers stole a march upon them and bought the southwest quarter of lot 1144 for $175, which took a 40-acre ‘bite’ out of the southwest corner of their tract.”


None of our energetic operators of today would experience any difficulties in securing a buyer for that 40 acres, which is bounded by Date, Eleventh, a line between A and Ash, and Sixth streets, at a figure representing a very handsome profit on Isabella Carruther’s 4.375 cents per acre “snap.” Some of the lots in Carruther’s addition are now held at as much per front foot as was paid to the city of San Diego for the entire 40 acres.

Fourteen hundred acres was quite a large chunk of land for a city the size of San Diego in 1868 to reserve for park purposes. Small wonder that many citizens opposed such an extensive scheme, some out of purely unselfish belief that the city could never maintain and improve such a large tract, others — who were interested in the profits they could make through speculating in these lands if they should be placed on the market — out of motives which took the future welfare of the city less into consideration. Many and well-organized were the efforts made to cut down the size of what was then called “City Park.” But, to insure the permanency of the reservation, a bill was introduced into the state legislature during the session of 1870-71. The usual legislative dangers attended the passage of the bill, among others the discovery after its introduction that a surreptitious effort was being made to divert 480 acres of the tract from its intended purpose, and open up the same for public sale. At this juncture a number of San Diego’s best citizens organized to fight the bill. They had the entire city canvassed with a petition of remonstrance against the surreptitious insertion and stood fast for the preservation of the entire tract. The bill was pushed through for a final conclusion in its original form on Feb. 4, 1870. The act declares that these lands (legally describing the reserved lots) are “to be held in trust forever by the municipal authorities of the said city for the use and purpose of a public park . . . and for no other or different purpose.”

Again, in 1871, the citizens who had so faithfully fought for the big park we enjoy today came to its rescue. In December of that year a bill for the repeal of the park act of the preceding year was introduced in the state legislature with a view of authorizing the sale of San Diego’s city park lands. Again they banded themselves together to keep the park intact. A petition protesting against the repeal of this act and asking that any future legislation affecting public lands or relating to the action of the trustees of San Diego and all park and cemetery lands be excepted.

Balboa Park of today is a fitting monument to those men whose forethought, loyalty and ability preserved it for the thousands who now boast of its beauty and generous proportions. Many who fought against them were actuated by purely selfish motives. Others fought honestly because they believed the San Diego they loved was “biting off more than she could chew.” The former are justly condemned by our historians, but the latter must not be too harshly censured. Foresight is not given to all of us.

Among those pioneer friends of the parks and ours, some of whom has passed away leaving memories San Diegans will always cherish, are Daniel Cleveland, Levi Chase, George W. Marston, E. W. Morse, Dr. R. L. Gregg, Charles Hubbell, A. E. Horton, George N. Hitchcock, James M. Pierce, Thos. L. Nesmith, Charles S. Hamilton, Capt. Matthew Sherman, Joshua Sloane and many others who worked for and devoted time to a worthy cause. Space prohibits giving much prominence to each individual as he deserves. Such historians as Mr. Smythe and Mr. Black have been privileged to do this. Mr. Marston, one of our most active and valuable citizens today, and others on the list who have been interviewed, seem to be alike in possessing a certain trait of character which, while not at all satisfactory to the interviewer, is the really the greatest tribute he could pay to them. They request that their own donations and efforts be not separated from the collective work of their associated body. “We all pulled together,” is their summing up of events. Modesty has been an admirable quality in so many really big men.


These men were staunch supporters of our parks during a slow period of development for San Diego when enemies, mindful of present personal gain only, attempted to take advantage of conditions certainly unfavorable for maintaining the site intact. Many of them knew its full benefit could never be reaped in their time. It was for generations of San Diegans to come that they fought and planned. And they won.

Those who have known San Diego for the past 20 years — aye, the past 10 years — can recall sneering comments made by the thoughtless and shortsighted who referred to those 1400 acres as a desert waste, a sagebrush and cactus-barren in the center of the city. They called it foolhardy for San Diego, for any city to attempt such a vast undertaking. They accused those who backed it of playing real estate politics, of having questionable motives — which, however, they never put into definite words, preferring to make their thrusts in that vague, “mud-slinging” manner, which, sometimes unfortunately, gains some public attention.

Can anyone name a man today who regrets, as a San Diegan, having fallen heir to his share of the joys of Balboa Park? There are hundreds of cities, many of them our biggest centers of population, who now envy San Diego this possession more than any other, including her harbor. Citizens in those places bitterly regret that their pioneers were not so thoughtful of the welfare of their descendants as were the men who founded San Diego as an American city.

San Diego today is a home community which ranks high in intelligent, progressive citizenship. Many of our most loyal citizens have lived here only a short time, attracted to us by the advantages of climate and home environment which San Diego has to offer. Our city seems to be particularly fortunate I the quality of the settlers who come here to make it their home. Does not the fact that our pioneer settlers displayed the hardihood, the intelligence to fight for the reservation of a vast park whose development must clearly come at a period later than most of them could enjoy — does not this speak volumes for the quality of the strain which San Diegans first attracted? There seems to be a sort of destiny behind it all, a destiny which only communities populated by the most intelligent classes can ever fulfill.

As we bear our heads to enjoy a rest on some cool lawn beneath shady trees, we do reverence to those who pioneered San Diego’s intelligence, whose early efforts made these lawns and trees ours. Our hats are off to the courtly pioneers!

This short historical account will serve to correct a not uncommon impression which still exists — though often the true facts have been published — that the 1400 acres of park lands were not the gift of an individual to the city. Almost every prominent San Diegan has been spoken of by the mistaken ones as the donor.


A special act of the state legislature in 1889 made it possible for city councils to grant the use of portions of park lands “for charitable and educational uses,” under certain specified conditions which kept the grounds open to the public. Under this act, the Howard tract of the park lands became the site for an industrial school, but again reverted to the city when the plan was not carried out. Some benefit to the park was gained, however, through the planting of trees which still remain.

But the credit for the first comprehensive scheme of park improvement goes to the Ladies’ Annex of the chamber of commerce. About the year 1889 they succeeded, through popular subscription, in raising $500. This fund was expended in planting a 10-acre strip along the west side of the park to trees. Many of these have survived and today cast a welcome shade. Their advantage in years has made them tower above most of their brothers and sisters of later planting. Mrs. Ben Lake was the leading spirit in this improvement campaign.

Miss Kate Sessions leased a tract of 36 acres in the northwest corner of the park in 1892 for nursery purposes. Her lease stipulated that she plant 100 trees to remain permanently, and that she donate 300 more annually to the city. Her skill as a forester added much to the attraction of the park long before the present lawns and general scheme of improvement were started. It was the first satisfactory tree planting in the 1400 acres.

Another portion of the park was improved at about this time, under the care and direction of the civic committee, an organization of citizens in the Golden Hill vicinity. It was named Golden Hill park, and the taste displayed in planting and perfecting the design speaks well for its promoters who also financed the undertaking. The situation of this park, on a bluff, in the extreme southeastern corner of the 1400 acres, is one of rare beauty, commanding a view of city and harbor which is unsurpassed.


The golf links of the Country Club were formerly situated in the northern portion of the park. The club house stood not far from the northeast corner of the exposition grounds. Members of the Country Club at that time, prior to its removal to Loma Portal, will always include the old golf links among their most pleasant recollections. Their grounds and the course were well cared for, and were an attraction to the old park. It has been suggested by certain citizens that, in the future, San Diego might well afford a public golf links in the park. Such recreation places are features of parks in many cities, providing a pleasant and enjoyable sport to those who might not otherwise take it up.

James E. Mulvey made a very successful improvement of park lands adjoining his home grounds. A well-developed grove of trees accrues to the park from his public-spiritedness.

Save for the improvements of areas mentioned, the balance of our vast park domain remained undeveloped until comparatively recent years. But even in its virgin state, it was a possession to be proud of, with its picturesque canyons and flower-carpeted mesas.

Such widely-known artists as C. A. Fries loved, and still love the undeveloped portions of the park. His paintings, admired by San Diegans wherever exhibited, are mostly of the rugged, golden-brown landscapes, as they basked in the sun before the landscape architect came to take advantage of their natural charm.


On Aug. 15, 1902, Mr. Julius Wangenheim made suggestions to the chamber of commerce which resulted in the appointment of a park improvement committee. Its members were Mr. Wangenheim, chairman; George W. Marston, U. S. Grant, Jr., William Clayton and D. F. Garrettson.

A liberal act on the part of Mr. Marston — and when has he ever been other than a whole-hearted, open-handed San Diegan? — at this time made possible the park’s first pretentious development. Briefly, he offered to provide funds for the preparation of adequate plans. This expense he refuses to put into figures, but some who were in close touch with the situation state that the money he donated in this valuable and practical way would build a $10,000 house on one of our highest-priced lots. Sub-committees obtained subscriptions amounting to $8,000, to this was added $3,000, bequeathed to the city by the late John Allyn for park improvement, making a fund of $11,000, exclusive of Mr. .Marston’s contribution.

The late M. B. Coulston was employed as a secretary of the park improvement committee. Unstinted praise for her capable and efficient service is to be heard from all who were in touch with park affairs at that time. For 10 years she had been one of the editors of “Garden and Forest,” New York, and had developed remarkable talents in her profession. These she devoted tirelessly to the betterment of our parks.

