Balboa Park History 1917

January, 1917, Auditor’s Gate Report, Box 1, San Diego Public Library.

Paid admissions 13,352

Passes 16,210

Total admissions 29,562

Automobiles 1,714

Cash $2,415.85

January, 1917, California Garden. The Real Exposition Still Lives.

We have been upon a short visit to a city north of here a mile or so and found it almost in tears over the passing of our beautiful Exposition, the prevailing remark being, “Isn’t it too bad your exposition is done away with?” Investigation showed that the Exposition in the minds of these people was not the exhibits, nor the Isthmus nor the special events; not even the silk hats in which some of the officials bravely martyred themselves, but the lovely grounds and gardens, so to these it was said, “The gardens with the buildings that count in the picture are to remain and where inharmonious or useless structures are removed, additional landscape features will be installed so that, far from passing, the real exposition will be growing ever more beautiful. That which differentiated San Diego from every other exposition is a living thing, a heritage for the children of today, and not a passing show. Possibly if might be worth the while of those who send abroad the message of the city to emphasize THE LIVING, not the passing of our Exposition.

This brings to the top our extreme sympathy with the present park board, struggling with the applications of numberless bodies, thinking their title good to some of the exposition buildings, while this momentous problem of the maintenance of the exposition picture is so insistent. Gradually those features maintained for straight exposition purposes must merge into park items absolutely harmonious with the general scheme. To instance any of these now would be only to give a handle to protesters to protest and would serve no useful purpose, but that there are such must be known to all who know the grounds and have thought of their disposition. We also recognize the folly of even referring to this matter while it is in ferment, so to speak, but were we a Park Commissioner, which the good sense of the mayors and our good luck has prevented, we would deem it a prime necessity in parceling out the loaves and fishes from the exposition basket that everyone fell to a legitimate parking use. Mere merit would legitimatize such a long list of applicants, and might restore the Isthmus.

January, 1917, California Garden. Monthly Excursion, by G. R. Gorton.

We are loath to give up our exposition, even after two years of it, so we are to have three months of post nuptials. Nevertheless, this month marks the beginning of many months of metamorphosis — if the alliteration may be pardoned — and from now on there will be decided changes in the aspect of things: buildings will be razed, and necessary adjustments of the landscaping made, but in the opinion of a great many of the visitors to the exposition, so vital a part of it is the landscaping that if all the buildings were removed, which they will not be, the real exposition would still remain. Many of our guests during the past two years have been from among those who have “seen them all,” and reached a point where they don’t care very much about the exhibits housed in the buildings, or the attractions noised about on the Isthmus, but are absolutely smitten with exterior aspect of the “Garden Fair,” as Mr. Neuhaus rather punnily calls its. Fortunately, the principal and best buildings will, as we know, be spared the ravages of the wrecker, so the spell will not be broken.

As to what important landscaping changes will be made, it is probably a bit early to ascertain, but certain needed alterations will be made at once. The cannas, north of the California Building, will give place to Stocks in four varieties; the Montezuma Gardens will undergo a complete transformation, and son on. In the Botanical Building, necessary arrangements are now being made, which consist principally in the removal of such plants as have outgrown their environment, and substituting those of a more suitable size, and in the repotting of these which have merely outgrown their containers. The building is especially attractive just now by reason of a very creditable display of seasonable flowering plants. The Cinerarias have made a good strong start in flowering, while the Poinsettias look very well. There are some exceptionally fine specimens of potted Schizanthus, in mixed varieties, especially among those grouped near the pool in the conservatory. Cyclamen, Azaleas, Freesias, Primulas in abundance — obconica, chinensis and melacoides all being well represented.

In the immediate vicinity of the Botanical Building, there are several high spots of interest, e. g., a gorgeous Cotoneaster argustifolia, which is worthy of anyone’s time and attention, as these shrubs and their kindred generally are. This particular specimen is near the west entrance of the Foreign and Domestic Arts Building. Then there are the Nandinas, northeast of the Botanical Building. These are always there, but it is well from time to time to call attention to the fact, as they are so very worthwhile. Just now they are displaying their very typical autumnal tints, which constitute their principal charm. Along the same walk, and further toward the west, Pittosporum rhombifolium has come up to the scratch with its annual crop of golden berries, which are always pleasing. Still continuing along the same walk, this time to the south, a group of Hardenbergia monophylla alba brightens up the landscape with its very attractive masses of pea-shaped flowers. East of the Botanical Building is a planting of Candytuft — Machet by name — which is there to please those who delight in fragrances, and particularly the fragrance of those flowers which have always been our friends, and those of our parents before us.

To return for a moment to the subject of the colorings which we are apt to associate with the fall of the year, the Cryptomeria japonica, which ornament a corner of the walk north of the California Building, are blushed with a smoky tinting which needs someone more proficient in the subtle art of color determination than the perpetrator of these notes. Suffice it to say that the colorings are good, and compensate to a large measure for certain difficulties attendant upon the growing of these trees in Balboa Park. Bordering the same walk the Viburnum tinus are enjoying on of their many seasons of prosperity, and are celebrating with a new crop of bloom.

North of the U. S. Government Building, forming an edging for the walk for a few feet, Stevia serrata fills the air of the immediate vicinity with the delicate perfume of its equally delicate white flowers. It is passing strange that this excellent plant does not occupy a larger place in our gardens, decoratively used as it is in so many ways. Not far away is a hillside of Cassia tomentosa, a sort of stable article in shrubbery plantings, and properly so. It has no bad habits, and can quality to enter the society of the most exquisite exotics. Also on the hillside, and somewhat to the west, there is an example of what Solanum Warcezwicii (this is a bona fide name, the printer did not insert it to fill up space) can do with half a chance. The specimen referred to is really two grown close together, but appears as one, and is an enormous thing. Also, it is very decorative. Probably the exposition landscapers may claim credit for the introduction of this very ornamental species to Southern California, as while it is somewhat grown in the East, it had not been planted hereabouts until the advent of the exposition.

January 1, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:3-5, 2:3. GOODBYE!

Marking an epoch in the history of San Diego, the exposition, after two years and one day of success that has surpassed even the fondest dreams of its builders, ends tonight at 12.

Visiting thousands who are here today to behold the closing ceremonies and are joining in the joy and hilarity of the season, see a note of sadness in the passing into history of the most beautiful of fairs. For loyal San Diegans, who for two years have watched with pride the progress of the great undertaking, and the praise and fame it has brought the Harbor of the Sun will miss it.

But the marvelous dream city, with its acres of luxuriant foliage, and gleaming towers and beautiful buildings, will not go. It will remain forever the nucleus of Balboa park, and will be one of the famous beauty spots of California, and even though its period of actual operation will have passed, its gates will remain open to visitors from all over the world, an inspiration to San Diego and a monument to its creators — a wonderland of America.

A sham battle, an army and navy parade, day and night fireworks, an open-air concert surpassing many shown in the best theaters of the country, and other special features will make today’s program one of the greatest days in the two years of existence. The celebration will end at midnight in a blaze of glory when bombs, high in the sky above the gleaming courtyards, will release the flags of all nations. As they waver in the sky, the band in the plaza will render “The Star Spangled Banner.” Then the visiting thousands below will join in mighty chorus in singing “Auld Lang Syne,” led by Madame Schumann-Heink. And the San Diego exposition, as an exposition, will then become history.

The great sham battle, in which battalions from the vessels in the harbor, carrying heavy field pieces, will bombard the entrenched 21st Infantry, will provide one of the most spectacular numbers of the day’s program. It was to begin at 2 p.m.

President G. A. Davidson of the exposition will be the honored guest of the great dream city today, in recognition of his invaluable efforts in conducting the famous fair t such a successful conclusion. At 8 p.m. directors of the exposition will assemble at the Cristobal at a dinner in his honor.

A resolution of thanks, signed by representative members of the principal commercial and civic organizations of the city, today was presented the citizens of San Diego and all California.

“We feel it our duty and consider it a privilege and pleasure to give this public expression to our appreciation of the largest and noblest service contributed by all of California in bringing the Panama-California International Exposition to such a happy culmination, and of the wholesome and generous support, assistance and cooperation of the people, cities and counties of California,” is the recognition of the broad-minded endeavors of the people who are entitled to a liberal portion of the credit warranted by the gratifying outcome of the great undertaking.

The resolution is singed by President G. A. Davidson; Mayor E. M. Capps, in behalf of San Diego; W. S. Dorland, president of the chamber of commerce; A. D. LaMotte, head of the Merchants’ Association; O. E. Darnall, president of the Cabrillo club; F. M. White, representing the Manufacturers’ Association, J. C. Thompson, head of the Ad Club; and John A. Gillons, president of the Rotary club.

The gates of the exposition will remain open for three months at 25 cents admission, during the “clean-up” period. After that, at 10-cent gate will probably be established for the purpose of maintaining the great wonder city as a playgrounds for visitors from all over the world. All the principal buildings will remain intact, so the beauty and harmonious grouping of the idyllic structures will remain as one of the greatest outdoor attractions of the country.

President Woodrow Wilson, in a telegram of congratulations today, applauded the efforts of San Diego in bringing to a successful closes the great fair.

January 1, 1917, San Diego Union, Special Section, 1:1-2, 8:5. Local park system: expanse of lawn, shrubs, flowers delights visitors; 1,867 acres of parks: Torrey Pines 369; Collier 65; La Jolla 5; Mission Hills 5; city does not intend to improve all of Balboa Park — large areas will remain in natural state; genuine zoo built up containing buffalo, deer, elk, birds, lions, leopards, bears, monkeys and alligators; Balboa Park valued at $4,735,000.

No city in the world, regardless of size, offers to its people a more superb system of municipal parks than San Diego. The story of the San Diego parks reads like the traditional fairy tale. It is little less wonderful than the story of the city itself. And both are as beautiful as they are true.

Scores of attractions demand the attention of the visitor, but he carried with him at his visit’s end no sweeter memory than all that the parks have offered, with their delightful contours, splendid foliage, exquisite roads and by-paths and their everlasting gardens of rare and fragrant flowers. The great Balboa park, covering an area of 1400 acres, has been referred to by tourists, because of its bewitching advantages, as a veritable Paradise on Earth. San Diegans, proud of their parks and mostly daily visitors to them, share the opinion. Each of the various parks is a genuine playground. In the very heart of the city, a few moments’ walk from the busy corners, one may find the rest and quiet and all the beauty seldom available except on the outskirts of the ordinary “park proud” town.

Summed up, the park system of San Diego has an area of 1867 acres. Think of it! Room for a city in itself. In addition to the great Balboa, or city park, there is found the Torrey Pines of 369 acres; Collier park, sixty-five acres; Mountain View park, fifteen acres; La Jolla park, five acres; Mission Hills park, five acres; New Town park, three acres; Plaza park, one acres; and Old Town park, two acres. The park system has a valuation of $8,492,700 for the land and $2,137,000 for improvements.

San Diego’s remarkable park system is due to wonderful foresight on the part of the city’s pioneers; to enterprise in the years that came after; to climatic conditions; to love of home; and to the broad, free spirit of the people who made its development not only a pleasure but a duty and a joy forever. The average San Diegan thinks as much of every park acre as he does of his own little flower garden or well-kept lawn. He counts them as one. Civic beauty is the slogan throughout. The park’s are the people’s playground — not a “keep off the grass” sign in sight. San Diego was built in a region offering tremendous opportunities for such work. To the San Diegan, a tree is an adorable thing, a plant of similar worth, a flower a boon to all mankind. In such he has reveled. And out of his enthusiasm, his love for the beautiful things of nature, have come the gardens that have caused the world to marvel. Few people ever get acquainted with the San Diego parks without some kind of reverence to the Lost Gardens of Eden.

Probably no great park in the world is located so near the center of things — so near to the people — as Balboa park, home of the great Exposition just closed. A veritable bower of beauty, the home of birds and bees and rainbow-tinted butterflies. It commands a view of the mountains, the bay and the ocean, with rugged canyons, some improved, cutting through the landscape in superb contract to the flower-strewn fields and rose gardens and jungles of spreading, blooming tropical trees and falling vines.

All of the great Balboa park has not been improved. It will never be. The policy of the past and future is to be the same. Several large areas have remained — will remain — in their natural state. Here will be preserved all the native shrubs and wild flowers. And there are those who turn to these natural plots first of all — turn to them with the adoration that comes with the love of first things, the love of the soil as it was before man came. For every inch of the undeveloped land is in the primitive state — not even a stone overturned, not even a bridle path between the sagebrush and the greasewood.

In the main sections, however, wonders have been brought to pass. In districts once semi-arid and green alone in the rainy season, the development has been such as to arouse the envy of a New York or Chicago landscape artist. The lawns, like those in the residential districts, are green throughout the year, the roses and other flowers bloom continually, the trees are never bare of leaves.

The system of roads through the great park is beyond improvement. The bridges, some concrete, some rustic, are a revelation. The pathways, leading from the main roads into the well-kept gardens, are never forgotten by those who travel them. From many of these gardens, the magnificent Cabrillo bridge, spanning the great Cabrillo canyon, and costing $350,000, is visible. Well-paved roadways sweep from the highlands into this vast canyon at intervals, the full length of the park. The sequestered canyon roads finding their end at many of the most improved city streets.

In Balboa park, fields for all classes of outdoor amusement are provided, and here and there in the canyons and even upon the hills are constructed ponds and waterfalls.

San Diego’s climate and soil will grow anything. No better proof of this can be found than in the parks of the city. Trees and shrubs from Australia, New Zealand, South America, China and Japan flourish therein. Many of the growing things are strange to tourists or to the prospective or new resident, but he soon learns to know them by their names and to glory in their beauty. A list of the trees, shrubs and plants today growing in the great Balboa park, if printed here, would fill a solid column.

The botanical life of the park was greatly augmented because of the Exposition. Thousands of trees and plants never before planted on American soil were brought to San Diego and raised to perfection in the parks following their transplanting from the Exposition nurseries, Of the many varieties, only a few failed to “make good” away from their native environment. Among the most popular of the tropical trees are the acacias, eucalyptus, Araucarias, sterculias, Ficus, hymendars, avocados, sapotes, and over a million shrubs, palms, dracaenas, dasylerions, nolinas, bananas, strelitizias and agaves.

Varieties of roses number more than 7,000, most of which blossom the year around. There are also hundreds of thousands of flowering and budding plants and bulbs. In addition to this wonderful collection of “strangers,” practically all of the old-fashioned plants, dear to the eye of the Easterner, are found in profusion in Balboa park.

Many of the smaller parks are of sufficient beauty and size to be the “whole thing” in less-favored communities. New Town park, situated only a few blocks from the center of the city, is one of the most popular and is filled daily with those who love the out-of-doors, which almost everybody in San Diego does. The City Plaza park, with its electrical fountain, in the center of the business district, is a genuine beauty spot, fresh in the minds of all tourists and a genuine joy to those who frequent the business portions of the city day by day.

La Jolla park is improved to some extent, and, at all times, attractive. Torrey Pines park is as yet in the rough, except for the roadways, but because of its wild state — such pines being found nowhere else in the world — it is considered by many to be the most alluring. This park covers 200 acres and is on the main highway from Los Angeles and the north. The frontage along the ocean is more than one mile. The pines have a rugged and wind-swept appearance, standing high upon the bluff above the surf, and are photographed annually by thousands. Placed inland, they grow to larger proportions, some of those in Balboa park being of great height and spreading beauty. Torrey Pines park is a favorite place of picnickers and fishermen, many fine catches of surf fished being reported at that point annually.

La Jolla park is of similar beauty. It is located about twenty-five miles from the city, overlooking the ocean. Just below is found the famous La Jolla cove, so popular with surf bathers. Off to the north is the celebrated biological station.

The conservatory and botanical building in Balboa park, a part of the Exposition, are permanent and are second to nothing of that character on the Pacific coast. Many of the plants in this building have never been seen before in the United States.

In addition to the many other attractions, a genuine “zoo” has been built up in Balboa park. It contains buffalo, deer, elk, birds of almost every description, lions, leopards, bears, monkeys and alligators.

The valuation of San Diego park lands and improvements is given as follows:

Balboa park, 1400 acres $4,735,000

Collier park, Point Loma 51,600

La Jolla park 44,000

Playground park 56,000

New Town park, F Street 108,800

Plaza, Broadway 450,000

Old Town park 6,300

Mission Hills park, 5 acres 9,400

Torrey Pines park, 369 acres 49,380

Union Heights park 9,100


Municipal farm lands and equipment 794,680

Unimproved properties, 10 blocks and 75 lots 200,000

January 1, 1917, San Diego Union, Special Section, 1:2-3. International Harvester Company presents Exposition building to city (Exhibit 33); includes about 100 citrus trees on grounds.

January 1, 1917, San Diego Union, Special Section, 1:1-3, 2:2. Model Ranch at Exposition proof of possibilities; C. L. Wilson managed Model Farm for two years; city plans to continue the farm in operation, by W. C Getty.

“When settlers realize that farming is as much a business as selling dry goods or groceries and they place it on the same basis — and I mean buying and selling and producing — people will more than ever realize that a good living and enough over for a comfortable savings account — may be taken from five to ten acres of California land each year.”

That is the statement of C. L. Wilson, who has for two years managed the model farm at the Panama-California International Exposition. And Wilson should know, for farming has been his business.

“Every man is not naturally a farmer and unless he knows the business — for, I insist, it is a business — before beginning, he will have to face some great disappointments, as have thousands who have tried the experiment on experience gained in an office building in some city.

“First of all a plot of land must be secured on which a supply of water for irrigation is sure from month to month and from year to year. Then he must have a knowledge of soils and for what production the land is best fitted. Many a failure has come from planting the wrong tree or plant in a soil which God meant to grow something else. One part of the land may be fitted for fruit trees; another, only a short distance away, may be found more productive for vegetables.

“System in farming is as important as system in business. A man must make up his mind the sort of farmer or rancher he is going to be before he selects his land. He must know whether he is going to go in for fruit trees or poultry or garden produce or all of them. And his land must be selected carefully for that which he intends using it. That’s common sense, isn’t it?

“A wholesale grocery house would naturally be located near the best shipping facilities. A ranch must be located near a good market, where transportation costs are fair, where there is a fair chance of an advance in the price of the property, where the supply of water is sure, where the land is fitted for whatever purpose it is intended.

“Many men make a complete failure of farming because they do not understand it. Every man feels that if he should lose his position in the city, he could make a good living from the land. This is not true. A man needs the same sort of an agricultural education to make the coil produce a living for him as a lawyer needs to successfully defends his clients in court.

“A large number of the failures are attributed to a lack of knowledge of farming, of markets, or location and to the fact that ranching is considered ‘small business.’ Many do not believe that much money is required. I would not advise anyone to make their home on a piece of land unless they have enough money to pay for it, to erect suitable buildings, and to wait several months for the first return. Reverses come to a rancher as well as those in other lines of business, and reverses mean loss in money. To one family may come illness, to another ill luck in another form. A man must protect himself against these emergencies. I do not mean by this that a large sum of money is necessary, but I do mean that there have been too many failures because of a lack of sufficient capital, and this discourages others. Failures are bad for the community and are bad for the State at large and we must have fewer of them.

“After being in charge of the model farm at the Exposition for two years, I have no hesitancy in saying that from seven acres of good California land a profit of from $2,000 to $2,500 a year can be taken by a man who understands his business.”

The model farm has been such an interesting attraction at the Exposition in San Diego has been such a success from every standpoint that it is understood that the city park board will continue it as a lasting advertisement for Southern California. The seven southern counties under which the farm has operated during past two years will, it is understood, took it over to the San Diego park board soon after the closing of the Exposition.

A model farm, patterned after that at San Diego, is soon to be established in Los Angeles, it was announced recently.

(The table follows.)

Vegetables, berry and fruit crop for 1915. All deciduous fruit trees, berries and vines were planted March 10, 1913.

All citrus fruit trees were planting August 20, 1912.

(Refer to the newspaper for crop yields.)

January 1, 1917, San Diego Union, Special Section, 1:6-8, 2:3. Great West shown at best says Exposition President G. A. Davidson reviewing past two years; was chairman of executive committee and vice-president before he became president

Now that the Panama-California International Exposition is about to close its gates, it seems fitting that we should pause and consider the benefits already accrued, or to accrue to San Diego and the Southwest from the Expositions which have been in continuous operation since the first day of January nineteen hundred and fifteen.

In the conception of our Exposition, in the year nineteen hundred and nine, certain definite results were anticipated — certain direct benefits were expected to result to the advantage of the Southwest, in the holding at San Diego of this great enterprise. These expectations have been realized. In fact, more than realized.

The West has been seen at its best. The wonderful and vast possibilities of this great empire have been successfully exploited to the amazement and entertainment of our visitors. The West undoubtedly is appreciated today as it never has been before. What might be termed the artistic, the aesthetic side of the West — has been presented to the visitor, and the West’s full appreciation of the cultured side of life has been ably shown. The Expositions have set standards in music, in art, in architecture, in landscape effects, and those elevated standards must and undoubtedly will have a beneficial effect east of the Rocky mountains, as well as setting high standards for ourselves, here at home.

The Expositions have been the objective point for many of our country’s prominent citizens and government officials. They have been the means of introducing the West to these men under most favorable circumstances. The knowledge that these visitors have obtained at first hand, of the resources and tremendous possibilities of the Southwest, will, without a question of a doubt, rebound to the lasting benefit of our district in its future development. Many of these men have deemed it a privilege to become conversant with Western conditions, concerning which they have previously known comparatively little.

Great interest has been exhibited by the Expositions in the development of the younger generation. Many special days have been devoted to child welfare work. The influence of this effort unquestionably is to be a factor in the upbuilding of the children of today — the men and women of tomorrow.

Of special interest has been the musical side of the Expositions. Organizations and artists, famous throughout the musical world, have been heard in concerts and recitals. Our great out-of-door organ has been one of the outstanding features of the entire Exposition period, and the official organist, Dr. J. Humphrey Stewart, is deserving of the warmest commendation of Exposition visitors. Exposition musical reminiscences would never be complete without mention of the part taken therein by our beloved Madame Ernestine Schumann-Heink, who so generously gave of her time and energy for the entertainment of the people of the Southwest. The thanks of al our people are also extended to Miss Ellen Beach Yaw for her ever willingness to appear in recitals.

The influence of the type of architecture adopted and carried out in the construction of the Exposition buildings marks an epoch in Exposition architecture. Literally hundreds and perhaps thousands of our visitors have journeyed to view and study this phase of the Expositions. Plans of one structure on the grounds have, upon request, been sent broadcast over the country, and we have evidence wherein some of these plans have been utilized in the erection in widely scattered sections of the United States, if nor abroad, of buildings similar in design. This is but one of the many results that might be expected along this line.

The archaeological and anthropological exhibits which have been maintained throughout the two-year Exposition period are said to be the most complete exhibits of this character ever assembled, with the one exception of those maintained by the Smithsonian Institute of Washington, D. C. Due to this fact, San Diego’s Expositions have been the Mecca for scientists desiring to study the various units that make up these exhibits. The Expositions will be remembered in the scientific world for the efforts displayed in these departments of this international enterprise.

Many special days were held in honor of personages prominent in literary life and much effort has been expended by Exposition officials in the interests of the best in literature.

Rare art collections have been shown throughout the Exposition period, many of these collections being of great intrinsic value. Artists of great renown have been listed among the exhibitors.

So much for the artistic and scientific phases of the Exposition activities. Now, let us consider briefly the materialistic benefits resulting from the Expositions.

The term “the World’s Greatest Outdoor Advertiser” has been applied to our Expositions, and, in a sense, this tribute is deserved. They have been the media through which the attractions and recourses have been exploited of not only the Southwest, but also the United States and the foreign countries. Already permanent results are reported by the various countries, states and communities participating. Already have the maintenance of the comprehensive exhibits borne fruit in new and permanent settlers to those Western communities setting forth to homeseekers the advantages of their respective localities.

Between the foreign exhibitors of France, Holland, Germany, Austria, Spain, Italy, Switzerland, Japan and Turkey and the people of this country has come a greater and more comprehensive understanding of the possibilities of our future trade relationships. A greater knowledge has been obtained by the people of the United States of the vast natural resources of our neighbor and friend to the north, the Dominion of Canada. The Canadian exhibit, with that of the Republic of France, formed the nucleus of a very remarkable foreign section. Due to the participation of two of our most valued territories — Hawaii and Alaska, and our Far Eastern possession — the Philippines — we became acquainted with the latest progress of these new additions to the United States. We are also bound closer together, which augurs well for future commercial activity between these territories and the Southwest.

Credit is due every member of the Women’s Board of the two years, and, although it is impossible to mention all who have won the admiration of the directors, mention must be made of Mrs. Ivor N. Lawson, president of the 1915 board; Mrs. Uriel Sebree, president of the 1916 board; Miss Gertrude Gilbert, who, with the aid of her music committee, has been of inestimable value to the Exposition during the two years; Mrs. George McKenzie and her splendid social committee; Mrs. E. Thelen and her active house committee; and Miss Alice Lee with her hostess committee.

The city of Los Angeles, collectively and individually, has assisted not only by an appropriation of money, but in many other ways well known to every Exposition director. Men of Los Angeles have served faithfully and unselfishly as directors and mention must be made of the conscientious effort put forth by Senator Robert N. Bulla and J. O. Koepfli, the Los Angeles members of the executive committee. The wonderfully complete exhibit of the seven southern counties, as displayed in the Southern Counties exhibit at the Exposition, is typical of the advantages that are to be obtained by intelligent cooperation.

Recognition must be made at this time of the enthusiasm of one individual, responsible more than any other for the opening of the Exposition of January 1, 1915. This man, known for his untiring efforts, has endeared himself to the people of the Southwest. His name if Colonel D. C. Collier.

Frank J. Belcher, chairman of the 1915 executive and finance committee, rendered such valuable aid that any review of Exposition activities, no matter how brief, could not omit his name.

The time unselfishly devoted to Exposition activities by Messrs. George Burnham, Carl H .Heilbron and Carl I. Ferris has been of great assistance in the execution of Exposition buildings and the entertainment of guests.

One other name must be mentioned for his generosity in giving to the people of this community a permanent out-of-door organ and for furnishing the services, for the entire Exposition period, of the official organist. Our appreciation is extended to Mr. John D. Spreckels.

Of great pleasure to the members of the Exposition directorate during the two-year period has been the loyal support and hearty cooperation accorded the Exposition officials by the people of this community. For this manifestation of their approval of the work undertaken and carried out, the directors express their sincere thanks to the people of San Diego and vicinity. This splendid support and cooperation has achieved a record in Exposition history never before accomplished — the continuous operation of an Exposition for two full years and a day.

The people of San Diego should be commended for their courage in the building or our Exposition and the wonderful spirit always manifested in supporting the enterprise during its operation.

The building of this great undertaking in the southwest corner of the United States is typical of the character of the people making up the community in which it has been built.

January 1, 1917, San Diego Union, Special Section, 1:5-6. B. W. Lee, on Exposition payroll from first to last; assistant auditor during construction period and in charge of income from exhibits, concessions and admissions in 1915 and 1916.

January 1, 1917, San Diego Union, Special Section, 2:1-2. Exposition will pass into history tonight.

San Diego’s “Exposition Beautiful,” adjudged by critics from every point of the compass as more superb in every detail than all that had gone before or may come after, will pass into history today.

But, unlike all other attractions of similar character, the end is not yet — the best is still to come. In future years the great Exposition grounds will remain practically intact, forming, as a feature of the vast Balboa Park, a resort unequaled in any of the world’s most famous playgrounds.

Comparatively few of the splendid buildings will be destroyed. Many of them have been built of solid concrete — others, well kept year by year, will endure until the children of today have found their way well into middle life. A veritable Enchanted City, as a result of the Exposition, will open wide its gates to every San Diego visitor and to the citizenry for a time at present beyond estimate.

Many of the exhibits will be gone, but in their place will be installed things of permanency. The Exposition with its foliage, its marvelous plazas and prados, its incomparable courtyards, its bridges and towers and gardens will remain the same. And to all who may come there will be offered, in addition to the superb exterior effects, exhibits forming a museum of which even the most pretentious European city might well be proud.

The Exposition has given to San Diego a resort beyond the dreams of the builders of ancient Spain. Shattering all records for period of operation, meeting every expense with “something to the good,” the Exposition, in passing, is but bringing things into closer touch with the people. A small admission fee will be charged during the first three months of 1917, while the exhibits of nations and of men are being removed. Thereafter the great gates will be thrown wide to all who may journey there — a place of recreation and joyous freedom for the men and women and an all too busy world.

The great Plaza de Panama will be held intact. The Cabrillo bridge, the California building and others of the great structures will escape the wrecker’s mallet. In fact, under present plans, on a few of the buildings are to go. The Isthmus structures soon will be cleared. The San Joaquin Valley building will come down, the Canadian building and the Kern County building will be leveled. But upon the ground of these minor structures, when the debris is cleared away, will arise sunken gardens, the equal in beauty of anything in the park. One year hence, it is promised, the Exposition grounds will be even more of a delight than they are today. Crowds in the grounds, it is predicted, will exceed at times those of “Exposition Days.”

Presenting one of the greatest out-of-door attractions in the world today, the great Spreckels organ, built to last for many years, will be daily in operation. Band concerts and military drills, upon the famous Plaza de Panama, will be regular features. Many local events will be staged in the grounds day by day. Art exhibits, science exhibits, pioneer plays, government exhibits and many of the most interesting features of the Exposition will remain untouched. These will be added to from time to time.

Under present plans a 25-cent admission fee will be charged after January 1 for a limited time. This is to be during the “clean-up” period. After that the park board will favor a 10-cent rate. Later it is probable that the grounds will be free to all. If the Exposition officials decide that a 10-cent rate will carry them through the clean-up period during January, February and March, the plan of charging 25 cents may be abandoned at once and the lower charge put into effect.

Balboa Park stands today, with its Exposition buildings, as a resort second to none throughout the land. Further improvements are to follow. A majority of expositions have resulted in little, as regards permanent beautification, to their builders. San Diego, to the contrary, is left, through its vast enterprise, what may be well termed a perpetual exposition — an attraction descending to generations.

Those who have failed to visit the Exposition still have that treat in store, practically as it always was. They will find it awaiting them in their journey to the Pacific coast — to the Harbor of the Sun.

January 1, 1917, San Diego Union, Special Section, 2:2. United States gun crews to bombard Fair.

Four three-inch field pieces, manned by gun crews from the cruisers San Diego, Pueblo, Chattanooga and Albany, will be used in the bombardment of the Twenty-first Infantry trenches during the battle at the Exposition today. The guns will be employed in making a “barrage” fire for the Second Battalion of the Twenty-first Infantry, which will storm the trenches of the First Battalion.

A battalion of bluejackets and marines from the armored cruiser San Diego will participate in the military and naval parade this morning. The bluejackets from other warships in the harbor will not be in the line of march. The San Diego battalion will be commanded by Lieut. W. W. Bradley.

Admiral Caperton announced yesterday that the flagship band will give two concerts at the Exposition today, one in the afternoon and the other this evening.

The cruiser Raleigh, flagship of Rear Admiral Fullam, will hold a full power speed run off the heads Thursday, returning to the harbor immediately after the tests are completed.

The cruiser Albany will weigh anchor and proceed to Bremerton tomorrow.

January 1, 1917, San Diego Union, Special Section, 2:3. Day fireworks to feature program arranged for young America.

Joy will outweigh sorrow in the celebration at the Exposition grounds today and tonight when San Diego and thousands of visitors to the city say “Farewell” to the Panama-California International Exposition. San Diego, in its deep appreciation of the Exposition, is not backward looking and, therefore, considers the close of the Exposition a matter of justification as a forerunner of the great things to be accomplished in the future.

A big program of entertainment has been prepared for today and tonight, including a sham battle, army and navy parade, reception, day and night fireworks, singing by Madame Ernestine Schumann-Heink, dinner at the Cristobal in honor of President Davidson, open house at the Southern Counties building and music by three bands.

The sham battle this afternoon at 2 o’clock will be the most spectacular of the day’s programs and will include an engagement between the First and Second battalions of the Twenty-first Regiment, U. S. Infantry. Major William Brooke will command the attacking forces, which will march on the Exposition grounds promptly at 2 o’clock; Colonel Joseph P. O’Neil and his Second Battalion will defend the Exposition grounds and an intricate system of trenches has been prepared to stand off the invaders. Land mines, barbed wire entanglements and heavy artillery will be used in a spectacular manner, so that the great crowd will have a repetition of the wonderful battle maneuvers held on the Exposition grounds, December 9.

Day fireworks will be shown for the children at 4 o’clock on the aviation field and the set pieces at midnight tonight will be the most elaborate every displayed in San Diego. This gigantic display has been placed on top of the Organ Pavilion and after the lights have been turned out at midnight will present San Diego’s message to the future in a beautiful motion picture etched with fire. The climax will come when great bombs explode above the set piece, releasing the flags of all nations, while the three bands join in playing “The Star Spangled Banner.”

A few minutes before Madame Schumann-Heink sings “Auld Lang Syne” at the formal ceremonies at the organ, which will begin at 11:30 o’clock, the world-famous diva will be presented with a jeweled medal by President G. A. Davidson on behalf of Exposition directors. The jewels of the setting are taken from San Diego county mines and the inscription that has been engraved reads: “To our Beloved Schumann-Heink, from the San Diego Exposition, 1916-1916.”

The blowing of “taps” by buglers on the balconies of the Plaza de Panama will be the signal for Schumann-Heink’s final song.

Those who will speak at the formal ceremony will be Lieut. Gov. William D. Stephens; Mayor James Rolph, Jr., of San Francisco; Mayor William T. Woodman, of Los Angeles; R. P. Hale, representing the Panama-Pacific International Exposition; President G. A. Davidson; John S. Mitchell, representing the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce; and D. C. Collier.

The army and navy band will start downtown at 10 o’clock this morning and is scheduled to arrive on the Exposition grounds at 10:35 o’clock, where it will be reviewed by President Davidson, army and navy officials, distinguished guests and directors of the Exposition. All buildings on the grounds will be open until 10 o’clock tonight to add to the gaiety of the program and provide diversions for the great crowds expected to be on hand for the official closing of San Diego’s great two-year Exposition.

January 1, 1917, San Diego Union, Special Section, 2:5-7. Outdoor Organ has awakened taste of public for best in music and harmony.

The Spreckels outdoor organ, costing with its pavilion and peristyles approximately $125,000, was presented to the people of the city of San Diego by John D. and Adolph B. Spreckels, the deed of gift reposing in the park commission, for the perpetual use and benefit of the people of San Diego. The organ was dedicated December 31, 1914. It is located on the Plaza de los Estados of the Panama-California International Exposition in Balboa Park. The Exposition closed formally last night, but the organ, with its pavilion, will remain to furnish music for years to come to San Diegans and their guests. By the terms of the deed of gift, no admission fee may ever be charged to any organ recital, and although a money fee has been exacted for various attractions which have been given at the Organ Pavilion, no one has ever had to pay a cent to hear an organ recital.

. . . .

The organ was constructed by the Austen Organ Company of Hartford, Conn. Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart, who has been the official organists all the time the organ has been in operation and will act in the same capacity for at least another years, learned his profession under some of the greatest English organists, having played that instrument since he was 14 years of age. For many years he was organist of St. Dominick’s Church in San Francisco.

So far as is known, more recitals have been given at the Spreckels organ in the last two years than upon any other organ in the world in a similar period. Dr. Stewart was prevented from giving recitals only 18 times in the past 365 days. With eight selections to each recital, this gives a total of !,768 compositions played upon the organ during 1916, and during 1915 there were 2,864 compositions played, making a grand total of 5,632 compositions. Ten times during 1916, rain prevented the recitals and eight times they were not given because other attractions were being presented at the Organ Pavilion at the recital hour.

During the last year the following guest organists gave recitals at the Spreckels organ: Uda Waldrop, San Francisco (eight recitals); Albert Conant, San Diego (three recitals); Walter E. Hartley, Pomona College, Claremont, Cal. (two recitals); Royal A. Brown, San Diego (three recitals); Arthur Blakely, Los Angeles; W. W. Carruth, Oakland (two recitals); Warren D. Aller, San Jose (seven recitals); Walter Handel Tworley, San Francisco (twelve recitals); John Doane, Chicago (three recitals); Harold Geer, Santa Rosa; Dr. William C. Carr, New York City.

Among the artists who appeared during 1916 as soloists at organ recitals or in whose concerts the organ was played were:

Madame Ernestine Schumann-Heink, contralto; Madame Ellen Beach Yaw, soprano; Madame Bernice Pasquali, soprano; Henri La Bonte, tenor; Edwin House, baritone; George Van Surdam, tenor; Signor and Signora Picci, tenor and soprano; Signor and Signora Giovacchini, tenor and soprano; Mae Buckler Stevenson, soprano. In connection with the State Music Teachers’ Association, one session of which was held at the organ, soloists were: Royal A. Brown, organist; W. A. Carruth, organist; Mina Gorgianna Strauss, contralto; Homer Henley, baritone; Miss Constance Balfour, soprano; and Henri de la Platte, basso.

Practically ever local San Diego singer of prominence has taken part in the recitals as soloist.

(More statistics given of number of composers (213) and number of their compositions played during the year.)

January 1, 1917, San Diego Union, 2:8. Love of music is characteristic of San Diego people; noted artists perform during past years before crowds of appreciative listeners, by W. W. B. Seymour.

January 1, 1917, San Diego Union, Special Edition, 3:1-6, 5:1-4. Exposition’s duration, charm to long remain unique among world’s amusement enterprises, by Guy R. Kinsley, Director of Publicity, Panama-California International Exposition.

Father Time, countless centuries young, took a peep at his wrist watch early this morning, and ran his attenuated finger through his Doomsday Book, and opened the pages of the Index at “E.” His shrewd old eye scanned the page and noted with satisfaction the red lines drawn through every entry. Suddenly he reached for his scythe, knocking over the latest wrinkle in hour glasses that had been ordered returned to the makers, and shouted to his secretary, aroused by the racket:

“Is that San Diego Exposition still alive. That little beauty will get me yet. Twenty-four long months it has held one and instead of getting weaker, by Jove, it gains strength every day. I’ve tried wars, floods, elections, slides in the canal and even false gossip, but it’s no use. Get me a complete report quick,” and as the lieutenant hurried out a half-dozen new gray hairs appeared in the old man’s beard.

As he paced back and forth in the room, watching the stock ticker to see how his corner on hours, minutes and seconds was keeping up the price of time, his mind ran over the history of other expositions. The San Francisco affair gave him a scare when it lasted nine and a half months and closed with such a mighty rally that he feared Fate, who gave him his job for life, had handed him that hated token of mortals, the “double cross.”

He recalled that back in 1876 the Philadelphia Centennial has set the style for expositions with a length of six months, which was burning the candle of summer at both ends. In 1885 the World’s Cotton Centennial Exposition was held in New Orleans and, although favored by climate, six months was considered enough. In 1893 the great Chicago Columbian Exposition endured six months and required twenty years to wind up its affairs. The California Midwinter Exposition at San Francisco in 1894 continued five and a third months. In 1898 the Trans-Mississippi Exposition at Omaha closed in six months; the Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo was over in six months; the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis was satisfied in seven months; the Lewis and Clark Exposition at Portland lasted only four and a half months; the Tercentennial Exposition at Jamestown in 1907, closed in seven months; and the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition at Seattle in 1909, found four and a half months entirely sufficient.

“Father, its’ over at midnight tonight,” interrupted the lieutenant from the doorway with a cry of joy. Father Time sat down, and slowly drew a red line through the entry “Panama-California International Exposition,” as he wrote, “twenty-four months ad a day,” at the end of the line he smiled broadly, shook his head, and sighed: “SOME SHOW!”

The world agrees. The smallest city that ever attempted a world exposition has beaten them all. The Panama-California International Exposition has been recorded as the most beautiful — so judged by men and women capable of passing critical judgment. To be a champion, whether ward of world, and know the joy of success in anything, from marbles to millions, is a sensation never traded, but to win, when every friend calls you foolish, heaps ice-cold gloom on your plans, predicts sudden and overwhelming failure; quotes history, scripture and weather reports; and whispers, “I told you so” every time a black cloud hovered over — well, San Diego knows that feeling.

In December 1915, President G. A. Davidson and members of the executive committee and board of directors chosen for the 1916 organization visited the San Francisco Exposition to get the one feature needed to make San Diego’s Exposition complete and well-rounded. That was exhibits. When Colonel William Hutchinson, Canadian Exposition commissioner, consented to move his display to San Diego, the Southern California enterprise was assured the most wonderful display ever made by any state or nation anywhere.

As an added feather in the cap of the City by the Silver Gate, it can be said that Colonel Hutchinson has pronounced the Canadian display in San Diego superior in many ways to that in San Francisco, and before the close of the year believed the results obtained by Canada through the exhibit were equally as good as in the northern city.

The French exhibit, housed in the Palace of the Legion of Honor at San Francisco, was another wonderful asset to come to San Diego. Because of the historical value of the collection owned by the French government this exhibition was housed in the California building, which is fireproof and capable of giving protection of every kind to the display. Another feature for the first few months of the new year was the famous Luxembourg art collection in the Fine Arts building. Italy, Germany, Austria, Russia, Spain, the Philippine Islands, Alaska, the Netherlands and Turkey were among the exhibitors that accepted the invitation tendered by San Diego Exposition officials.

Another addition to the 1916 Exposition was the wonderful growth of the shrubbery and foliage which intensified the beauty of the setting. The Isthmus was reorganized with many new shows, adding one attraction which permitted us to day it was “the first fur-line amusement street in the world.” This free zoo, in charge of Superintendent F. G. Kaufman, has proved one of the most interesting features of the Exposition and was a source of constant entertainment and education for adults as well as children.

Before the formal opening, Tommasino’s Italian Band had been engaged for the year through negotiations with Louis Gasdia, manager of the band. This musical organization proved to be one of the finest heard in the West, and, without exception, the best band that ever played at the Exposition. Tommasino came direct from his engagement at Atlantic City, where he had been exceedingly popular. Although a band was not maintained at the Exposition’s expense more than the first four months of 1915, Tommasino’s band was kept from the opening day in 1916 until the final ceremony of closing tonight.

The Spanish dancers and singers of the first few months of 1915 were included in the 1916 program and La Belle Sevilla was chosen leader of this musical organization, which added wonderfully to the daily programs of the year. These entertainers made good friends of all visitors, and their pleasant appearance, good music and dancing, working in absolute harmony, proved the wisdom of the directors in maintaining this feature of the 1916 Exposition.

The Dedication Day attendance was more than 45,000, which was 15,000 greater than the banner day of 1915, which had a total attendance of 30,000. The Fourth of July exceeded even this 1916 record by several hundred. On the night of July 5 the attendance of 1916 had been 28,000 greater than for the same period in 1915. The months of June, July, August, September and December proved the best, financially of the year.

One of the big features of March was the fifty-mile automobile race on the Isthmus in which Bob Burman, Barney Oldfield, Cliff Durant and Teddy Tetzlaf completed. Bob Burman, who won the trophy cup and prize money, was killed in his next race at Corona. His mechanic, Erich Schrader, who rode with him in the Exposition race, was killed also, and, as he was removed to the ambulance after the accident, he muttered until he died, “Not so fast, Bob, not so fast,” which told pathetically the wild reason Burman long ago was given the sobriquet of “Wild Bob.”

Two features stood out in the events of May, the fist being the production of “As You Like It” by the students of the high school, and the other, Pied Piper Day, when Henry Collins of Coronado impersonated the Pied Piper and was host to 13,000 children, who trooped across the Puente Cabrillo and spent a wonderful day on the grounds.

In June, Tyrone Power, with Sarah Truax and a strong company, presented “The Servant in the House.” The Ad Club offered a day filled with entertainment features, joining with Imperial Valley and Alameda County. “Admetus” as produced by the pupils of the Normal School, under the direction of Irving J. Outcalt and this production ranked with the finest ever presented in San Diego. In July, Ellen Beech Yaw gave her first 1916 concert. Madame Pasquali sang at the organ, Michael Giovacchini, baritone, gave an attractive concert, and the Preparedness Parade of July 4 provided the most interesting feature of the sort held during the year.

Kite Day, on August 2, was a successful kid day, followed by a Ruth St. Denis pageant, August 5. The biggest athletic events ever held in Southern California were contested August 18 and 19 when the Amateur Athletic Union champion boxing matches and Far Western Amateur Athletic Union track and field meet were held in the high school stadium.

Charles Warren Fairbanks was entertained, October 3, and spoke at the Organ Pavilion, October 4. J. Hamilton Lewis added to the political aspect of the Exposition calendar and spoke t a great crowd in the War of the Worlds building. Senator Phelan was honored October 13 and was the principal speaker of the day. Housewives’ Day, Mabel Normand Peace Day, Allen L. Benson Day, and Los Angeles County and Hollywood Day were prominent during the latter part of the month.

Joe Boquel, considered by many the greatest trick aviator, opened his engagement at the Exposition, August 28. One week later, after he had startled San Diegans by his wonderful gyrations and had won the unqualified admiration, he drove his aeroplane into the ground, causing his death just five minutes before he was to have been awarded an Exposition gold medal by President G. A. Davidson in recognition of his wonderful feats in the air. Boquel was doing his famous corkscrew at the time and, instead of falling, his machine was actually speeding toward the earth in graceful swings with the engine running at full speed.

Boquel was given a military funeral, participated in by soldiers of the Twenty-first Regiment, U. S. Infantry and members of the aviation corps at North Island. The medal, which was to have been given to the great flier, was sent to the widow in San Francisco.

In November, Hawaii Day, California Welcome Day, the big Cat Show, November 21, 22 and 23, Mother Goose Day¸ November 25, and Thanksgiving Services, November 30, were the most important. A feature of California Welcome Day was the bird-whistling contest of National City, under the direction of Miss Elizabeth M. Worthley. The cat show was managed by Mrs. A. E. Banks, and took its place as one of the finest shows ever held in the West. Mother Goose Day was a wonderful day for the children and grownups. The exercises were in charge of Miss Cornelia Strobhar and Miss Hulda Hanker, two San Diego young women who drilled the children and superintended every detail of the program. The Treble Clef chorus gave a concert at the Organ Pavilion, November 19, and La Rue Hewes, San Diego tenor, delighted a big crowd, November 25. Dr. Charles Edward Locke delivered the Thanksgiving sermon and Ellen Beech Yaw was soloist in the greatest out-of-door Thanksgiving service ever held in the United States.

During the final month of December many big events were held. The Children’s Fair, December 1, 2 and 3, on the Isthmus, brought together more than 7,000 exhibits showing the wonderful creative work of the children and providing an attraction of great merit for all visitors. The battle maneuvers, Saturday December 9, were considered by many better than any ever given in Southern California. The work of the troops and the aviators showed modern methods of warfare “at its worst.” Colonel Joseph P. O’Neil was in charge of the Twenty-first Regiment, U. S. Infantry, which defended the Exposition grounds. The sailors were led by Lieutenant W. W. Bradley, Jr. and the marines were in charge of Captain Earl C. Long. The battles were fought in the afternoon and evening and brought the greatest battery of motion picture cameras ever seen on the grounds. Practically every Western company was represented and all benefited by the wonderful mimic engagement.

January 1, 1917, San Diego Union, Special Section, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Old Year and the New.

The year that has just closed has been for San Diego marked by achievement and fair promise for the future. The great Exposition has had a second year of brilliant success and will be formally closed today after affording gratification to countless throngs during a period of twenty-four months — a record that has no parallel in the United States. Regret that the great Fair comes to an end is tempered, however, by the knowledge that many of its most pleasing features will be preserved to add to the attractions of Balboa park, so that the visitor to San Diego this year and for years to come will be able to form a very clear idea about the great Exposition of 1916 and 1916 that aroused the admiration of all who gazed upon its manifold beauties during those two memorable years.

But the Exposition just closing has been only one of San Diego’s achievements during the past twelve months. The city has had substantial growth. Building operations, which were interrupted here, as elsewhere, during the previous period of depression, were resumed during 1916, and the grand total of new construction, begun or completed, during the year, makes an impressive showing of the city’s growth. New industries, too, have been established and have brought the payrolls that mean so much in building up a locality. And more are promised in the future. Generally speaking, too, business has been good. San Diego is having its share of the prosperity that has come to the country during the past year or two. Its farming district has been enjoying good crops and remunerative prices. On the whole, the year just ended has been a prosperous one.

The outlook on this New Year’s day is, perhaps, brighter than at the beginning of any previous year. One of its most encouraging features is that the early completion of the San Diego and Arizona Railway is now absolutely assured. Very recently the welcome announcement was made that the final arrangements for completing the line had been effected and that the great Southern Pacific Company had joined hands as a partner for finishing the road to Colorado. Since that time a large building contract has been awarded, and there is every reason to expect that the last gap of construction will be filled in the near future. In fact, as matters stand, there is every reason to believe that the road will be in operation long before the close of the present year. It ought to be unnecessary to suggest what this line will mean for San Diego. It will have the effect of making this city, with its superb harbor, the commercial port of the great Pacific Southwest. San Diego has waited long for this consummation. That it is now close at hand is clearly revealed in the dawn of 1917.

Readers of this Annual, too, will find on this New Year’s day other developments of great importance are in sight. The war and navy departments are preparing to avail themselves of this port. A great marine base, aviation station, and the increased use of the harbor for naval purposes are among the projects to be carried out in the near future. Truly, the year 1917 begins most auspiciously for this city.

January 1, 1917, San Diego Union, Special Section, 4:2-3. Exposition Rose Garden recalls fond memories.

Among the legion of delightful memories of the Exposition which thousands of visitors have carried away, none has been more prominent than the recollection of the Potpourri rose garden back of the Organ Pavilion, conducted by Mrs. Jessie C. Knox.

Ample visual evidence of this is found in the guest book which Mrs. Knox keeps and in the letters from all parts of the world which she has received in the last two years.

When Mrs. Knox nearly three years ago broached the idea of a rose garden to the Exposition authorities, her argument was based on the fitness of the establishment of such a “Garden of Hospitality” in a land which has been noted for its largesse of roses, where roses cluster around every home. The Exposition quickly saw the logic of establishing a place where visitors from localities in which flowers are luxuries could gather roses with a free hand, and where moments of rest under rose-draped pergolas and strolls through rose-lined walks should become priceless memories in after years. But the Exposition was hard pressed for funds and could not afford the $10,000 which the plan demanded.

Nevertheless, the rose garden was established, more modesty than first planned, contributions being made by friends and flower lovers from all parts of the Union.

In many ways this humble acre of stony ground has reached out across space and carried to hundreds of persons delightful and unexpected associations. Anne Morgan heard of it and ordered some of the flowers and vases. “We enjoyed the rose garden more than any other part of the Exposition,” wrote Dr. Starr of Columbia University. “To us the idea of a rose garden for visitors and the potpourri of California flowers to take to one’s home is the most beautiful thing we ever heard of,” wrote A. D. Nordren from faraway Stockholm. Elmer Ellsworth Gornsey, a noted mural artist, and his wife made a special trip to the Exposition to revisit the garden, and Mrs. Cleveland Preston, widow of President Cleveland, having heard of the garden through the daughter of Dr. Erdmann, president of Princeton University, has written that she hopes to visit it.

January 1, 1917, San Diego Union, Special Section, 4. City’s artistic life of high development and steady growth, by Sydney L. Snow.


For the last two years most of the art life of the city has been centered about the Exposition, and the beautiful grounds and buildings still are to be the hub of the cultural activities of San Diego. Housing of the many societies, representing art, music archaeology, history, botany and other sciences already affiliated with the museum project at the Exposition, is being considered.

Famous artists have visited the city during the year. Mr. and Mrs. Colin Campbell Cooper, whose work has been them loved in more than one nation, gave an exhibit at the Exposition.

Robert Henri has been resting at La Jolla during the last summer. Maurice Braun — San Diego’s own artist, who has transcribed the colors, the atmosphere of the hills and sea of California so faithfully — has accomplished much that is beautiful during the last year, and now has a collection traveling on a circuit of galleries in the big cities of America.

In a letter to Henry Lord Gay, president of the San Diego Art Guild, Colin Campbell Cooper said he would lose no opportunity to recommend San Diego as a place of inspiration to artists, with a climate most suitable to their work. In addition, he said:

“I was glad to hear before we left San Diego that the committee on the preservation of buildings at the Exposition has decided to keep the art gallery as a permanent institution. This seems to be a very wise plan and undoubtedly will be of benefit to the city. If, as you hoped, the other buildings are to be used for the kindred arts and sciences and for museums in which to install various important collections, in many respects this continued permanent Exposition will be better than the one which is to close December 1.

“I should think that much could be done to arouse a general interest in art if an art association were formed. An art association would have a wide field of influence than the Guild (of which the Guild, of course, would be a part), because it would draw into it those who, though not trained in any of the arts, have a great interest in them, and are oftentimes excellent workers.”

. . . .

Naturally the most noteworthy exhibits shown during the year have been those shown at the fine arts gallery at the exposition. Of these, the Luxembourg collection and the Holland collection were the most interesting. Exhibits by American painters, by California painters, by San Diego painters, and by different modern schools were held.

. . . .

Particular praise should be given to the work of Miss Alice Klauber, chairman of art of the women’s board at the Exposition, whose efforts to bring interesting things to San Diego have been untiring. The Art Guild has held many delightful exhibitions of work of its members during the year.

January 1, 1917, San Diego Union, Special Section, 4:4-5. Edgar L. Hewett: Museum of San Diego is successor of Exposition; will perpetuate its work; “established for the purpose of cooperating with the city through its park commission and with correlated societies in making the benefits of the Exposition perpetual. The park buildings and the scientific collections are the permanent possession of the people. By developing a great cultural and recreational center the Exposition has made a permanently productive investment. The museum is planned to meet the high standard of the Exposition and the park, and to develop with the future growth of the city of San Diego. Nothing less would be acceptable to the people.”

Board of Directors of the 1915 Exposition transferred the scientific collections acquired with the assistance of Archaeological Institute of America and Smithsonian Institution to San Diego Museum.

Park Commission granted quarters to Museum in California Quadrangle, Administration Building, Science of Man and Industrial Art Buildings. Temporary buildings will be fire-proofed, rewired, and concrete foundations laid when funds permit

Museums to be maintained by membership fees and paid admissions on certain days of the week.

January 1, 1917, San Diego Union, Special Section, 4:1-4. Faithful efforts and skill of women members important aid to directors of great Exposition, by Mrs. Uriel Sebree, President, Women’s Official Board of the Exposition.

Few, if any, of the many thousands who have visited the San Diego Exposition have the faintest idea of the stormy seas, the dangerous shoals, this beautiful craft has crossed. And it seems mere justice that more light be thrown on the part the women have played in bringing her safely into port than can be given in the statistical form of an annual report, and, in this case, is especially necessary because at the beginning their assistance was regarded as, more or less, the last straw to the heavy burden.

When the beautiful buildings were finished and the organizing and conducting of the Exposition has to be considered, the directors realized that they faced a Herculean task — that only the most skillful financing could avert disaster. To the minds of most men, women and extravagance are indissoluble ideas; consequently, when a women’s department was proposed, resignation took the chair, protest had the floor. “Women’s board!” — a polite synonym for a Squabble Court, where the poor dears would meet, discuss, weep, even fight with umbrellas for weapons, and then proceed to sulks and hysterics — when the Lords of Creation refused to regard their vaporings as having serious import. But one — and he had taken as his life partner a woman who has been the inspiration of most of the delightful happenings at the Exposition, and has, more than any other factor, by her unselfish devotion to its interests, contributed to its success — approved.

So, the Women’s Board was organized. President Davidson has given two years’ consideration to the personnel, and no more fortuitous choice could have been made than that of Mrs. Ivor N. Lawson for president; the other members of the board consisting of Mrs. Uriel Sebree, first vice president; Mrs. A. E. Frost, second vice president; Mrs. T. B. Wright, corresponding secretary; Mrs. Earl Garrettson, recording secretary; Mrs. Alice Halliday, treasurer; Mrs. George McKenzie, entertainment; Miss Alice Klauber, furnishings; Miss Gertrude Gilbert, music; Miss Daisy Barteau, organized labor; Mrs. B. G. Saville, Federated Societies; Mrs. A. E. Horton, Mrs. J. G. Burne, Mrs. Clark W. McKee, San Diego county representative of the Womens’ Auxiliary of Southern California Panama Exposition Commission; Mrs. A. S. Bridges, Mrs. E. Thelen, Mrs. Frank Von Teamar, Mrs. Ernest E. White, Miss Gertrude Longenecker, education, showed further his excellent judgment.

The businesslike way in which the women went to work; the skill shown in organizing committees; the many different branches of the work of the Exposition they undertook, dissipated at the outset most of the fears of the directors. Still, with the immense financial burden facing them, the deeply-rooted idea of women as “spenders,” it is not to be wondered at that the men preached economy first, last, all the time, and entrusted to the women’s bands an incredibly small sum in the light of what they accomplished.

So, having little to spend and taking pattern from the children of Israel, they decided to borrow when they could not buy. They borrowed the beautiful collection of Beauregard’s pictures from Mr. Springer, and, taking them as the keynote, the furnishing committee, composed of Miss Alice Klauber, Mrs. Ivor N. Lawson, Miss Alice Halliday, Mrs. George McKensie, Mrs. Julius Wangenheim and Mrs. Ernest White made the women’s reception room the wonder and delight of the thousands of visitors who have passed its hospitable doors. They borrowed the beautiful Chines hangings from Mr. Quon Mane.

They borrowed a Kenyon portable house for a day nursery for the babies — because the Exposition, being planned by mere men, had not taken these small but much-in-evidence persons into account; and it was only when employees, guards, even marines, were almost shanghaied for nursemaids that the management found a place for the house — but not money.

Nothing but hypnotism can account for the way in which Miss Gertrude Gilbert inveigled the greatest musical talent in the world into giving its services free or at a minimum cost, nor words can ever express how generously not only the musical, but the artistic talent of all sorts in San Diego gave of their best. The art department, under the direction of Miss Alice Klauber, was considered by critics of this country and abroad as exceptionally fine. To some, at first, it appeared as if did to one visitor who remarked to her friend, “Oh, let’s go on, I never did care for the beginner’s work.”

At the end of the year one realized that the exhibit has given us the Twentieth century point of view and a liberal education in modern art. And in years to come some mothers will realize what a debt of gratitude they owe to Mrs. Templeton Johnson for her part in getting the wonderful child welfare exhibit — certainly a source of vital educational value. The women’s rest room was another unique feature of the Exposition and furnished rest and repair for tired bodies.

Recognizing the fact that the number of exhibits was small, the quality was exceptional. The women decided to combine with the Spanish architecture the old true hospitality of California ranch life for which the Golden State was so famous, and make that the feature of our exhibition. Here again was Economy lashed to the mast and Mrs. McKenzie entertained anywhere from five to 500 with dainty afternoon teas, at a cost that would make the authors of articles on how to feed a family of six on five cents (or thereabouts) a day feel they were inculcating ideas of reckless extravagance.

The day nursery goes on record as having run for eight months at no expense to the Exposition, with never an accident nor a case of disease contracted, and having cared for over 900 children. Books and literature were loaned or given by the city’s libraries and publishing houses furnished reading for the rest room; and here two women, selected by the Hostess committee, were in constant attendance to receive visitors and given information of all sorts concerning the Exposition. Indeed, so great became their reputation for universal knowledge that when one of the guards was asked where is the building that shows “The Fall of Man” (meaning the Science of Man), he answered: “I don’t know, but I think you can find out about it from the Women’s Board.”

When it was decided to continue the Exposition for another year, so great had been the success of the Women’s Board and so equally generous were the directors and other members of the management in admitting the mistake in the estimate of the value of their assistance, that the women no longer had to fight for recognition, but were cordially accepted as coworkers.

January 1, 1917, San Diego Union, Special Section, 4:5-7. Montana brand of hospitality delight of numerous guests, by Mrs. H. E. Cowles, in charge of Montana Building.

I have tried in person and in the atmosphere of the building to exhibit something of the spirit of Montana hospitality. I have wanted our visitors to know, in some measure, the hearts of our people. I have desired earnestly to leave such an impression upon the mind of everyone entering our door, that the very name of Montana would always recall a happy association. We feel that we have not failed in this, because we have had many expressions of appreciation.

Most of our guests enjoyed the open fire, the flowers, the music and the general homelike atmosphere of our reception room. Often would one drop into a chair with the exclamation, “Well, this is a place where I would like to say — it seems homelike!” Many came to us tired, having made the rounds of the Exposition. It was a joy to supply these with a comfortable couch or an easy chair.

Then, as to my further duties as hostess and exhibitor, I find that a large number of our visitors are merely sightseers. Among these guests, however, were many who has some special interest; many looking for a place to spend a summer vacation. I spoke with pride of our National Glacier park — where I passed many summers — as one of the rarest spots on earth. I told them of its many glaciers, of its marvelously beautiful lakes, such as McDonald and St. Mary, of its waterfalls, of its rollicking streams, its forests, high mountain peaks, its deliciously bracing air, its pure ice cold water from the base of the glacier, and of the opportunities it affords for quiet rest as well as health-giving exercise.

Frequently guests asked of the mineral resources of our state. To those I spoke of Butte, the richest hill in the world, of its thriving prosperity, its employment of 13,000 miners at the highest wages paid to that class of labor in the world, of its output of $50,000,000 worth of copper in 1915, and of its revolutionizing the treatment of zinc ores by electric process, recently introduced by the Hon. W. A. Clark.

As closely allied to the mining industry, I spoke of the sources of motive power in our state, especially of electricity.

And, last, there were the homeseekers, who come to us and inquire about government and other lands. Many of these I have directed to the vast stretch of country lying between the Rocky Mountains and the Dakotas, and between Alberta and the Missouri River.

While engaged in speaking thus the praises of our great Northwest, I have not been unmindful of the attractions of Southern California — especially of San Diego. Many came to use seeking a winter climate, or desiring to retire from business. To each I recommended most warmly the climate and social life of San Diego.

In this account of my work, I have had constantly in mind the park taken by my faithful and efficient assistant, W. W. Parrott. Whatever has been accomplished is largely due to his cooperation. I would like also to express my deep appreciation of the unfailing courtesy shown me by the management of the Exposition.

January 1, 1917, San Diego Union, Special Section, 4:7-8. Special events of year well arranged.

January 1, 1917, San Diego Union, 6:1-8. Picture of fire station at Exposition

January 1, 1917, San Diego Union, Special Section, 7:1. List of distinguished visitors in 1915 and 1916.

The list of distinguished visitors at the Exposition during 1916 is not as great as for the first year because of the double drawing power of the two Expositions. A few of those who have had a part in Exposition programs during the last twelve-months are: Count del Valle de Salazar and Countess del Valle de Salazar; Governor Hiram Johnson, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Kane, Edward Rainey, Walter Damrosch, Carrie Jacobs Bond, Mrs. H. H. A. Beach, Tyrone Power, Madame Ellen Beach Yaw, Madame Pasquali, Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn, Sarah Bard Field, Charles Evans Hughes, Mrs. Josiah Evans Cowles; William Kettner, Dr. William C. Carl, Charles Warren Fairbanks, James Hamilton Lewis, Senator James D. Phelan, Allan L. Benson, George Stirling, Governor Simon Bamburger of Utah, Fred Emerson Brooks, Sir Rabindranath Tagore, Madame Nellie Melba, Madame Pavlowa, Leopold Godowsky, Admiral W. B. Caperton, Admiral W. F. Fullam, C. M. Winslow, Uriel Sebree, Charles C. Moore, Madame Geraldine Farrar; Governor Ernest Lister of Washington, and Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Hertz.

Among famous movies picture stars who have visited the Exposition are Myrtle Stedman, Ruth Roland, Myrtle Gonzales, Jack Kerrigan and Douglas Fairbanks.

January 1, 1917, San Diego Union, Special Section. Unselfish devotion of Fair’s executive highly appreciated.


Since the historic meeting of the Chamber of Commerce in 1909, when Mr. Davidson first presented the idea of celebrating the opening of the Panama Canal by an Exposition as the first “Port of Call,” he has been known as “The Father of the Exposition.” When the project had been well started, Mr. Davidson was made vice president and later chairman of the executive committee. For the last two years that the Exposition has been open, he has held the title of president. Although the problems that have confronted him during these twenty-four months have been great, he has maintained an unruffled disposition and the solution has invariably been for the best interests of San Diego and the Exposition and has won new friends for the president.

Only those on the inside of the Exposition management full realize the value of the service rendered by President Davidson, not only to the Exposition, but to the city. His diplomacy and determination have won many battles absolutely unknown to the citizens, but which will bear fruit for many years to come. Exceedingly modest, Mr. Davidson has never taken advantage of the position with which San Diego has honored him by seeking personal recognition. In fact, one of the most difficult duties to which he was forced to accustom himself was as a publicity subject. The frequent uses of his name and photograph were distasteful to him, but he always yielded to the argument that his title and the position with the Exposition had publicity value for the Exposition that could not be represented in any other manner.

The cordiality of his welcome has been the same for rich and poor, cabinet officers, former presidents, and township officials. Considering the opportunities that President Davidson has in greeting guests to San Diego and the fact that he has performed these obligations in such admirable manner, causes the belief that he had made more friends for Southern California during the past two years than any organization or man.

He represents the highest type of American manhood characterized by integrity and simplicity, and although San Diego may understand, in a manner, the wonderful work he has done, it is certain that the appreciation will increase many fold when time has given the true perspective.

. . . .

“A quiet stroll through the Exposition grounds,” for President Davidson usually meant a program punctuated by such interruptions as those of an employee who desired to know the president’s idea about a future event; the visitor who complained of alleged unfairness on the part of a guard, a gateman or other employee’ an exhibitor who wondered when certain changes would be made; a friend who offered suggestions about concerts by the band; a loyal San Diegan who had strong dislikes for a show on the Isthmus; a photographer who wanted a special pose; a young woman who wondered why futurist painting had been excluded from the 1916 art exhibits; a long-time resident of San Diego interested in the Exposition’s finances; a friend who knew a man capable of filling an Exposition jog far better than an incumbent.

And, further, a stranger from the East who wanted to express his appreciation of the Exposition and bemoaned the fact that so many did not realize the great attractions offered; the automobile owner who believed machines should be given the run of the Exposition grounds every day instead of one day a week; the mother who held it a crime that any cars were permitted on the grounds, even Mondays; the life-long friends who had always paid her way into the grounds, but would like to have a few passes for some Eastern friends; the booster who wished the Exposition would get some “pep” and put on attractions that interest the people; the stranger who had a million good ideas he would part with — for so much per idea; and on and on, with a new list every day, until the head of the enterprise found more pleasure in staying inside the office and having a little warning of the matters to be discussed before the visitor was ushered into his presence.

January 1, 1917, San Diego Union, Special Section. Feature of Exposition, music programs, presented public; people’s taste receives praise of committee chairman in her summary, by Miss Gertrude Gilbert


The harmonious setting, the unity of architecture and planting has never failed to call forth the very best that the artist can give; and when we think that everything has been done in the open, under the blue sky of Southern California, the experience is the more unique.

Madame Schumann-Heink sang last year to the largest crowd ever assembled on the grounds, with the exception of the opening days. Madame Ellen Beach Yaw has sung several times each year and never failed to draw many thousands; Madame Pasquali attracted an immense audience, and concerts by our local musicians, which early in the year found the St. Francis Chapel too small, then outgrew the balcony of the California Quadrangle, and now, for several months, have been given at the Organ Pavilion, fill benches to overflowing every Sunday afternoon. The honor days named for Schumann-Heink, Ellen Beach Yaw, Carrie Jacobs Bond, Mrs. H. H. A. Beach and Charles Wakefield Cadman, with appropriate programs for each, have brought large enthusiastic audiences, and, on Easter Saturday and Sunday, when Damrosch with his entire orchestra, at a tremendous expense, appeared at the Exposition for two concerts, so hearty was the response from the public that we not only cleared out expenses but made a great surplus besides.

And so it has been during the entire two years. Good music of any kind, whether by local artists or visiting artist, band, organ or orchestra by our citizens, and now the cry is “Must we give up this music in the park when the Exposition closes?” Fortunately for the city, we have a Mr. Spreckels and a park board who realize how much this means to our people. Mr. Spreckels has retained Dr. Stewart at the outdoor organ for another year, and the park board has asked the present music committee to carry on in the park the same musical policy we have maintained during the two Exposition years.

January 1, 1917, San Diego Union, Special Section. Summer playground camps source of fun and benefit, by Howard B. Bard, President, Playground Commission.

The municipal playgrounds of the city can no longer be considered as an experiment of fad in which a few people are emotionally interested, for they have become one of the great vital realities of the city’s work, and it can readily be seen that they are meeting a vital need of the city when we realize the number of people who are constantly using them. The playgrounds may not be looked upon as mere places of play and recreation, but must be considered in a larger and more vital relation to the welfare of the city, to the building of good citizenship, and to the working out of the principles of democracy in the community.

First of all, they are great centers where cooperation is taught and where the boys and girls are trained to respect the rights of others; where they learn the lesson of a “square deal” because in their play they are not alone to get the enjoyment for themselves out of their play, but they are also to cooperate with others and see that they, likewise, have a full opportunity for a good time.

They are also centers for the development of a community spirit, for they bring not along the boys and girls of the community together, but also the mothers and fathers; in fact, all of the people of their locality, into social relations so that they begin feel that they are indeed members of the same community.

They also help to break down the barriers between different nationalities, because frequently we find that there are several nationalities represented in the play and social gatherings and whatsoever cooperative work may be carried on.

The city is in possession of four municipal playgrounds that are open every day in the year from 2 o’clock in the afternoon to 9 o’clock in the evening. These grounds are directed by a staff of eighteen workers who give all of their time to the carrying on of this municipal enterprise. That the people in the communities in which these playground are located are appreciative of their privileges in seen from the patronage of the playgrounds, which has become so great at practically everyone of the playgrounds that the facilities are inadequate to meet all the social and recreational needs of the people. One can readily see to what extent the communities avail themselves of these privileges when we consider that during the last year the four playgrounds have had a patronage of approximately 350,000 people.

The usual activities of the playgrounds and of free play, of the games of basket, volley and playground ball, tennis and other games, both for the separate grounds and for the inter-playground activities, are carried on regularly throughout the whole year. In these activities boys and girls and men and women are given the systematic training that helps them to be stronger in all of their physical life.

There are many special lines of work. The field houses of the playgrounds become the centers for the club life of their communities. There the mothers’ clubs meet; the clubs for boys and girls; the campfire girls; the mother’s dancing clubs; the regularly slated community dances, both for adults and children; the classes in domestic activities; the dramatic organizations; the musical organizations; University extension lectures, all find a place of meeting and development and, under the able direction of the playground staff, these clubs come to be successful organizations.

There have also been carried on during the year, many special lines of work in the production of features, games and dances with the boys and girls which have added much to the different entertainments and celebrations at the Exposition.

La Jolla Playground . . . .

University Heights Playground . . .

New Work of the Year . . . . the needs of the city for a public free bath

Summer Camp a Fixture . . . . establishment of a San Diego Summer Cam Camp at Descanso

May Festival Displays Spirit . . . held in the morning at the Golden Hill


Future Holds Encouragement . . . plans to secure a tract of 40 acres in the

Laguna mountains; free public baths on a

section of the reclaimed tidelands;

establishment of 5 new playgrounds in

different sections of city; establishment of

a free public golf links in Balboa Park;

larger use of school buildings as social and

recreational centers.

January 1, 1917, San Diego Union. Point Loma Club Grounds scene of brilliant play by star performers.

At the time the San Diego Exposition was organized, the San Diego Country Club had golf links in the park. ____ nine as sporting holes as could be found anywhere in Southern California. The club was notified that the site of its gold links would be included in the great Exposition and that it would have to find other grounds.

At this time there stepped into the breach that great all-around sportsman A. G. Spalding, who offered, on behalf of the San Diego Securities Company, to build a clubhouse and an 18-hole golf course that would be second to none in California. The offer was gladly accepted by the members of the old club and in 1912 ground was broken and the foundation laid for the Point Loma Golf clubhouse. The services of Tom Bendelow and Frank J. Szarinsky were enlisted in laying out the course.

In April of 1913 A. G. Spalding himself drove the first ball off the No. 1 tee and declared the course open to the use of members.

(See original article for a more detailed description of the golf course and clubhouse.)

January 2, 1917, Los Angeles Times, 2:7. Big Fair now history; closing scenes of San Diego’s famous exposition; “Auld Lang Syne” sing by Mme. Schumann-Heink; President Davidson recipient of distinguished honors.

January 2, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:7-8. “Exposition Beautiful” remains open to charm thousands for three months; “Farewell” exercises in name only; grounds and buildings to remain, with principal exhibits in place; band to play; admission reduced; Canadian, French, United States, Sacramento and Southern Counties buildings to remain open; 21st Infantry will drill several times a week; organ recitals will be given daily.

January 2, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:4-5, 3:1-4. Midnight’s solemn chimes ring out passing of world’s greatest two-year exposition; undaunted by lowering skies, loyal San Diegans bid last farewell to world’s greatest Fair; Davidson honored at banquet; grounds, buildings permanent city exhibit.

The “Exposition Beautiful” — San Diego’s own Exposition, perhaps, the most wonderful that the world has ever known — passed into history at the stroke of 12 last night.

It came to a triumphant close amid laughter and tears, frivolity and heartaches, after a remarkable run of two full years. It finished as it started a thing of wondrous beauty and exquisite charm. A success throughout the long gay period which it occupied, it will still live today and in the years that are to come fresh in the memory of those who loved it. To them, it always will remain as complete, as superb, as enchanting as in the magic past, of which it was so brilliant a part.

Permanent Heritage to City

Nor has all, as regards to the Exposition, been said and done. Many of its great buildings will remain as a permanent heritage to the people who made their construction possible and to their children after them. Its superb grounds will continue into the future as a magnificent beautification of the great Balboa Park. In one sense, it will be an Everlasting Exposition.

Undaunted by lowering skies San Diego, thousands strong, sent attendance records at the big Fair glimmering yesterday and last night as they surged through the massive gates to say their last farewells. Exposition officials could not estimate the crowds, but predicted that a count today will show the greatest attendance in the history of the Fair.

After a long, eventful day, in which sentiment and hilarity were splendidly blended, the Exposition formally was closed at midnight when taps were sounded and Madame Schumann-Heink, with tears in her eyes, sang “Auld Lang Syne,” as she alone can render it. The closing ceremony was held on the pavilion at the great Spreckels organ. As Madame Schumann-Heink concluded, the lights of the Exposition were extinguished and a giant set piece, showing San Diego’s message for the future, was touched off. The din that followed was tremendous. People cheered until they were hoarse. The immense crowd surged back and forth in a spirit of revelry never before equaled in the city. The combined bands struck up “The Star Spangled Banner,” and the people poured out into the plaza shouting excitedly, blowing horns, ringing bells, and otherwise giving the Exposition the send-off to which it was entitled.

The great set piece displayed above the organ heralded a message of peace to all nations, displaying a feeling of friendship and good will toward men, truly a marked characteristic of the people of San Diego. The exact word in fire were: “World’s Peace, 1917.”

With these ceremonies the Exposition had officially ceased to be. But for three full months the directors will continue to operate the Fair during the “clean-up” period. Meanwhile, the plans of the park commission for permanency of grounds and buildings will be underway. The Exposition closed, as it had opened, in a blaze of glory, and a majority regretted to see it go. It was a Fair that had caused a world to marvel — an Exposition that has won the plaudits of state and nation and made the name of San Diego a familiar one throughout the land.

One big feature of the evening program was the formal dinner given to President G. A. Davidson at the Cristobal café by the directors of the Exposition. It was a brilliant affair, attended by the city’s most representative citizens and men of prominence in both army and navy. Closing day was also Davidson day and the dinner proved a fitting climax to the many honors extended President Davidson in the afternoon.

Exhibit buildings at the Exposition were officially closed at 10 o’clock last night. These buildings were crowded with visitors during the day and evening. The Isthmus, which is to be wrecked immediately, was thronged until a late hour last night.

Exhibits to Remain

The halyards of the United States standard on the government building at the Exposition were drawn at 4:52 o’clock yesterday afternoon — the official sunset hour. A telegram was received from the navy department last night directing federal employees on the grounds to suspend packing operations until further orders. This is taken to mean that the federal exhibit will be on the grounds for at least three months, perhaps permanently.

The Exposition never looked more beautiful than last night. The illumination was superb under the starless skies. San Diegans rejoiced that most of the buildings and grounds will be kept intact as a place of recreation in the future. Thousands of visitors from far and near also rejoiced. News that the great Spreckels organ will continue operation indefinitely was received with general delight.

During the “clean-up” period an admission fee of 25 cents will be charged unless it is found that a 10 cent fee will be sufficient. Later on the Exposition grounds will be free to all. Everything on the Isthmus will be wrecked, with the exception of the Painted Desert. Some weeks hence the Canadian building and Varied Industries building and several of the state buildings will be razed and beautiful sunken gardens will be established where these buildings now stand. The grounds, if possible, will be made even more beautiful in the future than in the past. And many attractive educational exhibits will be found in a majority of the buildings for years to come.

January 2, 1917, San Diego Union, 3:2. President Davidson is presented gold watch by Exposition official.

No greater compliment was ever paid a high government official or foreign prince at the Panama-California International Exposition than that paid President G. A. Davidson yesterday morning by thousand of San Diegans who stood for almost two hours in a drizzling rain before a stand in the Plaza de Panama in compliment to “the originator and father of the Southland’s Fair.”

There were different versions of the rain. Some thought the elements felt so bad over the closing of San Diego’s fairyland after a two-year success that the heavens were weeping. Others said the occasion was a joyous one and that the rain only tended to create greater enthusiasm for a man who for two years had devoted nearly his entire time to making the Exposition a success.

The climax of the portion of the closing day’s exercises in honor of President Davidson came when Carl Heilbron, one of the vice presidents, in a neat little speech, presented President Davidson with a beautiful watch — a gift of the Exposition directors.

Coming as a complete surprise to Mr. Davidson, he was visibly touched by the gift and it was some minutes before he could respond. Taking advantage of the president’s embarrassment, Senator Robert N. Bulla of Los Angeles, another vice president, who acted as chairman of the meeting, stepped forward and announced, “Mr. President, if there is anything you wish to say before sentence is pronounced, you may proceed.” This brought a general laugh and relieved the situation.

Holding the beautiful watch aloft so that all might see it, and share in his happiness, President Davidson began:

“Friends, for all of you seem to be that or else you would not be here in this rain to help me made my day at the Exposition a success, I don’t know where to begin or what to say. It has been a pleasure and a joy to labor for you and with you, and I am happy to know that our efforts have been with success. San Diegans have been loyal to their Exposition to the last day. Help has come during these two years from all quarters and each of you, I feel, has done his part without which we might have fallen down in some particular. We all dislike to see the passing of that which has brought us such joy, made us so many friends, and attached so many to Southern California. Our friends in Los Angeles have been loyal too, and we must not forget to thank them.

“During the last few days you have heard much of the Exposition and its struggles. I am not going to keep you out in the rain and tell you more. I want to thank you all for your courage, your loyalty, and your untiring support.”

The watch given President Davidson is a beauty. It is of open-face type and on its back it bears his initials done in raised platinum. With it is a beautiful chain and an ornament done in platinum, this bearing the seal of the Exposition.

President Davidson was met early in the morning at the Laurel street bridge by directors of the 1915 and 1916 Exposition, guards and Tommasino’s band and escorted to the Plaza de Panama, where he reviewed the army and navy parade. The review of soldiers and sailors was one of the prettiest held at the Plaza in a long time. That San Diegans have never grown tired of these reviews was shown by the big crowd which was out early to see the last one before the Exposition passed into history.

The exercises were held on a stand which had been erected at the point in the plaza where the opening exercises were held a year and two years ago. One the platform with Mr. Davidson was John D. Spreckels, who was honored at the Exposition a few days ago, and several hundred prominent San Diegans and Coronadans. The large crowd in attendance stood up in front of the stand during the entire program, nearly all of them having been provided with umbrellas. When the rain was the hardest, only a few of them gave up their places to seek points of shelter.

Hon. Lyman J. Gage was one of the first speakers. He told of the work of President Davidson and of the esteem in which he was held by friends made at the Exposition who lived in all parts of the country.

President A. D. LaMotte of the Merchants’ Association represented the merchants; F. Darnall represented the Cabrillo Commercial Club; W. S. Dorland spoke for the Chamber of Commerce; and Carl I. Ferris read the resolutions prepared by the directors of the Exposition.

Later in the afternoon a reception was tendered Mr. and Mrs. Davidson in the Persimmon Room of the California building by women of the women’s board. Hundreds called to congratulate Mr. Davidson upon his success and to wish Mr. and Mrs. Davidson a happy new year.

The military and navy parade consisted of officers and men of the Twenty-first Regiment and sailors from the ships in the harbor.

At the Cristobal café a luncheon was given at noon for Mayor James Rolph, Jr. of San Francisco, H. H. Van Torchiana, consul general of the Netherlands at San Francisco, a vice-president of the San Francisco Exposition, and others who had come to San Diego to help in the closing exercises.

January 2, 1917, San Diego Union, 3:6. Thousands attend sham battle at Fair grounds.

Breaking through wire entanglements on the aviation field yesterday amid popping guns and exploding mines, and the accompanying cheers of several thousand spectators, Maj. William Brooke, in command of the First battalion, Twenty-first Infantry, captured the fort of the Second Battalion, under the command of Col. J. P. O’Neil and Lieut. Col. Fred W. Sladen.

Giving by far the best sham battle ever staged at the Exposition, officers and men of the two battalions were busy receiving congratulations immediately after the fray.

The engagement was set for 2 p.m. but Maj. Brooke and his stalwart officers and men planned a little surprise and began a random peppering attack from the brow of the canyon opposite precisely at 1:30 o’clock. A matter of luncheon is nothing to a soldier, and it didn’t tale Col. O’Neil’s men long to fling themselves into the trenches. They tore across the field, taking their places in the front line trenches in plenty of time to do some peppering themselves.

Fortified behind their mines and their wire entanglements they began their engagement with all the confidence in the world. The enemy appeared from beneath the brush on the other side of the canyon, dropping on their stomachs at intervals as they crossed the ravine, and appeared suddenly in groups in a sort of wedge formation at the top of the hill and within a few hundred yards of the camp.

When the engineering corps, headed by Maj. Brooke, appeared at the head of the troops and began cutting the wire entanglements, men of the Second Battalion thought the Indian Village would be a safer place for them, and they sought shelter in double quick time, taking refuge behind the walls and continued to pump blank cartridges at the fast-approaching foe.

Like a lot of Indians, their yells becoming almost more prominent than the popping of the rifles and the bursting of mines, the men of the First Battalion gained the ground of their enemy, completely routing them.

For a time, the aviation field was a miniature European battlefield. The mines hurled stones high in the air and the solders rushed here and there through the dense smoke. It was considered the most spectacular shame battle ever given on the Fair grounds.

January 2, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Exposition.

As this is written it is not hard for one who sites a mile away from San Diego’s great exposition to imagine that the song “Auld Lang Syne,” sung at the formal closing exercises, would reach the ears of one who was even farther away. It is even easier, however, to imagine that the refrain in some way will be transformed into something like “New Lang Syne,” for, as the two-year Exposition passes into history, there has come a new San Diego, into whose future it is pleasant to look.

Looking back now, one can recall with ease that when the Exposition project was broached there were many who openly and frankly said that it was too much of an undertaking for a city no larger then San Diego. They who spoke, and perhaps others who kept silent, doubted that it could be a success, even if run for only a few months. And later, when San Francisco decided to have an Exposition, the doubt may have grown in the minds of the less confident. But by that time there had been made in San Diego the spirit of a city, the spirit of confidence which stilled the voice of the doubter, the spirit which brought all together to aid the project that was to bear San Diego’s name, and to carry it all over the land. And the Exposition opened successfully.

There is no need here of telling the whole story of the Exposition and of its success. But no one who claims the name San Diegans can be blamed for referring at least briefly to what it has done. It has brought to the beautiful Southland, of which San Diego by many natural rights is the capital city, thousands of visitors who might never have turned hither if the Fair had not appealed to their pleasure-seeking desires. They have come, have been enchanted by the beauties of the Fair and the city which made it, have lauded the courage of the people who stood back of it, and have gone away to repeat those expressions to others all over the nation. Thus the story of San Diego has been carried far and wide. And those who have admired the Exposition cannot have failed to see that here was a city ready to grow — a city with a great harbor, a climate which has no superior, a city near some of the richest agricultural and mining sections of the whole world, soon to be reached by a great railway with marked advantages over any other transcontinental line running to the Pacific coast. Many of those who came here strangers went away friends of San Diego. Many have said that they would return to stay, to be San Diegans. It is easy for San Diegans to believe that the many whose business ties are such that they will be able to come here will at least influence many others to come and join in the upbuilding of a greater city on this, one of the most favored sites in the world.

So, with all the regret that must be felt as the Exposition ends formally, the people of San Diego have a feeling of pride which more than compensates for that sentiment.

Here it is also fitting that tribute should be paid t those men and women who have been the most active and so unselfish and patriotic in carrying on the work of the Exposition. It would be hard in a newspaper page to say all that could be said, to mention all the names that so richly deserve mention, to give all the praise that San Diegans would be glad to give these men and women. But those who read this will join heartily in the vote of thanks that is expressed here and in the chorus of “Well done.” For all realize that, as the Exposition ends its two highly successful years of life, San Diego is going ahead to be greater, better than ever, with the eyes of the nation on it, and with the country saying, “There is a real city!”

January 3, 1917 (?), Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

Tablet shall be placed upon the Southern California Building and the Model Farm Bungalow, similar to the tablet now installed in the State Building at Exposition Park, Los Angeles; inscription on tablet to contain the names of the Commissioners of the Seven Counties Building, including the secretary, and any other inscription that the Southern California Exposition Commission might determine; tablet to be a permanent memorial of the presentation of these properties to the City of San Diego.

Resolution of thanks to the Southern California Exposition Commission approved.

International Harvester Company’s Building turned over to the 21st Infantry for use as recreational quarters, providing suitable quarters are furnished the Y. M. W. A. in said building; building to remain under control of Park Board and supervision of Superintendent of Parks.

Superintendent instructed to purchase second-hand tools from Southern Counties Building.

Secretary instructed to negotiate a purchase of carpets, draperies, etc. in Southern Counties Model Bungalow if satisfactory terms could be made.

Secretary instructed to purchase Grand Piano in “Blue Room” of Southern Counties Building for $750 (valued at $1,750), with payments being made over a term of three years and no interest for the first two years.

January 3, 1917, Los Angeles Times, 7:5-7. Three months to remove exhibits; exposition park will open during the day; when dismantling is complete preservation work will start to save certain buildings; although books not closed, Fair makes some profit.

January 3, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:3-5. Sun’s park edition received high praise.

January 3, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:7-8. Southern Counties structure, orchard and bungalow given to city today for one dollar; valued at over $100,000.

January 3, 1917, San Diego Sun, 3:1-2. Reception committees are organized by Chamber of Commerce to entertain visitors in Exposition city.

January 3, 1917, San Diego Sun, 7:4. Exposition president honored by many at dinner in Cristobal café Monday night, December 31, 1916.

January 3, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:6. Madame Schumann-Heink presented the colors to officers and men of the 21st Regiment, No. 2, at the Plaza de Panama yesterday afternoon when the first review since the close of the Exposition was held.

January 3, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:3. Effort to retain Tommasino’s band for next three months being made; fund started.

January 3, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1-3. Citizens mourn Exposition’s close; 27,000 attend final ceremonies; for first time in two years grounds of San Diego’s great Fair are practically deserted; park of exhibits, however, will remain open for about three months longer.

For the first time in two years the grounds of the Panama-California International Exposition were well-nigh deserted yesterday.

There were still evidences of the 27,000 people who attended the closing day’s ceremonies, and up to a late hour yesterday afternoon attendants were busy trying to remove the traces of the celebration of the night before.

Confetti of the various colors of the rainbow was scattered all over the grounds. Several vacuum cleaners were busy trying to remove traces of the debris.

The official count, which was completed yesterday, showing that nearly 30,000 people visited the grounds during the closing day. The east and west gates looked as though there had been twice that number and as though the entire congregation had pushed against each one of them.

An automobile driven by one who was evidently in a hurry to leave the Exposition behind, scattered the Laurel street gate beyond what the reporter would call “recognition.” The east gate was in a little better condition and workmen were busy yesterday attempting to repair the damage.

Chairs and benches used on the closing day in the Plaza de Panama, were piled high in front of what once was the Sacramento Valley building, but which last year housed the United States government exhibit.

Tables and chairs were turned up on end as though they never expected to take part in another scene of festivity. The Isthmus looked as deserted as a haunted house. Managers were removing their exhibits, and with the glare of the electric lights gone, the streets looked as uninteresting as a page from the Congressional Record.

Illusions which the night before had blasted forth from the electric signboards, girls who had done a dance “in the front of the house” and had created a sensation in a scene from “Paris After Midnight” were missing. Now and then a few stray girls had come for their costumes and were shaking hands with former proprietors and taking leave of former friends on the amusement street. Some were bound for the East, others were on their way to San Francisco.

Isthmus attractions were being boxed for shipment to different vaudeville theaters. Others were being sent to street fairs, others to the winter quarters of a circus, and still others were being sent to warehouses to await the word of their owners who are still negotiating for engagements in other parts of the country.

Work on tearing down the Isthmus is already in progress. Some of the smaller buildings were being razed yesterday and a few San Diegans stood by and watched the proceeding sorrowfully.

The street, which for two years had been one of light and color and fun and frivolity, saw its end on Monday evening. All the shows ended their two years with a tremendous business. The street seemed to be more popular after a run of two years than it had been at any time in between.

Even the pigeons on the Plaza de Panama seemed depressed yesterday afternoon. They missed the photographer, who used to take their pictures with the crowds, they missed the music of Tommasino’s band, the review of the soldiers of the Twenty-first Regiment and, undoubtedly, they missed the glowing words of enthusiastic orators who, for two days past, has waxed eloquent at closing exercises.

At the administration building, stenographers were filing the last letters. Guy R. Kinsley, who for the last year had made it his business to let the people of the country know that the Exposition was doing business at the old stand, was trying to find out over the telephone how much money would be required to transport an automobile weighing 2,400 pounds from San Diego to his home in San Francisco. Secretary H. J. Penfold was busy gathering up the scattered ends, lost in the general shuffle of closing confusion.

Signs directing people about the grounds seemed to have grown old over night. Uniforms of the guards seemed to have faded. Many of the exhibit buildings looked as they had before the opening of the Fair — strewn with boxes and excelsior and workmen in overalls and mean directing with as much precision and as long voices as D. W. Griffith’s henchmen in producing the “Clansman.”

Where there was not confusion, there was silence, and confusion was much preferred to silence by the few San Diegans who were on the grounds t see what the Exposition looked like “the morning after.”

The Cristobal café looked like the last rose of summer — and then some chairs had stopped in the tracks, just where they were pushed when the last guests left the café the night before. Tables, stripped of their linen, stood out like skeletons in a dark closet. There was now and then a glass — which might have contained wine, now and then a water bottle — empty, and one lonesome waiter stood with arms folded and a forlorn expression near the entrance.

The wild animals on the Isthmus were fed as usual, but not in the presence of the usual crowds, and they didn’t seem to know what to make of the quiet. The Ferris wheel was not in motion, the roller coaster — the scene of shrieking women and men who held on like grim death — was silent for the first time in months. There were not the usual Hawaiian airs and the weird strains of stringed instruments at the Isthmus Village. There were no “sample” Hula girls out in front and no loud-voiced crier, the noisy music of the merry-go-round had ceases — in fact, the Isthmus was devoid of interest and the only signs of habitation were on the motor trucks which had been engaged to cart away that which for two years had entertained San Diegans and their visitors.

There were now and then a few Easterners who strolled through the grounds and deplored the fact that they had not arrived in the city early enough to see the Fair in full blast.

A few visited the Administration building with the proverbial after-date kicks, some came to offer belated congratulations, others wanted special privileges, others wanted to bid on wreckage, some wanted to buy scenery and fixtures, and some wanted — their pay. They were all heard and satisfied.

Even the organ recital, which was given by Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart as usual, was given to only a scattering of guests — the Plaza de los Estados consisted mostly of yawning benches. The state buildings were closed and their mangers were in the throes of moving operations.

But all this was yesterday — the day after the formal closing. The Exposition — at least a part of it — will remain open for three months.

Secretary Penfold announced that the Canadian building, the Fine Arts building, the French exhibit in the California building, and the Science and Education building will be open for about ninety days. As soon as the Russian exhibit can be moved, the building will be utilized by Dr. Edgar L. Hewett as a museum building. Exhibits which will make this building always interesting to San Diegans and their visitors have been secured.

Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart will play as usual each day at 2:30 (?) and the officers and men of the Twenty-first Regiment will at different times during the week give a drill in the Plaza de Panama. The first drill will be held Thursday afternoon and Madame Schumann-Heink will present the colors.

It was estimated by Exposition officials yesterday that had the weather been favorable on closing day and night, fully 50,000 would have been in attendance during the day.

January 3, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1-3. General Pendleton sends greetings from the Fourth Regiment, U. S. Marines, at Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.

It is understood that after internal affairs in the Dominican Republic have sufficiently quieted to permit the withdrawal of United States marines from the island, that General Pendleton will be placed in command of the San Diego brigade post and that the Fourth Regiment will, at his request, be made a part of the brigade.

January 4, 1917, San Diego Sun, 2:6. Exposition band fund is raised; plan to have Tommasino’s band play every afternoon but Monday on Exposition grounds.

January 4, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1. Municipal band, city’s dream; committee will raise funds to keep Tommasino’s band at Balboa Park.

No stone is to be left unturned to raise sufficient funds to keep Tommasino’s band in San Diego for the next three months. With this end in view, President Davidson of the Exposition, yesterday appointed Frank C. Spalding, chairman of a committee to procure from the people the amount required. Other members of the committee will be appointed in a few days and a plan of campaign outlined. In the meantime, checks or cash may be sent to Mr. Spalding at the Administration building in the Exposition grounds.

A number of persons prominent in musical circles will be placed on the working committee.

It is the plan to have the band play at the Exposition every afternoon, except Monday, for the next three months. It is the hope to have the band remain permanently as a “San Diego band.” The organization probably is the most popular that ever made music in Southern California. Tommasino and his players have many friends here, they all wish to make San Diego their home.

The Exposition officials would like to pay the expenses of the band for the next three months, but announce they are unable to do so, now that the price of admission has been cut to 25 cents. They will, however, stand part of the expense. Subscription blanks are being printed and are to be circulated and placed in the banks throughout the city. Amounts subscribed will be payable monthly or quarterly. The money will be spent only to pay actual salaries to the bandsmen. There are 29 members of the band but it is hoped to make the total number of players thirty -two.

The Tommasino band has given pleasure to thousands of San Diegans, all of whom would like to see the band retained. It also will prove a big attraction for tourists at the Exposition during the next three months.

January 4, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:7. More than three and one-half millions of people visited the Panama-California Exposition in its two years of existence, according to a report made public yesterday by Secretary H. J. Penfold.

In 1916, a total of 1,697,886 people visited the Fair. In 1915, 2,050,020 passed through the turnstiles, making a total of 3,747,916 for the two.

The month of the biggest attendance in 1916 was July, when 269,485 people passed through the gates. The smallest month in point of attendance, was January, a year ago, when 35,440 visited the Fair.

(Attendance figures by month for 1916 are given.)

January 4, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:2-3. International Harvester Company presents Fair building to San Diego.

An instrument signed yesterday by Frank Culbertson, vice president of the International Harvester Company of America, gave the city of San Diego, through its park board, the beautiful building which for two years has housed the exhibit of the concern on the Alameda at the Exposition.

The gift came as a surprise to the officers of the Exposition, as they had supposed the building would be razed by the International Harvester Company immediately after the exhibits had been removed. The building is one of the best on the grounds and is substantially built.

Use of the building will be determined by members of the park board at a meeting to be held in a few days. It is probable that, for the present, it will be unused, but that later a permanent exhibit of some kind will be installed.

With the building are the beautiful grounds I which the company has taken such pride during the two years past. There is a citrus orchard of about 100 trees included in the property, as well as palms, decorative shrubbery and shade trees. The building is situated on ground described as Exhibit No. 33. It was finished slightly before the opening of the Fair, and is considered in as good condition now as then.

As the park commissioners have had many requests for the use of every building which is to be left on the grounds, there were none of them yesterday who would predict the ultimate use of the structure, further than to say that it would be used for whatever purpose seeming fitting in the Exposition grounds.

(Extract from letter signed by Frank Culberrtson, Vice President, International Harvester Company of America)

This transfer is made as a gift without legal conditions, but with the expectation that the said board of park commissioners will fulfill the assurances heretofore given that said grounds will be kept up and the main “Harvester Building” will continue to be known as such and utilized in its present for some public purpose.

January 5, 1917. D. C. Collier made honorary life member of the San Diego Museum.

January 5, 1917, San Diego Herald, 1:2. Buildings donated.

The Southern Counties building in the Exposition grounds, the model farm and model bungalow were all presented to San Diego by the commission in charge in a deal consummated Tuesday. The magnificent structure and the farm, valued at over $100,000, were tendered to the custody of the park board for the consideration of one dollar.

The formal conveyance occurred at the Exposition New Year’s day. R. W. Pridham, of the Southern Counties commission, a Los Angeles County supervisor, tendered the bill of sale of Thomas O’Hallaran, who responded in a speech thanking the commission in behalf of all San Diego. O’Hallaran and Arthur Cosgrove represented the Park Board, Mr. Marston being ill and unable to attend. Those of the Southern Counties present were: Charles Hamilton of Riverside; R. L. Ripley of San Bernardino; R. L. Shaw of Imperial; Fred Struck of Orange; W. M. Irwin of San Diego; and R. W. Pridham, Los Angeles representative.

This means the Southern Counties building will be maintained as a part of the permanent exposition, and kept up by the Park Board.

The fixtures of the lecture room in the building, said to be one of the best equipped in Southern California and valued at $1,710, may be brought by the supervisors, according to Irwin. He secured a figure of $700 on the entire equipment, and the Park Board, in a letter, requested the supervisors to make the purchase. The matter was to be placed before the county lawmakers for a vote.

January 6, 1917, San Diego Union, 3:6. The Second Battalion of the 21st Infantry will hold field drills on the aviation field at the Exposition every day at 9 a.m., but Saturday and Sunday, until further notice; reviews on Plaza de Panama each Tuesday and Thursday at 2 p.m.; 21st Infantry Band will give program on Plaza de Panama each Wednesday and Friday at 3 p.m.; daily organ recital at music pavilion at 2 p.m.; Canadian building, Science and Education building, Fine Arts building, and French exhibits in California building to be open everyday except Sunday.

January 7, 1917, Los Angeles Times, 3:2. Fair buildings being dismantled.

San Diego, Jan. 6. — The dismantling of the buildings and the removal of the exhibits at the exposition is rapidly being carried on.

Although each day many tourists visit the grounds and band concerts and drills of the army troops are held as before, the exposition spirit has gone.

Plans are being made by Dr. Edgar Hewett and the exposition officials for an extensive museum to be installed in one of the buildings as soon as the exhibits are removed. This museum of Dr. Hewett’s will contain Indian and American archaeological specimens. These with the science of man, the Canadian and French [exhibits] which remain will constitute an attractive feature.

The Foreign Arts Building was almost completed vacated this week. The Southern Counties Building will require a longer time to vacate as the contents must be properly packed and stored. The building is closed.

The Isthmus is a thing of the past. The Painted Desert, at one end of the street, will remain.

January 7, 1917, San Diego Union, 9:1. What is to follow Fair? Subject before Ad Club; G. A. Davidson and D. C. Collier to offers suggestions and prophecies at Wednesday meeting.

January 9, 1917, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners

The President stated that Captain Long, representing the Fourth U. S. Marine Corps, had requested that all the State buildings south and west of the Organ Pavilion be turned over to the U. S. Marine Corps, to be used for barrack purposes for the additional men that were to be stationed at the Marine Camp. Upon motion duly made and carried, Commissioner Cosgrove and the Superintendent were appointed as a committee to inspect the buildings with Captain Long, and report to the Board at a called meeting to be held Wednesday, January 10, at 11 a.m.

The members of the Board of Supervisors, together with Assistant District Attorney Scheuermeyer, appeared before this Board in reference to a location in some of the buildings on the Exposition grounds for County Library purposes. After considerable discussion, in which the Supervisors were advised by this Board that favorable action would be taken regarding same just as soon as the post-Exposition period was over and they had opportunity to decide upon a favorable location; this was entirely satisfactory to the Board of Supervisors, and the matter was left to be handled after the post-Exposition period closed.

The Secretary reported that the Southern Counties Building had offered to take $800.00 for all furniture, carpets, draperies, etc. in what is known as the “Blue Room,” the buffet, kitchen, men’s smoking room, ladies dressing room, and the floor coverings, draperies, etc. in the Modern Bungalow. Upon motion duly made and unanimously carried, the Secretary was instructed to make the purchase through the Exposition, crediting the Exposition with the same on bills for the maintenance of the grounds.

The Secretary reported that he could purchase four show cases in the Art Gallery in the Southern Counties Building for $160.00; one large case in the Holland exhibit, including all velvet-covered stands, etc., for $150.00. Upon motion duly made and unanimously carried, the Secretary was instructed to make the purchase on the requisition issued in December for same.

Mr. Max Youngman, who has looked after and tuned the pianos for the Starr Piano Company during the Exposition period, offered to care for and tune all pianos owned or controlled by the Park Board free of charge, provided the Board designated him as the “Official Piano Tuner” for the Board of Park Commissioners. Upon motion duly made and unanimously carried, Mr. Youngman’s offer was accepted and he declared to be the Official Piano Tuner for this Board.

Colonel J. P. O’Neil, commanding the Twenty-first Infantry, having offered to care for and guard the “Indian Village,” provided same be turned over to him with the privilege of having the regimental headquarters in the Village store, he to make all repairs, etc. to the Village, this Board furnishing material therefor, a motion was duly made and unanimously carried turning the Indian Village over to the Twenty-first Infantry, with the distinct understanding that said Village remains under the control of the Board of Park Commissioners and supervision of the Superintendent of Parks.

Colonel J. P. O’Neil, commanding the Twenty-first Infantry, having requested the use of the International Harvester’s Building for recreational quarters for the men of the Twenty-first Infantry, a motion was made and duly carried turning said building over to the Twenty-first Infantry to be used for recreational quarters, provided suitable quarters are furnished by the Army branch of the Y. M. W. A., in said building; said building to remain under the control of the Park Board and under the personal supervision of the Superintendent of Parks.

Upon motion duly made and carried, the Secretary and Superintendent were instructed to take up the matter of maintenance of animals at the Isthmus Zoo with Mr. Kaufman will full power to act.

January 9, 1917, San Diego Sun, 10:2. Davidson to head Museum Association; to succeed George W. Marston who is now head of Park Board.

January 9, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:7. Japanese give Fair building to city; Exposition officials surprised with splendid gift; plan to keep gardens open.

The city of San Diego today is the owner of the Japanese house and the miniature tea garden surrounding it at the Exposition.

It was given to the city yesterday through the park board, by the Japanese Exhibit Association, which as maintained one of the best of the foreign exhibits on the grounds for two years past.

The garden has been declared one of the prettiest in the country by countless Exposition visitors and the gift came as a complete surprise to members of the park board.

Since the flowers and shrubbery and dwarf trees were planted two years ago, the grounds surrounding the tea house, with is spacious porches and figures which represent many quaint Japanese superstitions, have improved so greatly that San Diegans have feared for sometime that the exhibit would be torn down.

Secretary Penfold is trying to make arrangements for the serving of tea and afternoon lunches so as to keep the pavilion and the ground open during the next three months.

January 10, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4. The announcement has been made of the early completion of the street car line through the city park. The distance remaining to be built is about one and one-half miles. Three bridges will be necessary to complete the line, which will afford a much shorter road to East San Diego, giving residents of that section quicker service.