After much work had been accomplished by the committee in the discussion of plans for improvement, after correspondence with many eminent landscape architects, Mr. Marston, while on an eastern trip, engaged Samuel Parsons, Jr. and Co. of New York to prepare the improvement plans. Mr. J. B. Lippincott, eminent engineer of Los Angeles, prepared the contour map. As fast as sections were completed, they were sent to the architects in New York. In May, 1903, the maps of roads and paths for the southwestern section of the park was received by the committee. A planting list, showing painstakingly the varieties and number of trees, was received. In July George (?) Parsons spent five weeks in San Diego. In August water pipes were laid on the west side of the park from a $1,700 appropriation. George Cook [sic], Mr. Parson’s partner, arrived on Dec. 20, with a sketch of the entire tract to be worked out. Grading was commenced at the south end at once, under Mr. Cook’s direction. The park map was approved in January, 1904.

These dates will interest many who have seen our biggest park for the first time during exposition years. That such abundant shrub and tree growth could take place during the few years intervening between the present time and the date of the planting, is held as nothing short of a miracle by those who are unfamiliar with the speed records of nature under our sunny skies, where abundant water is supplied. During that brief period, rocky, wild hillsides have been converted into finished masterpieces of landscape gardening which are now famous.

With the emphatic approval of the voters our city charter was amended on Jan. 27, 1905, so as to provide an annual park appropriation of not less than five or more then eight cents on each $100 of assessed valuation. The park commission has charge of this annual appropriation.

The first board of park commissioners was appointed on April 17, 1905. Its members were Mr. George W. Marston, president; Mr. Ernest E. White, secretary; and Mr. A. Moran.

The balance of the history of our biggest park and of the other parks in the system will be taken up under several headings by men who are now actively in charge of the work. In consenting to undertake this additional task — for each and every one of them is an unusually busy man — they are but showing the park spirit, the spirit of friendship and willingness to do things for others. It is this same energetic spirit which has made it possible for them to take a big share in making San Diego today the “City of Beautiful Parks.”

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun. Birds galore in great park; lover of feathered beauties tells of their pretty homes, by Carroll De. W. Scott.

Enos Mills in his book, “In Beaver World,” says that if could come back to earth and live his life over he would choose the life of a beaver. Today, when I watched the birds in the big clean aviary in the park, I thought they must enjoy existence as much as any creature could. Safe from all their enemies — man included — housed in the beautiful park with flowers always in bloom at their back, front and side doors, with their friends around them and with a keeper as kind and thoughtful as Mr. Anderson to save them from any worry — well, who wouldn’t like to be a bird under these conditions?

There live in these aviaries on the park about 500 birds of more than 30 species. They are so well taken care of that a month often goes by without one dying. This is a good record, I think, because many of the birds — for example, all the ducks and quail — are wild, undomesticated species.

A lonely, red-winged blackbird in one cage has been there for several years — he looked lonely, but the was cheerily calling “kong-er-lee,” as she would from a cattail swamp. There is a pair of long-crested mountain quail and several valley quail in one house. They never breed here but they might if they were by themselves in a large cage with some bushes and grass to make them feel more at home.

The birds that are most numerous and catch your eye quickly are the little green paroquets, or Australian “love birds.” These birds raise young ones anytime of year in nests in boxes with a round entrance, like that of a woodpecker.


Among the canaries are two beautiful little finches, the Black Nun and the Zebra Finch, which, as the name implies, is striped and checked in many colors. Across the aisle is a large cage of Java sparrows, called “rice birds,” because, like our bobolinks in the southern states, they grow fat in the rice fields. You will know them because one species is pure white and the other has a pink bill, black head with snowy sideburns, or ear lobes of cheek ruffs — I couldn’t tell which.

Of course, long before now, if you were at the aviary you would have seen and heard some brilliantly-dressed creatures that looked as though they had borrowed poinsettia leaves about Christmas time and made themselves fashionable clothes. The parrots and the great macaw, who has to stay in a little cage by himself because he cuts of wires of the big cage with his powerful beak, the Blue Mountain Lory and “Billy,” the African parrot, are all from the tropics, Brazil and Mexico, and the islands that bask in the eternal sun heat, where nature is extravagant with color as well as with life.

On the ground are the gorgeous pheasants, eight in all, Golden Silver and English — the aristocrats of the ground as the parrots are of the trees. Here are three large Brazilian paroquets that like to perch on Mr. Anderson’s head and teach him by pulling his mustache. Here is a pair of beautiful Australian pigeons with long-crested topknots. In a tree sit some wonderful Japanese “nightingales.” They have a sleek oriental look about them — seems to be I have seen them in Japanese prints.

Then there is the duckery — almost the same as rockery, because the duck’s home is pretty well rocked and cemented. Many kinds of ducks are here — teal, mallard, redhead, pintail, some great snowy and black-necked geese, and, above all, the glorious wood duck. With the ducks is a great yellow-crested snowy cockatoo, who loves attention and screams like a planing mill saw. With the ducks also is a stately wild Great Blue Heron, who has thriven in this cage several years on a diet of raw meat — the only meat eater in the aviary. Of course, he would rather have minnows and a frog now and then.


In a walk through the park recently I saw 32 species of birds in just two hours.

I wish I had space to tell you about the wild birds of your park. But go into it and get acquainted with them yourself. You will find robins, thrushes and warblers, visitors from the Sierra mountains, eating holly berries, song sparrows and white-crowned sparrows, humming birds among the tame flowers all the year, meadow larks and butcher birds and phoebes on the uplands and in the unfrequented nooks, gnat catchers, bush tits, the shy rufous-crowned sparrow, thrashers, towhees and wrens. You will hear the pealing note and the flicker and, maybe, the ground owl will make you a pretty bow.

I wish I had time to talk about the Audubon Society which The Sun has helped to organize in San Diego. No city ever had a finer bird home in its midst than San Diego. Our great park will keep alive our native birds for all time, where we can see and love and protect them; if we save some tracts just as nature made them, where they can feel at home and get the kind of food they need. From the park these birds will come into our gardens. They will make our own homes seem more like homes to us. Does not the home of our dreams always have a garden with flowers and trees and birds?

San Diego Sun, December 30, 1916. Women’s Board has done fine work, by Miss Alice Lee.

The wonderful work which was inaugurated by the Women’s Board of the Panama-California Exposition of 1915, and which has been carried on through 1916 by the succeeding board, will serve as an object lesson for the future. The members of the park board have announced that they intend to retain the beautiful rooms in the California Building to be used for virtually the same purpose.

The tale of the gracious hospitality which has been accorded to hundreds of visitors — ex-presidents, governors, diplomats, educators, philanthropists, labor leaders, musicians, artists and representatives of all the great business interests — has spread throughout the country, and there has been a general appeal to continue the same.

The list of hostesses from every distinguished club and from the schools and churches of the city and county would fill many pages, the endeavor having been to make the hospitality as representative of the community as possible. The San Diego Museum Association, which holds in trust the great collections for the city, and which is most democratic in its control, will endeavor to assist the city and the park board in every possible way in continuing the unique scheme. Much good work of this kind has been accomplished in other cities by a Women’s Museum board, with the cooperation of other women’s organizations, and this will all develop as the necessity for it arises in the near future.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun, 2:1-3.

Regulars in our parks are counted by hundreds; they hold open forum on seats, by Stanley Hofflund.

Some of us motor through the parks, some of use ride bicycles, some of us still favor our old friend the horse. Many of us walk — though a stranger would have to be convinced of the fact after observing the number of automobiles in the city. But, regardless of our means of locomotion to and through them, all of us love the parks.

There are few motorists here who have not driven out of their regular courses many times in order to consume as much of the journey as possible amidst the beautiful surroundings our parks offer to tempt them. Going and coming, they add a few blocks to the trip for the sake of a “run through the park.”

To some extent all of us take advantage of these beautiful recreation grounds, so conveniently located in our city. Going back to nature is no difficult matter; just a few blocks from business and there you are, as far removed from the turmoil as though you had traveled a dozen miles. Picnic gatherings, May-day celebrations, band concerts — Yes, we make good use of our parks. Our children are personally acquainted with the animals in the zoo and the birds in the aviary.


But most of us are merely transient guests of Host Park. Have you met any of the regulars, the ones who enjoy a majority of their waking hours in one or another of our parks? You should get acquainted; for they are an interesting fraternity, friendly and hospitable, like their host.

No, I do not refer to those birds and animals who love the park glens so much that they even sleep in them. Br’er Rabbit and Friend Quail and Bill Squirrel — he’s positively nutty about the parks — are in the “regular” class, of course, but the “regulars” I refer to are plain humans, like you and me.

Some of them are old men, many of them pensioners who wear the bronze button of proven patriotism. They don’t miss many years out of the year from the benches they and their cronies have selected as their headquarters. Even when umbrellas are required, you will find some of the hardier ones there to answer the roll-call of the clan. Beneath sunny skies of peace — or those rare rainy ones — they resume the Battle of Gettysburg where they left off the evening before. No shots are fired, of course, and those who fought with the Boys in Blue chum with those whose uniforms were of gray; but all the battles of the civil war are fought over again. Between campaigns, so to speak, the Blues and Grays enjoy a little game of quoits or checkers, these old veterans who once charged against the enemy with fixed bayonets.


There are few parks in the chain without faithful squads of these “regulars.” They select a spot best situated in regard to distance from their homes or lodgings, one which has a view or seclusion which pleases them most.

Many are not war veterans, but veterans of those struggles of life which most of us go through. They have won in their fight and with the wives who helped them and fought side by side with them, are now enjoying the fruits of victory. In a land of sunnier skies and balmier days than those of their battle grounds. From early morning until late in the day they live in the parks, reading, resting or enjoying the reminiscences of their brothers and sisters who have won an easy place on the retired list with them — honorably discharged from active service.

Up at the aviary there are certain of them who have frequented the place so regularly that the birds have come to know them and will feed from their gentle hands when not distracted or frightened by too many visitors.

One old veteran has struck up such a friendship with a fat little duck — a fowl with an appetite and capacity any ostrich might envy — that it will waddle up to him at the snap of his fingers. Then he pokes his finger through the wire grating and scratches its little green head — after the customary ceremony with the slice of bread has been properly performed to the entire satisfaction of the duck, of course. This “regular” claims that his feathered friend has taught him to speak duck. Anyway he quacks back at Green Head in a way which seems to please both of them hugely.

At the zoo, also, there seems to be sort of an understanding between the animals and the “regulars” who frequent that quarter, a friendship which is very interesting to watch.

(There follows a description of the habitués of the Plaza.)

San Diego is particularly fortunate in being a resort city, a place where the best people come from the world over to recreate. Here one encounters astonishingly few of the undesirable class which frequents the parks of all eastern cities.


A night trip through Lincoln Park, Chicago, will reveal scores of miserable wretches, outcasts from society, and unfortunates who are temporarily without funds for proper beds, sleeping on the benches — in spots which the park policemen have missed. Even in cold weather such parks as these accommodate many overnight. But San Diego has on numerous occasions proven herself anything but a haven for the undesirables of the “soapless order.” Our rockpile is probably largely responsible for the comparatively easy matter of policing our parks. Unfortunates are cared for as well as possible, but the dangerous criminal idler is harshly received. We are not entirely free from those midnight occurrences which fill police court blotters, but San Diego is far safer than the average city, and her parks are markedly free from members of the unsafe element. The tap of the policeman’s club upon the frayed soles of feet at the end of a bench is a sound we never hear.

San Diego’s “regulars” of the parks are, for the most part, regular lodgers in regular rooms, also. They love the parks, and the parks seem to reciprocate.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun. Development of arts will be encouraged in museum buildings on fair grounds, by Miss Alice Klauber

That department of the San Diego Museum association covered by the fine arts is to be in the hands of its art committee, acting with such affiliated societies as the Art Association and the Art Guild. The galleries at the southern end of the California Quadrangle will house all the fine arts exhibitions, and it is expected that local artists and craft societies, acting with the museum committee, will exhibit from time to time in the smaller galleries above.

There are a number of large exhibitions of paintings which yearly make a circuit of the west and middle west. Arrangements will be made to include the San Diego museum as one of the important and appreciative havens in the west for such exhibits. The American Federation of Arts and the Society of Western Artists have in the past sent large and interesting collections west, and recently a fine showing of the work of western painters has been visiting in eastern galleries. This method of exchange and of mutual benefit is but just begun; and the development of a definite plan will mean at least four traveling exhibitions in the west during 1917.

It is many years since any loan exhibition has been attempted here, and those who know San Diego homes realize that a wealth of material must be brought together which would make a deeply interesting study if judiciously installed. The committee will keep in touch with the private collections at all times.


A possible plan for 1917 might include two traveling eastern exhibitions, one from Washington and one from New York. With one good loan collection, one of the California Art club, and two of the local group of artists, we would have six important events in the galleries. Paint exhibitions, architectural and other drawings, photograph collections, etc. could be made to fill in the interim so that at no time need the galleries be empty. This is a department that would not require financial expenditure. The general interest of the public and a committee responsible for the care and maintenance of the department would go far in the first year, amply meeting all demands.

From the museum membership must be chose those most interested in this department to serve on its art committee. It is too early to say what the personnel of this group might be. Among those mentioned have been the names of Rev. Mr. Hollington, Mrs. Ivor N. Lawson, Miss Jane Perry, Mr. Ernest White, and Mr. Templeton Johnson.


As with other departments of the museum work, much depends on the hearty cooperation of the entire membership, which should be made up of all residents who find it possible to join.

Nothing in San Diego today promises more for its future than does this great feature in its park. Alike for citizen and tourist, our best asset is our beautiful recreation ground, and no one can say what uses San Diego may still find for its 1400-acre breathing space.

The exposition has given the city matchless architectural settings for its museum. The landscape gardening surrounding these buildings is a demonstration of planting as a fine art.

It remains for the population of San Diego to make possible further development of the arts, where it has long been prophesied that a great school of art shall one day be in a flourishing state of existence.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun. Natural History Society is busy, by Mrs. Kate Stephens, curator.

The San Diego Society of Natural History has applied to the board of park commissioners for the use, after the close of the exposition, of the building formerly known as the Nevada building, which now contains the exhibits of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The park commissioners are willing to let us have the building if they find it is under their control.

It is the intention of the society to place its collection and library in this building and open it as a free public museum. Keeping it open from 9 a.m. until 5 p.m. every day in the year. Our present quarters in the Hotel Cecil are so small that we have been unable to give much room to exhibition material, and the museum has therefore been used as a student’s museum, the results of these studies being published in our transactions. When we get into larger quarters, we intend increasing our exhibition material as rapidly as funds permit, to make the museum as useful as possible to the public.

The society has a small reserve fund which will be nearly exhausted in repairing the building, fitting it up for our use and moving the collection. Our income has never been more than $1,000 a year. It can readily be seen that building up a public museum will be very slow on so small an income. We believe we will be able to show that we deserve public support. We solicit donations of natural history specimens of all classes suitable for public exhibition, but we do not want mere curios. Our object is not to amuse the public, but to show things that are instructive and educational. We particularly wish to make the museum interesting and useful to public school pupils. We would be very glad of gifts of books or pamphlets on any natural history subject. We now have a library of over 6,000 books and pamphlets, which is at the service of any student.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun, 4:1-2. All permanent buildings are to become portion of park beautiful.

The report of the executive committee to the general committee on the preservation of the exposition buildings follows:

To the general committee on the preservation of the exposition buildings. Gentlemen: Your executive committee begs herewith to render this its first report.

Conforming to your expressed wishes and the evident desires of the community, we have approached our problem with sympathetic consideration for the preservation of as many of the exposition as satisfy the fourfold test of harmony of effect, fitness of purpose, strength of construction, and practicability of finance. We beg to tender you our conclusion under each of these topics.


As must important of all, we have deemed it imperative that any plan to be adopted must preserve and maintain the integrity of the park and that all buildings that were to remain should be adjuncts and appurtenances of the park, rather than mere remains of the exposition. To this end we recommend the removal of all state and county buildings, with the exception of that of New Mexico, which can be maintained for an exhibit of the southwest, and that of the Southern Counties as hereafter mentioned.

As to the buildings on the Prado, we recommend the segregation of these into three distinct groups, each occupying its separate station in the park scheme. These are not to be contiguous, but are to be widely separated by planting effect. The first will be the California and Fine Arts group around the quadrangle; the second, the five buildings outlining the Plaza de Panama; and the third, the Southern Counties Building with its surroundings. In addition to these, there will, of course, remain the Horticultural Building, the Fisheries exhibit, the organ and the model farm.

The grouping in this way will break the long street effect, while still maintaining an architectural axis. The park will flow into the general scheme between the California building and the central group on both the north and south, and by the elimination of the Canadian and the Varied Industries buildings a splendid vista of the park in both directions will again become a feature of the landscape.


We have aimed to give due consideration to the purposes to which these buildings are to be devoted, and tentatively recommend the following:

The California State building is to be used for some purpose as yet undetermined, the Fine Arts building for periodic exhibits of paintings and other fine arts, the two buildings west of the central plaza for the installation of the archaeological exhibit.

The building to the north for a music pavilion and possible dance hall, the present Pan-American building at the northeast corner of the plaza for county exhibits, similar to that of the present Southern Counties building, and to be maintained largely by the county; the present Foreign Arts building at the southeast corner for automobile shows, industrial affairs, or other large exhibits that may from time to time present themselves. The Southern Counties building is to be used as an auditorium, for which it is splendidly adapted, and the need for which is generally recognized.

We also favor the installation in one of the minor buildings, of the exhibit of the Natural History Society, which we believe will be an attractive feature of the park.

The entire Isthmus is to be abandoned, with the exception of the Painted Desert, and the road will be used as a much need park thoroughfare.


We have made a thorough examination of the buildings and find many of them not of sufficient permanence to warrant their use for hospital, educational or similar purposes, and hence, if for no other reason, have eliminated any consideration along these lines.

As to the buildings which we deemed available, we consulted with practical builders as to their possible preservation, and found that the interior construction and foundations are such as to give reasonable promise of their remaining for 15 or 20 years. On the exterior it will be necessary to give them, during the first 10 years, three coats of preservative paint, and in many places repairs must be immediately made in order to preserve the staff work. The roofs will require considerable attention, but, on the whole, it was decided that, with reasonable expenditure, such buildings as above outlined might be retained for many years.