January 10, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:5. Park car line to be extended soon.

January 10, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:2-3. Completion of car line through park announced; big saving of time to passengers between East San Diego to Fifth and Broadway; work to begin at once.

January 10, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:8, 6:3-4. Madame Schumann-Heink is sponsor of a plan to make San Diego an American Bayreuth; festival of grand opera, symphony concerts scheduled in July at organ; diva deposits $10,000 as part of her guarantee.

January 10, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Great Music Festival.

The establishment of these festivals may be regarded as a dividend which the citizens of San Diego are reaping from their investment in the Exposition, an investment which will continue to pay dividends for many years.

January 10, 1917, San Diego Union, 7:3. Davidson heads Museum Society; succeeds George W. Marston who resigned; membership campaign planned.

January 10, 1917, San Diego Union, 16:2-3. Junior College students seek Exposition buildings for foundation of a Junior College, now part of High School; Southern California Counties Building, the most desirable.

January 11, 1917, San Diego Sun, 2:3. Exposition program schedule.

January 11, 1917, San Diego Sun, 4:4-5. Elizabeth S. Miller protests against post-Exposition.

“The beautiful exposition has done its work, and lived its life, has been ‘officially closed’ and, in the eternal fitness of things, should be allowed to pass. And Balboa Park, as it stands today, should be developed along strictly public park lines for public park purposes, and not be used to exploit the pathetic remains of defunct structures.

January 11, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:2-5. Prominent citizens pledge cooperation in carrying out Shumann-Heink’s plan to make San Diego America’s Bayreuth

January 11, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:3. Indian Village has been given over to 21st Infantry; officers’ quarters are maintained in some of the buildings with the enclosure and guards, who are stationed along the Isthmus at night, have their headquarters there.

The city park commission in session yesterday adopted a plan that is practically a guarantee to the heads of the various branches of military stationed here that grounds and quarters will be provided for them on the Exposition grounds as long as such grounds and quarters are needed.

Further than that the park board has taken no definite action, excepting in the case of the Southern California building, in regard to the many requests that have been received for the use of Exposition buildings. These many petitions are given consideration at almost every meeting of the board, said George W. Marston, chairman, last night. But the three-month post-Exposition period may be far advanced before the final decision is made in regard to most of the buildings, he stated.

The junior college, upper branch of the San Diego High School, is the latest organization to enter the competition for use of the buildings. Those interested in this plan were advised by the park board’s secretary yesterday to file an application in writing.

The Southern California building, the only one that has been set aside for a specific use, is to be a public auditorium. The building and furnishings have already been taken over by the park commission, and the date of dedication of the building to its new use is to be made public in the near future.

The buildings that have been turned over to the park board are the Southern California building, the model bungalow and the Indian Village. The Indian Village has been given over by the park board to the use of the Twenty-first Infantry. Officers’ headquarters are maintained in some of the buildings within the enclosure, and guards, who are stationed along the Isthmus, night and day, also have headquarters there.

The Alameda County building, the Salt Lake Railroad building, and several of the state buildings are some of those which are to be turned over to the park board in the near future. Others, it is expected, will be given to the park near the end of the post-Exposition period.

Many of the buildings on the Isthmus are being razed, and the two-year old joy street is a scene of desolation. The Isthmus, however, is the only portion of the grounds where the wrecking has been started.

The Isthmus zoo is still open to the public, and is to be kept open during the next three months.

January 11, 1917, San Diego Union, 9:3. Assure military grounds in park will be provided; guarantee given by Board yesterday of plenty of room as long as sites there are needed.

January 11, 1917, San Diego Union, 14:1. Southern California Chapter of American Organists Guild arrange recitals at Fair beginning next Monday.

January 11, 1917, San Diego Union, 14:4. Exposition board elects directors at annual meeting.

January 12,1917, Letter, Executive Secretary, Board of Park Commissioners, to Lieutenant Louis H. Bailey, Office of the Quartermaster, Camp Walter R. Taliaferro, San Diego, Cal.

Dear Sir: In reply to yours of the 10th, ult., requesting permission to place gate in south wall of Indian Village, I wish to advise that your request has been granted by the Board of Park Commissioners, on condition that the location and design of the gate shall meet with the approval of the Park Superintendent, Mr. Morley, under whose supervision all alterations to park buildings must be made.

January 12, 1917, Letter, Executive Secretary, Board of Park Commissioners, to Captain E. C. Long, U. S. M. C., Exposition Grounds.

Sir: Referring to your recent application on behalf of the United States Government, for the use of certain buildings on Balboa Park grounds, we beg to present, first, the status of matters in relation to these buildings and the limitations of authority of the Board of Park Commissioners; and, second, our proposals for meeting your needs.

There are six state buildings in the park section south of the organ plaza and contiguous to the military camp. Only one of them, the Washington, is now in actual possession of the Park Board. The Kansas Building has been sold to the Theosophical Society. The New Mexico Commission refuse to convey their building to either the Exposition or the Park, and propose to wreck it for the salvage value. The other three, the Alameda, Utah and Montana, will probably come under park control after the close of the Exposition in April.

According to plans of park treatment recommended by the Citizens Advisory Committee and adopted by the Park Commission, all of the above mentioned buildings, except the New Mexico, were to be wrecked and removed at the close of the Fair on as soon as practicable.

Again, under a strict construction of state and municipal law applying to Balboa Park, the Board of Commissioners should not grant a permanent occupancy of its grounds other than would conserve its landscape or contribute to its use as a park. The extraneous use in 1915 and 1916 by the Exposition was provided for by a special act of the legislature which terminated December 31, 1916. The present commissioners are now confronted by many concessions that were made during the Exposition years and have to adjust them as best they may. The complications of the situation are, therefore, placed before you, in brief, as an explanatory preface to our proposed adjustment of the housing requirements of the U. S. Marine Corps.

The Board has decided to offer for occupancy as barracks the four buildings known as “Washington,” “Utah,” “Montana,” and “Kansas.” The Kansas building will have to be bought in order to include it, but we will undertake to do that and to make the necessary arrangements with the other state commissions and the Exposition authorities. The New Mexico building cannot be promised, under the peculiar circumstances of the case, and the Alameda needs to be retained as part of the equipment of the organ and musical societies.

You have asked us if a lease can be made for these buildings for two or three years. In view of the various phases of the problem as noted above the Board would prefer to give a permit without a time stipulation. It is also questionable whether one Board can bind a succeeding Board to any agreement of this kind. There is no question whatever of your holding through 1917, and, in the opinion of the present commissioners, the attitude of succeeding Boards would be quite as friendly and cooperative as the present one. The City of San Diego and its representative organizations have always encouraged and assisted the army and navy in their plans for making San Diego a base of operations. The Park Commissioners are also appreciative of the parade and musical contributions of the Marine troops in many park functions of a public character.

Referring to personal conversations, it is understood that some conditions regarding sanitation, care of the grounds and the limitation of mess houses to the district now occupied, will be noted in the proposed agreement.

Trusting that the arrangement we have suggested will prove satisfactory to the Marine Corps, we have the honor to remain.

Very faithfully yours.

January 12, 1917, San Diego Herald, 1:3. Car line extension through park is now assured.

January 13, 1917, Exposition Papers, Board of Park Commissioners, Box 2, E-J, San Diego Public Library.

Mr. H. Asakawa granted authority to maintain Japanese Tea Garden presented to the city by the

Japanese Exhibit Association.

January 13, 1917, San Diego Union, 3:6. Cabrillo Club endorses Shumann-Heink plan.

January 14, 1917, Los Angeles Times, 12:4. Fair spirit will love on, exhibits and music to keep Exposition site gay; scientific treasures nucleus of permanent museum; out-door grand opera to be made a reality.

January 14, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:3. An extensive mineral exhibit, property of W. A. Clark of Montana, former U. S. Senator, which has been shown in the Montana Building for two years, has been given by its owner to the San Diego Society of Natural History; the exhibit is to remain in San Diego.

January 14, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:4. Montessori Education Association asks for space in Exposition building for a limited time to conduct a Montessori School.

January 17, 1917, San Diego Sun, 2:1-2. Truck batters way through Exposition gate; gateman swats driver; case goes to law.

Does Exposition Board have legal right to maintain old rules? Roscoe Hazard, owner of Pioneer Truck Company, instructed driver to batter a way through.

January 17, 1917, San Diego Sun, 3:1. Salaries in park given big boosts; some of them to be opposed; Morley’s salary raised by Park Board from $275 a month to $300

January 17, 1917, San Diego Sun, 9:5. Senate passes bill turning park over to Exposition for another year.

January 17, 1917, San Diego Union, 10:1. Montana Building donated to park; Senator W. A. Clark, who built structure, gives deed to Board; cost $10,000.

January 18, 1917, San Diego Sun, 9:2. Park wage raise is up to Council; 10 percent wage raise for park laborers favored; Morley’s salary increase criticized.

January 18, 1917, San Diego Sun, 11:5. Hazard accuses Exposition officials; is to appear before Judge Keating’s court tomorrow.

January 18, 1917, San Diego Union, 3:4. Mayor Capps to probe park employees’ wage increase.

January 19, 1917, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

New Mexico Board of Exposition Managers instructed chairman and secretary to sell New Mexico building; Board decided to wait until a report was received from Mr. Chambers of Santa Fe Railroad Company; Superintendent Morley told not to permit any part of building to be wrecked.

January 19, 1917, San Diego Sun, 2:4. INFORMATION: Exposition program.

January 19, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:4. Increase in park payroll denied; George W. Marston, president of the Park Board, says there has been a decrease of $450 a month.

January 20, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4. An agreement was reached yesterday between Exposition officials and truckmen by which, in the future, trucks will be admitted free of charge to the Exposition grounds when necessary.

January 20, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:3-4. George W. Marston for mayor.

The decision of George W. Marston to be a candidate for the office of mayor of San Diego is a cause for congratulation on the part of every citizen of this community regardless of party affiliation or economic status.

George W. Marston is easily the first citizen of this city. No other man is so enshrined in the hearts of his fellow citizens. For months, scores and even hundreds of men and women have been urging him to accept the nomination, but in every case he has urged the name of someone else.

The person so suggested in every case has either found it impossible to accept for most excellent reasons or has been found unacceptable by the voters who were approached on the subject.

The candidacy of George W. Marston clears the political atmosphere of San Diego.

No other candidate will seriously oppose him. That he will be chosen mayor of the city he has loved and served so well for 46 years, as a private citizen, is a foregone conclusion.

San Diego is to be congratulated upon Mr. Marston’s decision. Let us now, all get together for once in our lives, forgetting past differences and misunderstandings, and let us join hearts and hands in bringing about an


January 20, 1917, San Diego Sun, 9:1. Would keep Pollard Company in city; ordered off Exposition grounds; chamber will act.

January 20, 1917, San Diego Union, 1;5. Marston named for mayor, gives consent to plan; willing to “be run” for office as candidate of Citizens’ and Civic League, he says.

January 20, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1-2. Park Board to confer with city heads on wage dispute; O’Hallaran said controversy over raise in park salaries was started by City Auditor Moody, who was looking for publicity; Morley’s salary was raised from $275 a month to $300 a month; foreman Bode and numerous laborers also given increase.

January 21, 1917, San Diego Union, 2:2-3. Municipal candidates occur as daisies in springtime; from every indication city primary ballot, March 20, will require step-ladder to see over top; George W. Marston endorsed by Citizens’ Committee for Mayor.

Friends of L. J. Wilde, who was first to proclaim himself an aspirant for mayor, shake their heads regarding Mr. Marston.

January 21, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:1-2. EDITORIAL: The going out of Hiram Johnson.

With the big chief out of the way, the little fellows will try to maneuver their own profit by their own tricks and devices. While Hiram Johnson is stepping carefully until he finds his feet firmly under him, the others will be camping on his trail with treacherous intent to knock his pins asunder.

January 22, 1917, San Diego Sun, 11:1-2. H. J. Penfold, Exposition officer, praised for part he took in making Fair a success financially and artistically; 1916 closed with all bills paid and $34,000 to the good; $10,000 in subscriptions yet unpaid, by W. H. P.

January 23, 1917, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

If the New Mexico building becomes the property of this Board, it shall be used by the U. S. Marine Corps for officers’ quarters and headquarters for the regiment for a period of one year with the privilege of renewal at the rate of one dollar per year.

January 23, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4. The city park commissioners have decided to allow the federal government the uses of the Utah, Montana and Washington State buildings for dormitories for 400 additional marines to be stationed in the park.

January 23, 1917, San Diego Sun, 6:2. Marines to be housed in Montana, Washington and Utah State buildings; 400 marines will be accommodated until the new advance station is completed in Dutch Flats; camp in south end of park will accommodate more than 1,000 men from Mare Island and other navy yards; decision made at conference of Preservation Committee and Park Commissioners; Pollard Motion Picture Company request for use of park grounds as a site for its plant was turned down.

January 23, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:6. The housing of 400 additional marines on the Exposition grounds was provided for yesterday, when a conference was held at the Chamber of Commerce between the Park Commissioners and the Executive Committee for the Preservation of the Exposition Buildings; temporary use pending completion of new advance base for Marine Corps, which is to be established at Dutch Flats; Utah, Montana and Washington buildings for dormitories; Camp at south end of Balboa Park will accommodate 1,000 officers and men; request of Pollard Motion Picture Company to continue to use its plant on Exposition grounds was refused; would establish precedent for other concerns; Women’s Headquarters building put in charge of Women’s Reception Committee of Chamber of Commerce.

January 25, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:3. Science of Man exhibit of evolution of man opened in Science and Education Building.

January 26, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4. The Exposition officials have decided to reduce the prices of admission to the grounds on Saturday and Sunday to 10 cents for adults, children under 10 years of age being admitted free.

January 26, 1917, San Diego Herald, 1:1-2. The most lively campaign ever known in San Diego.

January 26, 1917, San Diego Herald, 2:1. Business city of City Beautiful, which?

January 26, 1917, San Diego Sun, 9:1-2. ADVERTISEMENT: San Diego Exposition open every day from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m.

January 26, 1917, San Diego Union, 9:1-2. Exposition advertisement.

January 26, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1-2. Park officials stand trial on charge of incompetence; Superintendent and Secretary of department cited by Mayor to explain reasons for authorizing church and wedding decorations; Marston urges affair be dropped; Mayor said he would render an opinion in a few days.

January 27, 1917, San Diego Sun, 2:1-2. San Diego closed down the “Stingaree” four years ago; Mrs. Jennie M. Bennett, Rev. W. E. Crabtree, Rev. W. B. Thorp, Dr. Charlotte Baker, Rec. Chas. E. Spalding, Mrs Harry H. Weddle, Mrs. R. C. Allen, Rev. R. H. Hollington, and Rev. Edwin F. Hallenbeck quoted..

January 27, 1917, San Diego Union, 2:5. Mayor Capps delays verdict in park investigation; too busy with other things; denies intention to humiliate Marston.

January 30, 1917, San Diego Sun, 3:8. Want to aid in building up that zoo; here’s chance for children and grownups as well.

Children of the public schools, attention! You can now secure memberships in the Junior Zoological Society of San Diego at 50 cents per year. Membership cards will be ready tomorrow at the office of the treasurer, John F. Forward, Jr., vice president American National Bank. Every boy and girl in San Diego from 1 year to 17 years and 11 months is entitled to membership.

All you have to do is call on Mr. Forward with your half dollar and you will be presented with a membership card entitling you to full membership privileges in the zoo society.

Now, you older folks attention, also! President Harry Wegeforth, office 316 Granger block, Fifth and Broadway, has secured the membership cards for adults and every man and woman in this city is invited to join the society right how, on payment of the annual dues of $5.

The society is fully organized and all ready for business. We are going to have the finest zoological gardens in the world right here in Balboa park. We want $10,000 right off quick to buy the animals and provide for them for the coming year. Don’t delay, but get right in the procession tomorrow morning early.

February, 1917, California Garden. Monthly Excursion, by G. R. Gorton.

The Botanical Building is surely the brightest spot on the Exposition grounds at this writing. Many of the various flowering plants therein have broken their own records for size, form, floriferousness, etc., and the resultant effect leaves little to be desired, especially in the way of color. Primula obconica has exceeded itself somewhat this season, and the plants in the lath house have produced flowers fully a third larger than is usual under similar conditions. The Cinerarias, which are there by the hundred, are quite up to expectations, possibly beyond that. The Azaleas are in the pink of condition — some literally, some figuratively. The variety De Schryveriana, a maculated pink, is very beautiful, as are several other similar sorts. Niobe is an excellent white, clear of color, and profuse of bloom — more floriferous than its contemporary, which is, however, a purer, and which shall remain anonymous as far as ye scribe is concerned. There is a specimen of Nephrolepsis, suspended over the pool in the conservatory, which reminds one of the German legend of noses, the owner of which could not stop from growing. However, no one has any desire to hinder this fern in its attempt to emulate Alsophilas Dicksonias and others of their ilk. Many gardeners and nurserymen pronounce it to be one of the finest, if not quite the most beautiful specimen of its kind they had ever seen. It has now a spread of six or seven feet, and is most impressive. Apropos of size in ferns, this Nephrolepsis has a companion — a Goniophlebium, also in a hanging basket, which has developed fronds some seven or eight feet in length and nearly a foot in width, but we expect that sort of thing from representatives of the genus Goniophlebium and do not marvel at it.

Adjoining the south edge of the lily pond in the conservatory is an excellent specimen of Carcia papaya (the papaw or pawpaw of South America, better known simply by its specific name papaya) bearing both flowers and fruit. It is interesting to note the number of uses to which the different portions of the plant are put. The fruits are served raw or as a sauce or boiled or pickled — in fact, almost any way one chooses. The leaves furnish papain, known to medical science as a proloelytic enzyme — whatever that is — and appears to possess properties similar to peptol, which are (untechnically) to act as a leaven for the results of indiscretion in diet. It is also possible to produce tenderloin, or at least tender steaks, from the plebeian round variety by the simple process of wrapping the steaks in the leaves of Carcia papaya. This ought to appeal to use who look with emotions of terror upon the ever-rising barometer of prices of foods. The leaves of the papaya are saponaceous, which suggests still another possible use, and even the seeds of this man-purpose plant have value, medicinally.

Another economic plant of interest is Cyphomandra betacea, tree tomato, a specimen of which is located on the west side of the conservatory. This plant is also of South American origin, and is of the Solanaceae, as its common name suggests. In flavor and uses the fruit is somewhat similar to its cousin, the garden tomato. It is pear-shaped and of an orange color. Cyphomandra betacea is one of about thirty species of this genus.

In the process of rearrangement of the conservatory, one of the Platyceriums has been placed closer to the work at the southwest corner of the house, which will be appreciated by those who wish to observe this very curious epiphytic fern at closer range. This particular specimen is Platycernium alicicorne, Elk Horn Fern.

The Philodendron asperatum, which entwines itself around one of the steel pillars of the conservatory just opposite the entrance, has made excellent growth during the last few months, and now is quite typical of this species of a most interesting genus of plants.

February 1, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:3. Exposition flags at half mast in respect to Carl I. Ferris, former member of Park Board, who died Wednesday morning.

February 3, 1917, San Diego Sun, 5:7. Procession to join the Zoo Society; support is given to plan to provide a fine zoo.

Well, well, boys and girls, the procession of the “Youth of the City” toward the American National bank has begun and calls for “Front, Mr. Forward” are the order of the day. For Mr. Forward is the treasurer of the Junior Zoological society of San Diego and every boy and girl of school age from 5 to 18 is preparing to call on Mr. Forward at once with 50 cents in cash for the purpose of joining the aforementioned society.

Every cent of the money received by the children of San Diego is to be used to buy the collection of lions and leopards and bears and monkeys and parrots and other animals and birds now on the Isthmus in the park, and to establish them in first-class quarters in the city park, where they can be seen and enjoyed by all the children and all the grownups of the whole world.

Boys and girls of San Diego, don’t you want to have a part in the purchase of a great zoo for San Diego?

And grownups, can you think of any finer way to spend 50 cents than by buying a membership for your boy or girl or some other boy or girl you happen to know?

We want 10,000 members right away quick. We ought to have 20,000 members, but 10,000 will help a lot.

Mr. Forward has the membership cards and the handsome buttons already for the juniors. Supt. MacKinnon of the city schools and Supt. West of the country [sic] schools have gone into this thing enthusiastically. The city and county boards of education have endorsed the proposition, also the Ad club, and all the other public bodies are endorsing the idea as rapidly as it is presented to them.

February 3, 1917, San Diego Union, 2:5-6. J. H. Penfold urges expansion of Fair grounds; plan to make Exposition site playground of America advocated; attendance records for January show 29,676 persons passed through the gates; other facts.

The Exposition has just started, in the opinion of J. H. Penfold.

“New is the time,” said the secretary of San Diego’s World’s Fair, “to build on what has been accomplished.”

“We often have talked about making San Diego the playground of the world. Well, here it is — the park. All is done. All’s paid for.

“The great out-of-door organ is there for all time. We can combine music, painting, sciences, everything that goes to mental development and soul uplift — right here.

“And just over there is the stadium for the world’s athletes. That stadium is a much a part of the Exposition as the park itself.

“The Exposition has put San Diego on the map. The world knows that we are here, and much of the world has marveled at what San Diego has accomplished.

“Let us not be too hasty. Why should we recommend now that this building be torn down and that building retained? Let time develop the need or the usefulness of these buildings.

“There they are. Any of them can be made permanent with little expense. It costs money, however, to build them, and it will cost more money to tear them down. Why spend the money for destruction when at some future time we may need the very building we have pulled down?

Use of Building

“The Southern Counties Building can be made into a great auditorium, and San Diego has none.

“Dr. Hewett has arranged for pictures within the next thirty days which will start an art gallery into becoming a permanent institution. The art guilds of San Diego, Los Angeles and San Francisco are cooperating.

“The museum will retain all the exhibits in the Science of Man building as a permanent feature, and collections to show Indian life on the Pacific coast will be added.

“One hundred and twenty thousand dollars were subscribed for research expeditions in Guatemala. The obelisks and inscriptions on rocks are still here to become a part of the permanent museum exhibits. The Sacramento building will house the display.

“It’s up to the people of Southern California to help in making all these great things permanent for the general good of Southern California.

“Los Angeles came across magnificently last year, the big men of that city showed they entertained no prejudice against use. Why, if San Diego develops into as great a city as Los Angeles, there wouldn’t be a barren spot along the coast between the two places. The seashores would be lined with beautiful villas and the dry mesas would be converted into gardens. The only persons in Los Angeles who knock San Diego are a few apartment housekeepers who want to hold the tourists a few days longer for a few dollars more.”

Canada’s Exhibit Goes

The Canadian exhibit will be removed to some other part of the United States to advertise Canada, and its place probably will be taken by a permanent Southern California exhibit, for which Senator Jones’ bill would appropriate $100,000.

Colonel O’Neil and the Twenty-first Infantry will occupy the Painted Desert. The Indian store will be the headquarters and the other buildings will be used by the officers. The regiment will keep the buildings in repair and the entire place, which is to remain intact, will be open to visitors.

The International Harvester building also has been thrown open to officers and men and the Y. W. C. A. branch of the service.

Meanwhile, the state buildings, south of the Cabrillo bridge, will be used by the marines for temporary quarters.

Because of a “sleeper” which it is alleged that Gulfport put into the congressional appropriation for the Mississippi Exposition, the Fisheries building here, whose equipment was considered permanent, has been dismantled and all tanks and machinery have been moved to Gulfport. The bill provided that all federal exhibits, including “the fisheries,” should be transferred to Gulfport. An effort will be made to install new machinery that keeps the water fresh and new tanks through federal appropriation.

The park commission will take over the Exposition April 1 and will have to solve all the new problems.

The attendance for the month of January was 29,676.

February 3, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:3-4. San Diego Museum Society asks public cooperation; retains services of Dr. Hewett; Board seeks new members; Park Commission has granted quarters in California Quadrangle, Administration, Science of Man and Indian Arts buildings..

February 5, 1917, San Diego Sun, 5:1-2. San Diego Museum Association appeals to public for support; aims are told.

February 6, 1917, San Diego Union, 14:2. Mayor Capps yesterday afternoon sent to the City Council will his approval the ordinance raising the pay of park laborers from $2.50 to $2.75 a day; raises in salaries for Superintendent Morley and other employees, already drawing good salaries, were eliminated.

February 8, 1917, Letter, Executive Secretary, Board of Park Commissioners, to San Diego Society of Natural History. . . . Society given permission to occupy U. S. Government Agricultural building, formerly known as Nevada building,

February 9, 1917, San Diego Sun, 3:5-6. Lincoln’s birthday to be celebrated at Exposition.

February 12, 1917, Los Angeles Times, 4:3. War rules at North Island; airplane camp under strict army discipline; more activity now than ever manifested before; actual figures of cost and profit of Exposition.

For the first time the exact figures on the cost of constructing the Panama-California Exposition were made known today, covering a period from the inception of the exposition in 1910 to April 30, 1916, at which time the Panama-California International Exposition took over the affairs. The figures are as follows:

Total expense and construction of the exposition, $2,567,779.

Profits during 1915, $233,721.

Net cost of the Exposition to its backers and San Diego citizens, $2,353,695.

The city of San Diego has $1,481,580 invested in the Exposition in permanent improvements. These include the Puente Cabrillo, grading and planting, a botanical building, irrigation system, retaining walls, paving and surfacing roads, and paths, pools and fountains, Administration, Home Economy, Science of Man, Indian arts, Foreign Liberal arts, Varied Industries and Food Products, and Commerce and Industry buildings.

The gate revenue for both pre-exposition and exposition periods amounted to $569,740, and the concession revenue $184,233. The largest attendance was drawn by musical events at the Spreckels organ. A net surplus of $56,570 was turned over to the Panama-California International Exposition.

February 12, 1917, San Diego Sun, 2:3. INFORMATION: Exposition Program.

February 12, 1917, San Diego Sun, 7:1-2. Memory of Lincoln honored.

February 12, 1917, San Diego Sun, 7:5. Original Expo Figures Given.

The total costs of constructing and operating the Panama-California Exposition, according to W. I. Palethorpe, who has just completed an audit of the books from 1910 to April 30, 1916, the date when the original Exposition was dissolved and its affairs taken over by the Panama-California International Exposition amounts to $2,567,779.52. Profits during 1915 were $233,721.81, leaving a net expense of $2,353,695.97. After paying off a pre-expo indebtedness and an operating deficit covering the first four months of 1916, a net operating surplus of $56,570.45 was turned over to the new board.

Out of the mass of figures in the report can be gleaned some items of special interest. Just $1,481,580 had been invested by the city of San Diego in buildings, pavements, comfort stations, lighting and newer systems and other items of permanent character. Of this amount the park board paid $1,337,109, while the exposition paid $144,471. The Cristobal café, Hawaiian Village and Panama Canal, which were constructed by the exposition, cost $212,333.59. A loss of $35,659 was suffered in their operation and $18,167 was lost through the bankruptcy of the War of the World concession. Postcards and official views lost $3,887 and $3,177 is charged to uncollectable sundry accounts.

The total gate revenue for both pre-exposition and exposition periods was $569,740.71. During 1915 the total number of paid admissions was 1,462,338. Passes totaled 587,692. The total revenue derived from concessions was $184,233.70.

February 12, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1-2. Exposition cost since 1910 shown in official report; expense and construction cost given as $2,567,779.52; profits in 1915 placed at $233,721.81; Park Board gives large fund to cause; admissions disclosed.

Exact figures of the cost of constructing and operating the Panama-California Exposition were given out yesterday for the first time when the audit by W. J. Palethorpe, public accountant, of the Exposition books was made public. The audit covers a period from the inception of the Exposition in 1910 to April 30, 1916, when the Panama-California Exposition was dissolved and its affairs taken over by the Panama-California International Exposition.

The report shows that the total expense and construction cost of the Exposition was $2,567,779.52; the profits in 1915 amounted to $233,721.81; and that the next cost of the Exposition to its backers and to the citizens of San Diego was $2,353,695.97. Of the surplus earned in 1915, $173,763.63 went to pay the indebtedness incurred before the Fair opened and $3,287.53 was required for an operating deficit during the period from December 30, 1915 to April 30, 1916. A net surplus of $56,570.45 was turned over to the Panama-California International Exposition on the latter date.

The apparently dry and uninteresting array of figures in the auditor’s report conceal a mine of information which every citizen of San Diego will welcome.

City’s Investment

The City of San Diego has $1,481,580 invested in the Exposition in permanent improvements, including the Puente Cabrillo, which cost $225,154, grading and planting valued at $357,374, a botanical buildings valued at $53,386, and a host of other permanent improvements. The irrigation system cost $18,168, the sanitary and storm system $38,156, retaining walls $13,564, paving and surfacing roads and paths $114,552, and pools and fountains $14,785. The Administration building cost $26,483, the Home Economy building $41,719, the Science of Man building $44,328, the Indian Arts building $40,113, Foreign Liberal Arts building $54,681, Varied Industries and Food Products building $93,342, Commerce and Industries building $74,403. Other items were street and road grading, top soil and fertilizer, miscellaneous construction, fire station, lighting and electric system, Ethnology building, pergolas and park furniture, comfort stations, Service building, hospital, preliminary expenses, architects’ fees and insurance. The Exposition paid $144,471 of this expense, the Park Board contributing $1,337,109.

Preliminary planting and grading outside the Exposition cost $64,442, which also was paid by the Park Board, making its total donation $1,401,441. In addition, the Board has spent $150,000 for the stadium, $100,000 for a Fine Arts building in the Exposition, and $100,000 for improvements in the park outside the Exposition grounds. For all of the work except the stadium and the outside improvements, the Exposition acted practically as contractor doing the work while the Park Board paid the bills.

Construction Cost

Recapitulation of the expense of constructing the Exposition shows that buildings, streets, bridge and other items under Park Board jurisdiction cost $1,545,912; sewers, entrance, marine camp, telephone system, etc., $80,700; financing the Exposition, discount on bonds, including interest on borrowed money, campaigns for subscriptions, etc., $103,655; expenses of administrative and executive directors, legislative, accounting and collection departments, president, secretary and director-general, $108,827; advertising and exploitation, $291,992; expense of exhibit, traffic and concessions departments, $102,861; expense of constructing Cristobal café, Panama canal and Hawaiian Village exhibits (owned by the Exposition), $212,333; admission and protection during pre-Exposition period, $35,202; net expenses of works department, being the difference between earnings and expenses, $21,695. Other small items brought the total expense to $2,567,779. This amount was paid for as follows:

Park Board, $1,401,441; miscellaneous revenue during pre-Exposition period, $40,320; stock subscriptions and donations, $952,253; amount taken from 1915 profits to pay previous deficit, $173,763.

During the audit only two errors, each of ten cents developed. As they were in different accounts they balanced. As the operations of the Exposition period covered hundreds of thousands of entries, the showing is considered remarkable.

Cost of Publicity

“Advertising, publicity and exploitation during the five years of the pre-Exposition period cost a great deal of money,” reads the report. “The result of this expenditure was to cause the whole of the United States to become familiar with San Diego and its Exposition, and it is extremely doubtful if the same amount of money could have been expended for advertising with anything like the widespread knowledge of San Diego in any other form. The advertising was necessary, of course, and has caused San Diego’s fame to become familiar to most of the inhabitants of the United States. While the item is large, it cannot be considered as anything but insignificant compared with the widespread publicity which has been attained.

“The Department of Ethnology, costing $113,585.39, provided an unique exhibit of the Southwest, which has attracted the attention of visitors and probably was well worth the money expended.

“The items for the Cristobal café, Panama canal and Hawaiian Village were necessary expenditures from the standpoint that it was not possible to get any outsiders to take these concessions. The Cristobal café was a necessity, as the Exposition was forced to have some administrative restaurant where the visitors could be decently entertained. The Panama canal exhibit was planned as the biggest feature of the Isthmus, or amusement street, and seemed to be necessary in order to follow the general idea that the Exposition itself was a celebration of the completion of the building of the Panama canal. The Hawaiian Village, which was another of the principal attractions on the Isthmus, became a burden on the Exposition, and these three enterprises cost the Exposition the large amount of $212,333.59.”

In another portion of the report it is asserted that the operation of these three concessions resulted in a loss of $35,659. The Exposition also lost $13,887 on its postcard and official views sales, and $18,167 advanced to the War of the Worlds, which later went into bankruptcy, as well as $3,177 in uncollectable sundry accounts that are marked down in the loss column.

‘The gate receipt for both pre-Exposition and Exposition periods amounted to $569,740.71,” continues the report. “During the year 1915, the operation period, the total number of paid admissions was 1,462,338 (from coin annuals and purchased tickets), while the admissions on passes (concessionaires, exhibitors and employees) amounted to 587,692. Thus we have a total admission for all classes of 2,050,030. This does not represent the total number of admissions to the Exposition, as there was no count kept of soldiers and sailors in uniform who entered the Exposition without passing through the stiles. It will be noted that the number of paid admissions was smaller than had been anticipated. The revenue derived from concessionaires amounted to $184,233.70. This revenue is low when compared with gate revenue.”

In view of the proposed annual music festivals at the Spreckels organ every July, the following tribute to the drawing power of music at the Exposition is of interest:

“In a study of the revenue items, it was very plainly indicated that many thousands of gate admissions were due to the outdoor entertainment provided at the organ and organ platform. The special attractions seemed to center very largely around the organ platform and that the people of San Diego appreciated this magnificent gift is plainly demonstrated by a study of the statistics showing the increased attendance whenever there was any special entertainment offered at the organ.

“The marine camp was an added attraction that seemed to be much approved by the visitors. The drills were well attended and the band concerts given by the military bodies helped the Exposition out wonderfully, not only in providing entertainment for the visitors, but in saving the Exposition the very heavy expense which would have been necessary in keeping a permanent Exposition band organization.

“It would be difficult to praise too highly the indefatigable energies of those workers who gave their time and labor without any remuneration in the directing of the finances of the Exposition during 1915. Their work is plainly evident throughout the reading of the records of the operations of the Exposition, and the results attained during the Exposition period show the high class of service which was rendered.

“The stockholders may well be grateful that their representatives were so faithful to their trust.”

The report does not deal with the operations of the Panama-California International Exposition, which is understood to have cleared a small surplus, or with any portion of 1917.

Although the permanent improvements in the Exposition owned by the City are valued at only $1,500,000 in the report, in reality they are much more valuable. Nothing is said about the California building, erected by the state at a cost of $250,000 and donated to the city; the Southern Counties building worth $100,000, which has also been presented to the city; the Spreckels organ and pavilion, valued at $125,000, and the numerous state and county buildings, the aggregate value of which probably totals $50,000 or $75,000.

February 14, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:2-3. David A. Curry, Yosemite park host, will lecture every afternoon this week in Exposition auditorium, formerly Southern California Counties building.

February 16, 1917, San Diego Sun, 7:2. Plans for zoo given good boost; many get behind movement to place animals in city park.

February 17, 1917, Los Angeles Times, 7:1. BIG TIME: La Mesa will hold a jollification over the substitution of motor cars for the steam trains which now run into town; the Panama Canal extravaganza, the last of the show; plans made secure financing for San Diego Zoological Society by securing honorary and life memberships.

February 17, 1917, San Diego Union, 2:2-3. Children’s day at Exposition awaits school board sanction.; Washington birthday program for kiddies planned by officials; parade, band concert, military review and Panama Canal performance are among features.

Women’s Club Day, Thursday, March 1; Joseph Jessop archery collection being installed in Army (?) building at north end of Plaza; Park Commissioners to arrange an archery range at some suitable place in the park; Society of Natural History has taken over Nevada building.

February 18, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:1. Operatic soloists to come; nine stars, 25 choristers and 40 musicians will be brought from Metropolitan to San Diego; four great operas to be given at festival; Gadski and Goritz among those engaged, says telegram; noted artist will build scenery.

February 18, 1917, San Diego Union, 2:1-3. Appeal to Congress forecast; President Wilson will ask legislators to clothe him with full power to act should emergency arise; big increase in navy measure is proposed.

February 18, 1917, San Diego Union, 2:3. German raider identified as cruiser Vineta.

February 18, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:2-3. Marston for Mayor club campaign workers named; city executive maintains silence regarding candidacy; three men announce intention to make race for official toga; school and council aspirants file petitions.

February 18, 1917, San Diego Union. Playground Commissioners plan May Day Festival, by Josephine Randall, director, Golden Hill Playground.

February 19, 1917 (?), Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

After thoroughly discussing the proposition, a motion was duly made and unanimously carried authorizing the President of this Board to confer with Senator Edgar Luce in reference to securing a lease by State Legislature of the California State Building to the San Diego Museum Association.

The Superintendent having reported that a number of complaints had been made regarding women and children being insulted on the West side of Balboa Park during the past week, a motion was duly made and carried instructing the Superintendent to report such cases, or any other infractions of the rules and regulations of the Park to the mounted police.

Upon motion duly made and unanimously carried, the Executive Secretary was authorized to write a letter of thanks and appreciation to Superintendent of Police Steer for his kindness in placing a mounted policeman on the West side of Balboa Park, stating that the President of this Board would call upon him at an early date in reference to same.

February 19, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4. Ten-minute talks will be given next Saturday at the meeting of the Audubon Society at the Sacramento Building at the Exposition. About 300 invitations have been issued and these will be good for admission into the grounds.

February 19, 1917, San Diego Sun, 7:65-6. High cost of living not felt at Isthmus zoo; it costs but $3.09 per day., by J. C. Thompson, Surgeon, U. S. Navy.

The acceptance of a gift depends upon several factors. Of these the vital question is whether after receiving it one can afford to keep it. At present the best collection of animals in any zoo on the west coast is to be seen on the Isthmus at the exposition. As it is now well known, there is a movement on foot headed by the Zoological Society, fostered by The Sun, approved by the park board, and supported by the chamber of commerce to purchase these animals and give them to the Zoological society, which in return will maintain them and place them on exhibition in the future zoological garden in the pepper grove.

Before accepting this charge, it was necessary for the Zoological society to obtain some date as to what the upkeep of the animals would cost. To this end one of the members of the society volunteered to undertake the care of those belonging to D. C. Collier, some loaned to the Zoological society, and a few that belong to the park.

When the question of the acquisition of these animals is broached to certain conservatives they appear stricken with fear at the enormous amount of meat the lions and tigers are supposed to consume, quoting figures they must have obtained from some farmer’s almanac, and shrinking from joining the Zoological society because of the supposed high cost of maintaining large animals. Some compromise by desiring the Zoological society to only place on exhibit the local ground squirrels, gophers and field mice, thereby losing sight of the real function of a great zoological garden, which is to house and exhibit, along with the local fauna, a representative collection of the large exotic species. When these people think of a lion eating 15 to 20 pounds of meat a day, they think of the cost in terms of beefsteak at the butcher shop. As a matter of fact, the meat problem at a zoo is far more simple than at a home as the animals are fed horse meat. Old horses cost from $2 to $4 depending upon their size, and on fair-sized horse last all the animals in the Isthmus zoo for one week.

There is here submitted for the information of the public an accounting of the receipts and expenditures for 31 days during which record was kept.


  1. C. Collier $ 93

Zoological Society 10

Park Board 10

Total $ 113


Salary of keeper $ 45.00

Horse meat 5.25

Bread (156 loaves) 9.42

Carrots (4 bags) 5.00

Hay (2500 pounds) 29.00

Drinking pans .60

Medicine .50

Total $ 95.77

As will be seen there is a balance of $17.22.

It may be seen at a glance that the upkeep of these animals is far below what one unacquainted with the management of a zoological garden would estimate. The animals have actually been fed and care for at a cost of $3,00 per day. This surely is a figure that should not terrify even the most conservative.

Results of this kind are only obtainable in a natural history society in the early years of its life when much of the work is done by the members who are students of nature and lovers of animals, and who will give of their time and labor.

The funds of the Zoological society will be devoted to the purchase of animals which will be placed on exhibition for the instruction and pleasure of the public. The officers will for years be chosen from the ranks of volunteers. There will be no high-salaried directors or costly secretaries. The money subscribed by members to the society will revert to the public increased one hundred fold exactly as it does to the people of New York from their zoological garden.

February 20, 1917, Letter, Carleton M. Winslow to Dr. Edgar L. Hewett regarding disposition of Exposition buildings (George W. Marston Papers, Collection 219, Box 2).

Dear Dr. Hewett:

It has been in my mind to put in writing what, after much thought, seems to be the logical disposition of the Exposition buildings and grounds now that the fair has closed and especially this disposition in relation to the Museum Association.

In the interest of brevity, even with the possibility of losing emphasis in a matter in which I feel very strongly and earnestly, I will write the following in as few words as possible.

First, I think it is clear to anyone who has given careful thought to the matter, that the temporary buildings, having now fulfilled the purpose for which they were built, should go. This good work had been commenced in the Isthmus and should proceed with as much rapidity as possible until everyone of this class of the whole group has been razed and the premises cleared and restored to their natural condition.

The same is true of the State and County building group, and I hear, with regret, that the demolition of these buildings has not yet begun. I understand that these buildings have been turned over to the government to be used as barracks for a term of years, and that one reason for this action was that it would assist the laudable purpose of keeping the troops, with their payroll, in the community. This reason for keeping the buildings in the park is wrong for it is certain that the troops will stay in San Diego and satisfactory quarters could be found for them elsewhere, and most emphatically a public city park is not an appropriate nor satisfactory place for them.

As to the temporary main buildings of the Exposition, all of them, viewed in the light of logical park improvements, should go, leaving the permanent California Quadrangle group, as was the original intention, the only, or rather, the main exception. The other exceptions are the Santa Fe Indian Village at the north end of the park and the Botanical Building (both of which are of permanent construction and for obvious reasons should be retained), the Service Building, the Organ Pavilion, the Administration Building and the two buildings flanking the California Quadrangle to the East, all of which I will touch upon.

The Santa Fe exhibit is educational and entertaining and is naturally retained as a picturesque and valuable park improvement. It is clearly of interest to the whole public.

The retention of the permanently constructed Botanical Building is necessary and the reasons obvious. It is the work room and show place of the Park Board.

The Service Building is practically necessary and is not unsightly.

The Organ Pavilion is, in the abstract, a permanent feature of the park. It’s [sic] location during the Fair, as part of the Exposition group and tied in by temporary, adjoining buildings, was good enough, though not ideal. Standing alone — I say it most respectfully — it will be unsightly in the extreme. My personal relations with its architect are most cordial and I would be glad indeed to have him equally frank with me in similar circumstances, when I say that I consider then [sic] building is not successful, either in regard to the site or design. The front of the organ should face the South and the City. This would bring the sun to the backs of the audience and into the face of the performers. The building is too ornate and is not in harmony with the architectural character that the park should surely have. The building should be at the head of the large plaza instead of at its foot, perfecting the future architectural part of the park arrangement.

“But what of the cost?” the generous donor of this fine gift may say. This question should be met squarely, bravely, honestly and generously, and the change made.

As to the Indian Arts, the Science of Man and the Administration Building, these should be retained, not because of a desire to keep any of the temporary buildings as such, but simply as an extensive and necessary part of the California Quadrangle.

The Museum Association is the only project which should have a permanent home in the park. Its work is the only one to which the buildings of the Quadrangle are appropriate. The precedent established by the New York City Board, concerning the Metropolitan Museum Association in Central Park, should be followed. Granting this, the California Building and the Fine Arts Building are not adequate to the needs of the Association, and it is obvious that the Indian Arts and Science of Man Buildings should be used by the Association, until such time when buildings identical in site and plan can be substituted.

In the opinion of the writer an architectural framing of the larger plaza would be a logical and beautiful park improvement and should consist of the arcades or portals around it, and built into the East front of the two buildings mentioned, and also tied into the Organ Pavilion on the North.

An important bearing upon the subject of the demolition of the temporary buildings is their present and future condition. This is a matter of considerable speculation. Their two weakest points are the staff work and the foundations. The staff ornament and moldings will soon go to pieces. This is clearly seen throughout the Exposition. The foundations may last satisfactorily for, possibly, two to four years more.

To make the Indian Arts and the Science of Man Buildings satisfactory for a longer term of years it will be necessary to shore up the outside walls and to put in concrete foundations of [sic] the future permanent extension of the Quadrangle, and to remove the staff decoration, covering the void spaces with expanded metal lath and plaster. In my opinion, this would make the buildings usable for a long term of years. The present imitation roofing tile could be removed and replaced with mission tile. This work would not be wasted as it would form part of the future permanent building. The buildings could be made fireproof by taking out the present electric wiring and replacing in conduit what little wiring is found necessary. General illumination in buildings of this sort would not be a necessity. The floors could be covered with linoleum which is reasonable [sic] fireproof and sightly; in any event, the floors should be protected.

The cost of making theses changes would be small and the work to be done does not present any mechanical difficulties.

The Administration Building should be retained because it is the only building with office facilities in the park. It has permanent foundations and its practical position is obviously good. The writer has always believed that architecturally it helped the permanent group from the West. Its fenestration is not good, but the windows have quite disappeared in the planting which surrounds it. Its only weak point is the staff entrance ornamentation, which is not necessary to the appearance of the building and could be removed and repaired with plain plastering at small cost.

The writer wished to reiterate with emphasis that the Science of Man Building and Indian Arts Building should be retained only because they are a necessary extension of the California Quadrangle and because their repair would be in the nature of permanent park improvement and reasonably inexpensive.

Everything else of a temporary nature should most emphatically go and this conclusion has been reached after the question has been viewed from every angle, sentimental, educational, artistic and economical.

Very faithfully yours,

(Signed) C. M. Winslow

February 20, 1917, Los Angeles Times, 6:7. Oppose wrecking of Southern Counties Building; Fire Chief Almgren, City Engineer George Cromwell, and Building Inspector J.E. Field recommend demolition of this building and the San Joaquin Building because of weak foundations and weak trusses supporting the roof.

The Southern Counties Building cost Los Angeles, San Diego and other southern counties about $250,000 and was considered one of the most substantial structures of the exposition.

February 20, 1917, San Diego Sun, 2:5. INFORMATION: Exposition schedule.

February 20, 1917, San Diego Sun, 2:6. Fund grows fast; many favor zoo; three life members and many active members join Society.

February 21, 1917, San Diego Sun, 7:2. Park Board’s claim denied.

The park board was severely rapped by the auditing committee today and a $97 claim by it was rejected.

The claim was for payment of a Los Angeles architect for making plans for a bear den and aviary in the park.

“There’s an architect in the city engineer’s office who can do such work,” declared Cosgrove.

“If the park board could not have used him, it could have, at least, employed a San Diego architect,” said Mayor Capps.

“The principle of this claim combats the best interests of the city,” stated Moody. All three voted to reject it. Fay was absent.

February 21, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:1. “Miss San Diego” (Marian Vodges) to lead children to Organ Pavilion tomorrow afternoon, Washington’s birthday.

February 22, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:2. National holiday to be celebrated at Fair today; “Miss Columbia” will lead children across bridge; patriotic program arranged.

February 23, 1917, San Diego Sun, 3:3. Exposition program in commemoration of Washington’s birthday to be held tomorrow.

February 23, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:7-8. City votes bonds for great Lower Otay Dam.

February 24, 1917, San Diego Sun, 4:6. Washington is honored at Fair.

February 24, 1917, San Diego Sun, 12:6. Many joining Zoo Society of San Diego; fund to buy animals for park is increasing rapidly.

February 24, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:1. First President will be honored at Fair today; observance on birthday deferred because of rain; school children will attend patriotic program in honor of George Washington.

February 25, 1917, San Diego Union, 3:2-4. Memory of George Washington honored with celebration at Exposition; Daughters of American Revolution arrange fitting program; school children participate on deferred occasion; infantry drill; organ recital.

February 25, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:4. Letter from George W. Marston about Carleton M. Winslow.

Editor, San Diego Union: It has recently been reported in the daily press that the city auditing committee has severely criticized the board of park commissioners for employing C. M. Winslow as an architect for park building. The chairman of the committee, according to reports, expressed great indignation that the park commissioners should select a Los Angeles architect to design a “bird cage,” etc.

We desire to state the simple facts of the matter.

The former board of park commissioners considered Mr. Winslow as their advisor and designer for architectural work. For about four years he was Mr. Goodhue’s representative in the planning of Exposition buildings and was also the superintendent of construction of the California and Fine Arts buildings. Owing to the close relationship between Exposition and park organizations, it was very natural that Mr. Winslow should be selected for distinctly park architectural service.

Mr. Winslow, with his family, lived in San Diego nearly five years and only recently removed to Los Angeles, His last work for the park — plans for a bird house, or aviary and bear pit — was done in 1916 while he was a resident of San Diego, his bill, therefor, was $95, which the present park commissioners approved, although the work was ordered by a former board.

In brief, the present board has never employed any architect, the former board never employed a Los Angeles architect, the criticized bill was properly authorized and properly allowed.

George W. Marston,

President, Board of Park Commissioners

February 25, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:3. Panama Canal exhibit at the Isthmus will be open this afternoon for the special benefit of children who will be admitted free regardless of age.

February 26, 1917, San Diego Sun, 4:6-8. Just Among Ourselves, by W. H. P.

The tourists, whom we had expected in large numbers in the winter of ‘14-15 and ‘15-16, went to Florida, although, of course, many came to California to see the expositions; but the only substantial evidence we received of the big prosperity wave was the establishment of the big potash works in Chula Vista. The depression seemed rather more acute than was actually the case, because of the tremendous growth we had received in the four years preceding 1913.

Now, however, the tide has turned and is coming toward us with increased volume and velocity.

February 26, 1917, San Diego Sun, 7:5. Many joining the Zoological Society.

February 26, 1917, San Diego Sun, 9:4. Marston explains Park Board bill.

February 27, 1917, San Diego Sun, 2:4. Information: Exposition Schedule.

February 28, 1917, San Diego Sun, 3:5. More members for Zoo Society.

February 28, 1917, San Diego Sun, 5:5. Women’s program at the Exposition.

February 28, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:3. Women to have special day at Fair tomorrow; speakers and members to be members of gentle sex; reception planned at Women’s Headquarters

March, 1917, California Garden. Monthly Excursion, by G. R. Gorton

The Stadium and other portions of the park adjacent thereto have been the beneficiaries of considerable improvement in the way of new planting — particularly the Stadium proper. The automobile parking station at the north gate is being planted with Acacia longifolia, grouped near the corners and all along the inside of the fence. Acacia decurrens and Acacia cultriformis have also been use in or near the corners, while the groups of Acacia longifolia have been varied with occasional Eucalyptus globulus or Eucalyptus corynocalyx, and further augmented with Pittosporum undulatum. The terraced slopes inside the amphitheater are clothed with Mesembryanthemum acinaciforme, while on the outer banks the finer leaves Mesembryanthemum floribunda forms an excellent cover.

The circular plot north of the Stadium is to be planted with white and pink Cherokee roses — possibly to excite the envy of visitors from colder climes where Cherokees cannot be grown. The area south of what is known as the “Magnolia diamond” is being planted with Peppers and Acacia Baileyana. Over towards the west on the narrow strip of ground between the street car track and the High School, Coprosma forms the body of the planting — bordered with Veronica Imperialis and edged with Mesmembryanthemum floribundum, while further south the Coprosma gives place to Veronica elliptica, varied through the center with a single row of Acacia Baileyana spaced about twenty-five feet apart.

The unusually early frost which visited this vicinity was rather harsh in its treatment of some of the planting in the lower levels. In Cabrillo canyon, blew the U. S. Marine barracks, a number of Eucaylptus globulus and Eucalyptus corynocalyx succumbed entirely and others were severely nipped, but Eucalyptus rudis came through scathless. Pinus muricata was somewhat damaged. Nearer the bridge which spans this canyon, Acacia longifolia were touched. Acacia melanoxylon and Myoporum were killed outright. The casualties among the Pinus canariensis consisted of several killed and many injured, but of the Torrey pines nearby of which there are, by the way, something like twenty acres, no injury was observed.

Adjacent to the Torrey pines planting, another twenty acres is being planted with oaks, both Quercus Suber, the cork oak, and the native live oak, Quercus agrifolia, which in years to come should make a very impressive showing — as a sort of heritage to posterity.