We have conferred with the park board, under whose control all exhibits and buildings will be. They have cheerfully promised their cooperation with our plans; believe them feasible, and express a desire that your committee should outline a definite scheme to guide them in the work. We have consulted with practical builders to ascertain the probably expense of maintaining the buildings during the next few years, and for your information would say that some provision must be made to enable the park board adequately to preserve the exposition portion of the park. An immediate expenditure f $1,600 is necessary to repair the staff work before the early rains, but we believe that arrangements have been made for meeting his contingency. An annual expense of approximately $10,000 will be necessary to repaint and repair the buildings to preserve them in their present condition, and while we believe that the necessary funds can be readily provided to take care of the buildings herewith recommended, we believe that the preservation of more buildings could hardly be financed, even if otherwise desired.

We recommend the above for your approval and adoption.


The above executive committee was composed of George W. Marston and Stanley Hale, who had been appointed by the general committee on the preservation of buildings, a body elected at a big meeting of representative San Diego businessmen and the Chamber of Commerce. The members of this general committee were: Lyman J. Gage, Earl S. Drake, Julius Wangenheim, George W. Marston, G. A. Davidson, Dr. J. D. Hollington, Stanley Hale, Carl Heilbron, Willet S. Dorland, Mrs. Fred van Buskirk and Mrs. E. S. Kendall.


Active steps are being taken by the park board toward formulating definite plans for the future use of the exposition buildings for the housing of permanent exhibits and local organizations along lines of general public benefit and interest. A vast amount of work is yet to be accomplished before programs of events, etc., will be prepared for publication. Following is a brief outline which will furnish the public an idea of the scope of the work.

Balboa park, board members declare, is to be made the great public recreation ground of San Diego, also an educational center in the broadest sense. The park commissioners propose to devote large spaces to playgrounds and to encourage the development of children’s games, athletics and general recreation. The stadium Golden Hill playground, the pepper grove, and many other places in the park will be utilized.


Cultural activities will be fostered by such societies as the San Diego museum association, Natural History Society of San Diego, the San Diego Historical Society, the art museum and art guild, and the musical and dramatic societies. The park commissioners will cooperate with these and other organizations.

A botanical society will possibly be formed by the floral association. A zoological society will take a large part in the care of animal life. The Audubon society is to be formed to preserve wild bird life. Women’s organizations will carry on a work similar to that which they been devoted to during the exposition years.

Public festivals, children’s holidays, fetes and entertainments of all kinds will be encouraged and accommodated. Receptions for distinguished guests and the hospitable entertainment of strangers will be given special attention. Public meeting of every desirable character will be held.

The group of exposition buildings to be preserved and the surrounding grounds will be a place for a permanent exposition of the social, educational and artistic life of our city.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun. Wild spots in center of city.

Balboa park contains 1400 acres and is situated in the heart of San Diego.

Only a small portion, comparatively, of this 1400 acres is developed. The result is that in the midst of the city is a great tract of land in its natural state.

Within walking distance of the city’s business district one can find wild spots that give no evidence of being in the confines of an incorporated city.

The scenic park drives are a constant source of pleasure to the motorist, and the winding paths to the pedestrian.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun, 4:3-5. How San Diego’s fine Balboa Park compares with parks of other great American cities, by Thomas O’Hallaran.

San Diego has 2,000 acres of parks, 1,400 of which are in one park in the heart of the city, near to the business center, known as “Balboa Park,” this name having been given to it in October 1910 by the then park commissioners L. A. Wright, M. A. Luce and Thomas O’Hallaran.

San Diego’s 2,000 acres of parks have been acquired without expense, this land having been set aside by the city for park purposes; while in many cities the land required for their parks has been obtained through expensive condemnation proceedings and by private purchase.


The City of San Diego is more fortunate in the location of its large park than is any other city in America, in its central location, the only exception being Central Park in New York City, with its 800 acres.

In Los Angeles all the easily reached parks are small ones, the only large park there, Griffith Park, being a considerable distance from the city proper.

Denver, with its largest park, City Park, of from two to three hundred acres, which includes within its borders a large museum of curios and an art gallery, is in the center of one of its residential districts.

Kansas City has a large number of small parks, that are well planted and cared for, the only one of large dimensions, Swope Park, being some distance from the city.

St. Louis’ Forest Park of 1,380 acres is about three miles from the business section of the city.

Hanscome Park in Omaha, of 300 acres, is well located, and is its one large park.

Rock Creek Park, Washington, D. C., of 1,680 acres, is a long distance from the heart of the city.


The ideal park is one located near the center of a city, easy to reach by cheap transportation, yet secluded from smoke, dust and noise of a busy city.

This we have in Balboa Park. The landscape artists of the country unite in pronouncing this the ideal park of the country, the beautiful contours, undulations and canyons being the work of the great master hand of Nature, such features in most parks having to be produced artificially at great expense. One feature most welcome is its absence in Balboa Park, a feature to be observed in many parks of large cities, is the artificiality of their formal gardens. In San Diego’s parks there are no grotesque features obtained by attempts to reproduce inanimate objects. Landscape architects by common consent pronounce these efforts as most inartistic.

San Diego is very fortunate in having a public-spirited citizen gifted with artistic discrimination. Mr. G. W. Marston, who selected such a man as Samuel Parsons of New York City to do the first planting that was done in Balboa park. Under his plan and direction there was planted about 200 acres, and roads laid out. The Frederick Law Olmsted firm of Boston was the next one employed and under this direction about 100 acres was planted, and the finishing touch as we see it today in Balboa Park is the planting of the exposition grounds by Frank P. Allen, a beautiful whole, not equaled in any park in the country in artistic designs and floral beauty. These exposition grounds include 625 acres, which belong to Balboa Park, and which will be open to the free access of the public upon the closing of the exposition.

Another feature of Balboa Park not to be found in any other park in America is the beautiful Spreckels Organ, the only outdoor organ in the world, which is to be more and more one of its chief attractions.


Comparing the upkeep of San Diego’s parks with most other cities, here care is necessary 12 months in the year, in planting, irrigation, etc., while only half or three-quarters of the year at most in other climates is required of this intensive care-taking, and, incidentally, San Diegans, beyond all others, may enjoy their parks throughout the year.

There is no other city of its size in America that has so many acres of its parks so well improved for so little expense as San Diego, but what is most needed is the free use of these grounds by its owners, the citizens of this city.

Well-equipped picnic grounds, with free use of water, tables, swings and other features of playground equipment are at hand and shady nooks abound, for a quiet hour with a book.

“Beauty frees the spirit,” and beauty is everywhere at hand in Balboa Park.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun.

Public health and parks, how recreation grounds affect entire community, by Marian Pounds, member Board of Health

The beneficial influence of parks on the health and well-being of a community cannot be overestimated. Health, physical development and out-of-door exercise go hand in hand.

Many of the older nations recognized that fact and gave great consideration to the welfare of their growing generations by encouraging out-door sports and contests of strength and skill. Greece and Rome of the ancients may be mentioned as examples. Their histories show that while such practices were continued they held their grip on the affairs of their limited worlds and maintained their national honor and prestige, but that later, as they began to neglect those things, and devote their time to acquiring wealth, and to waste their energies in revelries — what our friend Tad would call “indoor sports” — they became the prey of those people better prepared, and, as powerful nations, practically ceased to exist.

The words “prepared” and “preparedness” are just now basking in popularity, and they would not be out of place in this connection. Until very recently our own nation has not deemed it necessary to devote anything, either time, thought or money, toward the physical preparedness of her people, which is one of the greatest forces toward the preservation of health and the prevention of disease. It is true that considerable study has been given to the best way to feed and care for pigs, how to guard against foot and mouth disease, and eradicate boil weevil, but that doesn’t go far toward the physical perfection of the race.

The medical fraternity, with some help from the government, has made enormous strides in preventative medicine, eliminating to a large extend dangers that formally surrounded us in the form of epidemics from contagious diseases, etc.; but even that is only a small part in the scheme of physical preparedness, so it apparently devolves upon the people individually or as communities to take such means toward that end as they find available.


San Diego is ideally situated in that respect. Here we have sunshine the greater part of the year and an unlimited supply o f pure, strength-giving air, fresh from 3,000 miles of ocean. The numerous parks, especially the large one, allow one to take advantage of these features and enjoy almost any form of recreation suitable to his needs or nature, from those of the baby to the one advanced in years.

The broad expanse of lawns, the grassy hillsides and shade, and the delightful flower-sheltered nooks afford opportunity for complete relaxation and thought — unless one prefers simply to relax. No place could be better for the babies to roll and their older brothers and sisters to romp. The winding paths and trails through the canyons and up and own the hills furnish pleasantly diversified routes for those desiring to spend a hour or so walking.

The city has generously provided at different points public playgrounds, equipped with apparatus for the use of children, under the care of those who know how to assist and instruct the youngsters in their games. These are excellent for the health and development and even the morals of the little fellows, not to mention the beneficial influence they exert upon the dispositions of the mothers concerned.


Near the high school is the beautiful stadium where all sorts of athletic sports are promoted.

These are most excellent, so far as they go, but at present adequate provisions for the amusement and recreation of the older ones have not been made.