A little gulch or “canyonette” (if a coined work is pardonable), about opposite Spruce street, is to be metamorphosed into a Rhododendron canyon, with suitable varieties. The location would seem to be ideal — at least from the west boulevard or from the Cabrillo canyon below. The planting of this shady canyon in this manner will form an interesting experiment in Rhododendron growing in this part of the world.

Above, on the West Drive, Spirea Reevesii is in full bloom and looks very well indeed. Later on Spirea Van Houttii will be doing likewise. The outlook for the “strawberry” crop, or Arbutus unedo, nearby is very good, as this interesting tree is now bearing its curious and surprisingly strawberry-like fruits.

In the Golden Hill section of the park, Ceanothus thrysiflorus and Ceanothus cuneatus are displaying a wealth of blue and white bloom. These groups are forcible arguments in favor of planting more of the native shrubs.

The Exposition section of the park has not come in for its due share of attention in this month’s “Notes”; but this is not because of any lack of merit, but merely because the writer is not twins. The Botanical Building is especially beautiful at this time, not only having lost nothing of its effectiveness since last month, but having gained by the addition of new material. The fern collection has been augmented by several new species of Davallia which promise well. Davallia phyxidata has not yet borne enough fronds to warrant an opinion of its qualities. Davallia fijiensis, as far as one is able to judge, should prove to be a valuable addition as the fronds so far in view are very delicate and lacy in appearance, both in this species and in the sub-species major. Davallia ornata is somewhat coarser, but attractive.

Saxicophylla spectabilis (or Akokanthera spectabilis) is a conspicuous feature of the conservatory, several specimens having been placed at the extreme north end of the building. This shrub, which is said, by the way, to possess toxic properties, is now bearing clusters of white flowers which contrast very pleasingly with its bronze foliage. Here and there through the conservatory Clivias charmas, as always with their trusses of “persimmon red” flowers.

The Gloxinias are just commencing to put in their very welcome appearance. There are a number of fine specimens already in place and there will be many more before long.

March, 1916. “San Diego Military Sites,’ by Jerome W. Hinds, 1986.


A semi-permanent camp established March 1916 to shelter Regular Army troops in the Morley Field area of Balboa Park. The camp was name in honor of First Lieutenant Walter R. Taliaferro who was killed in an aviation accident in 1915. At times this camp was headquarters for the Army’s Southern California Border Patrol District. It should be noted that in Florence Christman’s “The Romance of Balboa Park,” the author states that the Army used the 1915-16 Indian Village during World War I and that the 21st Artillery was there?

March 1,1917, Los Angeles Times, 7:3. Pick San Diego and San Pedro; Naval Commission makes report to Congress; favors establishing academy for training; submarine base for Los Angeles harbor.

March 1, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:1-8. Bernstoff’s hand seen in scheme involving joint attack on U. S.; expose German plot with Japan, Mexico.

March 1, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:7-8. Details of amazing diplomatic intrigue by Kaiser known to U. S. since February 3.

March 1, 1917, San Diego Union, 3:1-2. Declaration of war on Germany by U. S. expected in empire.

March 1, 1917, San Diego Union, 3:2. Women to hold sway at Fair grounds today; review of 21st Infantry on Plaza de Panama at 2 p.m.; program at Organ Pavilion following; reception in California building at 4 o’clock,

March 1, 1917, San Diego Union, 10:2-3. World’s noted grand opera stars urge music festival; Miss Gertrude Gilbert, member of San Diego Exposition Board, returns from New York after visit with Mme. Schumann-Heink and assures promised event in July.

March 2, 1917, San Diego Sun, 5:3-4. Clubwomen boycott spud and proud onions; Miss Alice Lee presented a plan for the municipal collection of garbage; session held yesterday at the Cristobal café on the Exposition grounds; address by Mrs. C. C. Arnold of Riverside; boycott resolution presented by Mrs. E. M Capps.

March 2, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:2-3. George W. Marston announces platform in communication to club.

March 2, 1917, San Diego Union, 6. San Diego County Federation of Women’s Clubs ban odoriferous onion and soaring spud; resolutions declaring boycott on precious commodities adopted; two stable articles of food have reached an almost prohibitive price to a large percentage of the people in the country; present price is largely attributable to speculation; boycott is the most speedy and effective means of lowering the price of these food products to a normal value.

March 2, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:4-5. General music committee hears report on festival; final decision regarding date of proposed production is postponed; plan take shape on presentation in New York, Miss Gertrude Gilbert tells local board.

March 4, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:4-5. Unique stunts planned for Hotel Guests Fair Day; old stage coach will be used as part of program next Thursday.

March 4, 1917, San Diego Union, 3:1-2. Club Women of County meet at Exposition; addresses, music are feature of program at organ; Mrs. Barnes sings.

March 5, 1917, Letter, A. S. Hill, Executive Secretary, to Dr. Edgar L. Hewett, San Diego Museum; Board of Park Commissioners Correspondence, Box 1, File, San Diego Museum, 1916-1930, San Diego Public Library.

The Board decided upon a location for an archery range south of the organ.

March 6, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:5. Exposition wins subscription suits; Orange County judge sits in cases regarding stock of 1916 Company.

March 7, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 7:3-4. Tomorrow will be Hotel Guests Day at Exposition.

March 7, 1917, San Diego Sun, 9:7. Hotel Day at Exposition tomorrow.

March 7, 1917, San Diego Sun, 12:3. Pollard Company will remain in city; stock selling campaign inaugurated.

March 7, 1917, San Diego Union, 3:3. Program outlined for Hotel Guests Day at Exposition tomorrow; early days of city to be depicted at Organ Pavilion at 2 o’clock.

March 8, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 2:2-4. Exposition Notes.

The exposition is arranging for an old-fashioned barbecue complimentary to the Twenty-first Infantry on Wednesday, March 14, which will be held on the tractor field, adjacent to the Twenty-first Infantry camp, at which time a program of athletic sports will be rendered to add interest to the occasion.

The Ancient Order of Hibernians are arranging a program to be given at the Organ Pavilion on St. Patrick’s day, March 17, at 2:30 p.m., at which time the Rev. M. C. Keating of Del Mar will deliver the address and Wm. A. Steffin, of Los Angeles, who has won himself the title of the “John McCormick of California,” will give a recital of Irish songs characteristic of the occasion, full program of which will be announced at a later date.

The children of San Diego county are invited to attend a free performance at the Panama canal on Saturday and Sunday afternoons, continuous from 1:30 to 5 p.m. The admission for adults has been placed at 10 cents.

At noon, Monday, March 12, a reception luncheon of the members of the “Thank You Special” will be held at the Cristobal café. The Spanish troubadours will make a special trip from Los Angeles to entertain the guests and, no doubt, will add much to the success of the function. This will be the last appearance of the Spanish troupe before their departure for the east where they have secured an engagement to tour the country with one of the circuits, and their many friends are cordially invited to be present on the occasion, for which the management of the Cristobal café has arranged a splendid menu.

In addition to the regular program for hotel guests day, Thursday, March 8, the Spanish troubadours, who entertained visitors so successfully during the period of 1916, will have a part in the program which, no doubt, will be greatly enjoyed by their many friends.

March 8, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 3:8. Chief Iodine died at the Sawtelle Soldiers’ Home early this week; he was 89 years old.

March 8, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 14:4. Guest Day at Exposition unique.

March 8, 1917, San Diego Sun, 7:7-8. George W. Marston announces platform: the waterfront, factories and industries; health and sanitation..

March 8, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:7-8. Mme. Nellie Melba, famous soprano, sang at Organ Pavilion yesterday morning during informal visit as Dr. Stewart was ready to rehearse his daily program.

March 8, 1917, San Diego Union, 7:1-2. Old stage coach will dash through streets today; original vehicle used in Horton House days to make trip from Plaza to Exposition as part of Hotel Guests Day entertainment.

March 9, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 3:5. Hotel Guests have big time at Exposition.

March 9, 1917, San Diego Sun, 4:4. Hotel Guests at Exposition yesterday.

March 9, 1917, San Diego Sun, 9:4. Valuable Murillo painting, once at Mission San Diego de Alcala, may leave city.

March 9, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:2-4. Hotel managers act as bellboys at Guests Day celebration held at Organ Pavilion; hundreds attend program; old stage coach used to deliver performers to hotel desk where stunts were put on before crowd; battle for grips enlivens occasion.

San Diego hotelmen and their guests has a merry frolic at the Exposition yesterday afternoon when they entertained with a program of their own making.

It was a visitor’s day — hotel guest day — and members of the San Diego and Coronado winer [sic] colonies were out in force for a good time. The program was held at the Spreckels Organ Pavilion.

It would be hard to imagine anything funnier than James H. Holmes of the U. S. Grant Hotel, Sam Porter of the San Diego, E. A. Cole of the St. James, Ernest White of the Sandford, and William Kamps of the Maryland, as bellboys. They sat on a bench and alternately went to sleep and engaged in a battle of words and threw the dice, to the great amusement of spectators.

George W. Marston, who was a clerk in the old Horton House, which stood on the site of the U. S. Grant Hotel, was proprietor and master of ceremonies. Orrin L. Chaffin, assistant manager of the U. S. Grant Hotel, was chief clerk. For the most part the program was impromptu, and that seemed to make it all the more enjoyable.

The old stage coach, which made many a trip overland and which deposited guests at the Horton House, came rattling up to the hotel, which was on the stage of the organ. It was filled with passengers and their luggage, and the “bellboys” fought over the old-fashioned telescopes and handbags, just as was done years ago. When they reached the office, which was a duplicate of that of the Horton House, some of the old furniture being used, the guests were met by Proprietor Marston and assigned to rooms by Clerk Chaffin. There were some suspicious guests who fought for possession of their grips with the bellboys and Chaffin was forced to reprimand bellboy Holmes severely when he told a stranglehold on the valise of one of the guests, determined to make him “come through: with a thin dime. Towards the last of the performance, the “bellboys,” all of whom were hotel managers, jumped fairly out of their chairs as the word “Front.”

In the old days there was a potato kept on the desk of the old Horton House into which each guest speared the pen after he had registered. There was no potato on the desk yesterday. Potatoes cost too much money nowadays, explained Proprietor Marston. There was, however, a large bell, which Chaffin punched religiously, mainly to impress guests with the wonderful service they were getting, and, incidentally, to wake up the bellboys. It is not considered good form these days for bellboys to sleep, although it has been done Chaffin admitted.

The program was unique. The speakers and singers and entertainers were paged and brought up to the lobby, where they did their stunts, instead of being introduced to the audience. And when a man had talked long enough in the opinion of both Mr. Marston and the audience, the stage coach would come rolling up, the clerk would get action from the noisy end of the bell, the bellboys would scream, the passengers would chatter, and the speaker — would stop. It was a splendid way of giving the performer “the hook,” although it was not given too frequently.

  1. C. Godfrey, technical director of the Pollard Picture Plays, was responsible for the splendid reproduction of the scene which depicted the lobby of the old Horton House. Godfrey was complimented highly on his work. The old stage was loaned by T. P. Getz, proprietor of Ramona’s Marriage Place at Old Town.

Charles Linwood opened the program with a few stories. Raymond Baldwin, Graham McWilliams and Theron Stendal, comprising the U. S. Grant grill entertainers, gave an enjoyable number. Miss Amber Fay and Miss Margie Fay, also of the U. S. Grant Hotel, gave a pretty duet number, which brought them volumes of applause. Mr. Flanders was at the piano.

One of the hits of the afternoon was contributed by Gertrude McDonald and Beatrice Snyder of the Polhemus Hotel, who, dressed as Spanish troubadours, gave a dancing number. The children made a decided impression on those present.

Mr. and Mrs. Frederick Reyer of the Carnegie apartments gave a vocal duet which was enthusiastically received. Mr. Stickney was accompanist. Miss Joy Babcock and Miss Nellie Hartman, of the San Diego Hotel, scored a hit. Mrs. Hartman’s singing was one of the high spots of the program. In fact, every number was received with great enthusiasm. Signor Picci, of Hotel del Coronado, baritone soloist, gave an enjoyable operatic number, and Jack Holland and his dancing partner, Miss Florence Gustave, gave an exhibition of ballroom dancing.

Colonel W. R. Riley, one of the passengers on the old Concord coach yesterday, was stage agent for the Northwestern Stage Company in 1870, the line running from Salt Lake City, Utah, to Portland, Oregon, 1250 miles. Mr. Riley also saw the last spike driven which connected the Union and Central Pacific Railroad Companies at Promontory, Utah, in 1869. He came to San Diego six years ago, and now resides at Thirty-Second and Myrtle Streets.

Before the program at the organ, there was a review of the Twenty-first Infantry at the Plaza de Panama, when the colors were presented by Mrs. Susan Meigs Corliss. After the organ program a reception was held in the California Building. This was under the direction of a committee of women headed by Elizabeth T. Arnold.

At the reception tea was served with a dainty lunch, and an enjoyable musical and literary program was given. Among those who took part were Miss Marian Grace Hopper, whistler; Miss Nellie Hartman, soprano; Miss Babcock, violinist; Miss Maybell Brightwell, who gave Irish songs; Miss William Casebeer, who was accompanist, and the Spanish singers and dancers who were employed at the Exposition during 1915 and 1916.

The committee in charge of the celebration consisted of E. A. Cole, chairman; Sam Porter, William A. Kamps, H. A. Frisbie and Frederick B. Wilson.

March 10, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 2:1. Miss Dorothy Spinney, Greek tragedienne, to be guest at luncheon in Cristobal Wednesday.

March 11, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:2. Noted Jessop archery collection installed in San Diego Museum.

March 12, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 7:4. St. Patrick’s Day at Exposition to be held at Organ Pavilion Saturday afternoon.

March 14, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 5:1. Colonel D. C. Collier spoke in behalf of George W. Marston for mayor at University Heights Improvement Club last night.

March 14, 1917, San Diego Union, 2:5. French exhibit to be sent home; Consul-general here to make arrangements.

March 14, 1917, San Diego Union, 3:1-2. Marston discusses campaign from personal standpoint.

March 15, 1917, San Diego Sun, 2:5. INFORMATION: Exposition Schedule.

March 15, 1917, San Diego Sun, 6:3. U. S. boys are honored at Exposition; barbecue and celebration given the men yesterday at the tractor field.

March 15, 1917, San Diego Sun, 7:3-5. George W. Marston for mayor.

March 15, 1917, San Diego Sun, 8:2. Boxers at Exposition; prior to the barbecue held at the Exposition yesterday afternoon the U. S. service men were entertained with two boxing bouts and a battle royal.

March 15, 1917, San Diego Union, 3:4-5. Marston tells of early struggle for railway.

March 15, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:4-5. Exposition gives barbecue to Uncle Sam’s men in blue; two battalions of Infantry participate in feast witnessed by officials and friends; medals presented band winners; Davidson addresses soldiers; Secretary Penfold planned celebration.

March 16, 1917, San Diego Sun, 4:6-8. Marston tells union workers why he favors organization of toilers; gives his side of former dispute with labor.

March 16, 1917, San Diego Sun, 9:4. Ready for gala St. Patrick’s day event at Fair; fine program arranged; Congressman to be there.

March 17, 1917, San Diego Sun, 13:3-6. Marston’s work on behalf of railroad to the east deserves the gratitude of every San Diegans.

Today The Sun makes a categorical assertion that with the single exception of John D. Spreckels (who, by the way, is not running for mayor) George W. Marston has done more to bring about the dreams of half a century — a direct eastern railroad — than any other San Diegan. Without the aid of George W. Marston there would probably be no S. D. & A. railroad today!

March 17, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:4. St. Patrick’s Day to be observed at Fair today; congressional party will witness review; concert and luncheon planned.

March 18, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:3-7. St. Patrick’s memory honored; Members of the House Committee on Naval Affairs and their wives attend celebration; program at Exposition yesterday voted one of post-season’s most successful; Father Martin C. Keating of Del Mar delivered the St. Patrick’s Day oration on “The Influence of the Irish in Colonial Days”; Mrs. L. P. Padgett presented the colors at the review of the Twenty-first Infantry; well-known Irish airs played by Dr. Stewart and sung by soloists at the organ; reception given by the Women’s Board at the California building..

March 18, 1917, San Diego Union, 2:1. Bib celebration planned to close Fair season March 31; dinner and ball at Cristobal Café.

March 18, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:2-4. Exposition grounds will become nation’s most beautiful civic center, by Rev. R. D. Hollington.

Do you know, Mr. San Diego, that two weeks from today, April 1, marks the opening of the most complete and beautiful municipal center in the whole United States? On that date the control of the Exposition grounds within our park passes back into the hands of the people. Do you realize that while San Diego has been “put on the map” and has become well known through the Exposition, yet the greater value of the Exposition remains?

Consider if you will what it means to have free and open access to a wonderful Spanish city of magic and beauty. Mr. Howe in his lecture on “City Building” rather astonished you, Mr. Resident Citizen, when he said that these grounds and buildings were the most beautiful combination of landscape and architecture to be found anywhere in the whole world, and yet this is what has been told you again and again, and the best is that it is not flattery, but absolutely true.

Meditate on the meaning of almost two miles of gardens on one side of our park, connected by the broad and graceful Puente Cabrillo with the stately city on the hill. Nowhere else in the world does the line of maximum winter temperature cross the line of minimum summer temperature, and this unique climatic condition has made possible the wealth of fern, palm, vine, shrub and flower impossible of cultivation anywhere else in the country. From the standpoint of agriculture, arboriculture, horticulture and flowering plant, one may walk through the palm jungles that are reminiscent of Honolulu, into the tea gardens of Ceylon, or the fragrant oranges and hardy applies of colder climes. The model farm, the botanical building, and the formal gardens are in this unequaled and unrivaled.

Architecture Effects

Then crown your landscape gardening with what probably is the most complete working out on a large scale of a singe type of architecture that has heretofore been attempted. The California building is an artistic triumph. It breathes of Old Spain and Mexico, the Franciscan missions, and freezes into stone our heritage of Old World Spain.

For from five to twenty years those of the remaining buildings which are desired will remain to line the Plaza and the Prado and their construction is such that when the event is necessary, they can be molded into permanent concrete, and thus the artistic spirit be caught forever. Something, however, beyond mere artistry haunts the imagination and memory of the saunterer as the spell of this beauty steals over his senses and exults and exalts his spirit. Do you realize what it means for people with time on their hands to have directly at hand this retreat and refreshment of soul?

It probably will astonish you, Mr. Citizen, when you walk through the open gates April 1, to realize the multitude of pleasures which await the desire of the people of the city. In illustration, the great California cathedral will be the depository of the remains of the great civilizations lying in the America to the south. Three or four arms in the Quadrangle will be used for the exhibit of Chinese and Japanese art. The women’s quarters will be occupied by a load exhibit and it is probable that the art gallery will contain some exhibit — at least arrangements have been made for exhibits of the works of great artists from time to time. Remember also the museums of general culture. The old Indian Arts building is to be known as the Museum of General Culture and in it will be placed the remarkable collection of figures showing the development of the race.

To Remain Museum

The Science of Man building will remain as the Museum of Anthropology, the exhibit being somewhat extended and including a lecture hall seating about 800 people, where free lectures for the general culture of the people will be given.

The old government building at the head of the Plaza will be magically transformed into the greatest exhibit of bows and arrows and weapons of war to be found anywhere in the world. Probably this building will be ready with the opening of the grounds. Then one other great building (name deleted by censor) will be opened with one of the finest exhibits ever shown in this country.

Also, consider the Indian Village in the New Mexico building [sic], reproducing the Indian life and the mission architecture, will be pictures of all comers of the early days of California, and probably one other of the worthy exhibits on the Isthmus (name censored) will be bought by the park board and thrown open to the public.

Do you realize that when certain roof irons are put in place, the Southern Counties building, presented by the southern counties to the city of San Diego, will become the finest public hall in this section, seating 3,500 people, with the new street car service accessible both ways through the park. Here will be the great musical entertainments, lectures, conventions and other civic movements.

Unique Zoological Garden

Then, friends of San Diego, count the unique zoological gardens, the stadium with its pageants, and the park becomes a magnificent playground. Halt your imagination before the swinging arms of the organ and remember that Mr. Spreckels has not only given to the city this greatest outdoor organ in the world, but has also given the services of Mr. Stewart, recognized as the foremost organist in the country, for free recitals every afternoon during the year.

Again the Plaza with the Twenty-first Infantry band, the regulars, the marines, the Presidio, like the Spanish cities of old, with its drills, parades and reviews.

Most of all, Mr. Citizen, Balboa park belongs absolutely to the people, all the people of San Diego, and no association, organization of firm will be permitted to exist or control one building or one foot of ground in this park that is not for the benefit of all the citizens of San Diego. Building lots may seem high in this city, but every property owner in this city is also a part owner of the 1,400 acres of the “City Built by the Fair.”

The old Exposition has gone and a new democracy has come to reign in the park, the most beautiful civic center and public pleasure grounds in the nation.

March 18, 1917, San Diego Union, 10:6. Melba promises free concert here; expects to give recital at Spreckels Organ Pavilion next September.

March 19, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:2-7. Give George W. Marston the vote he deserves.

March 19, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:2-4. Exposition arranges big program for entertainment next Thursday; songs and dances by San Diego School of Expression to feature afternoon’s card.

March 19, 1917, San Diego Union, 11:1. Dr. M P. Rooseboom, assistant secretary of the permanent court of arbitration at the Hague, visits San Diego; sees Exposition.

March 19, 1917, San Diego Union, 11:2. “The San Diego Garden Fair” by Eugen Neuhaus and “The Architecture and Gardens of the San Diego Exposition’ by Bertram Goodhue, books on Fair with photographic illustrations by Harold Taylor, to be given to Union readers at one-half the regular price; clip coupon in today’s paper and obtain your copy tomorrow.

March 20, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 3:4-5. Exposition Notes (condensed):

The exposition is arranging an unusually attractive program to be held at the Organ Pavilion, Thursday, March 22.

A number of pupils of the San Diego school of expression, John Lane Connor, director, and Miss Rose M. Bennett, teacher of dancing, will appear in a number of dances representative of the various schools in the United States, including the aesthetic, character, oriental and stage dancing.

Miss Grace Grubb, of Los Angeles, a protégé of Ellen Beach Yaw, will sing a number of songs, including Waltz Song from “Romeo and Juliet”; Nightingale’s Song (Nevin); Matinata (Tosti); Swallows (Cowen), California (Ellen Beach Yaw).

The afternoon’s entertainment will commence with a drill by the Twenty-first Infantry at 2 o’clock after which the program will be rendered.

Dances by the pupils of Miss Rose M. Bennett: “Pierrot”; “Minuet Antique”; “Carnival Night”;

“Greek”; “Gypsy Mazurka”; “Gavotte”; “Hindu Afternoon”.

At 4 p.m. a reception will be held in the women’s headquarters in the California building.

The dinner and dance at the Cristobal café on the closing night, Saturday, March 31, is not intended to be exclusive, but inasmuch as we must of necessity limit the number of guests to 400 in order to leave ample space for dancing, those wishing to be accommodated should make reservations early.

The exposition has had many telephone calls asking the price of reserved seats for the Thursday afternoon program, and the officials beg to announce that there will be no extra charge for the program to be rendered at the Organ Pavilion on Thursday afternoon next.

March 20, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:7. Two paintings by M. Guignon of Egyptian subjects in the hallway between the French building and the Women’s Headquarters at Exposition stolen; owner offers reward for their return.

March 20, 1917, San Diego Sun, 3:5. Miss Gertrude Gilbert planning municipal concerts at the outdoor organ in Balboa Park after the close on the exposition on March 31; Cecil Fanning, baritone, and H. B. Turpin, pianist, engaged for concert Easter Sunday afternoon, April 8..

March 20, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:6. Princess Tsianina Redfeather, noted Indian singer, and Charles Wakefield Cadman, pianist and composer, will give concert at Spreckels organ, Saturday afternoon, March 31.

March 20, 1917, San Diego Union, 14:3. Mrs. W. H. Porterfield to sing at Organ Pavilion today.

March 21, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:8. L. J. Wilde leads Marston in mayor’s race in primary election yesterday; D. C. Collier made ticket for Council.

March 22, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:4-5. D. C. Collier charges L. J. Wilde loses sight of civic duty to vent “spleen.”

March 22, 1917, San Diego Sun, 5:4. Dancing festival at Exposition by pupils of the San Diego School of Expression, March 22.

March 22, 1917, San Diego Sun, 9:7. Exposition Notes: Hundreds of varieties of ferns, palms and other tropical growths to be seen in Botanical building.

March 22, 1917, San Diego Union, 10:4. Baritone Raphael Pizzi to sing at organ recital Sunday afternoon.

March 22,1917, San Diego Union, 12:2-5. Children to be on program at Organ Pavilion this afternoon; dancing will feature entertainment.

March 23, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 14:5. Celebration to close Fair March 31.

March 23,1917, San Diego Union, 5:1. Women organize committee for George W. Marston; start with enrollment of 100; former Mayor O’Neall predicts Marston’s election.

March 23, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:1. Smile to stay, L. J. Wilde’s replay to D. C. Collier; mayoralty candidate says he has nothing else to say to attack in letter.

The local political campaign was enlivened a little yesterday when D. C. Collier, who was nominated at Tuesday’s primary for the City Council, leading the ticket, gave out a letter to all the local newspapers, attacking Louis J. Wilde, candidate for mayor. In this letter, Collier accused Wilde of having tried to defeat him. The Union last night asked Wilde if he had any reply to make. He said:

“Not a word. When I entered the campaign, I put on a smile, and it won’t come off. We are dealing in the interests of a live-and-let-live campaign for a prosperous San Diego, through the independent voter and have no time for mud-slinging or personalities.

“If any of our opponents are at a loss for campaign stuff of a clean nature, they may resort to any methods they choose against the best interests of the city, and start the campaign with discord, but we shall continue to conduct a dignified, gentlemanly campaign to the very end.”

Collier’s letter, addressed to the Editor of The Union, follows:

I am greatly pleased with the vote I received at the polls on Tuesday. As all of my friends know I have never sought the office of councilman, nor am I seeking it now.

If I am elected, I will give the best that is in me to the service of San Diego, and I would certainly be devoid of appreciation if I were not gratified with the unsolicited compliment contained in Tuesday’s vote.

It is an additional source of gratification that I should have received such a vote, notwithstanding the vicious fight made upon me by Louis J. Wilde and some of his supporters.

From entirely reliable sources I learned that during the primary campaign, Louis J. Wilde stated that if he was elected mayor, he would refuse to serve if I was elected to the Council. He also stated that he would spend more of this effort, time and money, to defeating me than in securing his own election.

In the past I had believed that Mr. Wilde would, if elected, endeavor to control his passions and unreasonable prejudices sufficiently to make a passable mayor. I see now I was mistaken.

In addition to the above he has made other statements and caused them to be circulated by his paid workers that are so manifestly untrue that they could only emanate from the type of man who lacks balance and lose sight of every civic duty and obligation to vent his spleen.

I have five distinct pledges to make to the voters of San Diego:

First – I will not spend one cent in aid of my election.

Second – I will not ask one single voter to cast a vote for me.

Third – I will not leave town if I am defeated.

Fourth – I will not offer my property for sale at half price.

Fifth – Whether elected or defeated, I pledge my best ability to the service of San Diego, the city

I love.

  1. C. COLLIER.

March 23, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:3. San Diego asks War Department for training camp.

The executive committee of the local officers’ reserve corps was besieged with applications all day yesterday from the time petitions were circulated among the business and professional men of the city, requesting the commanding general of the western department at San Francisco to authorize the establishment on the Exposition grounds or elsewhere in San Diego of a local “Plattsburg” camp for the training of applicants for military service.

Prominent club men, business men of experience and professional men have not only petitioned the war department for the establishment of such a camp as contemplated, but are filing their applications to be designated for service whenever the government needs them.

Among the prominent men who have applied for the establishment of this camp at San Diego are:

  1. S. Grant, Jr., F. J. Belcher, Jr., H. H. Jones, George W. Marston, J. W. Forward, Jr., D. F. Garrettson, Simon Levi, R. L. Gunnis, Wheeler J. Bailey, Richard Jessop, H. H. Peters, Jr., M. Hall, Louis J. Wilde, Charles W. Hiller, C. S. Marston, Gordon Decker, E. O. Hodge, G. Aubrey Davidson, C. L. Williams, T. C. Hammond, J. H. Zitt, Henry H. Sprague, Leroy A. Wright, Fred Jewell, Frank A. Salmons, E. I. McClintock, Duncan McKinnon, G. W. Barney, L. T. Chamberlain, L. M. Schiller, Charles F. O’Neall, H. B. Bard, C. H. Bartholomew, E. F. Drake, George H. White, H. W. Sumption, F. A. Bennett, R. D. Spicer, J. M. Perry, H. S. Clark, Harold Anglers, M. B. Fowler, W. P. Cary, F. M. Billings.

As stated in yesterday’s Union, copies of the petition can be signed today and Saturday morning only at the following places:

Cuyamaca Club, University Club, Cabrillo Club, Yacht Club, San Diego Rowing Club, Bank of Commerce and Trust Company, San Diego Savings Bank, H. H. Sprague, 1032 Fourth Street, and at the offices of Jefferson Davis, Central Mortgage building.

It is urged that all public-spirited citizens who desire to have a part in this application sign the petition at one or the other of the above named places in order to complete the petition and file it not later than Saturday.

March 25, 1917, Los Angeles Times, V, 16:4. After the Fair; many important buildings and attractions to remain as permanent features of Balboa Park, Infantry and Marines encamped.

A lively touch to park activities is given by the camp of the Twenty-first Infantry, U. S. A., occupying 35 acres at the north end of the grounds, and by the 80 acre camp of the U. S. Marine Corps at the southern end of the park.

March 25, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:4-5. Marston promises citizens business-like administration; women declare candidate is friend of laboring classes and tell why; various meeting held; committees named; other statements.

Pledging himself to give the city a good business-like, common sense administration of municipal affairs if elected mayor, George W. Marston addressed an enthusiastic meeting last night at the Women’s Marston Campaign Club headquarters, 5th and B street.

“I will be true to the interests of all the people,” he said.

Marston was lauded as the true friend of the laboring classes by Mrs. Elsie Webster and Mrs. C. W. McKee, who also spoke. Mrs. Jesse Shreve, president of the women’s committee presided.

“I have enjoyed speaking at labor union meetings the last few days,” Marston said in opening his address. “Some one has said that San Diego needs a mayor who will put ginger into the city government, I think it is necessary to put common sense into it. All I really contend is that I can put into the office of the mayor as the ability I have put into my private business and the city offices I have held in the past.

“As park commissioner my attention was given to a more beautiful city. I feel the development of the city’s beauty and civic welfare can go along with the industrial development. San Diego is a favored city for location. Commerce is as sure to come to the shores of the bay as we are of building the transcontinental railroad.

“I believe a mayor should aim for the welfare of the whole people. A mayor’s work is to execute, carry out and see that the city’s business is carried on rightly.

Urges Public Aid

“I believe a great deal in the power of the people in the city’s business. It seems to me there is not enough connection between the city hall officials and the people. I believe I can bring harmony in city hall. I would try to get peace even if I had to fight for it. My purpose would be to build a harmonious and efficient system of government. I believe a mayor can do a great deal to bring about cooperation.”

Marston also said that he felt no discouragement over the primary result as his friends had been stimulated to even greater efforts to put him in the mayoralty chair and are now waging a vigorous campaign for him. He also spoke of his experience as a councilman in the boom days of 1887 and 1888. He said that one-half of the last thirty years he had occupied city offices for the welfare of the people without remuneration.

Mrs. McKee said, “We hear a great deal about smokestacks but that does not pour smoke our over the city. Anybody can promise, but there must be something behind the promise. “Prove what you can do by what you have done,” is a good motto to follow. Marston will always be for San Diego and will not run away if things do not go to suit him.”

March 25, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:4-5. Letter from A. C. James.

Editor, San Diego Union: To the smug, well-fixed man, living on income from investments in the industrial centers of the east, and living, mind you, in snug, steam-heated, well-furnished homes or apartments, it does not matter who is mayor of San Diego, or whether we have any mayor at all. This man’s investments are in manufacturing plants in Pennsylvania, Ohio, New York or Indiana and these plants all have smokestacks — so he can wave aside all efforts to industrialize our local assets and say, “All I care for is beauty of outlook, landscape of flowers, rapture of mountains, bay and skyline; my income comes in just the same with San Diego as it is, so I am for George W. Marston for mayor.”

But we are not engaged in this election for the purpose of making mayors for this man, or his kind of man. We are making a mayor for the citizens of this city whose income is created right here in San Diego and whose income does not come in “just the same,” whether San Diego remains as it is or not. You see, it is a vastly different income from that of clipping coupons. It (wages) depends on employment, in commercial activity, and so wages and salary come at last to smokestacks.

No smokestacks, no wages, or low wages. Plenty of smokestacks, higher wages and steady all the year jobs.

The biggest thing in Wilde’s platform is “smokestacks” and plenty of them, with plenty of jobs at good wages.

The biggest thing in Marston’s platform is esplanades, flowers and parks.

The least thing in Wilde’s platform is esplanades, flowers and parks.

The least thing in Marston’s platform is industrial development for our city.

Mr. Voter, take your choice.

March 26, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:5-6. Louis J. Wilde, promoter.

March 27, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Mr. Marston’s Candidacy.

Mr. Marston is a business man with ideals. He has frequently informed his fellow citizens of San Diego concerning his ideas of civic improvement and the conservation of civic resources. There is no doubt that he would apply business principles to the conduct of public affairs. His idea is a better, greater and more beautiful San Diego; and even those who oppose his candidacy will not deny his ability to conduct the mayoralty as a strictly business proposition, in the community interest; nor will they deny the practicality and the beneficial purposes of his ideals.

March 27, 1917, San Diego Sun, 2:3. Tsianine [sic], Indian girl, to be heard at Exposition; Cadman recital on Saturday.

March 27, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:5-8. G. A. Davidson predicts city on high road toward prosperous future.

March 27, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Marston for Mayor.

March 28, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 7:4. Fritz Kreisler, famous violinist, will be guest of honor at Exposition tomorrow afternoon.

March 28, 1917, San Diego Sun, 2:5. INFORMATION: Exposition Schedule.

March 28, 1917, San Diego Sun, 7:1-2. Marston pledges he will be an industrial mayor as well as a city beautiful mayor.

March 29, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 1:2-3, 5:4. Exposition will be danced into history.

March 29, 1917, San Diego Sun, 7:3. Exposition Beautiful will close; farewell program for Saturday is completed; many features.

March 30, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 7:4. “Auld Lang Syne” to be sung tomorrow.

March 30, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:5. Goodbye to Exposition Beautiful!

March 30, 1917, San Diego Sun, 13:3. G. A. Davidson to head large local band; Wangenheim to be chairman of Board of Directors.

March 31, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 3:6. Big crowd will see close of Fair.

March 31, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 5:4. Exposition free beginning Sunday; big museum will be feature of Fair when it passes into hands of Board of Park Commissioners..

March 31, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:4-5. Why The Sun is for George W. Marston?

March 31, 1917, San Diego Sun, 2:5. INFORMATION: Exposition Schedule.

March 31, 1917, San Diego Sun, 3:1-2. Taps sound at Fair.

March 31, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:2. Exposition will close tonight; post-season to be danced into history.

The closing hours of San Diego’s Exposition, the longest exposition the world has known, will be danced into history tonight. Joyful waltzes, one-steps and fox trots will be its requiem, and laughing, whirling dancers its mourners. It will end as it has lived — a place of pleasure and beauty.

While officially tonight’s acts will constitute the closing of the post-Exposition period only, the formal Exposition closing having taken place with a blaze and a bang on the night of January 1, 1917, in reality it will be the final curtain. Within a few days thereafter the actual work of wrecking such buildings as are to be removed will be started, and the grounds and permanent buildings will be turned over to the park commission henceforth to remain as a park and a beauty spot for San Diegans and their visitors and a home for its music and fine arts.

The day’s program will begin at 11 o’clock when the Spanish dancers will give an entertainment on the Plaza de Panama. A special luncheon will be served at the Cristobal at noon, and in the afternoon the Isthmus attractions will be open. At 4 o’clock there will be a reception at the headquarters of the women’s board in the California building, and a dinner and dance at the Cristobal will follow, beginning at 6 o’clock. Finally, an open-air dance on the Plaza de Panama, the last to be held under Exposition auspices, will begin at 7 o’clock and last until 9:30 o’clock, Music for the dance will be furnished by the band of the Twenty-first Infantry , U. S. A., which will be stationed on the portico of the U. S. Government building. The beautiful California tower will be lighted and there will be general illumination throughout the grounds.

Organ Recital

The feature of the day’s program will be the concert at the Spreckels organ, beginning at 3 o’clock, by Charles Wakefield Cadman, the well-known pianist and composer, and his protégé, Princess Tsianina Redfearther, in a recital of Indian songs. At the request of Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart, official organist, Cadman, who also is an accomplished organist, will play the big instrument. Two of his numbers will be his own compositions, “Melody in Folk Song Style” and “March In.”

Announcement is made by the management of the Salt Lake-Union Pacific Building that it will be open from 2 to 4 o’clock and that punch will be served to visitors.

There is more than a mere musical and concert interest in the concert by Tsianina and Cadman today. Cadman and the Indian singer are the greatest exponents of Indian folklore in America.

The regular music talk will not be given today on account of the open-air condition, but for this occasion the very cream of the song, piano and organ numbers will be given. In this way the people of San Diego may hear a straight concert of harmonized and idealized Indian songs, visualized beautifully by Tsianina in her attractive costume and graceful acting.

(The program of songs, organ and piano pieces follows.)

March 31, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:2-5. San Diego Museum will open Sunday; dream of Exposition builders soon to be realized.

Impressive and appropriate exercises will be held at the Exposition Sunday when the buildings, transformed into a beautiful and permanent fine arts gallery and museum for the people, will be thrown open to all free of charge.

Tomorrow marks the opening day of the real purpose for which the Exposition was erected — the opening of a beautiful permanent park and museum free to all the people, the dream of the earliest builders of the Exposition. A great crowd of visitors is expected.

The exercises will begin at 2:30 with a sacred concert at the Spreckels organ with Dr. Stewart presiding. Following there will be speeches by several prominent citizens who have been connected with the work of the city, Exposition, park and museum. G. A. Davidson, president of the museum board and president of the Exposition last year, will preside.

Beginning Sunday, the museum grounds and buildings will be open to the public each day from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Dr. Edgar L. Hewett will be in charge as director of the museum.

Three Buildings Open

Three buildings, which have been arranged for the fine arts and museum collections, will be open Sunday. These are the Fine Arts building, which has four galleries, the Science of Man and the Archery buildings. Dr. Hewett said yesterday the archery collection is the greatest in the world and the famous archery exhibit in the British Museum cannot compare with it. The archery collection will be seen here for the first time. All three buildings have been closed since the 1916 Exposition closed January 1.

The Indian Arts building has not yet been repaired, but arrangements have been made to open it later. This building became well known in 1915. The California building will be thrown open in about a month after it has been vacated by the French exhibits. It will be devoted to museum purposes mainly and will have the sculptures of the ancient world. The elaborate exhibits of 1915 will be increased by others now being gathered, Dr. Hewett said.

In the first room on the ground floor of the Fine Arts building is an exhibition of the drawings and sketches of the proposed exposition buildings of the past. Many pictures have been hung about the room. In the east gallery is a great collection of English water colors, including an exhibit of seventy-two paintings by noted English artists. Among these artists are Harold Knight, Laura Knight, Eleanor Hughes, R. M. Hughes, Gertrude Harvey, Harold Harvey, Charles W. Simpson and S. J. Lamonia Birch.

Another gallery is devoted to an extensive Oriental collection. This includes the Tilden collection loaned by Mrs. Tilden, a former resident of San Diego, and a Japanese exhibit occupying three rooms. The Japanese pictures are loaned to the museum by Miss Alice Klauber and Dr. R. D. Hollington.

The galleries on the second floor of the Fine Arts building, which have been the women’s headquarters of the Exposition, have a fine collection of the paintings of Donald Beauregard. Many of these paintings never have been shown in San Diego before. Those exhibited in 1915 are also on exhibit so the people may have a final opportunity to view this great collection. In May it will be sent to the Memorial art gallery in Santa Fe, New Mexico, which was built for it.

Beauregard won fame as an artist and died May 2, 1914, before he was thirty years old at the home of his parents near Fillmore, Utah, while he was in the midst of work for the Exposition.

The Science of Man building, which has been open, is unique and contains material gathered from all parts of the world. Such subjects as models of the ancient cliff dwellers of the southwestern port of the United States are on display. One room is devoted to all the industries of man from savagery down to the present day. The whole history of the human race, showing the evolution of man, is shown by models, life-size groups, charts and maps. Of special interest is the collection of trephining of skulls.

Archery hall, which is the building at the north end of the plaza originally known as the Sacramento Valley building and used last year for the government exhibits, contains an entirely new exhibit. It is devoted to a great collection of primitive weapons of all kinds collected from all parts of the world during the last twenty-five years. It has been loaned to the museum by Joseph Jessop.

Pictures of the people and maps of the country whose weapons are shown make the exhibit the most complete in the world, Dr. Hewett says. Among the countries and states represented are: Australia, Guinea, Java, Borneo, Philippine Islands, Japan, China, Mongolia, Tibet, Korea, Siberia, Alaska, British Columbia, California, Mexico, Brazil, Patagonia, South Sea Islands, Fiji Islands, Africa, Congo, India, Ceylon, Andaman Islands, England, France, Belgium and Poland. Weapons used by the Indians in San Diego in the early days are shown.

Dr. Hewett says the exhibit of archery in England, the Robin Hood county, is of special interest. The entire display has been installed in the cases of the Southern California Counties exhibit.

“Tremendous benefits will come to the people by the opening of this great free museum,” Dr. Hewett said yesterday.

March 31, 1917, Statement of current assets and liabilities, Box 3, Panama-California International Exposition.

Assets $26,192.54

Liabilities 12,313.44

Net $13,879.10

Total Expenses as of March 31,1917 $619,288.62

Total Revenues (excluding Los Angeles

Guaranty Fund) 592,086.39

Deficit (excluding Los Angeles Guaranty Fund) 27,202.23

Received account of Los Angeles Guaranty Fund 43,256.50

Current surplus as of March 31, 1917 16,054.27

Cashier’s statement of receipts and disbursements January 1,1916 to March 31, 1917

Total Receipts $660,437.43

Cash Disbursements 651,964.04

Cash Balance On Hand as of March 31,1917 8,473.39



April 1, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:4. Exposition now free to public, Park Board announces that gates are thrown open today.

The Board of Park Commissioners sent the following letter to The Union last evening:

Editor: Will you kindly notify the public tomorrow (Sunday) through your paper that the board of park commissioners will throw open the gates of the Exposition free, April 1. Gates will be open from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.

The park board is anxious to see the citizens and visitors to San Diego get the largest possible benefit out of the Exposition grounds, but desire to call attention to all who visit the grounds that the park board is unable, on account of the expense, to provide adequate guards to protect the flowers, shrubs, lawns and buildings, and that they will trust to the loyalty of the citizens and courtesy of the visitors to remember that the property belongs to the public, and in order to maintain the present high state of efficiency it will be necessary for all to use the same precaution in caring for the park property that they would for their own.

The organ recitals will continue daily from 2:30 to 3:30 p.m., with Dr. H. J. Stewart as organist.

The Twenty-first Infantry will continue to give parades on the plaza at 2 o’clock p.m. on Tuesdays and Thursdays of each week, with field drills on the aviation field daily, except Saturday and Sunday, from 9 o’clock a.m. to noon, and band concerts at the U. S. Government building at the plaza, Wednesday, Friday and Sunday at 2:30 o’clock p.m.

Very respectfully yours,

George W. Marston, President

Thomas O’Hallaran, Secretary

Arthur Cosgrove

By J. B. Pendleton, Executive Secretary

April 1, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:4. The 21st Infantry will continue to give parades on the Plaza at 2 p.m. on Tuesdays and Thursdays of each week, field drills at aviation field daily, except Saturday and Sunday, from 9 a.m. to noon, and band concerts at U. S. Government Building on Plaza, Friday and Sunday at 2:20 p.m.

April 1, 1917, San Diego Union, 7:3. Thousands close Exposition.

With an undertone of regret and sadness running through the gaieties of the day, the final curtain was rung down last night on the Panama-California International Exposition, after two and a quarter years of existence, constituting by far the longest run of an exposition of any kind.

When the fun was at its height last night in the Cristobal café, the orchestra struck up “America.” Then followed one of the most patriotic demonstrations ever witnessed at the Exposition. The merrymakers and dancers helped themselves to the flags and bunting used for decorations and waved them in time with the music. Then the crowd joined in singing “The Star Spangled Banner,” and they sang it with great fervor.

The exercises began with an entertainment of the Plaza de Panama by the Spanish dancers, who have proved a popular attraction at the Exposition for many months. This was followed by a special luncheon at the Cristobal café during the noon hour.

The afternoon’s entertainment was reminiscent of the days of the “Original Americans,” the program at the Spreckels Organ Pavilion consisting almost exclusively of Indian music by Charles Wakefield Cadman, who played most of the accompaniments for Princess Tsianina Redfeather, who sang the plaintive or merry or amusing words in tones and manner suitable to the moods of the songs. She was easy, natural and graceful in her gestures and posturing, and her tones were soft and liquid, as was to be expected of a daughter of the forest. She appeared in a becoming Indian costume of light brown.

Plaza Crowded

In addition to the vocal numbers, Cadman played a number of his Indian compositions on piano and organ. The plaza in front of the organ was crowded with a sympathetic and appreciative audience which generously applauded the Indian maiden who feelingly interpreted the songs of her race, and also the composer who accompanied her singing.

A reception to composer and singer was held in the Women’s headquarters in the California building, and the rooms were crowded with men and women who came to express appreciation of the pleasure afforded them earlier in the afternoon.

Mrs. William Crane and Mrs. Marcus Miller presided at the tea tables, and they were assisted by Mrs. E. T. Lannon, and the Misses Townsend. The room was decorated with Indian daisies and nasturtiums, which harmonized with the color scheme of the permanent decoration of the room.

An interesting feature of the day was the presentation of the colors by the princess at the battalion parade of the Twenty-first Infantry. She was attended by Mr. Cadman and two children dressed in Indian costumes.

A review of children dressed in the habiliments of the red man followed, and prizes were awarded to Richard Wolf, Crystal Swanson, Virginia Wennrich and Ernest Pewald for costumes approaching closest t the Indian types.

Especial credit was given Secretary H. P. Penfold for the success of the day’s entertainment as he had devoted much time and effort in planning and arranging for the final exercises.

The Salt Lake Route-Union Pacific building, which has been the rendezvous of thousands of Exposition visitors, was the scene of a farewell reception from 2 to 4 o’clock, at which T. M. McCarty, contracting freight and passenger agent for the two lines, was host.

The final act of the day was the dinner at the Cristobal café, following by dancing on the Plaza de Panama, both of which functions were attended by large crowds.

April 2, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Exposition grounds thrown open to public yesterday; park commissioners have decided to allow autoists to drive through grounds without restrictions

Cecil Fanning, noted baritone, will sing at Exposition organ on Easter Sunday and will be accompanied by H. B. Turpin.

April 2, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 2:5 Exposition is City Park now; appearance to be practically unchanged for some time to come, it is stated.

San Diego’s exposition is San Diego’s park today, and no doubt will continue to lend the city fame as it has throughout the 27 months of operation as an exposition.

Control passed from the exposition company to the city yesterday, amounting a little more than a legal technicality, and as a part of Balboa Park, under supervision of the city park commission, it will continue permanently in appearance the same except for razing of a few more temporary buildings and with exhibits that will continue to draw wide interest.

As a beauty spot for the recreation of the people of San Diego and their visitors it will continue as one of, if not the finest in America. And it will be free of admission to all. Automobiles, so long as the privilege is not abused or lives endangered, will be allowed to drive through the beautiful surroundings.

Simple ceremonies marked the transfer of control yesterday, members of the park commission, George W. Marston, Arthur Cosgrove and Thomas O’Hallaran assumed jurisdiction over the exposition grounds and buildings in exercises at the Organ Pavilion which will continue hereafter, as during the exposition, the scene of notable musical events and an admirable setting for open-air meetings.

Permanent exhibits now ready in the museum, fine arts and archery buildings were viewed by many yesterday, and are the nucleus of an important educational feature of the permanent park.

April 2, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Marston Method.

April 2, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 8:1-4. D. C. Reed tells why he is for Wilde.

April 2, 1917, San Diego Sun, 16:4. Exposition thrown open; free to everyone; gala events mark closing of great Fair.

April 2, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:5, 4:6. Citizens take over Exposition site.

Yesterday was a red letter day for the people of San Diego.

It was the day whose dawning brought into concrete being the beautiful abstract dream which for more than six years has been dreamed by the far-seeing citizens who have had the welfare and enjoyment of the people — and all the people — of San Diego at heart.

It was the day when all the citizens of San Diego, rich and poor, young and old, entered into their own, taking possession of their beautiful park, their stately buildings, there magnificent organ, their museum and art galleries, their drives and walks, lined with flowers and shrubs — all theirs to enjoy to the full without money and without price.

No pomp of panoply featured the day. The exercises which characterized the throwing open of the people’s playground to them were simple and unpretentious. Instead of the blaze of bands and the waving of banners, there was the proud but quiet rejoicing of the people in their own; the laughter of children playing on the green lawns; the parade that wound across Puente Cabrillo was not the usual ordered, rhythmic procession, but the sauntering holiday procession of happy San Diegans.

After the daily organ recital, addresses were delivered by a number of men who have been prominent in Exposition and park affairs. Representing the mayors of San Diego since the exposition plan was first conceived was Grant Conard; for the park were the three present park commissioners, George W. Marston, Arthur Cosgrove and Thomas O’Hallaran; and D. C. Collier and Professor Edgar L. Hewett represented the Exposition.

Early History

Conard told of the scenes and ceremonies in connection with the groundbreaking for the Exposition; Marston, O’Hallaran and Cosgrove spoke of the efforts of the park board and of the Exposition to build permanently for the benefit of the people of San Diego and of the future plans for the park. It was declared that San Francisco had spent $15,000,000 on her Exposition and now had nothing to show for it but the Palace of Fine Arts which, however well it fitted into the architecture of the Exposition, now stands in incongruous surroundings. San Diego expended $3,000,000 on her Fair, and her people now possess a beauty worth twice that amount in the gorgeous hills and canyons, the beautiful buildings and organ, and in the museum and art galleries — a gem of the architect’s and the landscape gardener’s art.

Collier told of the dreams of the Exposition founders that at its close there should remain to the citizens of San Diego a beauty spot wherein could be housed all those things that make for the upbuilding of the artistic nature of a people, while Professor Hewett described the museum, the art galleries, and the scientific and Indian collections which are to form the nucleus of a great archaeological, historical, scientific and educational institution.

Several thousand people listened to the addresses and gave the speakers much applause.

Yesterday’s crowd was one of the largest that has gathered within the confines of the Exposition since its opening. From as early as 9 o’clock in the morning there was a constant procession of automobiles crossing the Cabrillo bridge, while the street cars running to the park were crowded all day long. No restriction was placed upon automobile traffic, and the park commissioners announced that as long as automobiles do not abuse their privileges or endanger pedestrians they will be welcome. In the crowd were seen several families who had not been inside the Exposition grounds until yesterday. There were no guards to drive them off the lawns, no gate men to exact admission fees from them, and they enjoyed themselves to the utmost.

Exhibits Attract

While the archery collection, the art galleries and the Canadian exhibit drew large crowds of people, the greater part of the throng preferred to explore the beautiful little side paths and byways which heretofore had escaped them, apparently being of the opinion that the day was too fine and the scenery too beautiful to permit waiting even a few minutes indoors. The children found a never-ending source of amusement in the pigeons on the Plaza de Panama while their elders listened to the concert by the Twenty-first Infantry band or attended the organ recital.

And, as the sun was sinking into the blue Pacific, the crowds slowly wended their way home, each citizen with the proud feeling that what he had enjoyed was his own from now henceforth.