It would seem that the future of the parks as a means of “physical preparedness” would be the most important, for they present many possibilities along that line.

The time is coming when San Diego will develop into a congested, commercial city, with all the accompanying noise, confusion and smokestacks. A large majority of her population will be living in apartments and hotels with little opportunity to get out into the open. Then the parks, situated in the various parts of the city, will become the refuge and playground of thousands of fagged and toil-worn people, whose bodies will be rejuvenated by the fresh air and sunshine and the beauty of their surroundings. There they will spend their holidays with their children, when they may not have the energy or feel that they cannot spare the money to transport their families to the beaches or the back country. Those who are blessed — or otherwise — with an automobile or have a backyard and a little flower garden of their own may, perhaps, not fully appreciate what the parks mean to others less fortunate.


It is to be hoped that the park commission will keep intact the gardens and groves of the exposition, and as many buildings as possible. Why not convert one of them into a public gymnasium or another into a municipal dance hall, and then, even if the board is not able to contribute anything financially, they may at least give those who desire it, the privilege of establishing golf links, tennis courts, cricket, baseball and football fields at convenient points in the park, as playgrounds for the “grown ups.” At first glance these might not seem necessary in view of the beautiful stadium and public playgrounds already provided, but they are; for they would serve a different purpose entirely.

Equestrianism has always been regarded as one of the best forms of exercise for health and physical development, and I am looking forward to the time when our citizens and tourists will temporarily desert their automobiles for a morning horseback ride along the flower-bordered drives in the canyons of Balboa Park.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun.

Municipal music in park, is plea, by Miss Gertrude Gilbert

Municipal music is one of the latest phases in civic development in many cities of America, both east and west, and beneficial results are being demonstrated more and more each year. In fact, municipal music, in one form or another, has ceased to be an experiment, and has become an established fact in the most progressive communities in the country.

San Diego, with her wonderful out-of-doors organ, with her beautiful park, lying almost in the heart of the city, and with her equable climate, is peculiarly adapted to the carrying out of this idea, and the many free concerts given at the exposition during the last two years, have been the beginning of what may be developed into a wonderful open-air civic institution.

We hope that at the close of the post-exposition period, it will be possible, with the generous cooperation of the musicians and musical organizations of the city, to establish in our park a series of free concerts which shall be a credit to San Diego and an honor to our municipal life here.

Letters from artists of national reputation have assured me of their cooperation, and altogether the whole idea opens up great possibilities.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun.

San Diego Museum plan is outlined by director; to make exposition benefits lasting, by Edgar L. Hewett.

The Panama-California exposition, through its magnificent setting, architecture and permanent collections, was a distinct contribution to science and art in America. It gave the city of San Diego an enviable reputation throughout the nation as a place of beauty and culture, and educational and scientific advantages. No other exposition ever held has left so much of a lasting character to the city holding it. The museum of San Diego is its logical successor.

The museum was established for the purpose of cooperating with the city through its park commission and with correlated societies, in making the benefits of the exposition perpetual. The park, buildings, and scientific collections are the permanent possession of the people. By developing a great cultural and recreational center, the exposition is made a permanently productive investment. The museum is planned to meet the high standard of the exposition and the park, and to develop with the future growth of the city of San Diego. Nothing less would be acceptable to the people.


The board of directors of the 1915 exposition transferred to the San Diego Museum association, in trust for the people, the scientific collections that were acquired with the assistance of the Archaeological Institute of American, and the Smithsonian Institution. Of great initial value, they have now become priceless. Private collections made at great expense can, after serving the purpose of the owners, be kept intact forever and multiplied in value by depositing them in the public museum. Already recognized and valuable collections are coming to the museum as gifts and loans.


The park commission has granted quarters to the museum in the California Quadrangle, administration, Science of Man and Indian Arts buildings. This will provide space for collections, art galleries, offices, laboratories and studios for some years. The buildings that are not fireproof can be provided with concrete foundations, steel lining and metal conduits for light wires when funds are secured for the purpose.

With such improvement they will be safe and serviceable for many years.

The museum is not to be a mere depository for collections, but an active educational institution. Lecture courses, art exhibitions, concerts, pageants and moving pictures are new regular museum activities. The San Diego museum will maintain scientific laboratories in affiliation with national institutions. These laboratories will be of great service to the schools, courts and social agencies. By modern methods of circulating lectures, exhibitions, libraries, etc., the museum serves a clientele far beyond the limits of its own neighborhood. It may, in fact, become nationwide in its service. By so doing, it best serves the interests of its own locality.


The museum will be maintained by membership fees, endowments and admission fees charged non-members on certain days of the week. Corporate members pay an annual fee of $5 and have all the privileges of the museum, including voting. Life members pay $100 down and are free from all further dues. They have the privilege of corporate members. Patrons are those who contribute $1,000 or more to the invested funds of the museum. The board of directors intends that life membership fees and contributions of patrons (unless given for other specific purposes) shall not be expended, but shall be invested in interest-bearing securities for the perpetual support of the museum. For the work of the initial period it is asking for the support of not less than one thousand corporate members and for that purpose it will endeavor to secure 500 life members and 20 patrons.


The collections, galleries, lectures, exhibitions and other activities above enumerated are free at all times to members and patrons. The card of a member or patron will also secure access to laboratories and workrooms that are not open to the public. They are privileges in all social functions and private views; are entitled to vote at elections of officers and are qualified to hold office in the corporation. They will receive all published literature of the museum. They will form a roll of honor as founders and supporters of an institution which they, as citizens, establish and maintain for the education and pleasure of the community.

Every member of the board of directors is authorized to receive membership applications. Inquiries and correspondence with reference to the museum may be addressed to Dr. Edgar L. Hewett, secretary of the finance committee, Fine Arts building, exposition.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun.

Zoo in park will be one of biggest features; is to be located in Peppers, by J. C. Thompson, Surgeon, U.S. Navy.

Of the many problems associated with the closing of the exposition, that have confronted the board of park commissioners, one of the foremost has been that of the maintenance of the zoological garden.

In looking into the subject, the park board investigated the organization and management of the largest zoological parks, such as those in London, Berlin and Washington, and learned that the most desirable conditions were to be found in the New York zoological park.

The New York zoological part is the foremost institution of its kind in the world. Its success is in large measure due to the ideal relations that exist between the park commissioners and the New York zoological society. These relations, which are very simple and have in operation nearly a generation without a hitch, consist roughly of the following: The city of New York allots and loans a definite portion of one of its public parks to the New York Zoological Society, and each annual budget contains an appropriation for the upkeep of the buildings and grounds. The Zoological society in turn purchases and places on exhibit the specimens and, above all, employs a highly trained director, who has under him a corps of naturalists and helpers to care for the animals.

With the sole object of extending to the park commissioners every possible aid in their task of giving to San Diego a zoo which bids fair to be one of the best in America, there has just been formed the Zoological Society of San Diego.

The board of directors consists of the mayor of the city, the president of the board of park commissioners, Dr. Fred Baker and Mr. Frank Stevens, the two most distinguished naturalists in Southern California, and Doctors Harry and Paul Wegeforth, who are among the best known local hunters.

The society has only just come into existence, but already has over 100 members, and will probably have 500 within a few months.


The society will, in the beginning, purchase and place on exhibit representative series of San Diego county mammals, birds and reptiles. These will be housed in a type of cage which is entirely original and used here for the first time. The cages will be built of steel frames supporting a large meshed steel wire, which will be of an olive-green tint. The cages will not be placed in rows, but will be situated in the alcoves formed by the trees in the pepper grove.

This arrangement will give the San Diego zoological park an artistic setting that will be second to none in the world.

In connection with all the large zoos there are maintained children’s playgrounds, where the little ones can come to picnic and feed the remains of their lunches to the animals. This, Balboa Park will also have, for the oval in the Pepper grove, with its swings and tables, will remain absolutely undisturbed. The small animals will be scattered among the trees outside the oval and the larger animals will have quarters on the plateau to the south of the grove and near the elk paddock.

On one of the ledges leading down into the canyon to the west of the grove there is going to be built a reptile house. This exhibit, owing to the wonderfully favorable climate of the region and the proximity of Southern Mexico, which is very rich in reptile life, will prove to be of the highest interest.

The Zoological society is prepared to do much more for the community besides placing animals on exhibit. There will be a published series of guides and elementary text books bearing upon the local animals, their breeding habits and the game laws. There will be given a weekly series of conferences, usually Sunday morning, when some naturalist will guide impromptu groups of visitors around the gardens and spin yarns of the animals and their lives.

The emergency hospital at the exposition will be converted into the headquarters of the society. There will be a free reading room and a library devoted to works on zoology, voyages and explorations of famous naturalists, travels of noted hunters, and allied subjects such as the conservation of bird life and game preservation.


The society has already obtained a collection of books worth considerably over $2,000.

There will be a lecture hall with charts, blackboards and stereopticon in which will be given a course of free lectures. One set will be arranged for children and will be given in the daytime.

A fine zoological garden is one of the most distinctive marks of culture that a city has to offer visitors. We have a park of marvelous beauty and a climate that will allow animals from almost any part of the world to be kept in the open without artificial heat being necessary.

With the closing of the exposition a great many things of beauty will of necessity be removed, but their loss will in a measure be compensated for by a fine zoo.

Therefore, it is of the highest importance that this project of the park commissioners to give the city of San Diego a zoological garden should received the staunchest support from all who, in any way, have the interest of the community at heart.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun.

Tribute is paid city for energy, wonderful accomplishments lauded by director of museum, by Florence De Z. Morgan, Science of Man Museum.

In taking thought for the morrow of the exposition, the park board has been consciously and wisely cooperating with the Museum association and with the enthusiastic body of scientists, artists and educators who have for years cherished the hope that San Diego’s future is to be one with great things that are planning in both science and art. Scientists and artists, however, might dream long dreams and never realize them unless they found response in the heart and mind of the people at large. Surely, never were response more swift and whole-hearted and intelligent than that of the people of San Diego.

The desire that the beautiful exposition buildings might be preserved was widespread. Their wonderful fitness to their surroundings, their satisfying charm, their remarkable appearance of stability made this seem to inexpert critics quite within possibilities; but the park board has undoubtedly reached a wise, far-seeing decision. The buildings actually retained will be used at once and for years to preserve the collections already secured and housed there for the extension and display of these collections, so that they may become, under the museum’s direction, of the greatest educational value.

The San Diego Museum board has generously provided quarters for the Anthropological station, which is intended to be a research branch of the School of American Archaeology.

The preparatory years of the exposition, together with the two wonderful years of its duration, have established a truly wonderful cooperation between the people of San Diego, the Archaeological Institute of America, of which a branch exists in San Diego, and with the Smithsonian Institution, which is a possession of the whole people of the United States.

The thing that San Diego set out to do and has so bravely accomplished has touched the imagination of people from coast to coast. The writer has for years lived in the beautiful country south of sue, with its wonderful heritage from two building races, the Indian and the Spaniard peoples, who wrought their dreams into stone that makes the country today one of the fascinating lands of the world. A newspaper cut of the California building and the Cabrillo bridge brought her thousands of miles to the city by the sea that cared to gather together and rebuild, for its mind and heart, these lovely examples of the dreams of the older peoples.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun.

Balboa Park described as masterpiece in a perfect frame, by C. A. Fries.

If your imagination is capable of the feat, sweep all handiwork of man from San Diego bay and vicinity and gaze upon the scene as first witnessed by Cabrillo. The long stretch of land terminating in the Coronado islands, almost kissed by the bold headland of Point Loma, enfolds and protects the still waters within from the dashing billows outside — which seem to rear with fury against the unlooked-for obstacle which bars their onward rush. Look at the quiet, peaceful, low-lying hills and dales beyond, their lines tending upward and onward to the foothills farther back, to be finally framed by the broken skyline of the Coast range. The scene is one of virgin beauty, unsurpassed.

Gaze upon it again, as it stands today, aided by the intelligence of man’s loving hand. Then center your attention upon one certain feature of the landscape, a masterpiece among all these artistic human touches. Follow up these same undulating hills, not through sagebrush, as of yore, but by beautiful wide avenues bordered by groves of eucalyptus, pepper and other semi-tropical trees, by rarest flowers and shrubs — paint pots of brilliant color against softer hues of refreshing green.

Balboa park, the masterpiece, is the result of the forethought of the founders of San Diego, who, in their clear vision of the future, saw its possibilities, appreciated the coming necessity for it as a breathing space for the thousands who were to follow. Theirs was surely an intuitive sense for the beautiful. Our gratitude and pride are well founded. Theirs was the initiative. We, their children, have been loyal to their trust in carrying out to the fullest ability the development of the gift they bequeathed to use in its virgin state.


Our park is doubly wonderful. It offers us not only the joy of its own artistic surroundings when we visit it, but it affords use from its many viewpoints panoramas enchanting beyond compare. As we pause upon one of these crests and gaze back toward the setting sun, the strong and beautiful lines forming bay and harbor and the ocean beyond, the color, the life, the work of nature, and the development of man seem to mingle into one harmonious whole. Landward a mass of foliage in the distance marks another spot where weary mothers and happy children have, consciously or unconsciously, given thanks for a refreshing recreation ground, a soothing bit of nature. In the middle distance looms out the low, cold gray stone buildings of the high school, surmounting a slope of beautifully spreading lawns. Nearby, the stadium, clinging to the hillsides and a part of them, marks another spot where recreation is king.

Golden Hill Park forms another portion of that middle distance, another retreat from the strife of life. The children who romp in it are ample testimony of its value.


Silhouetted against the evening sky, rich masses of blue gum foliage reflect and absorb on their silken bark the rays of the sun as it goes down. What inspiration of natural laws of harmony wafted to use from faraway Australian shores the seed of those stately monarchs, so strong in their rugged beauty, so harmonious with the prevailing gray sage, green under foot.

To the north we gaze and our eyes linger upon the pinnacles and towers which mark the exposition, pointing inspiringly toward the darkening heavens. From the organ pavilion we catch the strain of a beautiful melody. Lights begin to twinkle, then, finally a blaze of light reflects in the evening mist. As we depart down the hill, we wonder why we should have been selected to be so blessed in our ideal surroundings and in the possession of citizens who had the forethought and courage, and finally the artistic ability, to so intelligently take advantage of them.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun.

Park system well handled during period of the exposition; those who had part.

During the construction of the exposition, and for the first 20 months of the two exposition years, the park department was controlled by the board of park commissioners, consisting of John Forward, Jr., president; Carl I. Ferris, and Charles T. Chandler, and for the last portion of this period by George W. Marston, president; Thomas O’Hallaran and Arthur Cosgrove. John G. Morley has been park superintendent, and Jerome B. Pendleton, executive secretary of the board.

During construction of the exposition, a total bond fund of $1,850,000 was expended for park improvement, consisting mainly of constructing permanent buildings and grounds for the exposition. also the magnificent stadium and general improvement of Balboa Park.

Most of this fund was expended under the supervision of the board first named above; the construction inside the exposition grounds being by the exposition management with the exception of the Fine Arts building, which was built by contract under the management of the board, as was the stadium, which was constructed under the personal supervision of Carl I. Ferris, to whom is due much of the credit for the success of this superb feature.

During 1910 and 1911, the first two years of preparation for the exposition, Olmstead [sic] Bros., eminent landscape architects of Boston, with the assistance of several expert park gardeners who came here with them, established the nursery.


The continuation of flowering plants, which has made our exposition such a fairy flowerland, was supplied from this nursery. It has become one of the most attractive park features, as well as being an economical source of supplies for park planting, which was the chief reason for its installation. Plants, trees and flowers are here propagated, under the care of expert gardeners employed by the park department.


These capable architects also planted the northern and eastern boundaries of Balboa Park. Their success has attracted widespread praise from San Diegans and visitors to San Diego.


As director of works for the exposition, Mr. Allen deserves special mention in a park edition, because of the general landscape and gardening work which he carried out in the exposition grounds, after they were established in the center of the park. Over 600 aces are within the boundaries of the exposition fence, and the skill and executive ability displayed by Mr. Allen in the parking of this big area are displayed today.

(Note: this article appears to have been abruptly cut off due to an error in spacing.)

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun.

State’s history gallery is plan, by Mrs. Margaret Allen

The buildings of the Plaza de Panama were set aside during the exposition for educational purposes, and here were installed exhibits of great educational value. A room in the basement of the Fine Arts building was assigned to the Pioneer Society, for an exhibit illustrative of the early history of Southern California, especially that of San Diego county. At the suggestion of the commissioners of the California building, the members of this organization undertook the task of arranging the material already in its possession and of collecting all available records and historical matter suitable to exposition purposes.

A small but very valuable library of rare books on the early history of the state is in the possession of this society. Recently several contributions have been made, and it is hoped that when the entire collection is removed to more attractive and commodious headquarters this will become one of the most important features of the gallery of California history. It has been the aim of the Pioneer Society to lay the foundations for an historical library for the students of history in this county, which shall, in a small way, fill the place that the state historical collections occupy in other sections of the country, and at the same time given to historical writers an opportunity to study “sources” on the very spot where the events and movements they are recording took place.

San Diego is so rich in historical associations, and its history has been so unique in many ways that this aim does not seem visionary. The Gallery of California History, then, is to become what the name implies — a place where one may learn something of the life and attributes of a people who for 150 years have made no small part of the history of the Pacific coast.

The work of this important organization, it is hoped, will include, in some way not yet decided upon, the supervision of the present zoological department of the park. Our zoo is one of the most attractive features, to residents and guests of San Diego alike. Its preservation and increase are earnestly desired by this community.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun. Scenic drive to connect all city parks, urged by park head, by John G. Morley, Park Superintendent.

The park system of the city of San Diego comprises 12 parks, located in various portions of the city, and contains a total of 1972 acres.

The developed portion of the system includes two small squares in the business district of the city, La Jolla and Balboa park, which includes the exposition grounds, and Golden Hill park.

Balboa park has an area of 1400 acres, is located in the center of the city, and the largest park so situated in the country, with the single exception of Fairmount park, Philadelphia. San Diego is indeed to be congratulated for having so large an area easy of access both from the business and residential districts for the enjoyment of citizens.

The topography is such that it lends itself readily to landscape development, the canyons hills and mesas, and the beautiful views obtained of the mountains, bay and ocean are unsurpassed and are the admiration of all citizens.