Telegrams of congratulation on the successful closing of the Exposition were received by President G. A. Davidson from John S. Mitchell of Los Angeles, one of the directors of the Exposition; Minister of Commerce Tirman of France, and Etienne Clementel, former French minister of commerce and agriculture.

April 3, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:7-8 (whole page). ADVERTISEMENT FOR L. J. WILDE FOR MAYOR


The following clipping from the San Diego Union of December 29, 1916 quoted the following from the speech made by George W. Marston at the dedication of the Spreckels pipe organ at the exposition:

“I consider the giving of this instrument greater than building railroads or steamships. We who are in San Diego can live without means of transportation, for we never intend leaving here anyway, but we cannot live without music.”

Mayor Capps, Ex-Mayor Wadham and U. S. Grant, Jr. endorse Wilde for mayor.

April 4, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Lesson of the Election.

Animosities were conspicuously absent from the local election just ended in this city. Mr. Wilde was elected mayor by personal preference of the voters rather than by dislike or distrust of his opponent. His “smokestack” slogan was a happy thought and it caught the humor of the populace.

April 4, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:6-7. To Mayor Louis J. Wilde.

Mr. Wilde was elected mayor of San Diego on a categorical promise of himself and his managers to bring “smokestacks,” by which they mean factories, producing industries, to the city of San Diego. By their verdict the people of San Diego have definitely and clearly taken Mr. Wilde at his own appraisement. He says he can bring these factories to San Diego. We do not know whether he can or not.

But we do know this. He cannot bring them if we hang back and refuse to help.


(April 19, 1926, San Diego Union, 1:8. Louis J. Wilder, former San Diego mayor, succumbs following operation; wartime civic leader was outstanding character in city’s history; political career spectacular here.)

April 4, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:1-2. L. J. Wilde is elected mayor by 3,700; received 12,918; Marston received 9,167; D. C. Collier lost for Council with vote of 7, 149.

Collier, who led in the race for the Council at the primaries, failed of election and ran near the bottom of the ticket. Collier was a leader in the Marston campaign and make a personal fight with Wilde. He said in his speeches he would willingly accept defeat if Marston could be elected.

April 5, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Botanical building at Exposition closed today; Easter display of flowers is being arranged.

April 5, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 7:5. Dr. Stewart plays Easter Sunday afternoon in the park; Cecil Fanning, baritone, assisted by H. B. Turpin, accompanist, to sing; seats on sale at an admission fee of 25 cents; concert appearance arranged by Miss. Gertrude Gilbert.

April 5, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:8. Senate declares State of War; count 82-6.

(May 30, 1939, San Diego Tribune, 4A. Congressman William Kettner first with suggestion of Naval Training Station project here.)

(November 14, 1965, San Diego Union, G-1:1-6. An Earlier War — An Earlier Boom, by Henry T. Chandler . . . the construction of Camp Kearny.)

(April 6, 1967, San Diego Union, B-1:1-4. U. S. Grew Up in War of 1917, by Robert Zimmerman.)

(April 7, 1967, San Diego Union, B-1:2-4. War I Vet’s Spirits Strong 50 Years After Fight Began, by Robert Zimmerman.)

(April 13, 1967, San Diego Union, 31:6-7. 50th anniversary today; Naval Militia Vets’ Reunion To Mark Service in WWI, by Robert Zimmerman.)

(May 25, 1987, San Diego Union, E-4. Great War did great things for San Diego’s economy, by Janet Sutter.)

April 5, 1917, San Diego Union, 14:1. Exposition buildings offered to United States as training camp; Park Board consents; Congressman Kettner informed by telegram.

April 6, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. In the future all organ recitals at the Spreckels organ will begin with “America” and end with “The Star Spangled Banner.”

April 6, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 1:1-2. President Wilson proclaims war.

April 6, 1917, San Diego Herald, 2:1. EDITORIAL: What the Election Means

The election on Tuesday was a miniature revolution, a pocket edition of that which occurred in Russia a few weeks ago. The people of Russia overthrew the Romanoff dynasty, which had, for over three hundred years, made serfs of the Russian people. The voters of San Diego overthrew the invisible government which as bamboozled the people for a generation or more.

The people of San Diego for a long time have been chafing under the yoke and hoping for relief. They were ready for rebellion and waited only for a leader. In Louis J. Wilde they found a general who carried the hosts to speedy victory and the city is now rejoicing because the people expressed their will at the polls despite the threat, influence and pressure of their former tyrants which [sic] are now dethroned.

Under the new order of things and the leadership of Mayor Wilde, San Diego will take her rightful place as the industrial metropolis of the Southwest.

The friends of both Marston and Wilde were claiming for their respective candidates a record of achievements, and it is a record that neither needs to be ashamed of.

Mr. Marston’s public record shows that he has been president of the Chamber of Commerce, member of the county charter committee, member of the park board and other city commissions for fifteen years. Mr. Wilde’s public record shows that he has been president of the Cabrillo Club, member of the charter committee for the city of San Diego, and member of the playground commission for the city of San Diego.

Mr. Marston has built two residences in San Diego, two mercantile houses (one of them being the best store in the city), did much toward beautifying the park, and was largely instrumental for the building of the Y. M. C. A. Mr. Marston was also a leading spirit in the effort to induce capitalists to build a road to Yuma.

Louis J. Wilde built the Pickwick Theater, American National Bank building, the U. S. National Bank building, the Frances apartments, huge fireproof warehouse at Arctic and B, and the Plaza fountain. Mr. Wilde also raised the first fifty thousand dollars for the Washington school, when the bankers and city officials declared that because of hard times it would be impossible to finance the building.

Mr. Wilde also originated the idea of building the U. S. Grant Hotel on the site of the old Horton House, and, when the task of raising the money for its completion was too great for those in charge, Mr. Wilde was called in to complete the work which the others had abandoned. Mr. Wilde also organized the Home Telephone company. Besides these achievements, he negotiated the sale of the old Methodist church so that a more modern edifice could be built. Mr. Wilde also founded the Citizens Saving Bank, the American National Bank, and the U. S. National Bank.

Both candidates have an enviable record, but in the fourteen years since Mr. Wilde came to San Diego he has accomplished more than did Mr. Marston during his forty-seven years’ residence. Mr. Marston is getting along in years, while Mr. Wilde is still in his prime. It was up to the people to decide on the merits of these two good men, and they decided in favor of Mr. Wilde by a tremendous majority.

The people are more interested in the future than in the past. Mr. Marston has a record for achievement, but Wilde has a record of greater achievement, besides he has the energy of youth and the will to perform greater things, which is what the people require, and they so expressed themselves.

The election of Louis J. Wilde is a victory of the “little” fellow over the “big” one. The big bankers, the big business representatives and the big dailies went to defeat, while the common people and the weekly papers went to victory.

April 6, 1917, San Diego Herald, 1:1-2. Just how it happened Wilde is mayor; everybody except Marston and his mangers knew Wilde would be; “El Toro” did good work.


The second contributing cause was a candidate for council — a candidate who feared the consequences of his own inane life, and who hoped to ride into favor by discrediting a man whose life could carry a dozen Colliers and yet not feel the load. His first attempt to make Mr. Wilde discredit himself aroused resentment no because of the innate vileness of the attempt itself, but rather because of the abject puerility of mind which the writer displayed. . . .

And if Mr. Marston has lost the mayoralty, he has at least gained this — a knowledge of those who called themselves his friends which only the campaign like the last could have brought him. Mr. Marston might have been a good man for the place, but Wilde is a better one, And, even if Mr. Marston were fitted for the mayor in no degree whatever and if our antagonism to him was such that it could draw its weapons from every arsenal of assault, we yet would hesitate to raise the sword against one who so narrowly escaped a false initiation into the “Third Degree, Ancient Knights of Ye Golden Calf — El Toro.”

The Wilde forces were much better organized than the Marston forces and their publicity was clean and effective. The Wilde speakers also inspired such enthusiasm that they always electrified their audiences and from the start it was certain that Wilde would be elected. The splendid work of C. C. Benjamin in directing the Wilde campaign was in beautiful contrast with the kindergarten work of the Marston managers.

Of course, the Marston workers not knowing their campaign was being mismanaged, could not realize that they were doomed to defeat and, as a result, they are sadly disappointed and deeply chagrined. Even Mr. Marston was so thoroughly disappointed that he had not sufficiently recovered from the shock to be able to call Mr. Wilde to offer his congratulations. Or it may be that from habit he is waiting for instructions from Julius before he decides it is the proper thing to do. . . .

It was a great election, the greatest ever held in San Diego. Besides the determination to make this an industrial city, it proved that the people of San Diego were able to overthrow the old political machine which has so long dominated the city.

April 6, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:1-2. War is declared on Kaiser.

April 7, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Colonel D. C. Collier left today for Washington to lay the plan of turning the Exposition grounds into a vast training ground before Congress.

April 7, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. As part of the great patriotic demonstration to be held Monday afternoon at the Exposition, Brigadier General Sampson, retired, and Leroy A. Wright will deliver addresses.

April 7, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 1:6-7. Patriotic citizens will rally Monday at the Organ Pavilion.

April 7, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, II, 1:4-5. Madame Schumann-Heink bowed by grief when war aligns son against son.

April 7, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:5. Offer Exposition to country for troops; Colonel Collier, as emissary of the city, left for Washington on war train to lay offer before authorities.

April 7, 1917, San Diego Sun, 9:5-6. Schumann-Heink bowed in grief; one son in U. S. Navy, another in Germany.

April 7, 1917, San Diego Sun, 15:4. Flowers wonderful at Exposition now.

April 7, 1917, San Diego Sun, 15:5. Exposition scene of Easter festival; Fanning concert will be attended by throngs.

April 7, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:3. Cecil Fanning, baritone, to sing in Easter recital tomorrow at Organ Pavilion; tickets on sale at 25 cents; concert on choir of balcony of Panama-Pacific building on Plaza.

April 8, 1917, San Diego Union, 2:3. Big patriotic rally at park tomorrow; demonstration under auspices of Bennington camp, United States Spanish War Veterans; parade included in program.

April 9, 1917, Board of Park Commissioners, Box 1.

Request by Edgar L. Hewett, Director San Diego Museum Association, February 26, 1917, for use of California, Fine Arts, Science of Man, and Indian Arts buildings for museum and art purposes approved.

April 9, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 1:4-5, 5:1-3. San Diegans make Eagle scream; big parade is feature.

April 9, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:3. Patriots’ Day demonstration; parade, program at Organ Pavilion.

April 9, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:1. Cecil Fanning gives concert in Balboa Park

April 10, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Madame Schumann-Heink arrived in San Diego this evening from Chicago. The band of the 21st Infantry serenaded the famous diva at the Grant Hotel shortly after her arrival

April 10, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 2:5. Rally draws crowd to park.

Several hundred of the 100,000 citizens of San Diego and adjacent territory turned out for yesterday’s parade and patriotic rally at the Organ Pavilion in the Exposition grounds. Led by Colonel J. P. O’Neil, U. S. A., and the available companies of the Twenty-first Infantry regiment, the marchers hiked from the Santa Fe depot to the Exposition grounds.

The parade included, besides the military, the Spanish war veterans of San Diego and Coronado, the Pacific Beach military academy students, the members of the navy’s new motorboat reserve, the Coronado boy scouts and the Coronado girl scouts. In the last division there was a turnout of about 300 citizens from the various fraternal organizations, stores, and city and county offices.

The exercises at the Organ Pavilion opened with the song “America,” participated in by everybody. Rev. Charles E. Spalding, Christ church, Coronado, delivered the invocation, and then Chairman R. H. Harris introduced Mayor E. M. Capps. The mayor spoke in the rain that ended as he finished speaking.

Colonel O’Neil made one of the principal addresses, in which he reminded the audience of the likelihood that the allies and Germany might arrange a peace and leave Germany free with 7,000,000 men and a friendship with Mexico to fight the United States at its leisure.

Several others made strong addresses, including Captain S. W. Bell of the G. A. R.

April 10, 1917, San Diego Sun, 7:3. Patriots at Exposition cheer for liberty.

April 14, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 16:4. Report has it that O’Hallaran is off Park Board; resignation in hands of Mayor Capps.

Mayor E. M. Capps stated he would leave the vacancy for Mr. Wilde to fill. O’Hallaran’s resignation, according to report, was due to a difference of opinion between him and Wilde on civic matters.

April 15, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:2. “Zoo” in Balboa Park planned; animals exhibited on Isthmus transferred to Zoological Society; about 40 animals originally the property of the Ocean Beach Amusement Company and also the Kaufman collection of animals which have been in the park; lions, tigers, leopards, Kodiak bears, black and brown bears, buffalo, sacred cow, pumas, baboons, monkeys, badgers, foxes and coyotes. Dr. Harry G. Wegeforth, president of Society, said last night that Carl H. Heilbron and D. C. Collier, receivers of the Amusement Company, were entitled to much credit in aiding the society in its efforts to secure the animals for San Diego’s park.

April 16, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Colonel J. P. O’Neil, commander of the 21st Infantry, has announced that the usual reviews, drills and band concerts given by the regiment band have been discontinued.

April 18, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:4. Mayor Capps chooses Judge Ryan, a Wilde supporter, to succeed O’Hallaran on park board.

April 19, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:4. Mayor Capps yesterday recommended Harry C. Ryan, San Diego attorney, to Park Board to fill vacancy left by the resignation of Thomas O’Hallaran; Council confirmed appointment.

April 20, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:3. Odd Fellows plan big celebration in Balboa Park; 98th anniversary of founding of organization will be observed April 28; picnic in Pepper Grove in afternoon and dance in Cristobal Café in evening.

April 21, 1917, San Diego Sun, 9:2-3. Playground fete will be beautiful; many children to take part in pageant to be held in Balboa Park, May 5.

April 22, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:2. Annual rose show of San Diego Floral Association will be held in Kern County building at Exposition next Saturday and Sunday; proceeds will be turned over to Red Cross.

April 22, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:1. May Day Festival program made up by Park Board; affair will be given in Balboa Park, May 5, beginning in afternoon at 6th and Juniper streets.

April 23, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Mr. Murray P. Corse, formerly with Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson of New York, to talk about stained glass at Science of Man building at Exposition tomorrow evening.

April 24, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Colonel D. C. Collier offered Exposition grounds as a training and concentration camp for 15,000 soldiers during interview with Secretary Baker.

April 24, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 12:3. Petitions asking the removal of Thomas O’Hallaran as appraiser of inheritance tax for San Diego county are in circulation, it was reported yesterday.

April 24, 1917, San Diego Union, 2:2. Exposition site offered as training camp; free use of grounds tendered to Secretary of War Baker by D. C. Collier and Representative Kettner at Washington, D. C., April 23; buildings which remain intact can hold 15,000 men while the grounds include 1200 acres

Secretary Baker thanked the Californians for their offer, but said that he was unable to accept until after Congress had passed the pending Army legislation. This done it was thought the offer would be accepted..

April 25, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. San Diego Floral Association will hold its exhibit at the Kern County building at Exposition on Saturday; admission is 10 cents.

April 25, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 1:5. War Department to use Fair.

Referred to the commanding general of the Army’s western department with power to act, San Diego’s offer of the exposition grounds and buildings for the accommodation of a division of the army has been accepted by the war department and now rests with the San Francisco headquarters for acceptance as soon as needed.

Secretary Home Sumption, chamber of commerce, received this morning a telegram to that effect from D. C. Collier, who was sent to Washington to assist Congressman Kettner in securing the government’s acceptance of the offer.

While en route to Washington, Collier stopped over at San Francisco for a conference with General Bell and secured from that officer a hearty endorsement of the city’s offer. A change in commanding generals since that time is not expected to effect a change in sentiment.

The exposition facilities for accommodating a large body of men are said to be ideal for the army’s necessities at this time. It is estimated that 10,000 or 15,000 men can be quartered comfortably in the exposition buildings.

The suggestion for using the buildings was broached first by Colonel J. P. O’Neil, commanding the Twenty-first Infantry at a patriotic banquet here a few weeks ago. An citizens’ committee acted upon the suggestion at once.

Besides being an ideal site for the location of a divisional camp, the committee says the use of the site will keep San Diego before the national public and the presence of a division of men in training here will assure for this city degree of protection in excess of any contemplated emergency.

April 28, 1917, San Diego Union, 7:3. Constantino to sing at Organ Pavilion Sunday, May 6.

April 28, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified. Rose show will open today in the Kern-Tulare Building on the Exposition grounds; proceeds to go to Red Cross; vegetable department to be a feature in response to President Wilson’s appeal for all to raise foodstuffs, by Guy Keene; a fee of ten cents admission will be charged.

April 28, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified. Organ designed for all people.

The case of the Tracy Brick & Art Stone Company versus the Wurster Construction Company is being heard in the Superior Court, with attorney Leroy A. Wright as attorney for the latter company. The case hinges on the question of alleged faulty material furnished in the ornamental molding of the Spreckels Organ Pavilion at the Panama-California International Exposition. It was declared that a part of the molding had fallen away and that the cost of repairing it would amount to $18,000.

An interesting fact was brought out in the testimony yesterday after John D. Spreckels had been on the stand. He testified in regard to the contracts for the Organ Pavilion and as to the molding falling. Fred H. Wurster, president of the Wurster Construction Company, while testifying as to the disputed points, brought in the interesting sidelight. He said that when the question of the gift of the organ was being considered, the suggestion was made to Mr. Spreckels by an employee of the street railway company, of which he is the principal owner, to have the organ in Mission Cliffs Gardens, the argument being that location would result in an increase in street car fares.

Mr. Spreckels said, Wurster testified, that the matter of street car fares did not enter into the consideration at all. What he wanted was to locate the organ in the park, where it would be within walking distance of the people of the city, especially those not able at odd times to pay car fare.

The faulty material will be replaced at once and the case has been continued until Monday to fix the responsibility for the alleged imperfect molding.

April 25, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:1. More than 100 young San Diegans, future colonels, majors, captains of reserve corps, scour Balboa Park; Lt. Cyrus Sweet, U. S. A., retired, and Captain Thomas Davis of Army and Navy Academy training rookie army.

April 28, 1917, San Diego Evening Tribune, 16:3. Park car line will be opened June 1; double track line from the east entrance to University Avenue is nearly completed and new service will serve big territory; relieves two lines.

April 28, 1917, San Diego Union, 7:3. Florencio Costantino, tenor, to sing at Organ Pavilion, Sunday, May 6; arrangements made by Miss Gertrude Gilbert.

April 28, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:3-4. Rose Show will open today in Balboa Park; 10 cent admission charge.

April 28, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:5. Organ designed for all people; testimony in suit shows Mr. Spreckels’ desire to have all enjoy its music; case of Tracy Brick & Art Stone Company versus Wurster Construction Company; part of molding has fallen off and cost of repairing would amount to $13,000; Spreckels wanted organ in park even thought its location in Mission Cliffs Garden would have resulted in an increase in street car business.

April 29, 1917, San Diego Sun, 12:2-3. Rose show is bower of beauty; opened today in Kern-Tulare building in Balboa Park.

April 29, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:7-8. Admiral Caperton suggests Exposition as training camp for U S. Navy.

The grounds and buildings of the Exposition may be used by the Navy Department for housing and training the recruits of the Navy who are enlisting at a rapid rate. This was indicated yesterday when word was received by the Army and Navy Committee of the Chamber of Commerce that Admiral William B. Caperton, commander-in-chief of the Pacific fleet, had suggested to the Navy Department that such use be made of the buildings and grounds.

It is said that the Navy Department has not adequate facilities for taking care of the instruction of “rookies.” The group of buildings at the Exposition are ideally adapted for a training school of the character desired.

The suggestion of Admiral Caperton was made without solicitation from San Diego, and not until word was received from General William I. Sibert, commander of the western department, U. S. A., that the plans of the War Department did not at present include anything which would require the use of the buildings which had been generously offered by the Park Commissioners.

Supplementing Admiral Caperton’s suggestion, Congressman William Kettner is using his influence in Washington to have the offer of San Diego accepted.

April 30, 1917, Resolution of the Board of Park Commissioners tendering former Exposition grounds to the U. S. Navy Department.


WHEREAS, General Sibert, Commanding the Western Division of the U. S. Army, has declined the offer of this Board to use the unoccupied buildings in the Exposition grounds, and

WHEREAS, Admiral Caperton, in behalf of the U. S. Navy Department, has advised the San Diego Chamber of Commerce that the Navy Department is in urgent need of suitable buildings and grounds to accommodate large bodies of naval recruits for training purposes.

NOW THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED the Board of Park Commissioners of the City of San Diego that all unoccupied buildings on the Exposition Grounds East of the Plaza de Panama, which have not been tendered to the 21st Infantry, be and are hereby tendered the U. S. Government for naval purposes, also such unimproved lands in Balboa Park, outside the Exposition grounds, as may be considered suitable by the Navy Department.

Also that Col. D. C. Collier be and hereby is authorized to tender the use of said buildings and grounds to the Navy Department of the U. S. Government for an emergency concentration training camp; the rental of said buildings and grounds to be free. The said Navy Department to pay for all water, gas, electricity, etceteras used by them.

The permit for the use of the buildings and grounds referred to above to be the same as made to the U. S. Marine Corps.


By /s/ Henry C. Ryan, President

/s/ G. W. Marston

/s/ Arthur Cosgrove

April/May, 1917. Records of Park Department in Relation to Taking Over of Exposition Grounds and Buildings by the Navy Department for Training Station, July 20, 1923; George W. Marston Papers, Collection 219, Box 2, File 32, San Diego Historical Society Research Archives.

The initial records of the Park Department of the City of San Diego regarding occupation of Exposition buildings and grounds in Balboa park by the Navy Department for use as a naval training station are such as to indicate that the idea evolved some time prior to its presentation before the Board of Park Commissioners, and that plans for tendering the premises to the government were well developed before official action was taken by the park commissioners.

Whether this idea originated with one or more of the park commissioners, with members of the Exposition Board, or with Chamber of Commerce or naval authorities is in no way indicated by park records.

The first official mention in park files is in the minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners, held on the fifth day of April, 1917, this being a special meeting held for the express purpose of authorizing Colonel D. C. Collier to proceed to Washington, D. C., and there tender to the War Department use of the premises. The following resolution, it not being shown by whom it was introduced, was unanimously adopted:

“Whereas the U. S. Government will be in immediate need of buildings and grounds to accommodate large bodies of troops for mobilization purposes, and

“Whereas there are a number of Exposition buildings in Balboa Park now unoccupied and adaptable for the use of the U. S. Army for temporary barracks, now therefore,

“Be it resolved by the Board of Park Commissioners of the City of San Diego that all the unoccupied buildings in the Exposition grounds east of the Plaza de Panama be and hereby are tendered to the U. S. Government for army purposes; also that Colonel D. C. Collier be and is hereby authorized to proceed to Washington, D. C. and to tender the use of said buildings and grounds to the War Department of the U. S. Government for an emergency concentration camp, the rental of said buildings and grounds to be free.”

The second document in this record is a letter from the park commissioners to D. C. Collier, enclosing resolution, and authorizing him to proceed in accordance therewith.

Under date of April 6 are filed letters from the Merchants’ Association and Rotary Club, endorsing the action of the park commissioners.

Also under date of April 6, in the minutes of the regular meeting of that date, is shown a motion ratifying the adoption of the above resolution as the special meeting on April 5 in the Chamber of Commerce offices.

On April 10, the park commission telegraphed Colonel Collier at Washington to withhold from his offer the Alameda, Kern County, San Joaquin and Salt Lake buildings, as these structures were desired by the U. S. Marine Corps, having occupied a large area south of the Organ Pavilion for several months prior to that time.

In accordance with authority given him by the park commission, Colonel Collier, on April 17, offered the buildings and grounds to the War Department, who referred the matter to General Silbert, commanding the Western Division of the U. S. Army. This was reported by Colonel Collier to the Chamber of Commerce, who in turn reported to the park commission.

General Silbert telegraphed the Chamber of Commerce that it was impracticable for the army to use the premises and that the offer was therefore declined. This telegram was under date of April 28, together with a letter from Melville Klauber, chairman of the Army and Navy Committee of the Chamber of Commerce, in which he states that:

(1.) General Silbert, acting for the War Department, has rejected use of the premises for army purposes.

(2.) That Admiral Caperton, on his own initiative, has taken up the matter of naval occupation

on the premises with G. A. Davidson, president of the Exposition.

(3.) That Admiral Caperton said that the navy badly needed space for a training station and

urged that steps be taken toward offering the premises to the Navy Department.

(4.) That the Army and Navy Committee of the Chamber of Commerce had tentatively offered

the premises for naval use and desired that the park commission ratify the action at the

earliest possible moment.

On April 30, the park commissioners received a telegram from D. C. Collier to the effect that, in accordance with telegram from the Chamber of Commerce, he and William Kettner, Congressman from this district, had tendered the premises to the Navy Department, and had changed the letter and resolution of the park commission so that it authorized use of the premises by the Navy Department, instead of by the Army. The telegram also stated that the tender would be accepted. Also, on April 30, a telegram was sent to Colonel Collier, advising him that his change of resolution and letter of authorization had been confirmed. This telegram was authorized at a called meeting of April 30. At this meeting Lieutenant Swanson, port commandant for the U. S. Navy, appeared before the board and asked that a permit be drawn in accordance with the offers made. Superintendent and executive secretary were directed to draw a form of permit similar to that under which certain parts of the park were already occupied by the U. S. Marine Corps.

At a called meeting of May 8, 1917, Lieutenants Menocal and Clements first appeared before the Park Commission and requested that offices in the Administration Building be turned over to them, saying that one of the Exposition officials, Mr. George Burnham, had advised them that they might use the same. This request was granted and the formal permit for naval occupancy of the premises was adopted and signed.

Superintendent Morley was later authorized to make such structural alterations as might be required by the navy, and he, with Electrical Foreman C. S. Harper, employed a large force of men for this purpose. Within the next few months, all the main buildings east of the Plaza had been refitted by park forces for naval use, and more than 5,000 naval recruits were receiving training in the park before the close of the year. This work of repairs and alteration cost the park department nearly $30,000 and this expenditure was refunded by the navy department. Park forces were engaged on this work day and night, and Messrs. Morley and Harper were highly praised by naval authorities for their able and untiring efforts.

July 20, 1923

I hereby certify that the foregoing has been compiled from records of the Park Department of the City of San Diego, that the essential facts from all records of the department in relation to the establishment of a naval camp are, to the best of my knowledge and belief, included herein.

(Signed) T. N. Faulconer, Executive Secretary, Park Commission.



May 1, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:1-3, 3:3-4. U. S. Training Station at Exposition grounds assured; the Navy Department has accepted the grounds and buildings for use as a naval training station; offer proffered by Colonel D. C. Collier.

May 1, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1-2. Navy boys to train at park; great base probably will be established at Exposition for instruction of apprentice seamen; commissioners offer site to government; commander of port will be prepared today to make final announcement regarding location.

May 2, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:1-5. Big Navy Training Station Recruits Soon in Exposition Buildings; five buildings to be prepared for first units; extensive repairs and alterations to be made for men to be sent here.

Five Buildings Selected

Five buildings have been selected by Lieut. Ernest Swanson to form the first units of the training station. These are the Panama-Pacific, Foreign Arts, Varied Industries, Southern California Counties buildings and the Cristobal café. It is estimated that $10,000 will have to be expended in repairing the roofs and sides of buildings and a like sum for installation of bathing and washing facilities and sewage.

Balconies will be erected in some of the buildings to be used as dormitories for the apprentice seamen. The mess hall and galley will be at the Cristobal café and in the Varied Industries building. Gas ranges and other cooking equipment probably will be furnished by the San Diego Gas and Electric Company.

The California building, if the navy department determines to expend a small sum of money for repairs, will be used for the general storekeeper’s department. Clothing, washing gear and other equipment will be stored in this building while awaiting distribution to the recruits.

That not more than 3,000 seamen will be quartered at the Balboa Park training station at a time was the statement made yesterday by Lieutenant Swanson. One of the chief objections to having more recruits stationed there at one period, he said, is the lack of drill grounds for a large body of men.

Lieutenant Swanson expressed the opinion, however, that greater efficiency in training and administration could be secured by limiting the first increment to 3,000 men.

One of the principal problems now facing the navy department is the selection of properly qualified instructors for duty at the San Diego training station. It is believed that a number of retired army officers will be recalled into active service to assist the navy personnel in instructing the recruits the rudiments of rifle, company, battalion and other drills, leaving instruction in seamanship, signaling and gunnery to officers of the navy.

According to Washington advisors, a flotilla of steel submarine chasers will be sent to San Diego to instruct apprentice seamen attached to the local training station. These submarine chasers will be 110 feet long, will have a speed of 45 miles an hour, and will be armed with 3-pounder guns. Six of these boats, it is reported, will be stationed here, supplementing the flotilla of motor and steam launches that will be sent here from Mare Island for service with the naval training station.

Official announcement was made yesterday that the Balboa Park naval training station will not be a permanent institution. After the war, it is understood, a site nearer the waterfront will be decided on and the work of the training station carried on permanently there. This will mean the ultimate expenditure of hundreds of thousands of dollars in construction of barracks, officers’ quarters and supply buildings. This training station will be distinctive from the marine brigade post in Dutch Flats.

May 3, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1. 7,000 Navy men may train here by end of year; plans for remodeling park buildings sent north; recruits to arrive soon.

May 3, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:2-3. Fairies will dance at Balboa Park, May 12, to aid Red Cross Society.

May 4, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:2-4. Five hundred children to take part in annual May Festival tomorrow at 6th and Juniper Streets in Balboa Park; Colonel J. P. O’Neil has detailed a guard to police the grounds during the festival.

May 4, 1917, San Diego Union, 14:3. Naval recruits to be held here pending orders; action believed to indicate Balboa Park station soon will be commissioned.

May 5, 1917, San Diego Sun, 5:1. Thousands attracted to May Day fete; weather favorable.

May 5, 1917, San Diego Union, 14:1. Playground fete expected to be magnet of many; beautiful spectacle in park this afternoon all arranged; Maypole Dance.

May 6, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:1-5. Crowds attend May Festival; 500 children participate in pantomime, “Mother Goose and Her Children,” before large attendance; Maypole dances feature.

May 6, 1917, San Diego Union, 6:3-6. Retiring Mayor Capps denominates City Council “hostile body”; advises recall of Ray and Moore; raps Health Department.

Charges that Police Department was crippled through spite work on the park of Councilmen; that the Health Department is extravagant and inefficient

Approves work of Purchasing Agent Williams, City Auditor Moody, Manager of Operations Lockwood, and members Civil Service Commission.

May 6, 1917, San Diego Union, 14:1-2. Fairies to give dance for Red Cross; Spring Festival next Saturday at Organ Pavilion.

May 6, 1917, San Diego Union, 14:3 Motion pictures made of the May Festival given by children of the city.

May 6, 1917, San Diego Union, 14:4. Chance of all to help enlarge zoo; bring in that snake, gopher, turtle, weasel, Kangaroo rat now.

May 7, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:5-6. New City Council meets to transact routine work.

May 7, 1917, San Diego Union, 2:5-6. Wilde to become mayor today; refuses to announce appointments; three solons will take office

May 8, 1917, Permit to U. S. Navy Dept. to occupy Balboa Park Buildings.

  1. In consideration of the Resolution passed by the Board under date of April 30, 1917, permitting the use of the unoccupied buildings East of the Plaza de Panama, which have not already been tendered to the Twenty-first Infantry, and such unimproved lands outside the Exposition grounds as may be considered suitable for naval purposes, this permit is hereby granted the U. S. Navy Department to occupy said buildings, viz:

Pan-Pacific, Foreign Arts, Foreign and Domestic Industries, Southern California Counties, Emergency Hospital, U. S. Fisheries, Balboa Guards Building (Hospital), Canadian Building, when released by the Canadian government, and the Cristobal Café, providing same is release by the 21st Infantry.

  1. None of said buildings are to be used for mess halls or kitchens except the Cristobal Cage should said

buildings be released by the 21st Infantry.

  1. That said U. S. Navy Department shall not make or allow to be made any change of any description in any of the said buildings included in this permit without the full knowledge, consent and written

approval of this Board or its Superintendent of Parks.

  1. That said U. S. Navy Department shall not disturb any trees, plants, shrubbery of lawns or make any

changes of any nature in the area adjacent to any of said buildings or to erect any buildings, dig

trenches or in any manner disturb the grounds surrounding or adjacent to any of said buildings

without the full knowledge, consent and written approval of this Board of its Superintendent of Parks.

  1. That all repairs, improvements, alterations, etc. permitted by the Board or its Superintendent of Parks

shall be done by the U. S. Navy Department at its expense and that the said U. S. Navy Department

shall maintain and keep in repair all the said buildings and shall maintain and care for the grounds

immediately surrounding said buildings and to keep same in as good condition as when turned over

to said U. S. Navy Department. Said buildings to be returned to this Board at the expiration of this

permit in as good condition as when received from the Board, ordinary wear and tear excepted.

  1. Said U. S. Navy Department is to take every reasonable precaution to see that the men occupying said

buildings and grounds commit no act of vandalism and that every precaution shall be taken to protect

the lawns, flowers, shrubbery and all other park improvements surrounding said buildings and that

the officers in charge of said buildings and grounds shall be instructed to see that the men under their

command carry out this provision.

  1. It is hereby agreed that all refreshment stands of stands for the sale of any commodities inside the

Exposition grounds are to be operated and controlled by the Board of Park Commissioners.

  1. This permit shall not in any manner interfere with any employee of this Board in going or coming

to work or in the performance of his regular duties for this Board or in carrying out any order of

this Board or to interfere in any way with the general improvement of the landscape feature of that

part of Balboa Park occupied by or adjacent to said buildings or to interfere with the free access of

the general public to that part of the grounds occupied by said buildings during the hours that the

Exposition grounds are open to the public


By /s/ HENCY C. RYAN, President

By /s/ G. W. MARSTON, Commissioner

By /s/ ARTHUR COSGROVE, Commissioner

Adopted by the Board of Park Commissioners in Special Session, May 8th, 1917.

Attest: /s/ T. N. FAULCONER, Executive Secretary.

May 8, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:4-5. Tax rate to be about $2 mark now; fire budget is increased; park board accused of wasting water.

May 8, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:6. 5,000 are to train at Exposition; first great body of Navy recruits will arrive soon.

May 8, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:3-6, 4:3-6. Mayor Wilde delivers rousing speech, Council goes into Star Chamber session; Mayor L. J. Wilde, speaking of city parks, declared they use a lot of water. He said, however, that we should not practice economy that would mean the tearing down of anything that we have built up.

“We give too much thought,” he declared, “to the tourist’s pleasure and too little to things that will fill the dinner pail.”

May 8, 1917, San Diego Union, 2:3. Naval engineers arrive to survey Balboa grounds; officers will inspect buildings at Exposition grounds and Dutch Flats.

May 9, 1917, San Diego Sun, 7:6. Private conference with park board members held in Mayor Wilde’s office yesterday afternoon for the purpose of decreasing park expenses.

May 9, 1917, San Diego Union, 14:2-3. Children ready for Spring Festival to be held Saturday at Organ Pavilion; funds raised at entertainment to be turned over to Red Cross.

May 10, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:3-6, 5:5. “United States Forever,” cries Schumann-Heink as climax of patriotic citizens’ meeting in dinning room of U. S. Grant Hotel yesterday.

May 11, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:6-7, 2:3. City funds apportioned; tax rate $2.14 or $2.23; present system is scored.

May 11, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:5, 3:3. Navy boys to arrive in camp; first contingent apprentice seamen scheduled to come here soon, Captain William D. Brotherton named commander of Naval Training Station.

May 11, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:2-4. $120,000 cost of building street railway park extension shown in report; three steel bridges cost $60,000.

May 11, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:1. Y. M. C. A. song service at Exposition organ Sunday morning; President George W. Marston of Y. M. C. A. will speak; Miss Gertrude Gilbert, chairman of municipal music committee, to cooperate in organ arrangements.

. . . Colonel O’Neil has granted permission for these weekly song services and Miss Gilbert had volunteered to provide a special program of music.

May 11, 1917, San Diego Union, 14:1. Jack Hendee, new Zoo chief, to take charge; Balboa Park collection of animals attracts hundreds of visitors daily.

Jack Hendee, formerly in charge of the “Zoo” at Universal City, and for years prior to his connection there a trainer and caretaker of animals in various parts of the United States has been appointed superintendent of the zoological gardens in the northeast section of Balboa Park.

The large assortment of animals, which has been a popular attraction for thousands of visitors, especially at feeding time in the afternoon, has been taken over by the Zoological Society of San Diego. With Hendee in direct charge a number of improvements and additions are expected to be made which will provide quarters for a larger number of animals.

A guard of soldiers has been placed at the zoo to prevent careless people from climbing over the fence and getting too close to the cages.

When the new park street line extension is completed, a stop will be provided for the accommodation of the camp of the Twenty-first Infantry, near the north end of the park, and this will be considerably closer to the zoo than the present terminal of No.7 line at the east gate of the Exposition.

May 11, 1917, San Diego Union, 14:2. Navy Department to ask vast sum; Government leases various sites throughout country to start training camps, including the new naval training station established at the Exposition grounds here.

May 12, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1. Dance Festival set for today.

The spring dance festival of the children of the dancing school of Misses Hulda Hanker and Cornelia Strobhar will be held this afternoon at the Spreckels organ pavilion in Balboa park. It will be given for the benefit of the Red Cross Society.

The final rehearsal was held yesterday afternoon and every indication was for the most successful entertainment of the kind the school has ever given.

One of the features will be a parade from the Southern Counties Building to the organ. There will be a big Red Cross flag carried by children at each corner. Into this will be tossed money, from pennies up.

The flag will be carried by Misses Betty McGee, Carrie Mitchell, Beatrice Henning, Dorothy Smith, Caroline Clarke and Frances Du Pond. They will mark up and down the aisles in front of the organ, coaxing coins from the public purse. The Twenty-first regiment band will take part in the parade. Seats may be obtained at downtown music stores or after 1 o’clock at the Exposition booth near the organ.

The final number will be an American flag song in which all the children in the audience are invited to come upon the stage and participate, provided that they, too, carry flags.

May 13, 1917, San Diego Union, 14-5, 2:3-4. Work on Balboa Park Naval Station Will Be Rushed; Army officers arrive to inspect site; Uncle Sam’s apprentice seamen will be trained; location lauded by officials; plan of rebuilding arranged.

With the arrival in San Diego yesterday of Capt. W. H. Brotherton, commander of the navy training station planned for Balboa Park, the last step in the progress made in the last ten days in the establishment in this city of one of the five new naval training stations authorized by the secretary of the navy was completed. Accompanying Capt. Brotherton were Lieut. E. A. Lofquist and Paymaster Skipworth.

The party of naval officers was met yesterday afternoon by Melville Klauber, chairman of the army and navy commission of the Chamber of Commerce; John G. Morley, superintendent of city parks; J. B. Pendleton, executive secretary of the Park Board; and George W. Marston, Arthur Cosgrove, and Thomas Ryan, members of the board of park commissioners. At the Exposition grounds, the visitors were met by Lieut. A. H. Clements, who had been commissioned to obtain a site for a training station of the Pacific coast, and who later was directed by the secretary of the navy to avail himself of the offer of Balboa Park at San Diego, and Civil Engineer A. J. Menocal, under whose direction the adaptation of the park buildings to the needs of proposed training station was made. Immediately upon the arrival of the naval party at the grounds, they reviewed the work which had been accomplished by Clements and Menocal in the last ten days. This review included, particularly, the changes required in the various buildings.

The San Diego naval training station will take in the Southern Counties building, the Cabrillo café, the Foreign and Domestic Industries building, the Fisheries building, the old Missions building, the Foreign Arts building, the Gas and Electric building, the pepper grove, the Canadian building, the Pan-Pacific building, and the United States government building.

According to both Lieutenant Clements and Civil Engineer Menocal, the changes which have been made in the various buildings will not impair either the utility of beauty of any the structures inside or out. In addition to this, those who have had the work in charge have discovered that many of the buildings can be used for purposes allied to those for which they were originally built. Thus the Cabrillo café will be used as a kitchen and mess room, the Fisheries building for washing and bathing purposes, and the Exposition hospital as a sick bay.

The Southern Counties building will contain the administrative offices of the station, while the Foreign and Domestic Industries building will be used as a barracks, and also as a post office and a storage room for bag racks and other equipment. The Foreign Arts and Pan-Pacific buildings will be used as necessary. It is estimated by the officers in charge that the Foreign and Domestic Industries building will provide quarters for 1400 men, while it is computed that the facilities now at hand will provide ample accommodations for at least 5000 recruits. In fact, the last figure is said to be so low, considering the facilities of that part of the park which has been given the government for the training station, that Lieutenant Clements has already notified the secretary of the navy that the local station will take care of, at least, 14,000 sailors.

Lieutenant Clements is a graduate of Annapolis and served as an officer in the navy for fifteen years when he resigned to take up the practice of law. Some years ago he purchased a ranch near Portrero, but, when the emergency call came, he immediately placed himself at the disposal of the secretary of the navy, and for some time has been in touch with the navy department in the manner of training stations.

Civil engineer Menocal has been in charge of the examination of the site of the proposed marine base on Dutch Flats. He is considered to by the navy’s foremost authority on naval training stations, and the quickness with which the station in Balboa Park was put in readiness is due, in great measure, to his thorough knowledge of training station requirements. His only comment yesterday on the station at San Diego was that it was superior in every respect to the naval training station at Newport, the largest naval training station in the United States.

In addition to the training station at San Diego, the navy department has authorized temporary stations at New York, Boston, Philadelphia, and Chicago. In the original authorization, a station was also allowed for “the Pacific coast,” but upon the offer to the government of the site at Balboa Park by Col. D. C. Collier, Lieutenant Clements, who had already been sent by the department to San Francisco, was notified to make immediate plans for the taking over of the Exposition buildings and grounds.

“The first direct appreciation of San Diego as an ideal site for the training and conditioning of troops,” said Lieutenant Clements yesterday, “came from Lieut. L. C. Richardson, better known to San Diegans as Commodore Richardson, who found that the climatic conditions and surroundings of the city were admirably adapted to the training and drilling of his own men. He first urged the navy department to consider San Diego as a permanent base for his command, and also asked that the coaling station here be improved and made fit for practical use.

“Acting on his recommendations, the secretary of the navy appointed a board consisting of Rear Admiral Aaron Ward, Capt. Emil Thies and Civil Engineer A. C. Cunningham, who were instructed to report on the facilities of the Pacific coast in general. This board commenced its investigations in the north and examined the possibilities of every seaport town from the Canadian line to San Diego.

“The members of the commission arrived in San Diego during the mayoralty of Grant Conard. When they stepped from the train, they were met by a delegation from the Chamber of Commerce, of which I was then a member, but the board upset all the plans for their entertainment by the simple statement that upon leaving Washington they had resolved to accept no courtesies from representations of any city which might have training station facilities.

“Before the findings of the board were made known in Washington, Commander Richardson again urged the necessity of establishing a naval base at San Diego, and he was followed by Clements, who strove to make the institution of such a base an immediate reality.

“The report of the board was confidential, but it soon became known that it favored San Diego, not only as a proper site for a training station, but as a permanent base for the torpedo flotilla.

“The plan the board appointed at that time received the endorsement of every commanding naval officer to whom it was submitted, and has been consistently supported by Congressman Kettner who, to my knowledge, has never hesitated in advancing the possibilities of San Diego before the army and navy authorities.

“When the plan of increasing the strength of the navy to 150,000 men was adopted and executed the navy department found itself on the horns of a dilemma. The training stations of the government speedily became overcrowded, and was forced either to bring recruiting to a close, or accept the patriotic offer of San Diego, the facilities of which had never been used, notwithstanding the fact, as I have already said, the navy department was fully cognizant of their worth.

“I was at this time in Washington and funds were placed at my disposal to use in the establishment of a training station on the Pacific coast, but no definite location was assigned to me. The funds which I was to use for this purpose had been given the department by various individuals, and I was commissioned to use them unless a naval appropriation became available in time.

“I arrived in San Francisco on Friday, May 4, 1917. Within a day of my arrival there I received a telegram from Congressman Kettner that the secretary of the navy had accepted the offer of the Exposition buildings at San Diego. By Sunday morning I had met Civil Engineer Menocal at San Diego. Two days were spent by us in drawing up plans for the training station, and on Tuesday morning I received orders from Washington to proceed with the utmost dispatch, as we could expect the first unit, consisting of between 500 and 1000 men in a few days. We reported back that we could be ready for 1000 by Friday, and for further units as fast as they could be recruited and sent to us.

“I wish to day we have received the kindest treatment and heartiest cooperation from the city government of San Diego and the board of park commissioners, which has actual charge of the greater park of the work.

“Thus, with the excellent facilities afforded us, we were able, in less than a week, to equip the station, to make provision of each recruit, to arrange all the details of cooking and mess room requirements, and even to provide a prison and a hospital.

“It has been a subject of the greatest satisfaction to me that the station has been established in San Diego, and my experience leads me to believe that the government’s acceptance of the patriotic offer of the park board is an earnest of the establishment here of permanent bases for both the army, the marine corps and the navy.”

May 13, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. Cross-Country Air Race During Friendship Fiesta; crack aviators will struggle in non-stop contest between San Diego and San Francisco; North Island fliers expected to complete; several governors will attend.

A non-stop airplane race between San Francisco and San Diego with crack military and civilian aviators participating is being planned as one of the features of the Friendship Fiesta to be celebrated at San Diego, June 21-24. It is proposed that the start of the cross-country aerial race will be made at San Francisco, probably at Golden Gate Park. The finish will be either at the military aerodrome at North Island or at the aviation field in Balboa Park. The same course as that followed by Slias Christofferson in his San Francisco-San Diego flights three years ago. Many prizes will be awarded. . . . . .

San Diego’s Friendship Fiesta promises to eclipse any celebration of its kind ever held in California. The governors of the states of California, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada and Texas, we well as the mayors of 356 cities in these states have been invited to attend the fiesta as the city’s guests.

Governor Esteban Cantu of Lower California, with the members of his staff, already has accepted the invitation extended by the San Diego progress commission to attend the celebration. With Governor Cantu will come the crack band of the Twenty-third regiment of Mexican infantry and delegations of school children from Mexicali, Ensenada and other points on the peninsula.

The complete program was announced yesterday.

May 13, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:2-3. Hundreds attend dance festival; held at Organ Pavilion for benefit of Red Cross.

May 13, 1917, San Diego Union, 6:3-5. Constantino and fellow stars to sing a Organ Pavilion week from today.

May 16, 1917, San Diego Union, 2:6. Use of building at park granted for Y. M. C. A. work; structure to be occupied s headquarters of members in camp.

Colonel O’Neil, 21st Infantry, granted use of International Harvester Building to Y. M. C. A. yesterday; twice a week band concerts at Plaza by 21st Infantry; Standard Oil Building to be turned over to 21st Infantry.

May 16, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:2. Library branch to be installed at training camp; public asked to donate magazines and books for use of soldiers and sailors.

The public library will open a branch early next week in the building at the Exposition formerly occupied by the Indian Arts exhibit. The Museum Association has generously granted the space recently devoted to the Rolland Reed photograph collection, and a library of more than a thousand circulating books and twenty-five of the best current magazines will be at the disposal of the soldiers and sailors and others who find the location convenient either as a place to read or from which to draw books.

All San Diegans who feel interested in helping to give wholesome enjoyment to the young men who have entered the country’s service are asked to donate novels of adventure, books on history or naval matters, aids in elementary French, and such practical subjects as hygiene and care of the sick in war. These contributions should be sent to the public library at Eighth and E streets where they will be entered for circulation from the park branch. People are also urged to bring recent magazines to the library for use in the same cause.

May 18, 1917, San Diego Sun, 5:4. Will dedicate Women’s Shrine.

May 19, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:4. Marston leaves Park Board for Y. M. C. A. labors.

May 19, 1917, San Diego Union, 3:1. Park seed garden advocated; committee of Chamber of Commerce urges use of public properties to aid growers.

May 20, 1917, 7:1. Training camp ready for 5,000 naval recruits; first detachment expected to reach San Diego from San Francisco within week.

San Diego, fully equipped and ready, today awaits the coming of the 5000 or more U. S. navy recruits who are to receive their training in the Exposition grounds, Balboa Park. At headquarters in the old administration building yesterday it was announced that the first detachment of recruits may reach here within the next week from San Francisco. They are expected to arrive on short notice.

Lieut. A. B. Clements, who has been in charge of the work of arranging the buildings and grounds for the men, said yesterday that the camp probably will be the most practical as well as the most attractive ever offered Uncle Sam’s volunteers for training purposes. It is possible that 10,000 recruits may be in training at the local camp if the war continues for any length of time.

Exposition buildings have been renovated and put in fine condition to be used as barracks. Hundreds of cots were installed in each of these buildings yesterday. The recruits will come to San Diego equipped with their own bedding. The Cristobal café building has been rearranged to serve as a mess hall for the men. The Southern Counties building will be used as a lecture hall and for general offices. The U. S. Fisheries Building has been reconstructed into a bath house, with ninety-six shower baths. Both hot and cold water will be available. Equipment for the washing of clothing has been installed in the building. The concrete streets in that part of the grounds will be used for drill purposes as well as the Plaza de Panama, which also will be used by the army and marine corps. There are now more than 1500 soldiers in the park, encamped chiefly in the north end. The marines are stationed in the south end of the park.

San Diegans who feared that the soldiers and sailors would destroy the foliage can set their minds at rest. The men now there are taking as much interest in the upkeep of the foliage and buildings as if they belonged to them. They say they are delighted to have the privilege of camping in such ideal surroundings and unite in declaring that the grounds will not suffer in the least from their presence. Many citizens and tourists visit the grounds daily to watch the men in camp and at drill.

The navy recruits to come to San Diego will mostly be from points west of Kansas City. They will go first to Goat Island, San Francisco, where they will be vaccinated and equipped. From there they will be sent here for several months before they are assigned to their ships. The camp will be capable of caring for 5000 men at one time, and as soon as a unit is sent away, another will arrive to take its place.

May 20, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:1. Marston leaves Park Board as term expires; former official to go east on Y. M. C. A. work; Mayor Wilde regrets decision.

His term of office closed as city park commissioner, and desiring to give his attention to the National War Work Council of the Young Men’s Christian Association, George W. Marston yesterday, by letter, informed Mayor L. J. Wilde that it will be impossible for him to continue in the work. Mr. Marston will leave for the East soon on war council work.

Mayor Wilde received Mr. Marston’s letter with regret. He said that he had intended to reappoint Mr. Marston to the park board. Until he has consulted with the Council and other members of the park commission, the mayor will not decided upon Mr. Marston’s successor. Mr. Marston’s letter to Mr. Wilde, saying that he is not prepared to accept reappointment is as follows:

“My Dear Mayor Wilde: I beg to remind you that my term of office as park commissioner expired on May 7, and that you have not yet named my successor. As I have accepted an appointment on the National War Council of the Young Men’s Christian Association and leave for the East in a few days, it will not be possible for me to give even temporary service as park commissioner after this week.

“This is not a resignation, because my term of office has closed; but I beg leave to urge the early appointment of a new commissioner on account of the extraordinary attention that the park business requires since the transfer of the Exposition properties to the park board and the recent occupancy of grounds and buildings by soldiers and sailors.

“The duties of a park commissioner are now quite arduous and the responsibilities are serious. Balboa park has become a city within a city. Besides problems of roads, landscape treatment and gardens, there are problems of costly buildings, educational institutions, civic festivals, art exhibitions and field athletics. The museums, the zoological garden, the botanical exhibit, the stadium, the reception halls, and many other parts of this great civic center, all require the constant attention of the directing heads. Therefore, it is very plain to see that the city should have in its park organization the service of able men; men who have a high sense of the value of parks, broad knowledge of all related civic activities, and strong practical business capacity.

“I heartily commend the work of my associate commissioners and also the present superintendent, executive secretary and their force of men. Our relations have been very pleasant and I bespeak for them the hearty cooperation of the general municipal administration.”

May 20, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:3-4. Constantino will sing at Balboa Park today; seats on sale at 50 cents for first seven rows and 25 cents for remainder.

May 21,1917, San Diego Union, 3:5. Naval contingent arrived in camp yesterday; advance detail of apprentice seamen reach Balboa Station in San Diego for the Mare Island navy yard; contingent composed to 66 apprentice seamen and five chief petty officers who will act as instructors and four cooks.

May 21, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:1. Constantino charms music lovers; famous tenor hear in musical recital at organ; assistants win praise.

May 22, 1917, San Diego Sun, 9:3. F. F. Grant on Park Board; other appointments made.

May 22, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1. Naval Training Camp supplies being received; 35 tons arrive on steamer; cooks and bakers enlisted for 1,500 men.

May 23, 1917, San Diego Sun, 4:7-8. Great work in San Diego Museum told in statement out today.

The building heretofore known as the Science and Education Building will become the Indian Arts Museum. It contains the Hall of Southwestern Archaeology, the Hall of Culture History, and, after the transfer of the Science of Man collections, will receive the Indian collections of the California coast and island tribes, the Mohave, Pueblo and other Indians of the southwest. This building will have a large lecture hall, seating 750 people, class room seating 150, the ethnological library and employees’ rest room.

The Science of Man Building (formerly Indian Arts) will receive the famous anthropological collections assembled with the assistance of the Smithsonian Institution, under the direction of the ethnological division of the Exposition. This collection ranks as the most important of its kind in existence. In the south wing of this building, there will be developed later the sociological museum and in the balconies the laboratory of physical anthropology and that of sociology. By arrangement with the Library Board there is being installed in this building a park branch of the San Diego Public Library, which, merged with the museum library, will constitute a most important department.

Edgar L. Hewett

May 23, 1917, San Diego Union, 2:2-3. Exhibit of California artists installed in Fine Arts building.

May 23, 1917, San Diego Union, 2:3. G. M. Whitney arrested for picking roses from the garden in Balboa Park.

May 25, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:1. Approximately 8,000 acres of land on Linda Vista mesa accepted by U. S. Government as site for permanent army camp.

May 25, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:5. Park car line extension will open June 1; cost more than $425,000.

May 26, 1917, San Diego Sun, 9:1-2. Memorial Day exercises at Organ Pavilion Wednesday.

May 26, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:3. New park street car line to bring change in routing.

May 28, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:4-5, 3:5. Figures show more than fifty million dollars to be spend by federal government in San Diego within next 17 months.

May 28, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:4. Naval lads due here Wednesday; succeeding contingents will arrive at two-day intervals until 2,000 or more apprentice seamen are stationed at the Exposition.

May 30, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:3-6. French 21st Infantry sent greeting to American 21st; regimental adjutant read a translation of letter to soldiers standing at attention yesterday; Miss Ruth Chatterton, the actress, presented the colors and Schumann-Heink sang the “Star Spangled Banner”; two troops of cavalry arrived from Palm City in time to take part in the review.

May 30, 1917, San Diego Union, 7:1-2. Memorial Day in San Diego will be fittingly observed; parade may set new record; program at Organ Pavilion to portray spirit of day.

May 30, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1-2. 21st Infantry forces camped at Balboa Park (group photograph); Memorial Day in San Diego will be observed at Organ Pavilion; parade.

May 31, 1917, San Diego Sun, 9:4. New Park Line opens tomorrow.

May 31, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:1. North Island chosen as Naval Aviation Base; Board of naval officers ask $500,000 for purpose; submarine station also recommended; latter would be located at La Playa and would cost $375,000.

May 31, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:3, 5:1. Heroes pay tribute to departed; gravity of war lends significance to this year’s memorial service and parade in San Diego.

May 31, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:3-5. “Let America Be Faithful to Trust,” says C. A. A. McGee, orator of the day, in stirring address at Organ Pavilion to Memorial Day throng.

May 31, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:5. New line through Balboa Park to operate Friday; schedules announced for East San Diego, Adams Avenue Routes Nos. 7 and 11

May 31, 1917, San Diego Union, 10:2. Army and Navy sections of Y. M. C. A. plan service of song at Organ Pavilion Sunday for fighting men

May 31, 1917, San Diego Union, 10:6. Mrs. L. L. Rowan, San Diego contralto, will be heard in seventh free municipal concert inaugurated by Miss Gertrude Gilbert at the close of the Exposition at Organ Pavilion Sunday.


June/July, 1917, California Garden, Vol. 9, No. 1, 16-17. At the Zoo

Since my annual passport expired with the expiring Exposition, I had not been over to the grounds until recently (you know, “two bits” are worth money these days). Being a Pennsylvania dutchman by descent I have naturally a well-rounded and rather cheerful cast of features, yet they must have seemed somewhat awry and dejected as I sauntered through the Isthmus — having entered via the north gate — not, however, that I cared for the Isthmus; it never appealed to me, but rather, taking in connection with the Exposition proper, it has always seemed as an Excrescence on an otherwise perfect creation.

The first objects that attraction my attention was a pair of Golden Eagles, of recent acquisition to the Zoo. They had a scared droopy, forlorn look, uncomfortably perched upon a slanting limb that was too small to get a good grip with their talons. No Fourth-of-July-spread Eagle sort of attitude toward the unfriendly world about them. An aeries on some high mountain cliff would be more to their liking.

I next paid my respects to Mrs. Cleo and her interesting little family. The youngsters seemed to be in quite a kittenish mood and would have enjoyed a romp with the lady who flourished her veil so tantalizingly before them. They too looked haggard and hungry, and, but why should I do down the line of the “Zoo” in such a grouchy critical mood? Caesar, too, claimed my attention. He was the big African lion with the stentorian voice. Mr. D. A. Curry, the “stentor” of the Yosemite has nothing on Caesar as an ear-splitting, hair-raising howler.

Caesar’s nocturnal habits are often wafted on the high breezes to my wakeful ears, a mile away. It is only when I come to those Canadian “teddies” that I become really interested. I could write a book — if I could write a book — on the fund I have in watching their inimitable antics. For me they were “simply killing.” But, alas, they too, at present, are looking the part of a forlorn hope — a cross between a badger and a hairless god — bare bears. These little fellows have never had a fair deal by Expo chroniclers and I dare give them but a “mere mention” here. They, too, no doubt, will be included in the nucleus of our “Zoo” that is to be.

Should we or should we not encourage the school children to invest their money in helping to purchase the animals now on the Isthmus? The rising generation seems to be coming into its own. Note the nation-wide interest that is being taken in the formation and guidance of all sorts of boys and girls clubs. (Big digression here.) . . . But getting back to the Isthmus, I wandered through the “deserted village” of the Painted Desert, which, somehow, recalled Goldsmith’s pathetic story. The ocular things were all there save the Indians themselves, and with them has gone the spirit of the place. The same is true of the grounds as a whole. This, I think, explains the psychological effect that one experiences on entering the grounds. The Exposition spirit has flown — fled when the “lights” went out, January 1, 1917. Yet the beauty of it all is here inviting us to its restful quietude.

I am pleased to learn that there is to be amicable relations between the Floral Association and the Audubon Society. It did seem doubtful at one time, judging from some remarks at a recent meeting of the latter society. . . .

  1. C. ARTER

June 1, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:3. Work will start on great marine corps base at Dutch Flats.

June 1, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:4. Preparing for Navy boys here; Exposition is scene of activity; apprentices coming.

June 2, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:7. Naval camp in Balboa Park in full commission; apprentice seamen arriving in large details from Goat Island; kitchens equipped.

June 4, 1917, Letters, Board of Park Commissioners: Jerome B. Pendleton resigned as Executive Secretary of the Board of Park Commissioners.

June 4, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:3. Art Notes, by R. R. — exhibit at San Diego Museum.

June 4, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:4. Rev. W. E. Crabtree, minister of the Central Christian Church, spoke yesterday at services at Organ Pavilion conducted by Chaplain Griffin of the 21st Infantry.

June 5, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:5. At a called meeting of the Park Board yesterday afternoon, the resignation of J. B. Pendleton, executive secretary for the last four years, was received and accepted. Upon request of Mr. Pendleton to be relieved at the earliest convenience of the Board, Commissioner F.F. Grant moved the appointment of T. N. Faulconer to succeed Mr. Pendleton. The motion was seconded by Judge Ryan and unanimously carried.

June 6, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:4, 5:1-6. Registration Day exercises at Stadium.

June 11, 1917, Correspondence, Board of Park Commissioners, San Diego Public Library.

Captain E. C. Long, U. S. Marine Corps, A. A. Q. M. submitted request to make alterations to

Utah Building for use as a hospital

Montana Building for use as stores

Kansas Building for use as offices

Alameda Building for use as a guard house

Kern-Tulare and San Joaquin Buildings for use as barracks

Salt Lake Building for use as offices for Commanding Officer and staff

June 11, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:2-3. EDITORIAL: Park Commission, a political mistake.

No graver political blunder can be imagined than the action of a majority of the park commissioners in asking for the resignation of Park Superintendent J. G. Morley on the grounds of economy.

June 11, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:2. Park Board is hotly rebuked; a petition being circulated and signed protesting the action of Park Commissioner H. C. Ryan in calling for the resignation of Park Superintendent Morley.

June 11, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:6, 5:3. Park Board asks Morley to hand in resignation; Mayor urges reconsideration, say economy plea is insufficient.

Rumors that John G. Morley, for several years superintendent of parks, has been requested by the park commission to hand in his resignation at a special meeting of the park board to be held at 4 o’clock this afternoon in the Administration Building in Balboa Park, were confirmed last night by Judge Henry C. Ryan, president of the Board.

When asked last night by a Union reporter if the rumor was based on fact, Judge Ryan said that it was, but that it was impossible for him to give the reason which had prompted the board in asking Morley’s resignation. This was also the gist of an interview with another member of the Board who supplemented his remarks by saying that Morley had shown himself to be a “competent” man, and that it appeared unwise to supplant him at a time when the naval training camp needed a man of experience in Balboa Park.

Mayor Wilde said over the telephone that he had received information that Morley’s resignation has been asked for, and that he had requested the park commission to reconsider its action as he believed that the reason given him — that of economy — was insufficient. He also said that he had received work that the resignation would not be requested, but members of the park commission said later that the request was still in force and that the resignation would be looked for at the meeting this afternoon.

The following letter was sent to The Union yesterday afternoon by Charles Cristadoro of Point Loma.

B______ Sanitarium,

Coronado, Calif.

June 10, 1917

Editor: Permit me to call to the attention of the public the perpetuation of what seems to me a great injustice. It may be raw politics, but that cannot be regarded as a mitigating circumstance.

The Park Board is to let out the man who for five years has worked so faithfully and intelligently to make our Exposition grounds such a spot of horticultural and floral beauty as to make the world of visitors marvel. Mr. J. G. Morley, your superintendent of parks, is to leave the park.

Incidentally, the injustice of this move has been accentuated in a most pointed manner.

About two weeks ago the Park Board, with the view of securing all the time possible of Mr. Morley, requested him to vacate his former home and occupy the Model Farm bungalow. At considerable expense, he moved into his new quarters, only now to be forced out without a moment’s notice.

To protest may be fruitless, but those of Mr. Morley’s friends who would like to give forth an expression of appreciation for the great work he has done for our park, and protest, can do so if they will attend the meeting of the Park Board in the Administration Building at 4 p.m. on the 11th instant, Monday.

Personally, I much regret that such a department as our park, that requires the best of technical administration, should be dragged into the political slough and, perhaps, turned over to the tender mercies of some political worker whose knowledge of a shrub or tree is worse than minus.

Charles Cristadoro

June 12, 1917, San Diego Union, 14:3. Protests against Morley’s removal; citizens circulate petitions; meeting announced for yesterday postponed.

The meeting of the Board of Park Commissioners scheduled for yesterday afternoon has been postponed until next Friday at 4 p.m. It will be held in the Administration Building at Balboa Park. It was given out that the Board had contemplated the removal of J. G. Morley from the position of superintendent of parks for well-founded reasons. It was apparent meanwhile that there was much activity in behalf of Morley by citizens from every section of the city.

The activity took concrete shape in the form of a petition which was circulated in the downtown district and which bore, among others, the signature of W. S. Dorland, president of the Chamber of Commerce; President La Motte of the Retail Merchants’ Association; Julius Wangenheim of the city planning commission, and G. A. Davidson, former president of the Exposition.

June 15, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:7. Mayor Wilde for Morley as park head.

“It is not in accord with my wishes. I have written them a letter asking reconsideration. But I cannot be bossy. I have always said a department head should be allowed to use his own discretion, and this principle, I intend to adhere to.”

June 15, 1917, San Diego Herald, 1:6. Morley’s dismissal causes comment.

The friends of John G. Morley, the deposed park superintendent, are quite indignant over the action of the park board; they insist that Morley is an efficient man and that his removal is purely a matter of politics, this and similar remarks are made by those who wish to find fault with the park board, whether they be friends of Morley or not.

Whether Morley should have been removed from the office in which he has done creditable work is not the question in the minds of that element which likes to find fault and criticize, but it furnishes them with a new theme in connection with the school board activities, and the lack of activity in choosing a chief of police. The gossips are having a harvest of discussion regarding school, park and police matters.

This story, however, was started to tell more particularly about the things that are being said about the removal of the park superintendent, regarding which there are various opinions. Some of the opinions expressed, are the genuine sentiments of those who give them expression, while others are mere gossip, sensation or political dope. It is quite generally agreed that Morley is a competent park man, but that he lacks other qualifications is the opinion of some, even those who pretend to be his friends.

Those men who have been keenly interested in the development of the park all regret the dismissal of Mr. Morley and insist that he is entitled to the credit for having made Balboa Park the beauty spot we are all so proud of. Some of these admit that Mr. Morley has been extravagant in his management, but claim results justify it.

Those who approve the change in management admit that Mr. Morley has done good work but claim that his work, if properly managed, could have been done just as well for much less money. It is also claimed that organized labor has quietly demanded the removal of Mr. Morley. The charge is made that Mr. Morley would not employ a union man when non-union was available.

  1. C. Benjamin, the man decided on as the successor of Mr. Morley, is a man of large experience and has had a splendid business training. It is claimed that there are men employed on the park work in the several departments who know more about practical park development than either Morley or Benjamin, and that Benjamin will make use of the talents of these men for better development and greater economy.

June 15, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:1. Morley must go; decision of park commissioners; Board to give place to Charles C. Benjamin, indicated by member.

That the park commissioners have determined that John G. Morley, superintendent of parks, must be displaced this afternoon when the board meets, and that they have decided to give the position to Charles C. Benjamin of the real estate firm of Benjamin and James, was the substance of a statement made by F. F. Grant, member of the park board yesterday.

When asked by a Union reporter concerning the reasons which prompted the board to request the resignation of Morley, Mr. Grant said:

“While there is sometime that Morley is an efficient man, the park board, after an examination of his work, has concluded that he has not managed his department with that degree of efficiency which is conducive to business-like results. He had kept man and horses idle when they could have been used in plowing lots in various sections of the city; he has kept no invoices of the equipment in his charge; and he has not prepared the reports which are due from his office monthly. These things do not appear to the park board as indicating exceptional worth in the superintendence of parks, and it is because we wish the parks of the city [have] the best service obtainable that we have decided upon a change.

“In support of this, Judge Ryan, head of the park commission, was told by George W. Marston, himself a supporter of Morley, that the [superintendent] had not been business-like.”

Grant said, also, during the interview, that Morley had not been a friend to the present city administration, and that, in addition to Mr. Marston, several of his feigned friends were Julius Wangenheim, W. S. Dorland, president of the Chamber of Commerce; A. D. La Motte, president of the Ad Club; and G. A. Davidson, president of the Southern Trust and Savings Bank.

In speaking of Benjamin, Grant said: “As far as I know [there] has been no intimation in this affair that Mr. Morley was to be removed as a matter of economy. No plan to lower the salary of the superintendent of parks has been made, and I do not think it will be broached.

“Mr. Benjamin has been in the employ of the U. S. Steel Corporation for a number of years, and while he may not have an extensive knowledge of landscape gardening, parking, or in planting and caring of trees and shrubbery, his success with the steel company only was that he was a man of efficiency, and will inject into the park improvement proposition, business methods calculated to give the people of San Diego the worth of their ______ in work done for the park.”

Morley said last night he had not as yet handed in his resignation as reported in the evening papers yesterday, and has no intention of doing so until he has a definite understanding of the reasons behind the request. The meeting of the board is scheduled for this afternoon at 4 p.m. and will be held I the Administration Building at Balboa Park.

June 16, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:3. Meeting planned at Plaza Monday night to protest actions of Board of Education in its dealings with teachers and employees of San Diego schools.

June 16, 1917, San Diego Sun, 2:1-2. Park Board charged with politics in hot meeting; firing of Morley postponed.

The entire meeting was in the nature of an ovation to Supt. Morley, who sat quietly in a chair directly in front of the table around which the commissioners were seated.

Miss Sessions presented a telegram from John McLaren and said that she wanted to speak a word of charity for the present commissioners. “They don’t know what efficiency really is,” she said. “I don’t believe either of you could make a success of a garden. Morley is a plant man, a landscape gardener, and a keen judge of landscape values.”

June 16, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:1-3. Morley still in park place; many favor park superintendent.

After listening yesterday afternoon to a score of men and women who spoke in favor of the retention of John G. Morley as superintendent of parks, the board of park commissioners deferred action until another meeting of the board. This is what they did in effect — actually they merely turned to the consideration of routine business, and did not mention Mr. Morley’s name again until they adjourned to meet again at the call of the chairman.

More than fifty friends of Mr. Morley crowded into the president’s room in the Administration Building at Balboa Park at 4 o’clock, and for nearly two hours they devoted themselves to eulogies of his work as superintendent, his efficiency and his standing among horticulturists.

The only dissenting voice came towards the end of the meeting when A. H. Anderson, 345 Fifth Street, advanced to the center of the floor and charged Morley with have been careless in the handling of the men employed under him, with having sold plants and equipment belonging to the park without proper accounting of the money received, and with being a drinking man. Anderson’s statements were unsupported by any proofs, and several men in the crowd subjected him to a series of vitriolic remarks before he left the room

When the meeting opened, Chairman Ryan asked if there were any present who wished to address the Board, and Melville Klauber immediately took the floor. His speech was a clam review of the park situation as developed by Morley since 1915, and he summed up his remarks by saying that the Board should rescind its demand for Morley’s resignation for three reasons. First, the action taken by the Board is not for the best interests of the city; second, the demand for the resignation was not fair to Mr. Morley as a man; thirdly, the action of the Board is hindering the progress of the present city administration.

  1. A. Davidson, president of the Southern Trust & Savings Bank, a former president of the Panama-California International Exposition, followed Klauber, and, in part, said:

“I am here because I am a friend of Mr. Morley, and also because I have my knowledge of Mr. Morley’s work and character at first hand. Mr. Morley did not lay out the park at the inception of the park’s development, but he has laid out all the portions of the park outside the boundaries of the Exposition, and, since 1915, he has been in charge of the entire ground. The beautiful park we now have is not the work of chance, but it is due only to the fact that we have had such a man as John G. Morley in charge.”

At this point, there was loud applause. Mr. Davidson said:

“We all know that Mr. Morley was responsible for the fine condition of the Los Angeles parks, and, it is my firm opinion that if he is replaced our park work, what has been accomplished under his direction, is bound to deteriorate.”

Colonel J. F. O’Neil, commanding the Twenty-first Infantry with headquarters in the park, spoke of the amicable relationships existing between the superintendent of parks and the military authorities, and mentioned the fact that Morley had done more than any other city official to assist the army and navy in the arrangement of the park for the use of the naval training camp.

Councilman Bard spoke at some length on the attitude of the city administration in the matter and voiced the opinion that the resignation of Morley has been requested to pay political debts and, on the other hand, to embarrass the mayor and City Council. “I know,” said Bard, “that the proposed successor to Mr. Morley has been an active candidate for the position of city manager. I also know that one of the most prominent supporters of Mr. Benjamin for this position has been a candidate for the place of district attorney. I know that the candidacies of neither of these men met with a great deal of enthusiasm and I want the city of San Diego to know who is behind this attempt to oust Morley.”

Miss Kate Sessions then talked to the Board and was the recipient of much applause.

“I have been identified with the growth of San Diego for more than 30 years,” she said, “and I want to tell you members of the Board that you are ignorant and that this is proven by the manner in which you dispensed with the services of the best secretary you ever had.”

Stephen Connell, Julius Wangenheim, former mayor Charles F. O’Neall, also spoke in favor of the retention of Mr. Morley, so did Ernest Bernard, George Otto, A. A. Darmand and Mrs. Daniel Boyle, florists and horticulturists. A teacher from the botany department of the high school also made a few remarks concerning the need of such a man as Mr. Morley in the city park, following which a number of visitors to the city and others expressed the hope in short speeches that Morley would be retained.

Several letters, including a communication from Mayor Wilde, were then read as was a petition signed by a dozen men who either have served on the park board or who are prominent in the life of San Diego. Arthur Cosgrove, who with F. F. Grant and Judge Henry C. Ryan composes the Board of Park Commissioners, also had a letter on the table in which he said that he had investigated several rumors concerning Mr. Morley’s inefficiency, unseemly habits and incompetency, but that he found every rumor to be unfounded. He followed this by saying that “Morley should be retained for the reason that he has good executive ability in the selection and handling of men; he makes good roads; is a fine plant man; understands San Diego soil, climate and flora; is a thorough botanist and horticulturist. His experience during the Exposition period will prove most valuable for future work and Balboa Park would, no doubt, suffer from making a change at this time.”

Mayor Wilde’s letter to the Board said:

“I understand you are quite determined on calling for the resignation of J. G. Morley, superintendent of parks.

“Thirty days ago I had thought that was the best thing to do in the light of economy and because of many unconfirmed reports detrimental to Mr. Morley’s work, but a close investigation of these complaints did not prove anything to me other than to resolve itself into a political preference, which is sometimes well-meant and deserving, but very often abused and ill-advised.

“Many prominent protests from scores of leading citizens, including prominent navy and army officers, leads me to believe that, for the present at least, it is not quite the harmonious and economical thing to do.

“A new condition within 30 days has come upon us by reason of an army cantonment and new rulings from Secretary of War Baker, and many other elements have entered into the atmosphere since election that are far greater to the rank and file of the average citizen than political reciprocity.

“My real friends, who are deeply interested in a productive and constructive administration, should lighten the mayor’s burden by giving due consideration to any radical changes until satisfactory proof of inefficiency, disloyalty or extravagance is established and corroborated.

“I have no political debts since I did not contract any, nor make any promises other than to serve San Diego.

“This letter is written in a kindly spirit and as a recommendation only.

Sincerely yours,

Louis J. Wilde”

The petition handed to the Board is as follows:

“Gentlemen: Understanding that you are contemplating the dismissal of John G. Morley, superintendent of the park, we, the undersigned, feeling keenly and strongly in this matter, ask you to pause and give proper consideration to what your action will mean.

“In the first place, we consider that should action would be flagrantly unjust. We, the undersigned, have come into relations with Mr. Morley in official and personal capacity and have found him uniformly efficient and courteous. During his incumbency in office the park has made such splendid growth as to have won the love of all San Diegans and the plaudits of every visitor.

“As to Mr. Morley’s efficiency as a superintendent, the park itself attests. It is San Diego’s greatest asset. It takes a long time to get acquainted with our climatic, soil and horticultural conditions, and to introduce a new man at the present would give a tremendous setback to the park.

“Further, the one essential in a park is continuity of plan. This does not depend so much on continuity of commission as on the continued employment of the superintendent, and the gradual evolution of his plans, unless, of course, he shall have been proven unworthy.

“Those of the undersigned who have been officially interested in the park and Exposition, not only realize Mr. Morley’s uniform efficiency, but truly believe that his work, in so far as results are concerned, has been more economical than that of any other administration in the city.

“We earnestly request you not only to put out of your mind all thought of dismissal of Mr. Morley, but, instead, give him your fullest cooperation and support, and we feel satisfied that, in this spirit, he will make a most excellent and faithful superintendent and servant.

“We are sure that in the request we are not voicing our individual sentiment as much as that of the entire community, and you would indeed make an unfortunate step for the park and the city as a whole, by taking the action that is threatened.”

This was signed by Julius Wangenheim, former president of the Park Commission, under whose incumbency Mr. Morley was engaged; G. A. Davidson, president of the 1915 and 1916 Expositions; Melville Klauber, president of the Playground Commission; W. S. Dorland, president of the Chamber of Commers; John F. Forward, Jr., former president of the Board of Park Commissioners; F. J. Belcher, chairman of the executive committee, Panama-California Exposition; Arthur H. Marston, for George W. Marston; A. D. La Motte, president of the Merchants’ Association; Stephen Counell, president of the San Diego Floral Association; Frank P. Allen, Jr.; Leroy A. Wright, former president of the Park Commission; Charles T. Chandler, former park commissioner.

June 17, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:4-5. The People’s Forum: Letter from Charles T. Chandler supporting Morley.

Editor: I attended a meeting with many other San Diegans held at the Administration Building Friday afternoon in the interest of John G. Morley, superintendent of parks of San Diego, and listened to the many forcible arguments in his behalf, and, as I did not make any remarks myself, I desire to express them through your valuable paper.

I was a member of the Park Board for some three years, and when I came on, succeeding, I believe, Mr. Julius Wangenheim, he made the remark to me, “Whatever you do Chandler, by all means retain Mr. Morley as superintendent of parks as I fully know his worth.”

During the last three years that I was on the Board there was a great deal of new construction work done in the park, and Mr. Morley must certainly be given all the credit for the laying out and supervision of general planting. We were fortunate in getting considerable money for park improvements, and it would have been utter folly for use park commissioners to have attempted to tell Mr. Morley how to spend the money to the best advantage, as we were not capable of telling him what to plant or how to plant or lay out the grounds anymore than the present Board is capable. We simply turned to him to use [the money], and told him to go to it, and we would advise from time to time the best we could. We soon learned he was all that he had been represented, and we saw results as they developed.

While he did not lay out the grounds in the Exposition, indirectly he had, more or less, to do with it in providing plants and shrubs from the nursery that was maintained in the park, but he had supervision and maintenance of the entire park, and if he is let out now, no one can rob him of the credit that is due him for the beautiful park that is in existence at present. In the future, as we have more money to do with, there will have to be more of the park brought into cultivation, and no member of the present Board will be capable of advising how this should be done. It takes someone who is an expert and a master of his profession, like Mr. Morley, to accomplish this.

It has been stated that Mr. Morley has made enemies, outside of a few in the audience yesterday who seemed to have a grievance and, I think, an unfair one, and knowing those parties as I do, and the caliber of the men bringing those charges, and the high-class citizens who were present to speak in Mr. Morley’s behalf, I consider it ridiculous that such a body of representative citizens should be compelled to come up and plead the cause of such a capable superintendent as Mr. Morley has proven himself to be against the charges of a few disgruntled office seekers.

One of this disgruntled bunch made that charge that Mr. Morley was a booze [drinker]. Of the three years that I was a member of the Park Board, I never saw Mr. Morley under the influence of liquor, or even detected the smell of same on his breath, and, as far as his ever neglecting his duties or his work, I was never aware of same during my entire term.

He has always appeared to me as a quiet, unassuming gentleman, one who is master of his profession second to none; and I honestly believe it is the desire of ninety-nine percent of the taxpayers and citizens of San Diego that Mr. Morley be retained as superintendent of parks as long as he makes good, which he certainly has up to the present.


Charles T. Chandler

June 19, 1917, San Diego Sun, 3:1-2. What the Navy lads do from morning until evening; routine at local camp, by Raynor De Burn.

There are now practically 1000 men and officers at the San Diego naval training camp at the exposition, and hundreds more are expected until the total of possibly 4000 or 5000 will be in training here. The exigencies of war prevent the maintaining of a set schedule for the schooling of the seamen, and the advanced classes may be called to sea at any time, to fill the complements of ships short of men. San Diego boys enlisted in the seaman branch may soon be assigned to the local station.

June 19, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:3. One thousand apprentice seamen in camp at Balboa Park.

How long it takes to make a sure enough bluejacket of raw material has not yet been decided as the naval station training is a comparatively new idea with Uncle Sam.

June 20, 1917, Correspondence, Board of Park Commissioners: Executive Secretary to Captain W. D. Brotherton, Commanding, U. S. Naval Training Station.

Sentries to act as civilian police to regulate traffic and enforce rules

Sentries to be posted in Plaza to prevent parking of cars as this interferes with drills.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1917, 4:3-4. Exposition summer art school planned with Henry Lovins of the San Diego High School art department as its director.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:1. Mayor Wilde makes graft charges against police.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1917, 5:2-4. Dr. Montessori is drawn back to San Diego by charm of Exposition, by Edgar L. Hewett.

June 22, 1917, San Diego Herald, 1:3. Friendship Fiesta draws big crowd.

June 22, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:3. Visitors flocking into city for Friendship Fiesta.

June 23, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:5, 2:6. Parade is high spot of Fiesta.

June 23, 1917, San Diego Union, 14:1-3. Attorneys watch meeting of Park Board, then leave; one is Deputy District Attorney, but he declines to tell errand; no charges filed against Superintendent Morley, Board President announced; playground for soldiers at Park.

One mystery follows another in city park affairs.

Earl F. Drake, deputy in the district attorney’s office, attended a meeting of the park commissioners yesterday. It was rumored that he was there on official business.

Drake left before the meeting was over without saying anything.

Called up at his office later and asked why he was present at the meeting, Drake said, “Oh, I just dropped in. I can’t tell you anything further. Just say I dropped in.”

When asked if he was present in an official or private capacity, Drake said, “I don’t know.”

He said District Attorney Marsh didn’t even know that he (Drake) was there.

“Marsh is busy with the trial of a case,” said Drake. “Just say I merely dropped in.”

Attorneys A. H. Sweet and Lane D. Webber also attended the meeting. Mr. Webber said he represented John G. Morley.

“I would like to know if any charges have been preferred with the Board against Mr. Morley,” said Mr. Webber.

“There are no charges,” said President Ryan. “I announced that the other day.”

“Have there been any charges filed in the meantime?” asked his attorney.

“No,” said Ryan. “There is nothing to conceal.”

“I trust that I’ll be notified if there are,” said Webber.

President Ryan ordered the secretary to inform Mr. Webber if any charges were filed with the Board.

The discharge of Mr. Morley was recently threatened, Secretary F. F. Grant of the Board making an open statement to that effect, but the Board has so far failed to take any action along that line. Morley was on the job yesterday and made reports to the Board, giving advice as to park work when called upon. It had been announced that Charles C. Benjamin, of Benjamin and James, would be given Morley’s place. Mayor Wilde announced a few days ago that it was purely a departmental affair and he had no idea of interfering.

There was a full attendance of the Park Commission at the meeting yesterday. President H. C. Ryan, F. F. Grant and Arthur Cosgrove were all there. Ryan and Cosgrove said after the meeting that they did not know why Deputy Attorney Drake had attended the meeting. They said they know nothing about charges being preferred against anyone.

Considerable business was transacted by the Board yesterday. The Playgrounds Commission was given the right to equip a piece of park ground for a playground to be uses by the army and navy men now in the park. This will probably be a piece of land just north of the old Fisheries Building. It was also practically decided that the playgrounds people would be allowed to use the mesa just south of the Golden Hills playground for a free municipal golf links. The park commissioners and the playgrounds commissioners will look over the two sites Monday afternoon. Representatives of the army and navy appeared before the Board and urged the establishing of a playground. Melville Klauber spoke for the Playground Commission.

Officials of the navy served notice that they would have their own canteen on the grounds for the sale of ice cream and soft drinks under government supervision, and that the men in training would not be permitted to patronize stands run by the Park Commission or individuals. Several applications were received by the Commission from people wanting to run stands. President Ryan announced that the city attorney had been called upon for an opinion regarding concessions in the park and that no action regarding civilian patronage on the grounds would be taken until this opinion was received.

Before the Board adjourned, a resolution introduced by Mr. Grant was adopted as follows:

“Be it resolved that all expenditures contemplated or made for use of the parks of this city, or any of them, shall be made only on requisition in writing first submitted to the Board and approved by its secretary, except at times of great emergency, when the secretary of the Board, or in his absence, any member of the Board, may approve such requisition or purchase.”

A copy of this resolution was ordered filed with the city auditor.

June 24, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:7-8. Friendship Day celebrated.


The boundary line between the United States and Mexico wasn’t exactly erased yesterday. It still seems to exist, as originally surveyed. But “neighbors” from both sides of the dividing mark seemed to forget that it was there. The Friendship Fiesta — the great Carnival of Good Will — accomplished that.

Pledged to amity, they met almost as one people in San Diego yesterday. Under the Stars and Stripes, they gathered and clasped hands. The hearts of one country beat true to those of another. And today these same “neighbors” will assemble at Tijuana, beneath the Mexican banner, to proclaim anew the enduring friendship that has been the keynote throughout this great festival.

San Diego has extended the full hospitality of its people. Mexico at Tijuana today will offer in return the complete hospitality of its citizens. The gay carnival spirit — the desire to cement a lasting friendship such as has prevailed in San Diego for the past two days — will be personified “South of the Monument.”

Not since the gay, glittering days of the Exposition has anything been staged in Southern California to equal the festivities of yesterday. The parade exceeded all expectations. It was witnessed by a crowd estimated at 10,000 people and it required a full hour to pass a given point.

The exercises at the Spreckels organ in Balboa Park were impressive and were joined in by thousands. The dinner last night at the U. S. Grant Hotel was one of the most elaborate ever given in the city. The street carnival and band concerts on the streets of the city last night drew immense throngs of merrymakers and afforded an evening of keen enjoyment. Society turned out in force at the ball given by Mayor Wilde in honor of the city’s guests at the U. S. Grant ballroom.

At the Exposition yesterday afternoon, Governor Cantu made a short but eloquent speech in Spanish, bespeaking friendship for the people of San Diego and thanking them for the honors paid him here. He was cheered for several minutes. Mayor L. J. Wilde delivered the address of welcome. He said in part:

“It is extremely significant that in this hour of international conflict, when the world is afire with war, that two great republics of the northern division of the western hemisphere should meet and mingle as friends and neighbors.

“This splendid Friendship Fiesta must and shall be marked by that wealth of hospitality for which the community of San Diego, and, in fact, the entire Southland is renowned. It must and shall be marked by that entertainment and those recreational and special features which will rekindle the spirit of romance that came to us from the land of Old Spain, under the leadership of those intrepid navigators, Balboa and Cabrillo, and the legion of the brave and dauntless who accompanied them; that this thought will quicken in use again the spirit of empire builders and turn our thoughts to the sacrifice and suffering that was endured by those who wrested the western hemisphere from barbarism and savagery to civilization and culture, and will cause us to renew the debt of honor and appreciation that we owe to Junipero Serra and the devoted and heroic padres who carried the cross through the trackless forests and over the untrailed mountains throughout the entire length of El Camino Real, from sun-kissed San Diego to snow-covered Shasta.”

June 24, 1917, San Diego Union, 10:2-4. Balboa Park great naval training camp; apprentice seamen thrive in perfect surroundings.

The finest naval training camp site in America, say naval experts in developing Balboa Park, the home of 1,000 bright-faced American lads being trained to take their places with the high-seas fleet.

Under smiling skies, living in one of the most beautiful spots in Southern California, with plenty of athletic exercises to develop their muscles, the apprentice seamen sent here for preliminary training are more rapidly whipped into shape for sea duty that at any other training station in the country.

The irrepressible humor of American youth is not to be denied, even with the shadow of war hovering over their daily life. This is exemplified in their drills, despite the strict discipline enforced.

At bayonet drill Thursday morning several of the apprentice seamen did not go through the exercise with the vigor demanded by the instructor, a husky gunner’s mate with a foghorn voice, that boomed clear across the Plaza de Panama.

“Right thrust, parry, left thrust, lunge,” shouted the instructor. “Now listen, shipmate, you haven’t got a pitchfork in your hands. Handle that gun as if you were face to face with a German. Put some ginger into your drills. Hey, you, don’t stab that fellow with your bayonet. The hospital is already full of soup hounds, Now, let’s go through that drill like you mean business. Thrust, parry, lunge. Ah, that’s the stuff. You fellows will make fighting men yet.”

Within two weeks after the raw recruit is received at the Balboa Park naval training camp, improvement is noted. He stands more erect, walks with the spring of the trained athlete, and goes through the various evolutions on the drill grounds with a vigor and snap that bring smiles of satisfaction to the faces of his instructors. Within ninety days he is ready to take his place in the finest body of seafighters in the world — the commissioned and enlisted personnel of the Unites States Navy.

Clad in white duck uniforms, the 1,000 youths at the naval training camp offer an inspiring sight at their daily drills, especially during the morning setting-up exercises and during battalion and regimental maneuvers.

Uncle Sam does not believe in all work and no play. The naval lads are allowed plenty of time for amusement. The eastern section of the Pan-Pacific Building has been fitted up as a Y. M. C. A., where men off duty may find wholesome amusement. The building has been supplied with a motion picture machine, a pianola and Victrola, and the latest periodicals and newspapers. Billiard tables will be installed within another week.

The western half of the Pan-Pacific Building is being fitted up as a dormitory. Stanchions for swinging the hammocks are nearing completion. The main dormitory is located in the Varied Industries Building. This is equipped with cots. The Foreign Arts Building is not utilized as a quarantine depot. A new draft of men are received from Goat Island, they are quarantined in this building for a period of three weeks in order to eliminate the possibility of an epidemic of measles, mumps or other contagious diseases.

Butts’ manual exercises, Swedish drills, company and initiation drills keep the youngsters busy from first call until recall is sounded at 11:30 o’clock. Dinner is served at noon. First call for afternoon drill is sounded at 1:30 p.m. and recall at 2:30 o’clock. There is a fourth drill period from 3 to 4 o’clock. Supper is served at “four bell” and from then until tattoo is sounded at 9 p.m. the apprentice seamen are at liberty to do as they please.

The mess hall, bakery and gallery are models of cleanliness and efficiency. W. J. West, ship’s cook, first class, is in charge of the galley. Associated with him in preparing the meals of the 1,00 healthy seamen are R. Fultz, H.J. Brown, J. I. Henry, F. W. DeMoss, L. L. Jernberg, a. Derowitsch, F. L. Hardesty, fourth class; and seamen F. C. Sefton, A. S. Sylvester, W. M. Rands, and C. Evans. The bake shop is in charge of F. V. Korn, baker, first class, and seamen H. Miller and R. O. Dunbar; H. H. Ham, yeoman, third class, is in charge of the issuing room. R. F. Dunn and I. F. Kettner act as “jack-of-the-dusts.”

(A roster of officers of the naval training camp follows.)

The lowest paid man in the United States Navy during these stirring wartime days received $35 a month. Payday at the naval training camp came a few days ago and because some of the youngsters has two months pay due them the naval disbursements [were] approximately $45,000.


June 25, 1917, San Diego Sun, 6:5. Friendship Fiesta has been closed.

June 28, 1917, San Diego Sun, 3:1. Playground for men of United States force; city to provide recreation spot at Exposition; the new playground is to occupy an area north of the Fisheries Building..

June 28, 1917, San Diego Sun, 4:6. Army Y. M. C. A. was opened in the former Harvester building last evening; equipped with reading and writing rooms, gymnasium, basket ball court, billiard room, piano, phonograph, motion picture machine, etc.

June 28, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:1. Soldier’s Y. M. C. A. is thrown open; Harvester Building turned over to servicemen; speeches made.

June 28, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:5. Charity concert is set for July 15 in park

June 28, 1917, San Diego Union, 6:4. Dr. Stewart will give special recital for Bluejackets this afternoon at 4 o’clock.

June 28, 1917, San Diego Union, 7:1. City Council orders playgrounds for soldiers; sets aside $3,000 for park work and addition to La Jolla playgrounds.

June 29, 1917, San Diego Sun, 11:5. Hundreds dance at Exposition plaza.

Participating were men from the three branches of the military service, the marine corps, army and navy. More than 700 of San Diego’s daughters in attendance.

June 29, 1917, San Diego Union, 7:2-3. July 4th program at Balboa Park promises to be greatest ever given.

June 29, 1917, San Diego Union, 7:5. Art exhibit in the government building on the Plaza makes room for Uncle Sam in hurry; Director Lovins patriotically moves to new quarters in Indian Arts Building; quarters needed for 400 boys from the naval station in San Francisco who were to arrive today.

June 30, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:1. Park theater permit granted Madame Tingley.

Mme. Katherine Tingley yesterday afternoon was granted permission to establish temporarily at Balboa Park, a “non-sectarian, non-denominational, non-political” amusement place for enlisted men, the tenure of the premises to be revocable at any time, either by the park board or the military authorities.

It is planned to use the Standard Oil Building, which as been turned over to the Twenty-first Regiment, U. S. Infantry, for the time being. Mme. Tingley will build an open-air theater in the rear of this building, and here plays of the best character will be given by members of the International Brotherhood League.

Mme. Tingley appeared before the members of the park commission and emphasized that the work she is to do is to be completely non-sectarian. She was accompanied by J. Frank Knoche, Mrs. Ethelind Dunn and Joseph H. Fussell. Mme. Tingley’s work at Montauk Point during the Spanish-American war was described and praised.

She declared that the work of the Brotherhood does not refer to the Theosophical Society, but to the humanitarian task of helping soldiers. She offered to build the open-air theater, and, after it ceased to be used, to removed it and leave the grounds in good shape.

Colonel J. F. O’Neil, ranking military officer at San Diego, said he approved the plan, provided it was thoroughly non-sectarian, but there had been definite orders from the war department prohibiting sectarian work of any kind, except through the Y. M. C. A. and the Knights of Columbus. He praised the atmosphere of the entertainments given by Mme. Tingley at the Isis Theater. Colonel O’Neil will appoint an officer to act with the secretary of the park board as censors of literature and entertainments given.

A communication was received from F. A. Binney urging that a concession be granted someone to rent roller skates to the men for skating on the Plaza. He proposed that one of the canyons east of the Isthmus be damned and a swimming pool for soldiers and sailors constructed. There were other suggestions made for recreation for the enlisted men. The letter was referred to the playground commission.

  1. J. Benbough appeared before the board with a petition to cut down six cedar trees located on the south side of Date Street, between Seventh and Eighth, declaring them detrimental to a building he plans to erect. He agrees to replace these trees with such other trees as the board may direct. He also asks permission to build 200 feet of concrete sidewalks, a driveway, and a cement stairway across the strip owned by the park. Commissioners Grant and Cosgrove were appointed a committee to inspect the place and report at the next meeting.

A communication was received from the military and naval authorities announcing that they were policing the park, but asking that one city policeman be stationed upon the grounds. The speed of automobiles is being limited to fifteen miles an hour on the Isthmus and eight miles an hour in more congested portions of the grounds.

Dr. Edgar L. Hewett, director of the San Diego Museum, appeared before the Board and invited the members to make a trip of inspection with him of the work on reinstallation of exhibits which is just being completed.

The matter of the Sacramento Building, badly need by the navy, was considered. Dr. Hewett declared that the Jessop archery exhibit, now housed there, as the most valuable in the world, even excelling that in the British museum. It took a number of weeks and about $1,200 to install it, and he declared that with the present force it would take until September 1 to remove the exhibit without danger to the collection. The proposal to give the navy the top floor temporarily was considered.

A communication was read from Dr. Harry M. Wegeforth, president of the Zoological Society, saying that the organization had been given $500 worth of animals that need better quarters. The Society asks for funds for this. A kangaroo, a sacred cow and an emu are included in the request for cages. It also was asked that three corrals, each forty feet square, be built for slaughter houses for food for the animals and the use of incinerators.

A motion was carried that no more slaughtering of animals for food for the zoo be permitted within the main grounds, and that a suitable place, with adequate sewer connection, be established and moved into within fifteen days.

Circa June 30, 1917, Superintendent’s Report for June 1917, Board of Park Commissioners Correspondence.

The work in the department has been chiefly maintenance owing to the reduction in the force of men. Because of financial conditions it is impossible to keep the maintenance to as high a standard as during the past two years.

The realignment and grading of the main road on the East division of the Park has been completed at a total cost of $820.00.

The roads in the Park are liable to deteriorate owing to the increased amount of traffic caused by the large amount of heavy hauling for the Army, Navy and Marine Corps, as we have not the amount of men to continually keep the roads in perfect condition.

Decorations have been furnished to several civic organizations and for performances at the Organ Pavilion. While there is more or less expense attached to these items, it is much appreciated by the people of the city. We are also furnishing a movable bandstand twice a week at the Plaza for the concerts given by the 21st Infantry Band.

The work now being done for the Navy Department causes a large amount of extra work in the office and, I believe, there should be some assistance given to Miss Smock until all the Navy Department construction is completed, as, at present, we are unable to keep up with the account. The extra expense entailed can be taken care of in the 10 percent overhead charges.

Two thousand and seventy-eight plants have been used in the Botanical Building during the month and four thousand planted in the Exposition grounds, and nine thousand six hundred and forty-eight flowering plants, trees and shrubs planted in other portions of Balboa Park and Cabrillo Terrace.

Several events have been given at the Stadium during the month, Viz.: the Field Meet of the Army and Navy Departments, the Flag Day exercises, High School graduation, etc. These extra events tend to increase the cost of maintenance as we have to transfer men from other work to have the grounds in perfect condition on these special occasions, in addition to the regular upkeep of the grounds.


June/July 1917, California Garden, Vol. 9 No. 1, 5-6. Monthly Excursion In and Around Balboa Park, by G. R. Gorton.

It is sometime since the Park Nursery has received the consideration which it its due. This is not just, for obviously the nursery is the genesis of things, and without a good nursery — which we have — we should not have much of a park, which we do — very much. Here we have a history in the making, and it is interesting to step behind the scenes and see it done.

When the Exposition became a memory, the stock and equipment of the Exposition nursery, which had been maintained at the head of 18th Street for growing stock for that portion of the park not included within the boundaries of the Exposition, was combined with the Exposition Nursery at the location of the latter.

Primarily, the Park Nursery, like any other nursery, is for purposes of propagation, but there is another very important service which it renders our park system — namely that of receiving the thousands of plants and bulbs which have a dormant season or a resting period — during which they are not of much value for decorative purposes, and yet must, in many instances, receive, if anything, even more care than when they were doing their bit in ornamentation of our park. Probably the most of this class of material emanates from the Botanical Building, in the form of Gloxinias, tuberous Begonias, Rhododendrons, Anthuriums, Caladiums, etc., although the territory outside occasionally has patients that need a rest cure. This calls for the handling and rehandling of tens of thousands of plants every year, which must be loaded and hauled to the nursery, unloaded and placed in frames or houses, or wherever they go, and then, after due time, the process is repeated conversely, and these plants which have been temporarily incapacitated for display purposes, must be returned from whence they came. During the time they spend in the nursery, they are barbered and manicured, and conditioned generally to bring them back into show condition, and this alone is no small task.

But in all this the principal reason for the existence of a nursery is not lost sight of, and the work of propagation goes steadily on, so that the bulk of the planting material used for replacing and for new plantations is produced within the Park Department. For instance, just now there are several thousand Chatelaine Begonias which are well on their way towards supplying the Botanical Building with the wherewithal to charm the beholder. For the same purpose there are some three thousand Exacum affine, one of the daintiest of the more modest type of subjects used in the conservatory. It will interest those who have private conservatories to investigate the merits of Nertera depressa as a ground cover of almost unbelievable rapidity of growth. Twelve two-inch pots of this subject were obtained not over eight weeks ago and, under glass, these have multiplied into over two thousand two-inch pots. These are ready now to be divided and their progress henceforth seems to be merely a matter of arithmetical progression. The plant is of a bright green color, the leaves, which are possibly a quarter of an inch in diameter, somewhat suggests the segments of the fronds of some species of adiantums. The whole plant is of very dense habit, and admirably suited for use in conservatory decoration.

Then, of course, there are quantities of Primulas — obconca and chinensis varieties, malacordes and verbesii — all useful types, Cinerarias by the thousand, bedding plants of all kinds — all good kinds, that is — including ageratums, antirrhinums, Petunias, French Marigolds, Salvias, Lobelias, Geraniums (of course) and dozens of others which are indispensable. There are Coleus, both from seed and from cuttings. Not very many seedlings, as these have the very undesirable trait of flowering prematurely, and are lacking in the richness of color which those propagated from cuttings seem to possess.

There are a number of Azaleas planted in the ground under lath which were severely headed back at the close of the flowering season. This apparently harsh treatment appears to have been exactly correct, as the plants are coming out well, and exhibiting promise of being very good specimens, indeed, when their time comes around.

There are several thousand very prosperous looking seedling Cotoneasters, pannosa and nepalensis, which will in time gladden the hearts of many who appreciate the decorative value of this genus of shrubs.

There are over sixteen thousand Chrysanthemums being grown for use in the Botanical Building and elsewhere, and the prospects are that the display will be even finer this year than heretofore.

For years the Park Nursery has grown a great deal of its material in cloth houses — in fact cuttings of certain plants, such as Eric Melanthera, may be stuck under cloth when it is difficult indeed to get results under cloth — at least with ordinary treatment. It is interesting to note that a quantity of Lawson’s Cypress is being grown from cuttings in one of the cloth houses, as is also Ceanothus arborea — an arborescent species as its specific name indicates, indigenous to the Santa Barbara islands and elsewhere. Pentstemon in varieties is also being gown under cloth.

Out in the fields are roses, bedding plants — “many plants of many kinds” — the very eccentric and deceptive Belladonna “Lily,” which has a fetching way of feigning death, and just as its possessor is mourning the fact that the plant has died down without blooming, it arises Phoenix-like and hangs flowers on itself.

There is a plantation of Ericas, which demonstrates the fact that this subject needs shade in this land of sunshine. There are a half dozen species being grown, both in the sun and shade, and invariably those grown in the sunny locations bear resemblance to singed cats, while those in at least partial shade, flourish like the bay tree (that is, as the bay tree does elsewhere than here). Of the six species, probably melanthera deserves first place, and when properly located is very effective indeed. There are some very thrifty Pittosporums — one of our best general for Southern California — in four species: three best known — undulatum, engenoides and tobira, and one less known but equally desirable, viz.: phillyraeoides. There is a field of Cearus deodara — Himalayan or Deodar Cedar, one of the most graceful of conifers, thriving here as many of its order to not. There are Pomegranates in four varieties, Poinsettias, Spireas, etc. A very interesting collection of Agaves, Aloes, Dasylerions, and other succulents was part of the inheritance from the Exposition, which will furnish material for additional desert plantings when the occasion shall arise.

June/July, 1917, California Garden, Vol. 9, No. 1, 10-11l Pickings and Peckings by the Early Bird.

Balboa, the Spirit of the Park speaks: “In the first place I want you to put down that a Park is not a building, which, having once been made on paper is built to rule and line, for it has to grow and the things in it that make for real character are those that grow comparatively slowly. . . . Another fact of much significance is that local conditions vary so that Park plans cannot be standardized. . . . The best park man that ever lived would be valueless here till he had forgotten most of what he had learned elsewhere and assimilated local conditions. In connection with the historic Exposition much beautiful development has been done but it is going to be a tax on a growing city of a hundred thousand to maintain that development without tackling all the rest of the great unclaimed, and some of the exposition buildings will take time to assimilate into the general park scheme.

Every citizen has as much right and title in the park as he has in his own garden, provided he does not interfere with similar enjoyment by all the rest of the citizens, and why the people of San Diego don’t see this, I cannot understand. They don’t see it or the park management would not be a battledore and shuttlecock arrangement as it is now. Why there are more ex-park commissioners go through the park than ordinary citizens, and if it were not for new settlers in the city, the first one’s turn would be round again. Why are not park commissioners under the civil service and subject to examination as to their qualifications to serve, and better still, remove park matters out of the realm of politics altogether.

A park wants a man who has made its acquaintance and has a vision.

Balboa cheered up noticeably. He began to reminisce, “You remember George Cook? I often see his jolly big form when I start to remember. He came out to me from the east full of eastern park lore and I was a sore trial to him and he was to me and just as we were getting really acquainted, he was called over the border. I missed him a lot. I don’t make friends easily and quickly; time is the essence of my friendships.”