The climatic conditions are such that a greater variety of trees, shrubs and plants may be grown than in any other portion of the country, which gives us an opportunity to utilize all the best varieties for planting from the temperate and semi-tropical zones, thereby adding greatly to horticultural and landscape possibilities. The soil conditions, however, in a large area of the park are very poor. The soil is very shallow and underlaid with hardpan, and, unless broken up with powder, the trees and plants would have very little room for root action. During the past five years we have used tons of dynamite for blasting, and, I believe, the results attained are proved by the luxuriant growth of the trees, shrubs and plants.

The landscape treatment of the park has been and should be carried on in large groupings of trees and shrubs, with wide open vistas for lawns, and the whole planting scheme so arranged that all the beautiful views are kept open for the enjoyment of the people.

The natural beauty of the park should be taken into consideration in the scope of all development. The native vegetation must be protected in large areas and added to by the planting of native shrubs and trees, wild flowers, bulbs, etc., indigenous to Southern California. There are many picturesque small canyons, hillsides and large portions of mesas, covered with native vegetation, making them more beautiful than any artificial landscape that can be developed. The only improvement I could suggest would be the making of paths or trails whereby these sections would be easy of access.

There is plenty of room for a well laid out botanical garden, with the wide area from which we could procures plants for this climate. The possibilities are such that San Diego would be famed far and wide.

We should provide space for the enjoyment of both young and old, for games, baseball, tennis, cricket, football, bowling greens, etc.; picnic grounds should be laid out and planted and trees provided and placed beneath the trees so the people can come and enjoy themselves in the open air.


A fine zoological garden, well planned in regard to the buildings and grounds, will be an instructive and interesting feature to add in some portion of the park.

The stadium in Balboa park is a feature that has no equal in any other park system in the country, and has a seating capacity of 28,000.

The landscape development of Balboa park has nearly all been accomplished during the past five years, the incentive being the holding of the Panama-California exposition to commemorate the opening of the Panama canal. The expression is unanimous that it has been the most beautiful exposition in regard to landscape and horticultural features of all previous expositions. When we realize the conditions that had to be overcome, and the thousands upon thousands of trees, shrubs and plants that were utilized, the wide expanse of lawns, the floriculture, etc., that had to be provided for on the barren hills and in the canyons, and see the results that have been attained in so short a space of time, we, as citizens of San Diego, can well feel proud.

In the further development and extension of the park system attention should be given to neighborhood parks, especially in the more congested sections of the city. There should also be taken under consideration a boulevard plan in connection with the park system, connecting various parks and providing a scenic drive to be enjoyed by the citizens and visitors.

At the close of the exposition the rearrangement of the grounds of the exposition will be quite extensive owing to the removal of buildings. However, when completed, the planting will be so arranged as to blend with the beauty and charms of the present surroundings.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun. One joyous feature of our parks.


In some city parks, but not here. Our park grass is year ‘round grass — a big lawn for you and the rest of the children — from one month to 100 years of age — to romp on. It has WELCOME written upon it; welcome to San Diegans and San Diego visitors. Our park sign reads:


December 30, 1916, San Diego Sun.

Park Board chairman has praise for the Sun’s edition, by George W. Marston.

It is now 14 years since the great task of improving Balboa park was begun. From 1902 to 1905 the work was carried on in a pioneering way under the auspices of the chamber of commerce; from 1905 to 1910, under a park commission, with moderate tax support; and for the past six years under both commission and exposition directors, with greatly increased revenue from bonds and annual tax levies. Such a rapid, comprehensive and satisfactory park development has probably never taken place in any other city of this country. To those who recall the physical aspects of the parklands a few years ago it seems almost a miracle.

The Sun is doing a valuable service in presenting to its readers a history of the parks and a forecast of their future. Another critical time has come, with problems as difficult and important as those that have been mastered in the past. Shall the great accomplishments of the past 14 years — and especially the extraordinary construction of the last six years — be considered as a foundation for even finer civic values in the future? Shall Balboa park become, not only a park of natural scenery, but a meeting place for many parts of community life? Shall the exposition site and its rare buildings be the perpetual home of science and art, of the drama and music, of children’s festivals, stately ceremonials, and a widening range of social activities? These are questions of such deep significance to the people of San Diego that public discussion and treatment in the press are very necessary. Therefore, I earnestly commend The Sun’s admirable purpose to place before its readers the fullest information on the subject.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:3, 6:4. D. C. Collier showed with congratulations at Exposition; presented with watch.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Union, 3:4-5. Expect record crowd at Exposition’s end; closing ceremonies, starting at 10 a.m. Monday.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:1. Exposition band given Gulfport Fair contract.

December 30, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:2-3. Club women object to death of Exposition.

December 31, 1916, Los Angeles Times, V, 8:7. Exposition ends; new work in sight; President Davidson guiding spirit in big venture; now that the work of the Fair is over, civic activity will be devoted to securing new factories for harbor; Davidson’s accomplishments highly praised by all.

December 31, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:4, 3:2-3. Elves, flowers butterflies revel in Children’s fairyland pageant at Exposition.

December 31, 1916, San Diego Union, 1:8, 3:1-2. Throng to see Exposition’s end.

December 31, 1916, San Diego Union, 6:4. Alaska Day was celebrated at the Exposition last night by a dinner at the Cristobal Café.

December 31, 1916, San Diego Union, 9:3. Escondido Chamber of Commerce pays Collier tribute for help in securing the flight of two airplanes from North Island to Escondido for Grape Day festival.

December 31,1916, San Diego Union, 13:3. Exposition to honor its president with program.

December 31, 1916, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:6.

Building activity in 1917 indicated; permits for year just closed amounted to $1,870,000, an increase of $592,840 over last year.


To the Honorable Board of Park Commissioners of the City of San Diego, California


San Diego has again demonstrated that it is able to successfully hold an Exposition and show to the world not only the exhibits within the buildings provided for the same, but also the beauty of the floral and horticultural development of its Park system in conjunction with the Exposition.

I believe the Park Department can feel proud of the part it has had in such success, and the commendations almost unanimously expressed by the delighted visitors is ample reward for the part his department has contributed towards the building of an Exposition successfully for two years — a feature that has never been attempted by any other city.

Owing to the continuance of the Exposition, strenuous efforts were made to have the maintenance of the Department in as perfect condition as possible. The renovation of the planting in the Exposition grounds during the pre-Exposition period was hampered by the very heavy rains of January and February, yet at the opening on March 18th, everything was in perfect condition and the beauty of the floral and horticultural display contributed largely to the success of the day. Many thousand of plants and shrubs, large quantities of soil and fertilizers were utilized in the renovation of the grounds and the same degree of efficiency was carried out during the year.

Mr. E. D. Sturtevant of Hollywood contributed to the success of our floral display by donating a large quantity of water lilies for the aquatic display, as also did Howard & Smith of Lose Angeles with their exhibits of dahlias, chrysanthemums, and the new Los Angeles rose. The area south and adjacent to the Music Pavilion and east of the Alameda and Utah buildings was laid out for a temporary flower garden and planted to dahlias, cannas, roses, chrysanthemums, cosmos, asters, zinnias, etc. The Botanical Building and Conservatory were provided with a gorgeous display of bloom — azaleas, begonias, cinerarias, cyclamens, gloxinias, rhododendrons, lilies, chrysanthemums, spireas, and foliage plants, grown in the nursery department, and, when in bloom, sent over to furnish a continual display throughout the year.

Balboa Park, outside the Exposition grounds, was maintained in a high state of efficiency, a limited area was added to the improved section; large quantities of bedding plants and summer flowering bulbs and tubers provided for a continual succession of blooms during the year. There were also planted several thousand trees and shrubs in various portions of the park. We also donated to the school department 693 trees and 448 shrubs, the Marine and Twenty-first Infantry camps were donated 6,112 flowering and bedding plants to beautify the camps in the Exposition grounds, and the U.S. Government was furnished 2,400 plants, shrubs and trees for Fort Rosecrans to add to the landscape development of the grounds at the Fort.

The park roads have been kept in as good a condition as possible. The heavy rains in the early part of the year caused considerable damage on some of the canyon roads, especially Cabrillo Canyon, north of the Laurel Street bridge. Twelve hundred lineal feet of roadway was destroyed and three small wooden bridges washed out. New bridges have been built in their place, one rustic wooden bridge and two of concrete. Sixteen hundred and eighty lineal feet of road, twenty-five feet wide was rebuilt, seven hundred and thirty years of hardpan gravel used for surfacing, new drains and catch basins put in at frequent intervals, and the channel of the waterway relocated and widened to take care of the storm water. I desire to call your attention to the condition of the water courses in the three main canyons of Balboa Park; owing to the grading and paving of adjacent streets we are going to have to take care of storm water from a continually increasing area, as the majority of streets are graded with the drainage towards the canyons leading into the park. This, or course, is the natural course of the water in most instances, but other streets have been graded to discharge storm water in adjacent canyons, so that eventually we will receive all the water from the various streets.

I believe it will be necessary in the near future to provide well built, permanent channels to control the water, as under present conditions a large amount of damage is done by the water cutting new channels and washing away large areas of land, as well as causing damage to the roads, and also to build a concrete ditch on the west side of the lake under the Laurel Street bridge, to prevent the gradual filling of the lake with gravel and debris deposited there by the storm waters in Cabrillo Canyon the removal of which is very expensive.