June/July, 1917, California Garden, Vol. 9, No. 1, 7. The Park and the Man

Friends of Balboa Park, and this should include every citizen, have viewed with more than alarm an apparent intention on the part of a majority of the Park Commissioners to remove Superintendent Morley from his position. The Garden, though avowedly a friend of Morley, makes no pleas for his retention on the score of that friendship. The good of the park is infinitely more to it than any personal feeling and it emphatically believes Morley should be retained for the reasons that he has made more than good, he is making good, and his position is one calling for years of experience right there on the ground. The gardening technique making for success is radically different in Balboa Park to that called or in any other Park in the country because of situation, climate, rainfall, or rather the absence of it, and soil. Those without local experience judging by the tremendous results under Morley’s direction obtained in the last few years, will probably greatly underestimate the unique difficulties to be overcome. Acres of solid blasting and filling, selecting of suitable material to grow, for Balboa Park’s planting list is unique, not a copy of other parks. With all respect to Park Commissioners past and present a right superintendent, which Morley is, is of more importance than all of them put together.

Retain Morley as Park Superintendent. If you don’t like his accent or his religion, tell him so, but let him park.

July 1, 1917, Exposition Papers, Board of Park Commissioners, Box 2, San Diego Public Library.

Board of Park Commissioners granted Katherine Tingley, International Brotherhood League, use of Standard Oil Building for the purpose of giving a series of home entertainments to the soldiers and sailors on the Exposition grounds and also to furnish reading and writing rooms for them.

July 1, 1917, Los Angeles Times, III, 23:1-2. War and learning mix on Exposition site.

The beautiful park and the buildings that housed the Panama-California International Exposition are now devoted to widely-different uses. One section is a great museum of art and science and all that makes for the intellectual side of life, while the other part of the buildings and grounds is devoted to active preparations for war.

Army troops are in the old marine camp, the cavalry camp and the Twenty-first Infantry camp, and the buildings east of the Plaza have been transformed into barracks, headquarters and mess rooms for the new naval recruit training station. The Southern Counties Building is the administration building for the station, the Varied Industries Building a barracks for the men, the Cristobal Café is the mess hall, and the Government Fisheries Building is a bath house for the men. Two thousand naval recruits will arrive this week.

San Diego’s inheritance from the Exposition, the Museum of San Diego, is already the largest west of Chicago. The buildings that have been granted for its use are conservatively valued at $500,000 (?); the collection on exhibition or in process of installation at $250,000 (?). The installation in the Fine Arts Building was completed and opened to the public last Sunday. Three buildings are open to the public and two more in process of installation will be ready by July.


The Fine Arts Building is more attractive now than at any time during the exposition. It includes the gallery of exposition architecture, the mission chapel, the women’s headquarters (where are hung the paintings of Donald Beauregard to remain until July), the main art gallery (where the paintings from the spring exhibition of the California Art Club are installed to be followed in June by the canvasses of Jonas Lie), the little art gallery (containing the exhibit of English water colors, to be followed in June by that of William Penhallow Henderson), and the oriental gallery, in which are the Tilden collection of Chinese and Japanese ceramics and an extensive loan collection of Japanese prints.

The gallery of exposition architecture is one of the most interesting additions to the art collection and affords a delightful study. There are pencil drawings and photographs of the exposition buildings and photographs of the ancient buildings of Mexico, Spain, Italy and Constantinople, which were the models used by the architects of the exposition. One can study the pictures of ancient buildings and compare them with the pictures of the modern buildings, then walk out on the Prado and view the originals of these photographs and drawings.


In the main art gallery, in the spring exhibition of the California Art Club, are charming landscapes and seascapes by Guy Rose, Indian paintings by Joseph Henry Sharp, “Old and New Manhattan” by Sidney Dale Shaw, landscapes by William Wendt, some fine still life by Helena Dunlap, and a fine Indian head by Doris Rosenthal.

The exhibition of English watercolors includes “The Baby” and other charming pictures by Laura Knight, and “Knitting,” “Writing” and many attractive watercolors by Harold Night; also some of the work of S. J. Lamorna Birch.

The Beauregard collection in the Women’s Headquarters contains the best work of this young artist, who died May 3, 1914, while much of his work for the San Diego Exposition was unfinished. Some of the unfinished canvases are hung. The young artist was sent to France, Spain and Bavaria by Frank Springer of New Mexico in 1911. He became ill in 1912, and, realizing his condition, worked incessantly to finish his studies and complete mural paintings for the New Mexico Building at the Exposition, for which he had received a commission. He returned to this country in 1913 and died the next spring. His studies of Indian life and desert scenes and the pictures of the country of the Southwest are of great worth. Mr. Beauregard died before he reached the age of 30.

The California Building is being put in order for the Museum of Ancient America. Its most notable feature will be the collection prepared by the School of American Research, of which Dr. Edgar L. Hewett is head. Dr. Hewett is now director of the San Diego Museum and gathered the larger part of exhibits of this kind for the Exposition. In the exhibits are great statues from Guatemala; mural tablets from Central American temples, unearthed after being buried by jungle growth for centuries; models of Aztec and Maya architecture; the Vierra paintings of ancient American cities; a Maya frieze by Mrs. Jean Berman Smith; the historical frieze by Mrs. Sally James Farnham; cases of burial pottery of Mexico, Yucatan, Guatemala and Panama; and the sacred books of the ancient Maya and Aztec peoples.


The structure heretofore known as the Science and Education Building will become the Indian Arts Museum. It contains the Hall of Southwestern Archaeology, the Hall of Culture History, and, after the transfer of the Science of Man collections, will receive the Indian collections of the California coast and island tribes of the Mojave, Pueblo and other Indians of the southwest. The building will have a large lecture hall, to seat 750 persons; a classroom to seat 150; an ethnological laboratory and an employees’ rest room.

The Science of Man Building, formerly that of the Indian arts, will receive the famous anthropological collections assembled with the assistance of the Smithsonian Institution, under the direction of the ethnological division of the Exposition. This collection ranks as the most important of its kind in existence. Here are shown the results of a dozen important expeditions sent out all over the world. Specimens, casts, statues, photographs and skeletons illustrate the entire development of the human species from the nearest related animal forms. The collection was prepared in Washington and in museums in Europe by Dr. Hewett and Prof. Rutot of the Royal Museum of Brussels, assisted by Polish and Australian explorers, many of whom have been killed in the war.

The famous Spy man, the Java man, the Taquina man and other specimens of the human race in the stone age are included. There have been many additions to the collections of the museum.

In the south wing of the building there will be developed later the sociological museum and in the balconies the laboratory of physical anthropology and that of sociology.


By arrangement with the Library Board of San Diego there is being installed in this building a branch which will constitute an important department of the museum. Scientific literature and books of special interest to army and navy men will be in the collection for the use of the officers and enlisted men stationed in the park.

In the government building, at the north end of the Plaza, is the famous Joseph Jessop archery museum, the greatest archery collection in the world. It comprises the primitive weapons of the peoples of Europe, Asia, Africa, America and the islands of the Pacific and Indian oceans. Here are the bows and arrows of the Indians, spears and the earliest weapons used by man. Blow guns and poisoned darts used by savages of Borneo and bows and arrows from the Island of Tiburon in the Gulf of California, where today lives a tribe of cannibals, are among the rare specimens.

July 2, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. With the 300 odd apprentice seamen who arrived at the Exposition grounds Saturday, the total force now numbers over 1,500.

July 3, 1917. NOTE: First installment of Joseph Jessop archery collection received by San Diego Museum.

July 4, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:3-4. Fourth of July parade to move from lower Broadway at 9:30 a.m., Colonel J. P. O’Neil of the Twenty-first Infantry to be grand marshal; reviewing stand in front of Sacramento Valley Building; patriotic program at Spreckels’ Organ Pavilion at 10:30 a.m.; British sailors to march with American service men.

July 4, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 7:1-3. British sailors to march with American service men.

July 5, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. A military high mass will be held next Sunday morning at 9 o’clock at the Exposition.

July 5, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Dr. Stewart gave the second of his series of special recitals for the men of the naval training camp yesterday; Claus Spreckels gave several vocal selections, accompanied by the organ.

July 5, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:1-3. Military mass to be held at Organ Pavilion next Sunday, the third time a similar service has been held here.

July 5, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1-5. Greatest military, naval parade on coast.

July 5, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:5. Roscoe Schryock, chairman of the musical committee, announces the third of this summer’s municipal concerts for Sunday afternoon at the Organ Pavilion.; Eurydice club will sing choral numbers.

July 5, 1917, San Diego Union, 14:1-4. Deeper note prevails in observance of holiday as loyal San Diegans gather on Independence Day; solemnity marks exercises at Spreckels organ; new made citizens renew pledge of fealty to Stars and Stripes; Judge C. S. Andrews of the superior court delivered the oration of the day on “Citizens”; Mayor Wilde welcomes crowds.

July 6,1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. The announcement that Schumann-Heink will sing at the organ next Monday has aroused much interest. The concert is for the benefit of Associated Charities.

July 6, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:4. Naval band organized at Exposition camp.

July 6, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:1. Professional Musicians’ Guild arranges concert tonight for service men at Organ Pavilion.

July 6, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:5. Schumann-Heink to sing at Organ Pavilion, July 16, for Associated Charities.

July 7, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. The California State building at the Exposition will reopen on Sunday and Director Hewett of the San Diego Museum and Art Gallery will be there to talk about the exhibit.

Of course, when Schumann-Heink appears, it goes without saying that society also appears.

` Madame Schumann-Heink will be assisted by the entire personnel of the Tent City Band, under the leadership of La Monaca. Miss Edith Evans will be Madame Schumann-Heink’s accompanist.

The date of the seat sale opening will be announced in a few days.

July 8, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1. Schumann-Heink to sing at Fair for poor of city.

[Her] farewell concert at the San Diego Exposition on New Year’s day [was] heard by 50,000 people . . . and when she sang Carrie Jacob Bond’s “A Perfect Day” at 12 o’clock, everyone in the vast multitude assembled in the plaza of the Exposition grounds felt he had been repaid amply in waiting for this climax to not only a wonderful Exposition, but to what to them had been the most perfect day that San Diego has ever known.

July 8, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:3-4. San Diegans urge to furnish club for Army and Navy men at the former site of the Rosemont Cafeteria on Fifth Street.

July 8, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:4. Mrs. Frank P. Allen, Jr., with her little daughter, Frances, has taken a cottage at 766 A Avenue, Coronado, which they will occupy during Mr. Allen’s absence in Seattle.

July 8, !917, San Diego Union, 9:2-4. Twenty-first Infantry baseball team wallops sailors from the cruiser San Diego at the Stadium yesterday afternoon; second defeat (14 to 7) of season is bad one.

July 9, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. The military high mass celebrated at the Exposition yesterday morning was most impressive; a delightful feature was the singing of Mme. Schumann-Heink.

July 9, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:1. Military mass celebrated at Exposition; more than 15,000 persons attend service; many enlisted men present.

Seats for the enlisted men were provided immediately in front of the pavilion, while the remainder of the open spaces in the plaza were occupied by the public.

July 10, 1917, San Diego Union, 2:4. Schumann-Heink decorated with regimental colors by Colonel O’Neil following military mass at Balboa Park; Father Heffernan, pastor of St. Joseph’s sends diva a letter expressing the thanks of the Catholic people of San Diego for her services; she sang Gounod’s “Ave Maria” during the Offertory and later rendered the “Agnus Dei.”

July 10, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:2. Art Notes, by R. R. — Miss Scofield’s sculpture studio in Balboa Park, located on upper level of Indian Arts Building, northwest side.

July 11, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Colonel O’Neil has announced that $205 was collected at the military mass held at the Exposition organ on Sunday morning; the money goes to a fund for assisting the widows and orphans of army and navy men

July 12, 1917, Letter, A. E. Banks, M. D., Department of Public Health, San Diego, Calif. to Henry C. Ryan, President, Board of Park Commissioners.

Dear Sir: Matters of grave public importance have arisen in connection with the Naval Training Camp located in the Exposition grounds and, with the consent of the United States Public Health officials, I am addressing this communication to you with the request that a conference be arranged for Friday, July 13th at 4:30 p.m. in the Administration Building in the Park.

It is desired that the entire membership of your Board meet at that time with representatives of the Naval Training Camp, the United States Public Health Service, the Naval Sanitary Inspector from Washington, D. C., and the local Health Department in order that these matters may received immediate attention.


(Signed) A. E. Banks, Health Officer and Superintendent.

July 12, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:8. A military camp in Balboa Park: An officer on being challenged by a sentry wrote himself a pass which he ceremoniously presented to the sentry who then allowed him to pass.

July 12, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:5. Dr. Steward to play for army, navy boys this afternoon at 4 o’clock; the public is invited to attend; automobiles will be admitted to the open plaza provided they arrive before the concert and remain until the close of the program.

July 12, 1917, San Diego Union, 7:1-4. San Diego Museum at Balboa Park, great free university of people (from forthcoming booklet of San Diego Chamber of Commerce).

July 13, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Several companies of marines will be added to the camp within the next few weeks.

July 13, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Mme. Tingley and her associates finally opened their building for the soldiers last evening.

July 13, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Health officer A. E. Banks asked the Park Board to set aside land east of the car line in the park for the detention of apprentices who contracted contagious diseases at Goat Island.

July 13, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:2. Health officer will request Park Board set aside ground east of car line in Balboa Park for detention of men sent here from Goat Island.

July 13, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:3. Mme. Tingley presents first of series of entertainments for soldiers, sailors.

July 14, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Concerts given daily at Organ Pavilion will take place at 3:30 p.m. in the future, instead of 2:30 p.m., except for Sunday concert.

July 14, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1-2. San Diego to celebrate fall of Bastille at Balboa Park today; men from army and navy to take part in exercise; Marseillaise will be sung at Organ Pavilion by Victory Carly at 3:30 this afternoon; program arranged.

July 14, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 7:5. Benefit concert tomorrow afternoon at Spreckels organ is free to all but a silver offering will be taken to assist the Boys’ and Girls’ Aid Society of San Diego.; program, including community singing, under the direction of B. Roscoe Schryock.

July 14, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 7:3. The San Diego Society of National [sic] History will hold its monthly meeting at its museum, opposite the Y. M. C. A., Balboa Park at 3 p.m. today.

July 15 1917, Los Angeles Times, II, 1:6-7, 8:5-7. San Diego Fair Grounds Now Great Naval Training Camp; beautiful site of Panama-California International Exposition and huge buildings turned over to embryo fighters of Uncle Sam’s fleet.

In the naval training came de luxe, the beautiful exposition buildings at San Diego, bluejackets are being turned out as fast as possible for Uncle Sam’s navy. For the civilian attracted by the unusual sight of recruits scrubbing their clothes under a rosebush or a magnolia tree, or by groups of happy, white-uniformed lads feeding the pigeons on the Plaza de Panama, it is difficult to realize that the happy recruits sent to do the work had done it as directed without much ado.

Another art exhibit, belonging to Miss Edna Schofield, was moved the same day by the bluejackets. Miss Schofield was absent that afternoon and did not know of the order to vacate the building. The following morning, when she arrived at her studio, she, too, found walls bare in the building where she had just hung her pictures. So thoroughly had the boys performed their work, leaving nothing in the room, that Miss Schofield became convinced she had merely dreamed of having the studio arranged. Puzzled, she went to Dr. Hewett and learned where her exhibit had been moved. There she found screens, pictures and casts placed in exactly the positions they had occupied in the first room, with such precision that not even her critical eye could detect a fault.

The sailors proved to be expert in hanging pictures, not so much from an artistic sense as that they obeyed orders and placed them exactly in the second room as they had found them in the first.

In the old Cristobal Café, now the mess hall for the training station, a change equally as astounding has been effected by the apprentice seamen. Several coats of white paint and white enamel have transformed the main dining-room, while untold scrubbings, paint and polish have made the big kitchen or galley, spotless. Here Chief Steward Fitzpatrick, a retired man recalled into the service by the exigencies of the war, assisted by thirteen cooks and eleven bakers, prepares the meals for the big family of boys.

The old idea of army or name fare is exploded by the menus served the recruits daily. Not merely good food, but a varied menu, is arranged by Steward Fitzpatrick.

On the Fourth of July a special menu was served, as always on holidays, which included cream of celery soup, combination vegetable salad, roast turkey with oyster stuffing, corn on the cob, mashed potatoes, chocolate cake, Neapolitan ice cream and coffee.

On this particular day the boys consumed 128 turkeys, or 1259 pound of meat; 712 pounds of ham; 421 pounds of loin pork and 117 dozen ears of corn.

On ordinary days the boys have a menu like this:

Breakfast: Boiled eggs, rolled oats, with milk and sugar; bread, butter, coffee.

Dinner: Rice-tomato soup, pot roast of beef, mashed turnips, potatoes, bread, butter, coffee.

Supper: Curried meat with rice, pickled beets, bread pudding, bread, butter, tea.

Many housewives could take lessons in economy from this big kitchen, where every scrap of food is utilized. Left-over vegetables make salads, stale bread is used for toast, for croutons, for stuffing and so on.


The training station now occupies ten of the large exhibit buildings and more will be used later. There are more than 1500 apprentice seamen in the camp, of which W. D. Brotherton is commandant and Lieut. E. A. Lofquist the executive officer.

The administration offices occupy the attractive Southern Counties Building. In the large Blue Parlor, where countless receptions were held during the Exposition, the dainty ivory and blue appointments have been replaced by business-like desks. Here busy yeoman pound their typewriters and assist with the business of the big camp. The Cristobal Café is used for the mess hall; the Government Fisheries Building has been utilized as a bathhouse, showers and baths replacing fish tanks. The police headquarters is now a hospital, while an isolation hospital is in the Pepper Grove, where the men may sleep out of doors. A number of cases of measles and mumps have made this necessary. The Foreign Arts and Varied Industries buildings and the upper floor of the Government Building on the Plaza are used for barracks, In the Pan-Pacific Building is the navy Y. M. C. A. Later, the lower floor of the Government Building will be occupied by the same, and, as soon as the Canadian exhibit is removed, that building will be used for barracks. Although not under the supervision of the government, the branch of the San Diego Public Library, which has been installed in the Indian Arts Building for the use of sailors and soldiers, is considered at important feature of the camp. Here the lads gather and read or take out books. Although most of the circulation is fiction of the Jack London style, many of the boys want reference books in some particular line of study, and many are commencing their French.


While all the soldiers stationed in the park are compelled to study French now, this is not included in the course for the seamen. Their routine includes a busy day from 5:30 a.m., when reveille is sounded, until taps at 9:05. At 6 a.m. is assembly to scrub clothes; 7:35 breakfast; drills for the various companies from 8 until 11:55; at noon assembly for dinner; drills from 1 until 4:10 p.m.; at 6 assembly for supper; at 9 tattoo; 9:05 taps.

The boys who make up the camp far for the most part fine, manly fellows who have come from good homes, and kindly, almost fatherly interest in them is displayed by the officers. Many of the petty officers are retired navy men, who have been recalled, and these all take more than a passing interest in the young sailors, many of whom must have had to figure a little to reach the age limit of 17 required by law.

July 15, 1917, Los Angeles Times, 11:2. Two EMS annoy the recruits; measles and mumps break out in Naval Camp at San Diego

San Diego, July 14. — An order was issued today by the City Health Officer, Dr. A. E. Banks, that the public be not permitted to travel those streets within the limits of the naval training station at the exposition grounds with the exception of El Prado, the main street, on account of sickness among the men. There have been a number of cases of mumps and measles among the recruits.

Visitors may enter the Laurel street gate and go to the organ, and street car passengers may enter the east gate and pass down the Prado to the organ. The east gate is closed to autos and to pedestrians. An order also prohibit soldiers of the Twenty-first Infantry from associating with sailors on the Plaza.

July 15, 1917, San Diego Union, 3:1-2. Noted diva will sing for charity; confident of New Bayreuth in San Diego; will never rest until this city is established as a music center; program of concert to be given tomorrow in park published.

July 15, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:2-5. San Diegans clasp hands with French in celebrating fall of Bastille.

July 15, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:3. Park naval training grounds to be closed with exception of El Prado, Plaza and Organ; north and south gates to be closed.

July 17, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Schumann-Heink sang for benefit of Associated Charities last night.

July 17, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:7. More than 10,000 cheered Schumann-Heink in program for charity at Organ Pavilion last night.

July 18, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:2. Schumann-Heink’s voice heard from organ stage; great singer’s wonderful tones audible at distance of several miles.

July 18, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:3. Park concessions for two refreshment and tobacco stands granted by Board to I. L. Eno cause of protest; two members create a “new department” to receive $125 monthly for privilege.

During the meeting at which the concession was granted Commissioner Cosgrove is said to have called for competitive bids and to have demanded that a fair opportunity to bid be given to all.

July 18, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:5-6. Army and Navy Activities: Y. M. C. A. activities in Balboa Park.

July 19, 1917, Los Angeles Times, II, 6:3-4. Sailors’ Camp Quarantined; San Diego to Prevent Spread of Spinal Meningitis; Medical Experts from North Called to the Scene; Disease is Said to Have been Contracted in Chicago.

As a preventative measure against spinal meningitis in the navy, the task of taking throat and nose cultures of everyone of the 1700 apprentice seamen now stationed at the Naval Training Camp in Balboa Park, San Diego, has been begun by the city’s health department.

In the past month a number of cases have developed among the men sent from Goat Island, and one death resulted. In all, Dr. A. E. Banks, health officer, reports there have been sixteen cases at the training camp and three from the cruiser San Diego. As preventative measures were taken at once by Capt. W. D. Brotherton, commandant, and Heath Officer Banks, the situation is said to be well in hand.

A quarantine of the training camp and the sailors went into effect last Saturday, and, as a further precautionary measure, no more recruits will be transported there or to or from any of the training camps until the disease shall have been controlled, which probably will be very soon.

Owing to the immense amount of laboratory work involved in examining all the recruits, D. E. Kelly of Berkeley of the State Board of Health has been detailed to assist in the investigation. At the invitation of Dr. Banks and Dr. Kelly, Prof. H. K. Meyer, associate professor of tropical medicine at the Hooper Foundation for Medical Research, San Francisco, will reach San Diego tomorrow to consult with Dr. H. A. Thompson, city bacteriologist, relative to the research work being carried on among the Naval Training camp men now in quarantine.

One hundred men were subjected to the throat and nose examination Wednesday, and the department expects to take cultures each succeeding day of from 100 to 200 seamen until the entire brigade shall have been examined and all carriers detected and segregated from their fellows.

According to Dr. Banks other training stations have been quite slow in taking on this research work and, as a consequence, a serious situation developed before active preventative measures were established. There was an outbreak of meningitis in the naval training camp in Chicago and several exposed were sent to Mare Island, later to Goat Island, and then to the San Diego camps.

The quarantine applies merely to the naval training camp. For this reason, soldiers of the Twenty-first Infantry, stationed northwest of the Isthmus, are no permitted to mingle with the sailors. Visitors are permitted to enter Laurel-street gate as usual and have the freedom of the park not occupied by the training camp. The north, east and south gates are closed except to passengers on street cars who may enter the east gate and pass through the Prado to the organ or other parts of the park.

Dr. Banks states there is no danger in visiting other parts of the park as contact, not proximity, causes spread of the disease. At the concert Monday night at the organ, at which Madame Schumann-Heink say, there was a crowd of 10,000 people. The authorities permitted this, as it is agreed there was no danger.

There have been the usual number of cases of mumps and measles among the recruits and, for this purpose, two isolation hospitals have been established on the park grounds.

July 19, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Concert at organ in Balboa Park given by Mme. Schumann-Heink, Monday evening, netted $2,000 to the Associated Charities of this city.

July 19, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. A fine program this afternoon was rendered at the organ for the men at the army and navy training camps of the Exposition.

July 19, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1. $2,000 cleared for charity by concert in park; appreciation expressed by Associated Charities for services of Madame Schumann-Heink, others.

July 19,1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 7:1. The San Diego Professional Musicians Guild has indefinitely postponed a concert scheduled for tomorrow night at the Panama-California building [sic] in Balboa Park.

July 19, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 7:4. Arizona people coming to coast to become residents of San Diego when Camp Kearny is opened; practically every member of the First Arizona Infantry, a National Guard unit, will train at Linda Vista.

July 19, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 7:5. General J. H. Pendleton, U. S. M. C., who returned to San Diego on Sunday after more than a year’s duty in Santo Domingo, will be given a luncheon at the U. S. Grant Hotel by the Chamber of Commerce on Tuesday.

July 20, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 7:4. Park Commission called upon to explain further; offer to donate 20 percent of profits from a concession to the Red Cross if it were granted to him turned down, say complaint from A. Bruno.

  1. N. Faulconer, secretary to the Park Board, responded: “Because of the fact that the army and navy authorities do not desire outside concessionaires within the grounds, and for no other reason, the commissioners are daily refusing a number of requests of this sort and must continue to do so.”

July 20, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 7:4. Twenty-first Infantry soldiers mark to Point Loma and, with the permission of Madame Tingley, camped on Theosophical Society grounds.

July 21, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Dr. Steward, official organist, left his city for a month’s vacation.

July 21, 1917, San Diego Union, 7:6. F. F. Grant of Park Commission tells his side of Eno concession controversy.

“The park took charge of these stands in April. During that month the profits were about $40, during May $56 and in June $1,000. Business continued to be good up to the time when Eno took charge on July 13. Just before this, however, the public was excluded from various sections of the park on account of disease among the soldiers and sailors. Our report shows also that the army and navy maintain five canteens of soldiers’ stores, which have nothing to do with the Park Board, and are independent refreshment stands.

“It may be seen from this that the stands will not get the same patronage as heretofore. We believed as a Board that it was time for us to dispose of our mercantile business and let someone else take charge of it who will be willing to assume the financial responsibility and the chances of heavy losses.”

July 24 1917, Correspondence, Board of Park Commissioners; File: San Diego Museum, 1916-1930; San Diego Public Library.

Exposition stock certificates transferred to San Diego Museum as turned over to Dr. Edgar L.

Hewett (with handwritten revisions) $416,855.

July 25, 1917, San Diego Union, II, 7:1-3. The term “San Diego’s Own” applied to Fourth Regiment, U. S. Marine Corps, stationed at marine barracks, Balboa Park.

“San Diego’s Own,” the term affectionately applied to the Fourth regiment, U. S. M. C., while it was stationed at marine barracks, San Diego, still clings to the organization in far-away Santo Domingo.

July 25, 1917, San Diego Union, II, 7:4. Local recruiting station has best day in weeks, 6 men being registered by the U. S. Army; since declaration of war more than 1300 apply for admission to Navy.

July 26, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:2, 5:4. Concession returned to Park Board; criticism of contract made for refreshment privilege causes lessee to ask for release from agreement.

It was reported yesterday that there would be a change in the management of the Japanese tea garden in Exposition park — that the concession would be taken from the Japanese and given to another applicant. Commissioner Grant said yesterday the he knew nothing of such a move. He said that a report that the concession would be granted to W. Thompson, a former secret service man for Mayor Capps, was unfounded.

The tea garden is now being run without any payment for the concession. The permit was granted by the old Board, the Japanese having spent about $600 in fixing up the place. Grant said yesterday that he understood the resort was making big profits. Commissioner Ryan said that he understood that the business was not even on a paying basis. Commissioner Cosgrove was out of the city.

July 26, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:3-6. Uncle Sam’s fighters headed for San Diego, contract signed; 1,000 men will start work Monday on Linda Vista cantonment site.

July 26, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:7, 5:3. District Attorney T. B. Cosgrove, refuses to give name of those in Comus Club when place was raided to City Council; Mayor Wilde defends action.

July 26, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:3. Army work holds up marine post reclamation project; Dutch Flats must yield right of way to cantonment construction.

July 27, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. William Daniel Brotherton, commander of the naval training camp at Balboa Park, yesterday received his commission as captain.

July 27, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:4-5. T. N. Faulconer, executive secretary of Park Board, explains Balboa Park concession in letter; calls attention to probable effect of competition from Post Exchange on income of concessionaires in Plaza de Panama; says records open to public.

July 28, 1917, Notice, California State Board of Health, Bureau of Administration, Sacramento.



Board of Park Commissioners

San Diego, California

You are hereby notified that a nuisance exists on property owned or controlled by you at Balboa Park, San Diego, Cal. Caused by stagnant water in lily pond under Laurel Street bridge and in adjacent ditches, creating breeding places of mosquitoes.

You are hereby ordered to abate said nuisance on or before Tuesday, July 31, 1917, on penalty of arrest and prosecution as provided in the Penal Code of the State of California.


July 28,1917 (Signed) Edward T. Ross, Chief Sanitary Inspector.

Note: In order to abate this nuisance it will be necessary to drain the lily pond and to clean and straighten the sites of the various ditches in order that the water in the same will flow freely. Oil may be used on ponds where draining of filling in is impracticable.

July 28, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:2-5. Enlisted men’s club rooms opened in the old Marston building at 5th and C streets; spacious quarters delight soldiers.

July 28, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:6-7. Nine-hole golf course near Golden Hills playground to be prepared.

July 30, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:2-4. Madame Montessori makes plea for war children at the Civic Women’s Headquarters in Balboa Park; to speak again this evening.

July 31, 1917, Letter, A. E. Banks, Department of Public Health, San Diego, Calif. to Mr. Tom Faulconer, Secy., Park Board, Administration Building, Balboa Park, City.

Dear Sir: Numerous complaints have been filed with this department relative to mosquito conditions in Balboa Park, which are causing no little annoyance to the troops stationed there.

Kindly see that immediate steps are taken for the oiling of all ponds of water located within the limits of Balboa Park. I have instructed Inspector Coop to call on you for the purpose of cooperating with you in this matter.


(Signed A. E. Banks, Health Officer.

July 31, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:2-5. Dentists establish clinic for soldiers in the Harvester Building, Exposition grounds; examine 400; fix teeth of 60 service men since the dentists have started their work.


The general work in the Park system for the month of July has been maintenance. A large amount of seasonable planting has been done. The various roads in the Park have been repaired and smoothed up in the worst places, but with the limited amount of equipment and men they cannot be maintained in very perfect condition, especially owing to the large amount of heavy trucking for the Army and Navy camps maintained in the Park, and also for the reason that a large amount of the heavy hauling by trucks is going through the Park for Camp Kearny and the Wireless Station in Chollas Heights.

The last few evenings of July the water hydrants on the West side, especially on the slopes and in Cabrillo Canyon, have been robbed of their fittings, no doubt to get the brass for junk. Thirty seven one-inch and two two-inch hydrants have been damaged and several hydrants stolen and the water left running all night. As we have no police to patrol the Park this is liable to occur almost anytime. I have instructed Mr. Davis to work extra time and catch persons who steal them but as yet there has been no results.

The construction for the Navy department has seriously deleted our funds. However, the City Auditor has agreed to take care of expenditures until it will be absolutely necessary to stop the work. In the meantime we may receive a payment from the Government for the money expended, which amounts at the present time to about $20,000.

The following amount of plants were planted out in the Exposition grounds and Park proper during the month of July:


1740 Asters 57 Begonia Gloire de Chatelaine

1360 Ageratums 8 Begonia Retenofolia

371 Browallia Major 117 Begonia Tuberous

517 Chrysanthemums 4 Cactus Triangularis

285 Coleus 135 Coleus

200 Cuphea Manicata 120 Celosia Pumosa

502 Execum Affinis 3 Clivias

90 Kochia 584 Execum Affinis

300 Verbenas 31 Gloxinia Hybrida

1300 Petunias 9 Hydrangea Hortensis

100 Poinsettias 122 Lilies, Auraum and Specosum Rubrum

50 Salvias

350 Zinnias

Making a grant total of 8,395 plants.

500 pounds of Commercial fertilizers and 300 pounds of aerated lime were used on the grounds. A great deal of pruning as done and the acacia trees along the Laurel Street entrance are being summer pruned.


2 Acacia Verticilata

12 Acacia Longifolia

1035 Begonia Gloire de Chatelaine

8725 Chrysanthemums, assorted varieties

493 Dahlias

1296 Execum Affinis

30 Lantanas

120 Marguerites

100 Pelargoniums

310 Petunias

425 Verbenas, Crimson King

100 Veronica Elipitica

5800 Zinnias


Very few games were played during July and the men in charge were kept busy caring for the adjacent planting in connection with their other duties.


Scraping canyon road, full length 30.00

Scraping Sixth Street, north half 36.00

Scraping and patching Midland Drive, full length 62.00

Scraping and patching Golden Hill grade, 500 ft. 18.50

Grading entrance and patching Golden Hill playground, 200 ft. 16.00

Grading and patching 18th St. and Redwood grade, 3000 ft. 160.00

Road sprinkling 275.00

Pipe to manure and trash head, canyon road, 450 ft. 9.50

Pipe on 6th St. from Date to Elm Sts., 230 ft. 7.00

Clean up Exposition grounds 80.00

Clean up and plant delivery, park in general 150.00

Clean up canyon ditch and lake 40.75

Cultivating Model Farm 20.00

Cultivating Nursery 28.00



Included is a list of the orders received from the Navy Department. Part of the work is completed. Other construction is progressing. New orders are coming in every day. A full report of the work will be submitted on completion. (Not included.)


August, 1917, California Garden, Vol. 9, No. 2, 5. Monthly Excursion In and Around Balboa Park, by G. R. Gorton.

This has been a busy month at the Park — both politically and horticulturally. At Sixth and Juniper, the Dahlia planting (which shows much promise of bloom later on) is reinforced on the rear with Hollyhocks, in many shades of red, varying from light pink to almost black. In fact, all through the planting on the Juniper Street side, these old-fashioned garden favorites have been liberally and effectively used. The parking on the Juniper Street side is graced with a row of Eucalyptus ficifolia, so-called “scarlet flowering”; albeit that the colors of its flowers vary from that to almost white, however, many of the specimens in this portion of the Park, as well as those on the edge of Cabrillo Canyon opposite Spruce Street, possess the rich scarlet inflorescence which marks the species as desirable. Also, in this same row are one or two specimens which represent one of the many variations from the type. They are bushier in habit, with smaller leaves, and flowers of an attractive shade of pink.

It is doubtful if many visitors to our Park are aware of the fact that the planting at this point contains a group of the famous Sequoia gigantia. They are not “big trees” yet, but that is one of the things that time will mend, and from the present thrifty appearance of them, but a minimum of time will be required. Besides this planting of Sequoias, there is another and a larger one somewhat north of the Rose Garden, covering some twenty acres and extending down to the road at the bottom of Cabrillo Canyon. The last mentioned at Sequoia sempervirens.

Adjoining the bird cages on the east, the beds of viola maxima have been replaced with Begonia Gloria de Chatelaine, which contrast pleasingly with the natural gray of the Santolina border. Across the walk and a little to the north is a grouping of pomegranates in flower. There are red, yellow and white, in both single and double varieties. It seems to the writer that this subject should fill a larger place in shrubbery plantings, if for no other reason than its attractive fresh green foliage.

The section north of the Rose Garden is, in many ways, one of the most attractive portions of our Park. One particularly striking effect has been attained in a large triangular bed with San Diego and firebird cannas, two of the most beautiful varieties which have been introduced in years. Across the path, directly west, is a “jungle” of palms, bananas, etc., which lacks only boa constrictors and other “creepynge and crawlynge” things, the loss of which is not mourned. A border of Agapanthus umbellatus, the magnificent “blue lily of the Nile,” in full bloom is all that could be desired of it. A further note of color is found in Mrs. Conard Cannas, interspersed with the palms, et. of the aforementioned snakeless jungle.

Bordering the path which skirts the edge of the canyon nearby are Scabiosa in profusion, Shasta daisies and many other blooming plants, while recently ten thousand Zinnias have been planted, which will, in due season, brighten the landscape with their multi-colored blooms.

The rose garden appears to be wonderfully indifferent to the season of the year, and still produces a very satisfying crop of bloom, especially in certain varieties.

Along the west side of the West Boulevard in the northwest section (nautically speaking, that is) are borderings of Lilliput zinnias whose golden yellow flowers suggest those of Tagetes in color, form an size.

Still west of West Boulevard and about opposite Thorn Street, a Santolina-bordered triangular bed has been planted with Exacum affine, blue African “violet,” dainty and diminutive, fragrant and fascinating. In another triangle on the same side of the Boulevard, but opposite Grape Street, pansies have given place to Coleus, bordered with Achyranthes brilliantissima and edged with Mesembryanthemum floribundum. On the east side of the drive, not far distant, in a large triangle, Larkspur has been supplanted by Dahlias edged with Zinnias, and so the never-ending process of planting and replanting, placing and replacing, to please the public eye goes on, and it is doubtful, indeed, whether the majority of those who visit Balboa Park and admire the result have much of a realization of what it means to keep the Park always dressed up for company, regardless of seasonal or political changes, regular or irregular, to satisfy the demands of the lawns and plants which are ever thirsty for water, and those of the public, which is ever thirsty for variety. Verily, it is not a path of roses which the gardener treads — figuratively — though literally he may.

August 1, 1917, Letter, A. E. Banks, Health Officer, Department of Health, San Diego, California, to Mr. John Morley, Department of Parks, City of San Diego, Cal.

Dear Sir: We have repeatedly called attention to the fact that mosquitoes are permitted to breed in the city Park and have in the past made certain recommendations in accordance with ordinances Nos. 4014 and 6096. A survey completed this morning shows that the canyon that runs under the bridge in the park as a long series of pools draining into the lake.

Immediate steps must be taken for the treatment of these pools and all other bodies of water wherein mosquitoes breed. The only adequate way to handle this is to apply oil, preferably a mixture of distillate and crude oil to the surface of each individual pool at periods of not to exceed four days. This will have to be applied by means of a hand spray.

I have instructed Inspector Coop to confer with you immediately relative to this matter and hope it will receive your early attention. Failure to comply with this order within 24 hours will be taken as an indication that prosecution should be started. Kindly see our communication of July 19, 1917.

Respectfully yours,

(Signed) A. E. Banks, Health Officer.

August 1, 1917, Letter, Wheeler J. Bailey, chairman of Finance Committee, San Diego Museum (George W. Marston Papers, Collection 219, Box 2, SDHC; also Board of Park Commissioners, Box 1).

At a meeting of representatives of the executive committees of the Panama-California Exposition and the San Diego Museum Association, it was proposed that the balance (about $6,500) remaining from the Exposition be used for the maintenance of the buildings and collections of the Museum, since it is a permanent institution continuing the science and art work of the Exposition. The amount, if distributed to the great number of stockholders, would be only about 65 cents on each $100.00 of stock. If used for the upkeep of the Museum, it would tide it over an initial period during which it has little financial support.

It was desired to refer the proposition to the individual stockholder, and we are pleased to report that the plan has met with virtually unanimous approval of the individual stockholders. At the present time over 50 percent of the stock extant has been assigned for the purpose proposed. I enclose herewith a blank which has been prepared and which is self-explanatory. If you are willing to contribute your interest in the remaining fund, will you kindly sign the blank and sent it to me in the enclosed addressed envelope, or better still, if you can find your stock certificate, sign the transfer blank on the back of it and mail.

Very sincerely yours,

(Signed) Wheeler J. Bailey, Chairman Finance Committee, San Diego Museum Association.

August 1, 1917, San Diego Union, 6:2. Buildings and grounds at park attract artists.

August 3, 1917, San Diego Union, 14:2. Mrs. Sirell C. Perrine, dramatic soprano, to sing next Sunday afternoon at Organ Pavilion.

August 4, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:1. Throng sees Chaplain of Army marry; Herschel Raymond Griffin takes Miss Olive Buckley Whalian of Los Angeles as bride before more than 4,000 persons at the Organ Pavilion in Balboa Park; marriage service read by Dr. James Allen Frances, pastor of the First Baptist Church of Los Angeles; Col. J. P. O’Neil, commanding officer of the 21st regiment of the U. S. Infantry, gave the bride away.

August 4, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:5. Officers of 21st Infantry gave fortnightly hop at U. S. Grant Hotel last night.

August 5, 1917, San Diego Union, 15:2. Madame Tingley entertained U. S. Army officers and their wives Thursday.

August 5, 1917, San Diego Union, 15:4. Free concert in Park to be given today under the direction of B. Roscoe Schryock.

August 6, 1917, Letter from unknown and name indecipherable to Captain W. D. Brotherton, Commanding Naval Training School, Balboa Park, San Diego, Cal.

Dear Sir: I desire to personally question the sailor from the Naval Training Station who was detected a few nights ago in an attempt to burglarize the concession stand of the Plaza.

On the night previous to this man’s detection, parties unknown stole a number of small items through a hole cut in the tent roof of the stand, and it was exactly over this hole that this sailor was discovered by your sentry.

Some time ago the same stand was burglarized, cash registers broken open and nearly $100 in change and merchandise stolen. While there is no wish on our part to fasten this offense upon anyone under your command, it is not impossible that the burglary was committed by a sailor, and, as this man evidently is not above such actin, it is not impossible that he could throw some light upon the first occurrence.

While we have no wish to prosecute in this instance, we feel justified in taking steps toward recovery of what has been stolen from us and trust that you will cooperate with us to the extent of sending this man to our office to be questioned.

Very truly yours.

August 6, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:4. Has B. Roscoe Schyrock, leader of San Diego Symphony Orchestra, the right to call concerts given by the organization “municipal concerts?” Officers and members San Diego Music Teachers’ Association protest to Park Board.

August 6, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:1. Hugh Allen, baritone, to sing at Balboa Park.

August 7, 1917, San Diego Union, 6:2. Los Angeles women honored yesterday afternoon by 21st regiment of U. S. Infantry at a special drill on the Alameda.

August 9, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:1. Four thousand witnessed military wedding at Organ Pavilion last night; Chaplain Herschell Raymond Griffin, first lieutenant of California Coast Artillery took Miss Olive Buckley Whalian of Los Angeles as bride; 21st Infantry Band provided music.

August 9, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:1. Floral Society will give dahlia show in Indian Arts Building, August 18 and 19, to benefit San Diego Museum.

August 10, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1. Dr. Raymond Mixsell of Pasadena, amateur organist, to give recital next Monday afternoon at Organ Pavilion.

August 11, 1917, Letter, Executive Secretary, Board of Park Commissioners, to Commanding Officer, Twenty-First Infantry, Camp Taliaffero [sic], San Diego, Cal.

Introducing Mr. Clisbee of the Vitagraph Company of New York, to whom permission has been given to film exteriors of buildings in the Indian Village.

The adjutant of the Twenty-First Infantry was advised Sept. 11 that Mr. Clisbee desired to work in the Indian Village on Sept. 12 and stated that he would make the necessary arrangements.

August 11, 1917 (?), Correspondence, Board of Park Commissioners; San Diego Museum File, 1916-1930; San Diego Public Library.

Stocks transferred to San Diego Museum Association since August 1, 1917


August 11, 1917, San Diego Herald, 4:3-6. Tomato “scandal” in park.

August 11, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:3-5. Tomato “scandal” in park is exploded; Mayor Louis J. Wilde says he will have complete investigation made, San Diego Sun alleged tomato plants were being grown in park for Standard Canning Company at the expense of the city; M. E. Salsberry raised 200,000 tomato plants for Park Commissioner F. F. Grant on 360 square feet of ground; understood Standard Canning Company was responsible for supplying seed and paying his salary of thirty-seven and one-half cents an hour; F. F. Grant was attorney for company.

It was declared that the tomato plants have been paid for by the canning company and that the labor of raising them is being paid for by the company. The only thing contributed by the city is a small plot of ground for which there was thought to be no other use this year. The plants are being given to anyone who will call for them, it was explained. The company is asking that those who get the plants sell the fruit they bear back to the company.

August 11, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:3-6. Letter, L. J. Wilde regarding tomato “scandal” and other statements made in San Diego Sun:

Replying to your open letter . . . when the hasty action of the park board thought proper to dispose of Superintendent Morley for reasons never published, it was on my urgent request that he was retained. When the contract was let to Emo to sell merchandise in the park, I publicly declared against such unbusinesslike methods. It was cut out at once.

In the case of Superintendent Morley, Judge Ryan and Mr. Grant were right, and in the case of Emo they were wrong. And in the tomato canning case you are wrong.

  1. F. Grant was the only member of the park board I appointed. I had never met him before the recent election. He had been a champion of the Progressive movement of which The Sun was the spokesman. Mr. Marston, Senator Luce, Judge Sloane and Editor Scripps and Porterfield were all thick and fast friends. I could see no reason why Mr. Grant’s appointment would not be a popular one. Mr. Marston resigned of his own accord. And about the only applicant for this thankless unpaid job was Mr. Grant and he was appointed.

August 11, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:1-2. Soldiers, sailors to be guests of Hugh Allan at concert Monday, seats on sale.

August 12, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:2-5. Floral Association prepares to give Dahlia Show for benefit of Museum; Park Board cooperating with movement; date set next Saturday, August 18; admission is 10 cents.

August 12, 1917, San Diego Union, 6:1. Mayor suggests that Park Board employ expert; efficiency badly needed in department he says in letter to Commission; cites report by accountant F. D. Hall.

“The report I have shows that this condition of affairs has existed for some years and that I as chief executive of this city feel and urge upon you to make arrangements to build up your department on a par at least equal to that which any business corporation demands.”

Date Unknown, possibly July or August, 1917, San Diego Public Library.



In reply to your request that the Park Board make a reduction of ten percent in the annual allowance and furnish you with a revision of the present budget, showing this reduction, we wish to advise that same has been considered by the Board of Park Commissioners in regular meeting assembled.

As this department was not represented at the conference mentioned in the letter of the City Clerk, and has no knowledge of the causes responsible for this request, the Board of Park Commissioners expressed a desire to learn something more of the conditions responsible for the proposed budget reduction before taking definite steps in the matter.

This request, or order as it is designated in the letter of your city clerk to this board, was not received in this office until 4 o’clock on the afternoon of July 27, and sufficient time for the conferences and deliberation necessary to the revision of the Budget has not been allowed.

The Board of Park Commissioners desire that, if it be necessary to effect a saving to the city, you consider fully the following report before demanding a reduction of an already too scant budget from the one department that already has borne the brunt of expenses incident to army and navy occupation of the Exposition grounds.

The sum allowed this department for the maintenance and development of the city’s enormous park for the year of 1917 would, under most propitious circumstances, have been exceedingly scant. $91,200 was allowed for the total expenditure during 1917. The sum is less by $3,000 than was allowed for 1916, in the face of the fact that at least 20 acres more on intensive cultivation has been started, 15,000 more trees and shrubs planted and the upkeep of all Exposition buildings and several acres of Exposition grounds added to the expenses of Park development.

During 1916, the Park Department received from the Exposition Company $3,000 per month rental. Although the Exposition continued for three months of the current year, not one cent was received by the Park Department to make up for this additional expense.

During the year 1916, the Park Department received approximately $10,000 from earnings incident to the Exposition; in short the income of the Park Department for 1917 will fall short of the income of the preceding year by not least than $50,000 or more than one third. With an additional reduction of 10 percent, the allowance entire income for 1917 would be but little more than half that of the preceding year. In view of the additional expenses resultant upon the continuation for an entire quarter year of the Post-Exposition, the expense of preparation for occupation of the Park by nearly 5,000 men of the Army and Navy and of the increased area under cultivation, in order that the citizens of San Diego might have some place to go in lieu of the grounds so occupied, it will not be possible for this department to suffer this cut in its already insufficient income without permitting the park system to deteriorate to such an extent that many years and many times the amount of the reduction asked will not be sufficient to repair the damage done.

The Park Department now bears the burden of upkeep, maintenance and repairs of the Exposition buildings, an expense that constantly increases, as these huge temporary structures were not built to withstand the elements for a longer period than two years, and are now deteriorating at a rapid rate. The Model Farm, Harvester Grounds, Lipton Tea Company tract, and the grounds about the Southern Counties and Standard Oil Buildings have also fallen to the care of this department.

One hundred and forty-seven men were required to keep in condition the grounds alone during 1916. The entire payroll at this time, including office force, carpenters, plumbers, electricians and watchmen, bears just eighty-seven names. A few more than half as many men as were employed during 1916 now are asked to care for 20 acres more of cultivated grounds, all of the Exposition buildings, and to do much other work that last year was done by Exposition employees.

Shorthanded in every department and facing the certain knowledge that even with the full amount of $91,200 allowed in the original budget, the park system of San Diego could not be kept up to its former high standard, this Board already is unable to keep within its distribution of the sum allowed. Man have been dropped from every department. Every remaining man is doing the work of two men and only those whose love for the park and for their work has made them willing to suffer longer hours and harder work are still on the payroll, and yet, with a minimum payroll of approximately $7,300 per month, our salary allowance is insufficient for even the months of August, September and October.

In addition to the irreparable damage that will be done the park system by the still greater reduction in the park employees, a dozen or more efficient man will be left without employment and their families in need.

It is the understanding of the Board of Park Commissioners that this saving to the city is necessitated by the preparation for Army and Navy occupation, and, in this regard, we would call your attention to the fact that not only has much of our allowance been expended in Park work necessitated by the Army and Navy occupation of the Park, but $10,000 of the Park funds has been expended for labor and material used in Army and Navy construction work. This last sum will, of course, be returned to this department, but the Park Department is handicapped by having so large a amount tied up, even for a brief period.

In submitting the foregoing statement of this department’s financial condition, the Board of Park Commissioners is prompted by the desire to have your Honorable Body fully informed of the difficulties under which this department now labors, and we believe that, knowing these conditions, you will do all that is in your power to relieve use of the additional burden asked as a result of your conference of department heads.

August 13, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:2-3. Hugh Allan, baritone, to be heard in recital at Balboa Park tonight; Henderson Van Surdam, tenor appearing at Hotel del Coronado, helped to bring his friend Hugh Allan back to San Diego; the Park Board announced that ample parking space will be provided for those attending the concert in the Plaza de Panama.

August 13, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:2. Cabrillo Rifles drill and march on ocean shore; two companies of Home Guard visited Imperial Beach for war-time training yesterday; Col. J. P. O’Neil of the Twenty-first Infantry reviewed them and put them through the manual of arms.

August 13, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:4. Zoo Association tells of work; asks for help; animal exhibition in park attractive, but more funds are needed now.

San Diego has in the great Balboa Park a zoo of which any city in the country could feel proud. This menagerie is one of the chief attractions of the city park system and will not only be maintained permanently, but will be enlarged and conducted along much broader lines if enterprising citizens of San Diego will respond to the call made yesterday by the Zoological Society of this city, which has the work in charge.

Five hundred new members are needed at once. The following letter, urging all to help in the work, has been received by The Union:

“In the latter part of 1916 the Zoological Society of San Diego was incorporated under the state laws of California, the society being started by a handful of people of San Diego for the purpose of placing in Balboa Park a zoological garden which would be of scientific and educational benefit to the citizens of San Diego, as well as a means of entertainment for the numerous tourists who visit here each year. Several months were devoted to preparing and investigating ways and means to make this organization a success.

In the early part of this year the society began to get a nucleus of members, and inside of three weeks many of the school children and a number of prominent firms and citizens of the city contributed enough money to buy a number of the finest specimens of large animals that had been exhibited in the exposition and to feed them until the present time.

Soon after the organization of the society, the United States declared war on Germany and the Zoological Society postponed further activity to acquire members or obtain donations so as not to interfere with the sale of Liberty Bonds or with the Red Cross campaign which followed the declaration. In the meantime a committee met the park board for the purpose of obtaining an allotment of ground for the future zoological gardens and the Standard Oil Company donated its building in the Exposition grounds in which it had had its exhibit during the Exposition, as headquarters for the society. As the building and the grounds around it has been donated for this purpose and are now being used by the soldiers and sailors, it will be necessary to keep the animals in their present cages until such time s the government will not need the premises.

In the collection which was purchased were a number of animals that were duplicates and the society has since traded them off for animals which it did not have. Then, too, a number of people have donated animals of various kinds, so that now the collection is a very interesting one. During the past month descriptions of the animals have been placed in front of each cage, giving its Latin name, common name, the food it eats, its range, and any peculiarity that certain animals happen to have. Unfortunately, during the past month the public has not been able to go through the park to the zoo owning to the quarantine, and has not been able to see a number of the specimens that have been newly obtained, one especially interesting being the polar bear, which was donated by David Horsley of the Bostock Company of Los Angeles.