The Cabrillo Canyon road, from the Eleventh Street entrance to the foot of the Quince Street hill grade, should be realigned, widened to 25 feet of roadway, and regraded and surfaced, also a planting border on the west side of the road, not only for the landscape effect, but for protection to traffic, as, under present conditions, there are some dangerous curves, and also the possibility of frequent accidents by autos going over the embankment. There would be no excuse for this if a heavy border planting was made on the west side of the road. The same line of improvement should also be done on what is called the Club-house grade, from Cabrillo Canyon to Upas and Vermont Streets.

A large amount of surfacing has been done — 4,550 yards of material were used, new cobblestone gutters have been put in, as well as several large drains for proper control of the water. The roadways in Mission Hills Park have been realigned and graded, drains and catch basins put in to care for the storm water. This was a much-needed improvement and very much appreciated by the residents of the vicinity.

The additions to the water system have been limited this year, 4,177 feet of pipe of various sizes, with the necessary fittings, have been laid. The repairs, however, have increased and will continue to do so in the older portions of the system from year to year.

All the buildings have been kept in good condition and repairs made where necessary. I would advise that the comfort station adjacent to the Pine Hill Road be either rebuilt at its present location or moved to a more convenient place, as, at present, it is not easy of access, and is not up to the requirements of the Health Department.

As we are to wreck or dispose of a number of buildings of the Exposition owned by the Park Department, I would advise that new stables be built from such of the material as is found available. The present stables are inadequate for the proper care of the teams — are just common sheds added to from time to time as more horses were acquired. They are unsightly and inconvenient. We have only an open shed for storage of hay, with great danger of fire, and should, by all means, have plans made for stables, hay barn, implement and wagon shed, blacksmith and machine shop, located at the most central and convenient place for the efficient carrying on of the work.

The Nursery Department has been consolidated into one. Formerly we had the Park and Exposition nurseries separate. All of the plants and lath houses have been moved to the Exposition nursery, thousands of plants, trees and shrubs have been grown, and large quantities of flowering plants transferred to the Conservatory and Botanical Building when in bloom. Our greenhouse equipment is very limited, and we have to use every resources to be able to grow on a continual display for transfer to the parks, Botanical and Conservatory buildings. I would especially advise that a new greenhouse, 18 feet by 100, be erected for better efficiency.

The Zoo and Aviary in the park have been well maintained. Early in the year plans were made for a new monkey house, bear dens and duck house and ponds for the ducks etc. Owing to the proposed purchase of the animals and birds in the Exposition Zoo these plans were not carried out, as it was proposed to change the location of same, except the ponds, etc. for the ducks. I believe it would be advisable to have all the water fowl provided for in the new location for the zoo, and not do anything towards maintaining them in the present section of the park when the plans and specifications of the zoo have been adopted. Two deer and one buffalo have been added to the zoo. I am sorry to report, however, that the two large elk on the west side died during the year.

The Rose Garden, as usual, has been one of the main attractions of the park, the gorgeous display of roses has been enjoyed by thousands of visitors. The garden is not yet finished as planned; the pergola at the south end of the garden should be built, with plenty of seating for the people. The walks have all been curbed, regraded and surfaced with a mixture of two-thirds screened cinders and one-third gravel, and give the garden a much improved appearance. Along the borders of the walks nearly 4,000 dwarf roses have been planted for edging, and, when in bloom the coming season, will add very materially to its attractiveness.

The smaller improved parks have been well kept, notably the Plaza, New Town and La Jolla. La Jolla Park has been improved on the southeast side, the street graded and grass seeded to the property line of the park. There still remain the curbing of the street and the improvement of the parking space.

The Old Town Plaza, located adjacent to Ramona’s marriage place, is visited by nearly all visitors to the city on account of the historic interest of that portion of the city. Plans should be made and the park improved. It is not very large, and would not cost a great deal of money for its maintenance and would be an added attraction for the visitors to the original part of the city.

Torrey Park is continually proving a favorite place for visitors who admire not only the pine trees and rugged cliffs, but the marine view as well. It is a favorite place for picnic parties and a stopping place for tourists to and from San Diego. At present there is no protection to the few remaining pines. I believe it would be of great benefit, not only to the city, but also to visitors, if water pipes were laid to furnish water to the people and also for pine trees that should be planted to add to the fast disappearing trees. A nice house, conforming to the landscape, could be built, refreshments served at a moderate price, and, I believe, the income would soon be large enough to care for the park in its present state and for as many trees as might be planted from year to year, with trails made to the different points of interest for the enjoyment of visitors, with picnic grounds and comfort stations in several sections of the park


The Stadium has proved to be a very popular addition to the park attractions. It has been in almost constant use during the entire year.

The field has been regraded and the drainage is almost perfect, as the field is in good shape for games, after the rains are over. Many fine athletic programs have been given by the city schools, Playground Department, and several prominent organizations, the most important of which was the Far Western A. A. U. meet, which was the greatest success of any athletic meet ever held west of the Rocky mountains.

Prior to the meet the running track was rebuilt, and was pronounced by the athletes taking part, one of the best in the entire country. Worlds records were broken not alone on the track, but also in other events on the field. Jumping pits were put in and provision made for all kinds of athletic events in the future.

Football and baseball proved very successful in the stadium during the year, and should be increasingly so during 1917.

The continuation of the landscape improvements of the stadium and vicinity were materially extended during the year, the slopes on the south, east and west placed on proper grade and planted to mesembryanthemum, a total of 41,250 square feet; Acacia melanoxlon trees planted at the foot of the slopes on the east and west; groups of trees planted adjacent to the east and west entrances on the south side, and a Pittosporum Undulatum hedge at the top of the slopes.

Curbs and gutters put in from the east and west entrance to the south entrance, a total of 1,662 lineal feet of cement curb, 8 inch by 12 inch, and 6,060 square feet of cement and cobblestone gutter. These improvements now take care of all the storm water on the drives and slopes, preventing any more damage form heavy rains.

The landscape improvements of the north and south portion of the Stadium grounds are well underway and I hope to have them completed during 1917. The road between the High school and Electric R. R. has been graded and surfaced, with a planting border between, which will be completed during the next few weeks.

There has been planted in the park system, including the Exposition grounds, 2,597 trees, 12,152 shrubs, and 235,253 bedding and flower plants and bulbs; and 22,625 flowering decorative plants and bulbs furnished to the Conservatory and Botanical Buildings during the year.

Appended is a list of varieties and the amounts of each, also the Secretary’s report of the financial expenditures for the year 1196.

(Not included.)

In closing I desire to thank the Board for their hearty cooperation in the work and also the employees for the faithful performance of their duties.

Respectfully submitted,

(Signed) John Morley, Superintendent of Parks.




April 22 Special events – Damrosch Orchestra

May 17 Photo Players Day

May 20 Carnival on Isthmus

May 27 Pied Piper Day

June 3 Children’s Musical Day

June 10 Ad Club, Imperial Valley and Alameda County Day

June 14 Flag Day

June 16 Admetus

June 17 Bunker Hill Day

June 19 Wrestling Matches

June 24 Swedish Day, Knights Templar Day

June 25 German Day

June 29 Pan-Hellenic Dinner

July 3 Jack Little, Leaping the Gap

July 4 Fourth of July Celebration; Rural Letters Convention

July 15-18 Ohio Week

July 22 Noise Carnival

July 23 Madame Pasquali Concert

July 24 Union Colored Picnic

July 28 Los Angeles Elks Excursion

July 29 Spanish Carnival

August 2 Kite Day

August 3 “Thank You Special” Dinner

August 5 Ruth St. Denis

August 9-12 Pacific Division American Association Advertising Science Convention

August 13 Y. M. I. Day

August 18-19 Far Western Champion Boxing Track Meet

August 19 Fraternal Brotherhood Day

August 20 Irish Day — Ancient Order Hibernians

August 21 Charles Evens Hughes Day

August 24 Ellen Beach Yaw Day

August 25 Fire Chiefs Day

August 26 Isthmus Day; Mrs. Josiah H. Evans Cowles Day

August 27 Newsboys Day

September 4 Labor Day

September 9 Admission Day; Elks’ Excursion from Santa Barbara

September 16 Mexican Day

September 23 Isthmus Day

September 24 Father Serra Day

September 25 Balboa Day

September 25-30 Federation Week

September 26 Cabrillo Day

October 14 Los Angeles County and Hollywood Day

October 15 Mr. and Mrs. Frank Reyer at Organ

October 19 Allan H. Benson at Organ

October 20 Bret Harte Day

October 25 Housewives Day

October 26 Edwin Markham

October 28-31 Joe Boquel

October 29 Mabel Normand Peace Day

October 31 Halloween Carnival

November 4 Joe Boquel’s Last Flight

November 16 Hawaiian Day

December 9 Sham Battle

December 10 Douglas Fairbanks Day

December 16 Bird House Day

December 25 Christmas


1915: 2,050,030

1916: 1,697,886

Total: 3,747,916

1915: Six state buildings; no foreign nations

1916: foreign exhibitors: Canada, Hawaii, Alaska, Philippines, France, Holland Germany, Austria, Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Japan, Turkey, Russia.


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