The citizens of the city have not only donated money to buy these animals, but food has also been given by some merchants and worn-out and crippled horses by others, this all enabling the society to keep down the expenses of feeding its zoo to very small sum. Owing to the fact that San Diego has one of the most wonderful climates in the United States, a zoological garden can be maintained at a very small expense for several reasons, the main one being that animals do not have to be kept in buildings artificially lighted and heated; furthermore green things can be procured in winter as well as summer for animals living on a vegetarian diet.

The present group of animals costs for food, keeper and helper in the neighborhood of $100 a month. This will surprise a great many people, as many believe that a zoo is the most expensive organization that can be maintained by any city. The buying of animals is the most expensive part of keeping a zoological garden. However, owing to the fat that climatic conditions are so good here, a great many of the large animals breed very well, and by using the offspring of the species owned, for trading purposes, San Diego will be able to boast, within a few years, of the best collection of animals on the Pacific coast, and be able to keep them at less expense than any other place in the United States. To make this possible it is necessary to have more members in the Zoological Society, not only for pecuniary reasons, which are absolutely necessary, but also to have more people directly connected with the Society to make it more of a public enterprise.

The society needs about 500 more members to continue its work and give better housing to some of the animals, which is now necessary. We are going to ask those people interested in our Society to sent their names to Paul Wegeforth, secretary, 222 Granger building. Otto Jeancon is doing the field work for getting new memberships.

The zoos in most of the cities are maintained by the cities themselves, but the most successful zoological gardens all over the world are kept up by zoological societies, the city appropriating a certain sum each year to help keep them The history of most of the societies shows that at first there is a hard struggle getting started, but it is not long before the people recognize the good they are doing and come to their assistance. After the societies are a number of years old, they usually support themselves through gifts and legacies.

Following is a list of the membership classes and fees in the society:

Junior memberships, 50 cents; active memberships $5; life memberships $200; patrons $1,000; founders $2,000; benefactors $10,000.

August 13, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:1. Cabrillo Rifles.

August 14, 1917, San Diego Union, 2:1. Crowd at Organ Pavilion charmed by voice of Hugh Allan, by Main 3K.

Perhaps it was imagination on the part of the hearer, but there were times when it seemed Mr. Allan found it necessary to force his voice a bit.

August 14, 1917, San Diego Union, 2:3. Two cafes — the Trocadero and Creole Palace — closed by Police on Mayor Wilde’s peremptory order; demand of War Department and approval of Colonel O’Neil given as reason.

August 14, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:1-6. Group photograph of the 71st Company of Marines, under command of Lieut. Charles Grimm, now quartered in San Joaquin Building in Balboa Park.

August 17, 1917, San Diego Union, 6:2-3. Dahlia show to open tomorrow; open-air ball on Plaza de Panama tomorrow evening in honor of officers and men of Naval Training Station; General F. P. O’Neil has offered use of 21st Infantry Band; Park Board to add lighting effects; Floral Association to furnish 300 pounds of cornmeal which will make north end of Plaza as smooth and desirable to dance upon as a polished ballroom floor; Training Station quarantine raised.

August 17, 1917, San Diego Union, 9:4-5. Dr. Montessori’s lecture on “The Use of Grammar” in the Fine Arts Building proves “beautiful ode to life.”

August 18 and 19, 1917. Dahlia show given by the San Diego Floral Association in the Indian Arts Building, Balboa Park (described in California Garden, September, 1917, Vol. 9, No. 3, 5-6).

August 18, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:1. Brigadier General J.F. P. O’Neil transferred to Fort San Houston, San Antonio, Texas.

August 18, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:1. Plan to bring Liberty Players here as a permanent institution.

August 18, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:2-5. Naval Training Station sailors to face 21st Infantry soldiers in Swimming Meet at Rowing Club tomorrow morning.

August 18, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:6. More clubs for Army, Navy boys planned in city; success of first enlisted men’s clubs will lead to formation of others.

August 18, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:1. Dahlia show will open today; sailors at Naval Training Station enthusiastic over open-air dance tonight; event was arranged by General J. P. O’Neil.

August 18, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:3. Julia Heinrich, Metropolitan Grand Opera Company star, will be heard in recital the first week in September.

August 19, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:3-4. Dahlia show in the east end of the Indian Arts Building delights visitors; novel method of display shows beautiful flowers to best advantage.

August 20, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:2-6. Men at Naval Training Station in Balboa Park have one of the most beautiful dining rooms on earth; their tables are on the broad street leading from Cristobal café (group photograph)

August 20, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:2-3. Liberty Players to present best in modern drama; project of the municipal “Little Theater” is in response to an appeal from soldiers and sailors who requested half rate admissions from the road shows that come to San Diego from time to time.

August 20, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:4. Dahlia show comes to close; attendance on second day larger then opening; visitors pleased with show.

August 22, 1917, San Diego Union, 6:1. Hospitality rose garden to be saved; Women’s Civic Center to spearhead campaign; Mrs. Jesse C. Knox planted garden; Mayor Wilde pledges support.

August 25, 1917, San Diego Herald, 5:2. Cabbage plants raised in park to be given away.

August 25, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:2. Standard Canning Company to distribute five million plants to gardeners of city. The Park Board will be asked by the Standard Canning Company to permit the use of a plot of the park ground, 50 by 100 ft., on which to grow approximately five million cabbage plants for free distribution, in the same plan by which two hundred thousand tomato plants recently were grown. The only condition being that the cabbages grown on any large piece of land from the free plants be sold to the company at prevailing canner’s prices.

August 25, 1917, San Diego Union, 9:2. Free concert at Organ Pavilion tomorrow afternoon under the direction of Miss Edna Anderson of Coronado.

August 25, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:4. Arrangements have been made to use Spreckels organ for music programs for enlisted men; W. S. Dorland, chairman of a civic music committee; all applications for use of the park or the organ for public entertainment to be turned over to the committee; all receipts from admissions will go to a musical fund in the hands of the committee; Miss Gertrude Gilbert to be chairman of an advisory committee.

August 26, 1917, San Diego Union, 2:4. Mrs. Mary Barnum Kessler, dramatic contralto, to sing at Organ Pavilion this afternoon.

August 26, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:4-5. Good music and lots of is promised enlisted men; San Diego committee on recreation for the Army and Navy enthusiastic over prospect of concerts at park and development of talent among soldiers and sailors; plan popular in other cities with Army camps.

August 26, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:6. Art Notes, by R R. — Jonas Lee collection of pictures at the Museum will remain during September.

August 30, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:3. Infantry’s “Hops” to be continued at U. S. Grant Hotel; affairs given for Army, Navy officers and wives will be given alternate Fridays.

August 30, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:4. Seat sale for Julia Heinrich concert to open today.

August 30, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:6. John Doane is to give an organ recital at the Spreckels organ Sunday afternoon.

August 31, 1917, Letter, from ____________ Captain Hartz, Adjutant, 21st Infantry, U. S. A., Camp Taliaferro, San Diego, California.

Dear Sir:

The City Health Officer, Mr. Coop, called at the office yesterday afternoon, and complained about waste water running down a canyon south of the camp, which is making a breeding place for mosquitoes, and blaming this Department for conditions.

I have investigated same and find there is waste water running down in the canyon, and some mosquito larvae in some places.

As this condition is caused by soldiers in the camp, will you please have the ditch cleaned out, and oil used to get rid of the mosquitoes.

Thanking you for your attention to same, I remain,

Yours very truly.

August 31, 1917, San Diego Union, 11:2-5. Stadium meet Monday will show how Uncle Sam develops his defenders; public urged to see service men at play; officers of high rank to attend; plan exhibition drills; snapshot of the boys at the Naval Training Station engaging in Butts manual drill, which will be a special feature at the Stadium, Monday afternoon.


The general work in the Park system for the month has been practically the same as in July. There was less planting during the month and there will not be much done in the planting line until November when the midwinter flowering plants will be ready for distribution to the various locations, with a continuous supply growing at the Nursery for Spring flowers to be planted as the season advances.

Several thousand plants have been distributed from the Nursery and been planted out in the Exposition grounds and the balance of the Park. There were also sold and exchanged from the Nursery 2,308 trees, shrubs and flowering plants at a total valuation of $402.87.

Decorations were also furnished from the Nursery and Park for the Military wedding held at the Organ Pavilion on the evening of August 3rd.

The Park Department was also instrumental in making a success of the Dahlia Show which was held in the Indian Arts Building, August 18th and 19th for the benefit of the San Diego Museum Association.

These exhibits are expensive, but I believe it is for the best interests of the City that the Department assist in every way possible to make a success of Flower shows as it tends to develop horticulture and the beautifying of the city.

The roads in the park are being resurfaced and smoothed up in the worst places, notably on the West Boulevard. During September, Sixth Street will have to be gone over as well as finishing up West Boulevard. Our limited equipment and shortage of men makes the repairs necessarily slow but we are doing the best we can under the circumstances. Pruning of the Acacia trees along the Avenues in the Exposition grounds will soon be completed after which a lot of general pruning and thinning out of the foliage will be done prior to the rainy season.

The Stadium was not used a great deal in August, there being held 11 practices and 8 regular ball games and three drills by men of the 21st Infantry. The last week in the month the grounds were closed to prepare the field and track for the Army and Navy Field Meet on Labor Day, September 3rd.

The work for the Navy Department has been nearly completed. We are unable to give the cost of the materials as all the bills have not been checked up at the Auditor’s officer. There was expended for labor for the Navy during the month of August, $4,124.65.

The following amount of plants were planted out in the Exposition grounds and park and fresh plants in bloom placed in the Botanical Building:


1 Acacia Melanoxylon 400 Ageratum 1 Croton

6 Aspidistra Lurida 200 Coleus 113 Coleus

375 Chrysanthemums 50 Geraniums 14 Lilium Auratum

3 Escallonia Betteriana 100 Lantanas 150 Lilium Speciosum

1 Dracena Indivisa 25 Poinsettias 33 Petunias (Double)

20 Genista Monosperma 1000 Petunias 16 Primula Malacoides

1 Pittosporum Eugenoides 70 Salvia Splendens

567 Petunias

725 Zinnias

Plants to Mr. George F. Otto $372.96

Plants to Miss K. O. Sessions 20.39

Plants to Harris Seed Company 9.52


3,000 ft. regrading 28th and Upas Sts., south 84.00

Intersection of Oregon St. to Park Drive 18.00

Ditch cleaning, Cabrillo Canyon 57.75

Flower Show teaming 30.00

Cultivating 28.00

Exposition grounds 80.00

4,300 ft. regrading West Boulevard, 50 yds. material 241.00

Road sprinkling 287.00


During the fall season it will be necessary to rearrange the planting in the Conservatory. A number of palms have grown to the roof and will have to be removed. This will be heavy work and a bog expense for labor. The pipe system will also have to be thoroughly overhauled and it will be advisable to remodel the same, and, as recommended in a previous report nearly a year ago, it would be to the best interests of the Department if the conservatory was a single span house which would change the height of the roof, giving more head room for the large palms, etc. growing under glass.

The present financial conditions of the Department will not admit the change being made at present, but I desire to call the Board’s attention to the fact, as it will always require, under existing conditions, that a rearrangement will have to be made every to or three years, unless only small-growing plants are utilized.

The same condition exists in the Botanical Building. At present there is too much shade from Bamboo and a large Aracuaria tree which should be removed to give light and grow more flowering plants and ferns. In fact, a general remodeling of the planting is necessary to better conditions now existing.


September, 1917, California Garden, Vol. 9 No. 3, 5-6. The Dahlia Show.


The San Diego Floral Association scored a success with its Dahlia Show, given August 18 and 19, in the Indian Arts Building, Exposition Park.

Mr. John Morley, Park Superintendent, utilized some of the display material from the Canadian building, which made the displays very effective.

We all admit the dahlia display was excellent, but what would it have been without the Park, Mission Cliff Gardens, H. E. Sies, K. O. Sessions and A. D. Robinson displays is sad to contemplate.

The Show was given for the benefit of the San Diego Museum Association.

With the expenses all paid the Floral Association expects to turn over about $200.00 to the Museum Association.

September 1, 1917, 14:1. Community Sing to be held September 4; Miss Gertrude Gilbert arranges affair to be held at organ, Balboa Park.

September 2, 1917, Los Angeles Times, II, 7:3-4. At Balboa Park: Naval cadets to get touch of sea life; First Battalion shortly will be sent abroad.

The naval training camp at Balboa Park, San Diego, where 1500 young apprentice seamen are preparing for service, is rapidly being increased. In half-battalions the men will be sent down from Goat Island as rapidly as possible to comply with the quarantine regulations until the quota is raised to 5000 men.

An up-to-date isolation camp is being completed to accommodate 500 men at one time and here the new arrivals will be held three weeks before entering the training camp proper. The isolation camp, under the supervision of Medical Inspector Dr. Ammen Farenholt, is one of the most modern on the Coast.

In addition to the eight buildings now occupied by the naval camp, the large building in the exposition devoted to the Canadian exhibit will be occupied by sailors within the next two weeks.

Sea fighters are turned out from the camp in three months now, instead of from four to six months, as in time of peace. On the Plaza de Panama and the Isthmus, used as parade grounds, the young men are kept busy drilling, a sight of which civilians never seem to tire.

The past week marked the beginning of the furloughs for the seamen who have must completed their training, and the anticipation of the vacation home for the youths, many of whom are away from their parents for the first time, has brought much joy to them. The visits home were made possible by the recent regulation which provides that the government pay the seamen only part of their money each month and save the remainder until the training is finished. In this way many of the young fellows had saved up traveling expenses and fare and the necessary half-month’s play they are required to have for their return.

In the training camp, the so-called problems of safeguarding the morals of the sailors have not greatly bothered the superior officers, for, with strict surveillance over them, the rigid regulations and the small amount of money the men have to spend, they could not get into much mischief. Capt. William D. Brotherton, commandant, and other officers are regarded with a rare feeling of admiration, respect and comradeship. This is due to the kindly interest shown in the cadets by the older men.

The sailors receive $32.60 a month pay, but actually get of this sum only $5 twice a month until they shall have finished. On payday, the little Japanese tea-house on the grounds, where ice cream and tea cakes are sold, and the ice-cream cone man’s stand on the Plaza are the most popular spots in the park when the youngsters hasten to spend their allowance.

Orders are expected shortly for the first battalion of apprentice seamen to fight on Uncle Sam’s ships. A number have gone now, but only in small numbers.

The officers of the camp are Capt. W. D. Brotherton, commandant; Lieut. E. A. Lofquist, executive officer; Lieut. E. E. Scranton; Lieut. A. H. Dutton; Lieut. F. J. Loomis, Lieut. E. B. Lapham, Lieut. F. C. Beisel, Ensign H. H. Phleger, battalion commanders; J. C. Conover, adjutant; Joseph Merritt, paymaster; W. E. Blackwell, C. A. Albright, J. H. Aibuing, pay clerks; Dr. Ammen Farenholt, medical inspector; Dr. W. M. Kerr, Dr. L. H. Clerk, Dr. A. C. Smith, Dr. H. E. Spruance, Dr. P. W. Wilson, Dr. F. W. Muller, Dr. H. A. Thompson, Dr. W. P. Blake, assistant surgeons; Dr. Lester Cranz, Dr. C. H. Welbe, dental surgeons; and W. F. Gildberg, pharmacist.

To the medical department is due much of the credit for the quick elimination of the meningitis which appeared in the camp six week ago. The boys were immediately placed out of doors to sleep and eat and were put under a strict quarantine. Cultures were made from the nose and throat of everyone of the young seamen to detect carriers. The camp is now reported free from the contagion.

September 2, 1917, San Diego Union, Society-Club, 4:3-4. Red Cross flag presented to marine corps at park.

The Marine Corps at Balboa Park now has a fine new Red Cross flag for the hospital at the marine barracks. It was presented to the officers and men of the Marine Corps on Thursday afternoon by San Diego Council 429, Knights and Ladies of Security, whose membership includes a number of the officers and men of the corps.

September 3, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:6. “Community Sing” to take place September 11 at park.

September 5, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:1-6. Birdmen from Rockwell Field fly away with most track honors at army and navy field meet at Stadium; throng of 10,000 “Rooters” brave heat to yell themselves hoarse for favorites.

The feature event of the afternoon was the obstacle race, which was captured by Burton of the navy.

September 5. 1917, San Diego Union, 10:1-2. Julia Heinrich’s recital received with enthusiasm; dramatic soprano of the Metropolitan Opera Co. of New York, assisted by John Doane, organist, gave concert last night at the Organ Pavilion in Balboa Park; Mr. Doane leaves today to resume his duties as head of the organ instruction work in the department of music of Northwestern University..

Musicians declared that excepting Schumann-Heink, no artist heard at the pavilion has ever given such a perfect performance.

September 6, 1911, San Diego Union, 5:4. “Freedom Pageant” to take place at Stadium November 17.

September 7, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:1-5. Machine gun company faces camera, hopes to see real action; one of the important parts of the Twenty-first Infantry which has been on the Exposition grounds for some time; photograph.

September 8, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1. Naval training camp boys to be public’s host; 2,000 of the lads will entertain San Diegans at dance on Plaza this evening; 26-piece naval training camp band will furnish the music for dancing; all young people of San Diego are invited to attend.

One of the officers in charge of the entertainment committee said:

“Homesickness and longing for the pleasant associations of home are greater hardships than going into battle, for in battle the noise and excitement are so great and the young soldier or sailor is so intent on going after the enemy, he has little time to think of be afraid.

“But in camp, the lads in this training camp, just like the sons of San Diego mothers who have gone away to fit themselves for service to their country are homesick and lonesome. They need companionship and good cheer worse than they will need sweaters and scarves for sometime to come, and we hope that the people of San Diego will come out and get acquainted . . . and cheer them up.”

September 8, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:2. Magdalens placed in quarantine; soldiers and sailors said to be menaced by unregulated women.

To test the legality of the actions of the local board of health and Dr. A. E. Banks, former health officer, in committing women of alleged ill fame to the county hospital and holding them under quarantine, habeas corpus proceedings will be instituted this morning before Superior Judge Lewis. The hearing will be conducted in the interest of Mabel Armstrong, colored, who will be represented by a Los Angeles attorney.

Because of the numbers of service men who are said to be menaced by unregulated women, the case will be vigorously pressed by the district attorney’s office and the health authorities. Dr. W. A. Sawyer, secretary of the state board of health, is said to be on his way from Sacramento and will assist personally in the fight to insure the detention and quarantining of any women of alleged immoral character who show symptoms of disease.

September 8, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:4. Rush order given Red Cross band for knitted goods; thousands of garments must be made before winter sets in; 5,000 pairs of sleeveless sweaters, socks, wristlets and mufflers are required at the Pacific division headquarters at San Francisco before the first of next month; help is urged on behalf of our soldiers and those of out Allies and Belgian refugees and repatriates being returned through Switzerland to France.

September 8, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:4. Dr. Dahne case again in court, former Brazilian commissioner wants possession of Point Loma property; alleges there was never a legal marriage between him and the young woman who claimed to be his wife; court is asked to void a deed to the Point Loma home and furniture that was alleged to have been obtained by Mrs. Dahne with the purpose of depriving Dr. Dahne of his home and other belongings.

September 9, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 10:5. The final program of the summer series of free concerts will be given Sunday afternoon at 3:30 o’clock at the Organ Pavilion, according to announcement by B. Roscoe Schryock.

September 9, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:3-6. Arrival of three lion cubs at park zoo soon to be celebrated with real public reception.

The Zoological Society of San Diego is rejoicing in an important addition to its already large collection of animals by the birth of three lion cubs. Dr. Harry Wegeforth, the president of the society, announces that mother and children are doing well, and that a public reception will soon be held for the newcomers, who will be named Faith, Hope and Charity.

The Zoological Society has found the caging of the present collection to be wholly inadequate and as a means of entertaining the men of the service and the general public as well as to raise money for new cages and to make further additions to the zoo they have in preparation a mammoth athletic carnival in the pushball game to be held in the stadium Saturday afternoon, October 6, at 2 p.m. In this carnival, group events will predominate and local athletes, as well as the man of the army and navy, have been invited to participate. W. A. Reynolds, camp physical director of the national war work council of the Y. M. C. A. has promised the cooperation of himself and other Y. M. C. A. directors in the presentation of a program of sports that will be second to none heretofore presented.

A charge of 10 cents for admission will be made to the general public.

New animals are being added to the zoo every few days, and, as a means of amusement for the men of the service as well as the general public and as an educational feature, the collection of the San Diego Zoological Society should be greatly appreciate by all.

September 9, 1917. San Diego Union, 5:2-4. Infantry regiment directing program for gala day at Coronado Tent City; all arrangements made by athletic director with the same care as for battle; photograph of boxers who will appear in exhibitions today at the Tent City; concert by 21st Infantry Band at 3 p.m.

September 9, 1917, San Diego Union, 6:8. Architect views brigade post site; discusses plans for Marine Corps advance base station with commander, Brigadier General J. H. Pendleton.

After a visit of a few hours in the city yesterday, architect Bertram G. Goodhue of New York, who has just returned from a successful professional trip to Honolulu, declared he has spent “a short and busy, but pleasant and profitable day.”

He had been appointed consulting architect by the Bureau of Yards and Docks of the Navy Department in connection with the building on Dutch Flats and contiguous territory of the Marine Corps advance base station, for which Congress recently made liberal appropriation.

September 9, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:1. Infantry Band to assist in Community Sing which will be held next Tuesday evening at the Organ Pavilion; Dr. H. J. Stewart to preside at organ and Otto Jeancon will lead singing.

The object of the “Community Sing” is to bring together the community and the enlisted men, for the singing of old, familiar songs.

September 9, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:2. Enlisted men’s Plaza dancing party success; more than 1500 people attending, among them being society people of San Diego and Coronado.

September 10, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1-2. Camp Kearny’s large post office to be ready by tomorrow; building well advanced and equipment on hand; will be busy place; large force of laborers at work over Sunday; many plumbers to be put on for final drive.

September 10, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1. Concert ends summer series of free park musicals arranged by B. Roscoe Schryock; large audience hears program given at Spreckels Organ Pavilion

September 10, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:3. Lieut. C. S. Rodgers, Corps of Engineers, who started work at Camp Kearny may soon go to France.

September 11, 1917, Letter, Indecipherable, 1st Lieut., Ret., A. A. Q. M., Unites States Marine Corps, Office of Post Quartermaster, Marine Barracks, to President of Board Park Commissioners, City of San Diego, California

Dear Sir; It is desired to establish the Post Library in the Utah Building in connection with the Post Exchange. In order to make this room available, permission is requested to install four windows and a graveled walk from the door on the north side connecting with the driveway in front of the building.

In case such permission is granted, such work will be done in accordance with the specifications of the Park Superintendent or architect.

Very truly yours.

September 12, 1917, San Diego Union, 6:3. Art Notes: The Museum

Criticism or fault finding is one of the very easy accomplishments, especially blinding to the great merits of artists’ work. If the shadows in Jonas Lie’s pictures seem too blue to anyone he need only step 10 feet or so away from the picture where all colors will have true focus and value the artist intended.

September 12, 1917, San Diego Union, 6:3. Old favorites sung by 3,000 at Exposition; first “Community Sing” proves great success; second will be held next month.

September 13, 1917, San Diego Herald, 2:1. City Development.


It is a satisfaction to know that the Chamber of Commerce and some of the other commercial and civic organizations are showing evidence of a return to sanity. During the past week some of these organizations actually went on record in favor of the city increasing its water supply.

The Herald favors all public improvements; it is in favor of a new city hall; but considers the water development more urgent. . . . The water systems of the county can be bought now for less than one-fifth of what they will cost five years hence.

If a water district was organized large enough so that it could be bonded for $20,000,000, the water question could be solved for all time, and no burden be placed on the tax payers.

It has been suggested that 6th and Date would be a splendid location for a city hall, and the only objection has been that it is not a central location. The Herald has in mind a place which would quickly convert 6th and Date into a central location, and would at the same time make a revenue producer of the unused lands in Balboa Park. That part of Balboa Park which has been improved is about all the park that San Diego can maintain at the present time, and it seems a crime not to utilize the balance of that beautiful property.

Balboa park has a thousand sightly home sites, most of which are within walking distance, and all accessible to a splendid street car service which has recently been built through the entire length of the park. The $5,000,000 the city would receive from transferring its water system to a water district would build over 2,000 concrete houses in the park which would bring the city a splendid revenue.

With the canyons in Balboa all nicely parked, it would, with what is already splendidly parked, be all the park that San Diego can afford for many years. When the city grows and more parks are needed, the 7,000 acres of public lands could then be made a beautiful park.

Should such a plan be adopted it would soon make 6th and Date a central location, particularly if the south two blocks and the west two blocks of the park were leased for business purposes. The development of the business section in every growing city is away from the waterfront and towards the best residential section. In San Diego this would mean the growth of the business section would be north and east, which the park has made impossible.

Open up the park and watch business adjust itself to new conditions and figure what the city’s revenue would be from 2,000 residences and from the rental of two tier of business blocks on the south and two on the west. When the city recovers its tidelands, the revenue from its own lands should make San Diego a taxless city.

To many people this suggestion will seem impractical, because a public park has been set aside for a specific purpose. However, if the people should vote to so utilize their park, and the state legislature should sanction it, which they would no doubt do, it would make the project both possible and legal. Respectfully called to the attention of the mayor and city council.

September 13, 1917, San Diego Herald, 4:1. Descriptive sketch of Mission Cliff Gardens.

September 13, 1917, San Diego Union, 6:3. Old favorites sung by 3,000 soldiers, sailors and civilians at Exposition; first “community sing” proves great success; second will be held next month.

September 14, 1917, Letter from C. S. Harper (?) to Board of Park Commissioners, San Diego, Calif.

Dear Sirs: By request of Colonel O’Neil, on May 17th, the Panama Canal and Streets of Panama were turned over to the occupancy of the 21st Infantry with the understanding that the 21st Infantry should protect same from damage or removal of any property of said buildings.

I personally reported to Colonel O’Neil and Captain Hartz that the equipment of the Panama Canal was being damaged and removed from the building and Captain Hartz and I personally investigated these damages to equipment, and while doing so encountered two men of the 21st Infantry climbing through one of the North windows, while a sentry was within 50 feet of the window; also he made no pretense of blocking their entrance into the Panama Canal Building.

The officers of the 21st Infantry began an investigation to trace removed property but as far as I can ascertain nothing definite was determined.

So upon a careful inventory of the missing equipment I am offering for your approval the following bill which covers the cost of replacing the equipment and property to its original condition. The Inventory and prices are as follows:

(There follows a list of material removed and cost covering such items as wireless receiving coils, electric locomotive and three cars, bronze canal locks, ships, cloud machine, condenser lenses, concentrated filament lamps, induction motor, battery, bicycle chain, pilot and range lamps and sockets; labor for replacing above items; repairs on mountain scenery, Pacific Ocean villages and Atlantic Ocean Villages); repairs on misc. electrical equipment; repairs on curtain, and two 16 inch by 30″, 24 oz. window glass, with an aggregate total of $621.40 which was corrected on December 8, 1917 to deduct labor and repair costs, bringing the final total to $440.90

The occupancy of the Hawaiian Village was granted the 21st Infantry by the Board of Park Commissioners, July 6th, 1917 and since that date F-I-L and M Companies have used certain space for storeroom.

Also, since that date the following material has been removed from its original position, some of which has been used on Hawaiian Village property, but which the 21st Infantry has no authority to removed. Therefore, I am submitting the following carefully prepared inventory for your approval:

(There follows a list of material removed and cost covering such items as wire, switches, cut outs, panels, knife fuses, sockets, ceiling receptacles, and lamps aggregating to a total of $154.48, which was corrected by C. S. Harper to $117.23, with labor cost of $37.25 for replacing equipment deducted.

September 14, 1917, San Diego Union, 6:1. Pageant of Freedom to be held at the Stadium, November 17; patriotic bodies to make plans for big parade; Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address on one of decisive battles may be Civil War feature.

September 14, 1917, San Diego Union, 6:4. Friday night “hops” in ballroom of U. S. Grant Hotel conducted by officers of 21st Infantry from Camp Walter R. Taliaferro, Balboa Park.

September 14, 1917, San Diego Union, 6:5. Recital to be held at Balboa Park; first free concert under Civic Music Committee’s auspices set for Sunday; Miss Gertrude Gilbert announces an attractive program by Frances Poser, violinist, and Mrs. C. C. Kempley, soprano.

September 14, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 7:1. Colonel Alexander Dale received tentative design and location of various buildings and hangers for new million-dollar army aeronautical academy at Rockwell Field, North Island, from architect Albert Kahn.

September 15, 1917, Letter, Executive Secretary, Board of Park Commissioners, to Commanding Officer, Twenty-First Infantry, Balboa Park, San Diego, Calif.

Dear Sir:

In accordance with instructions issued by the Board of Park Commissioners in regular meeting assembled Friday, September 14, last, I am enclosing herewith a letter submitted to the Board of Park Commissioners by Mr. C. S. Harper, electrical foreman of the Park Department.

In order that you may be informed of what steps already have been taken in this matter, I wish to advise you that assurance was given this Department by Colonel O’Neil when the looting of the Panama Canal Building was reported to him that we should be protected from further loss. Our information in this office is to the effect that the Twenty-First Infantry, through its then commanding officer, Col. J. P. O’Neil, assumed absolute responsibility for the premises when permission was given by the Park Board for such occupancy.

The Board of Park Commissioners, with these facts in view, feel that reimbursement for losses sustained during occupancy of the premises by your regiment should be made, and I am instructed to request that you give the matter your attention.

Very truly yours.

September 16, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:3-5. Story of first night at Camp Kearny told; quartermaster officer figured large in it; Capt. Christensen committed a little burglary to get things started right; camp soon will be ready for troops of the 40th Division.

September 16, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:6. Letter from A. M. W. C. protesting against noises at organ.

Would it not be kind, courteous and considerate, not alone to the organist, but to one another, if there was less noise during a recital. . . . If during the Exposition, machines were not allowed to drive down to the organ after a recital began, why should it be different now?

September 16, 1917, San Diego Union, 4;8. Art Notes: Quite a party of members of the Art Guild gathered about the modeling studio in Balboa Park Saturday morning. The arcade balconies connecting with the studio made a delightful place for sketching.

September 16, 1917, San Diego Union, Society-Club, 11:3-4. Summer term of Montessori School conducted in the Fine Arts Building under the auspices of the School of American Research closed yesterday; lectures delivered in Italian by Dr. Maria Montessori; most of the students were preparing to become teachers of the method..

September 17,1917, San Diego Union, 8:1. Planning music for soldiers; Civic Music Committee works under direction National Army, Navy Board.

There will be free concerts at the Organ Pavilion every Sunday afternoon, choral work and musical instruction for the men, music in the enlisted men’s clubs downtown, concerts at the camps, “community sings,” and other activities.

September 20, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:3-6, 5:1-2. Cheered by thousands; second contingent of army draft to Liberty army cheerfully goes to camp; marchers tramp south of Broadway on way to Union station; tearful farewells at depot.

September 22, 1917, Letter, indecipherable, 1st. Lieut. U. S. Marine Corps, Retd., Post Quartermaster, to the Board of Park Commissioners, Balboa Park, San Diego, Cal.

Gentlemen: For your information, you are advised that in accordance with permission granted by the Park Board, that the Marine Corps has put new two-ply roofing on the Montana and Alameda buildings, which has [sic] also been painted. The tiling on the roofs of the Washington and Kansas buildings has been repaired and painted with mineral paint. The roofs of the New Mexico, Utah, Kern-Tulare, San Joaquin and Salt [sic] buildings have been thoroughly repaired and painted. In addition to the above the side walls of the above mentioned buildings have been repaired to conform with the present architecture.

Very truly yours,


September 30, 1917, Los Angeles Times, II, 2:3. Tanned, tough-muscled marines are training, by Edward C. Crossman.

Out of the forest of red tape into which all Los Angeles soldier and sailor men disappear for a time when they leave the city, there has emerged once more the company of marines that was enlisted in the National Guard under the law providing for marine militia, and that left the city some months ago under the command of Lieut. Best.

Tanned and tough-muscled, with their clothes fitting them in the way uniforms fit men who have become used to wearing them, the Los Angeles sea soldiers are camped with other marines on the beautiful point of land that runs deep into the ravine at the San Diego exposition site below the outdoor organ. There on “Inspiration Point,” there rise neat rows of brown tents among the eucalyptus trees, five companies or more of them, and there on the most beautiful parade ground in the world, there work the “leathernecks,” in the intensive training of the sea-soldier likely to see service soon. Drilling, the marines gaze over the tree-filled gulch and the lovely town beyond, to the blue waters of the bay and the ships lying at anchor.


In the other direction there rise the fairyland buildings of the exposition, now inhabited entirely by the embryo sailors of the naval training school. The music of the outdoor organ floats down to the camp. The only way from the point lies across the cool, tree-shaded square, where the pigeons used to flock and flutter for the edification of the exposition visitors. A greater contrast to the fighting line on the west front would be harder to imagine.

Yet the job doesn’t at all consist of sitting in the shade and admiring the view. The parade ground was full of brown-clad marines on the morning of a recent visit. All four companies were busy getting better acquainted with the rifle butt and bayonet.

A lieutenant with a rapid-fire voice was drilling Company Thirty-six, which is the Los Angeles contingent. He was endeavoring with considerable success to give the commands of the bayonet exercise so rapidly that some of the men, at least, couldn’t follow them because they couldn’t think fast enough. Then he’d pick out the most flagrant transgressor and empty the vials of his good-natured conversation on his abashed head until he felt sure that the victim was sure which was the right hand and which the left — which said victim knew before if he’d had a bit more time to think.


The morning of the visit, Lieut. Glenn Hays of Los Angeles was the officer of the day, which job is a temporary appointment to a combined office of Chief of Police, trouble smoother, camp boss, information dispenser, inspector-at-large, and looker-out for higher-ups who may approach the camp on inspection-bent. Also, officiating as company clerk there was Corporal Carl May, formerly a probation officer in the county service, and now with ambitions for a chaplain’s post. Keeping bad luck away, and affording entertainment when the view palled, was also the company mascot, “Popo,” a real marine dog, longer in the service than the company and not merely a fox terrier, as one might think. He knew all about the Mare Island and the training to be had up there.

September, 1917. Superintendent’s Report.

The general work in the department has been maintenance.

The Stadium has been used more during September for practice and scheduled games than in July and August, and every day has been taken for October.

The bills of the Navy, which were returned, have been itemized and sent to the Navy Department, the money for which should arrive by the middle of the month.

The balance of the bills will be forwarded as soon as all accounts are in and itemized.

The hot weather, the latter part of the month, caused considerable damage to the trees and shrubs in various sections of the Park; the pruning of the Avenue trees in the Exposition grounds has been completed, and the two men employed in that work are now pruning the Southern Counties Garden.

Remodeling the planting in the Conservatory and Botanical Building has commenced, and will take several weeks, as we have only a very limited amount of men to assist in the work.

The following plants have been planted in the Department during the month, and a large quantity donated to the City Cemetery from the nursery as per resolution of the Board (list is incomplete):

1 Acacia Cultrifornis

1 Acacia Mollisina

2 Acacia Longifolia

250 Agathea Celoestis

50 Begonias, Cloire de Chatelaine


October, 1917, California Garden, Vol. 9, No. 4, 5. Monthly Excursion In and Around Balboa Park, by G. R. Gorton.

There is a singular appropriateness in the selection of the Exposition grounds as a site for a “Military Reservation,” in that it is one of the brightest and most colorful positions of the Park, horticulturally speaking. Youth and bright colors are inseparable, and so it is fitting that the flower of the nation be surrounded by the flowers of the earth. All of this is probably not the reason the site was selected, however, but the facts stand.

Montezuma Gardens are particularly gay at this writing. The flaming scarlet of Salvia ornaments all the corner beds, while the four side beds, two on each side, are of Coleus in variety, the other two entirely of red Coleus, all four bordered with Exacum and pink and red Vernon Begonias. Also, contrary to precedent these Coleus lack that singed-cat appearance prevalent among their kind during the summer months.

The large center bed is not so rich in color, but is brightened here and there by the berries of Solanum pseudocapsicum, which is one way of saying Jerusalem Cherry.

Feature beds are the order of the day in the garden south of the Music Pavilion. One of these contains the gorgeous Firebird Canna, which loses none of its charm by the fact that by now a year has elapsed since its introduction. The San Diego Canna, which shares the same bed, is unique by the fact that the entire stock of this variety is in Balboa Park, and none is listed for sale.

Many men of many minds, and many Dahlias of many kinds to please them all are also in this feature garden. Many of the varieties are exceedingly interesting and worthy of study.

The Southwest bed is blessed with Cannas, Mrs. George Strohlein and Uncle Sam, the former valuable by reason of its wide, tropical-looking, bronzy leaves, and the latter especially because of its enduring qualities, despite the fact that the Cannas have not been “manicured” this season. They present a much better appearance than do many varieties which have almost daily valeting in the removal of spent blooms, etc.

It will not be long before the public will be invited to view what promises to be an exceptional display of Chrysanthemums in this same garden, if the present condition of the plants is any criterion.

The border of the esplanade facing the Music Pavilion presents a holiday aspect with Petunias and Ageratum in pleasing combination of fragrance and charm, the Petunias in all colors considered proper for Petunias, the Ageratum in the conventional blue.

The Botanical Building is always attractive, sometimes more, sometimes less — merely a matter of degree. It seems as if during the last few months that the growth of the plants forming the permanent part of the display had made growth all out of proportion to the period of time. Particularly gigantic are several hanging baskets of Nephrolopsis and one or two of Goniophlebium, which occupy most of the aerial space in the north end of the glass house. These have assumed the proportion of shade trees and seem to be still going strong. Apparently these plants are a sort of justification for some of the large tales the more benighted of us tell about this western country of ours.

On the center bench of the glass house, several Anthuriums (Flamingo Flowers) are in bloom, and one of the ornamental leafed varieties is putting forth a new leaf or so, which, to the minds of many admirers, surpasses anything it might do in the flowering line.

Out in the lathhouse the scheme of things has been brightened with potted Salvias and Lilium Tirgrinum, the delightful fragrance of the latter perfuming the whole building. In the circular bed a large Abutilon is endeavoring to mislead the unsuspecting public by hanging its flowers upon a Cocos plumosa nearby, presenting exactly the appearance of having been born there. The writer observed at least one visitor who is sure had has seen a Cocos plumosa in full flower.

In the west wing one or two Pittosporum Undulatums have been supplanted by a low bedding of fern and begonias which is very attractive indeed. Over west of the erstwhile Commerce and Industries Building, the group of Daturas has covered itself with glory and flowers, and is exceptionally beautiful at this writing.

In the gardens north of the Southern Counties Building one of the most conspicuous features is a bed of Verbenas, comprising fully a dozen colors and shades.

October 1, 1917, San Diego Union, 7:3-7. Held in reserve as expeditionary force; One Hundred First Company of U. S. Marines stationed at the Marine Barracks in Balboa Park (group photograph). Lieutenant C. Clark is in command of this company which is being held in reserve in Balboa Park as an expeditionary force.

As members of the company are sent in small detachments to ships or shore stations, others are sent here from the training barracks at Mare Island to take their places. This company may have the distinction of being the first to occupy the barracks at the new brigade post on Dutch flats, following its completion.

October 1, 1917, San Diego Union, 7:8. To distribute cabbage plants; 100,000 beginning tomorrow morning will be given away by Chamber of Commerce.

George J. Champlin, chairman of the food production committee of the Chamber of Commerce, will begin the distribution of 100,000 cabbage plants this morning at the Chamber rooms. Mr. Champlin has made arrangements whereby 5,000 cabbages will be received at the Chamber each day until the entire public interested in raising this vegetable will be supplied.

During the time last month when tomatoes were distributed, more than 100,000 plants were disposed of during five days, many farmers in the back country taking large numbers, as did many pupils in the local grammar schools. Mr. Champlin believes he will be just as successful in the cabbage enterprise as he was in the tomato.

October 9, 1917, Letter, Secretary Board of Park Commissioners, to Lieutenant Crawford, Twenty-First Infantry, San Diego, Cal.

Dear Sir: As I have not heard from you regarding the small bungalow in the rear of Universal Brotherhood Building, I am writing to advise you that the matter has been taken up with the Brotherhood people with the following results”

The present owners state that they recently purchased the bungalow and moved it to its present location at a total expense of $150, and that they will sell the building at that figure.

Madame Tingley, head of the Brotherhood movement, is unwilling that the building should be occupied while in its present location, and, should you purchase same, you would have the additional expense of removing the building to a new location.

The Park Department will allow you to place the building at a point quite as convenient to your camp as its present location and will, of course, make no charge for ground rent.

If you care to go further into the matter, it would be advisable for you to confer with Mr. Knoche of the Universal Brotherhood, whom you may reach by telephone at “Point Loma 350.”

Very truly yours.

October 11, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. It was announced last night by the secretary of the Y M. C. A. that the old Sacramento building is to be used by the organization has headquarters of the Navy Y. M. C. A.

October 12, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:7, 3:1-2. James W. Garard, former U. S. ambassador to Germany, spoke to 8,000 at Organ Pavilion last night; told of atrocities perpetrated upon prisoners; arraigned pacifists.

October 12, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:7. Warm welcome in San Diego awaits McAdoo; Secretary of the Treasury expected here tonight; speaks on Liberty Bonds Tuesday.

October 12, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:2-5. Youngsters from off farms see sea for first time, but soon adept sailors at U. S. Naval Training School, by B. P.

Henry Ford gained for himself a world-wide reputation for turning out a car every four minutes. The United States naval training station in Balboa Park, entirely unheralded, is turning out hundreds of efficient sea-fighters every four months. Ordinarily, the training period would be six months, but under the existing high-pressure intensity, necessitated by the war, and the resultant demand for men in the navy, a county youth, accustomed only to the smooth back of a mare, in 16 weeks is made to ride a pitching destroyer in a heavy sea.

Boys who arrived in Balboa park but a few months ago, lads of an average age of 19, from the cities, towns, hamlets, valleys and mountains of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado Nevada, California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas are already with the fleets as seamen, second class, and firemen, third class.

This is some distance to travel for a youngster who as late as last May rode the range at Cactus Flat in the Rockies. The fact that it can be negotiated at all is directly traceable to the exceptionally fine organization at the naval training station.

No corporation was ever more complex than this institution of which Capt. W. D. Brotherton, U. S. N., is the commandant. The naval training center is a city per se, an ever-throbbing community in which thousands dwell, and in which every aspect of civil existence is reflected in its routine. It has its government, as a matter of course, with its ramified responsibilities of administration. It has its administration building, or city hall, its police, its hospitals, its department of sanitation. A huge commissary vies with its urban counterpart, the wholesale house, and from this issue the immense quantities of food and supplies for the sustenance and comfort of its naval apprentice citizens.

Yeoman, the stenographers and clerks of Uncle Sam’s navy, keep up an incessant tattoo on a battery of typewriters, while others maintain an intricate system of accounting in the training station’s treasury, the paymaster’s office. Others still, a large part of the complement, in fact, are constantly concerned with the vast galley or kitchen, the open-air mess hall, or hotel, the old Varied Industries building in which 1000 apprentice seamen can be comfortably quartered, the canteen, or ship’s store, the post office, the barber and shoe shops, butcher shop, bakery and wash house or laundry.

Public health has its part in the makeup of the naval training station. There is a detention camp in which newcomers are kept under close observation for three weeks before they are allowed to mingle with the rank and file of the apprentice seamen. There is also an isolation ward, in which those afflicted with communicable ailments can be confined.

Likewise, amusements receive careful attention, and there are at all times athletics, games of test and music for the edification of the apprentice seamen populace. An excellent band, organized since the establishment of the institution, plays during the noon mess hour and again at night on the Plaza. Even the movies, the most characteristic of latter-day American outcroppings, hold forth nightly at the naval training station.

Thus every item of the bodily and mental health of these embryo jackies is conserved. To what extent this studious overseeing of these youngsters is productive of results is convincingly illustrated by the almost total absence of sickness. Almost to a boy they just bloom with health and there is about their stride and the very color of them, a suggestion of magnificent youthful vigor, untouched by contact with the world.

More convincingly still is the moral accomplishment, simply indexed by the statement of my courteous and patient informant, Lieut. E. A. Lofquist, U. S. N., the executive officer:

“Of possible 3200 seamen given liberty in San Diego each week, I should say an average of three fall from grace.”

“Liberty” has ever been and is a problem, for when Jack, apprentice or seamen, ashore or afloat, has earned his leisure, it is his inalienable right to pass nominally beyond the eye and the control of his superiors. But here, with his amusements and recreations virtually laid out for him, it is rare indeed that the apprentice seamen ventures far astray. Balboa Park itself is an every-beseeching attraction to these sailors-to-be. Many of them have come from sections where flowers are uncommon, and they find delight in wandering the streets and paths, sniffing at the strange fragrances, or tarrying in the Plaza to pay with the pigeons, or willing away their idle hours at the edge of the lily-spread lagoon.

Pool and billiard tables, checker and chess boards are always at a premium in the old Filipino exhibit, where the Y. M. C. A. has provided a writing and reading room for the apprentice seamen. This same institution is now installing a gymnasium, which is to be a feature of the old Sacramento (Northern Counties) building it will occupy. A physical director will be in charge. Practically all the churches have arranged weekly socials for the entertainment of the apprentice seamen in the city, and the Hippodrome management each week sends 250 complimentary tickets to Commander Brotherton “for the boys.”

Considering this multiplex establishment with its provisions for the care and entertainment of the apprentice seamen, it seems pertinent to explain to possibly envious civilians that these youngsters of the navy pay for everything they have with downright hard work. This is one instance in which “Jack ashore” is not entirely bent on “a time.”

Life begins officially, so to speak, for the apprentice seamen when most people turn over in bed to enjoy a few extra winks of sleep. He does not arise leisurely; he is routed out literally by the bugle’s strident note. He makes his own bed, or hammock, has his shower, puts on his white duck work clothes, eats his breakfast, and passes the exacting scrutiny of the navy surgeons.

From 8 a.m. until late afternoon the apprentice seamen is a very busy young man. If he is fortunate he gives several hours of his time to infantry and artillery drill and the manual of arms. If he is unfortunate, he is assigned to detail work, which means swabbing down the floors and pavement, “a la deck,” barefooted and dragging a four-inch hose, or he goes on guard. There is variance of opinion among these navy boys as to what constitutes good fortune and misfortune. If one escapes drill, he becomes an orderly. If he has shown special qualifications, he does both, besides which he participates in numerous inspections, formations and parades, bayonet, position and aiming exercises. At other times of the day he attends school, where he receives instruction in signaling, radio, compass, and lead-line, rigging and various other branches of nautical training.

When finally at 4:30 p.m., the apprentice seaman is dismissed, he goes to his quarters and gathers his soiled clothes, These he washes, scours rather, himself, later carrying his trousers, blouses, underwear, and hose to the drying line. If he has any spare time he passes it until evening mess sewing, smilingly and without complaint. Then he writes home.

Having obtained this quite intimate view of these young men at the naval training station, knowing what they do and how well they do it, there seems to be no longer any understanding of those who do not put their faith in

“The Man Behind the Gun.”

And, reverting to Henry Ford, I could say the achievements at the United States naval training station in Balboa Park are equally worthy of world-wide import. Moreover, in my view at least, the process of transforming raw material into the finished product is much more absorbing here that it would be at Detroit, if only for the reason that when an apprentice seaman leaves the manufactory he is fully equipped — a self-starter, as it were — capable or really amazing endurance in the roughest possible going.

October 13, 1917, Letter, Office of the Board of Park Commissioners, to Commanding Officer, Twenty-First Infantry, San Diego, Cal.

Dear Sir; As reported to you by telephone yesterday morning, a party of men in uniform, in appearance either soldiers or marines, were observed turning over the large ornamental urns in front of Model Farm and Y. M. C. A. building. This occurred at approximately 1:15 a.m. The urns were broken loose from concrete bases and rolled into the street, the plants in some of them being destroyed.

Last night, several large board sign posts were torn from their fastenings along the same roadway, broken up and thrown into the street. This happened sometime between ten o’clock and morning. As no one has reported witnessing this last act, we have no means of knowing whether civilians or soldiers are guilty. The breaking of ornamental light globes from the tops of standards in this same vicinity also has been reported.

For the above reasons, in order to prevent further property damage and because the speeding habit, which civilians and soldiers share in common, has become a menace to the safety of pedestrians in that portion of the Park, we wish to ask that you extend to us this courtesy, namely:

Place sentry in roadway before model farm and another in roadway opposite Universal Brotherhood Building, instructing them as follows:

(1.) To stop all motor-driven vehicles traveling in excess of 15 miles per hour; to turn offending drivers, if civilians, over to the Park Department, either at this office or, at night, to the Park Superintendent or Executive Secretary, both of whom live upon the Model Farm, or, if the driver be in uniform, to the proper military authorities.

(2.) To prevent men in uniform from entering Model Farm premises between hours of 6 p.m. and 6 a.m.,

at all hours of the day or night to prevent acts of vandalism, the breaking of fruit of flowers,

boisterous or unbecoming conduct on the part of both civilians and enlisted men, and to turn over

offenders to the proper authorities.

This request is prompted by a sincere desire to maintain the harmony and friendly spirit existing between this office and the military authorities and to insure the placing of all blame upon the proper shoulders.

Very truly yours.

October 12, 1917, San Diego Union, 7:2-5. Artillery hard at work here all the time; group photograph of the 15th Artillery Company now stationed at Chula Vista.

October 12, 1917, San Diego Union. Playground Department to handle service athletics; Army officers agree that city bureau to make arrangements for contests; ball games to be booked; football set for first of month; track meets being arranged; effort being made to establish temporary swimming facilities on the reclaimed tidelands at the foot of Date Street.

October 13, 1917, Letter, Board of Park Commissioners, to Commanding Officer, Twenty-first Infantry, San Diego, Cal.; San Diego Public Library.

Dear Sir:-

As reported to you by telephone yesterday morning, a party of men in uniform, in appearance soldiers or marines, were observed turning over the large ornamental urns in front of the Model Farm and Y. M. C. A. building. This occurred at approximately 1:15 a.m. The urns were broken loose from concrete bases and rolled into the street, the plants in some of them being destroyed.

Last night, several large board sign posts were torn from their fastenings along the same roadway, broken up and thrown into the street. This happened sometime between ten o’clock and morning. As no one has reported witnessing this last act, we have no means of knowing whether soldiers or civilians are guilty. The breaking or ornamental light globes from the tops of standards in this same vicinity also has been reported.

For the above reasons, in order to prevent further property damage and because the speeding habit — which civilians and soldiers share in common — has become a menace to the safety of pedestrians in that portion of the park, we wish to ask that you extend to us this courtesy, namely:-

Place sentry in roadway before model farm and another in roadway opposite Universal Brotherhood Building, instructing them as follows:-

(1.) To stop all motor-driven vehicles traveling in excess of 15 miles per hour; to turn offending drivers, if civilians, over to the Park Department, either at this office or, at night, to the Park Superintendent or Executive Secretary, both of whom live upon the Model Farm, or, if the driver be in uniform, to the proper military authorities.

(2.) To prevent men in uniform from entering model farm premises between hours of 6 p.m. and 6 a.m., and at all hours of the day or night to prevent acts of vandalism, the breaking of fruit or flowers, boisterous or unbecoming conduct on the part of both civilians and enlisted men, and to turn over offenders to the proper authorities.

This request is prompted by a sincere desire to maintain harmony and friendly spirit existing between this office and the military authorities and to insure the placing of all blame upon the proper shoulders.

Thanking you in advance for your cooperation and courtesy.

Very truly yours.

October 13, 1917, San Diego Sun, 17:4-6. Stockholders to turn over $6,500 balance to San Diego Museum

October 13, 1917, San Diego Sun, II, 8:4-5. Inga Orner, grand opera star, will sing at Organ Pavilion tomorrow afternoon; all soldiers and sailors will be admitted without charge; seats on sale at Thearles’ music store.

October 15, 1917, Letter, T. N. Faulconer, Executive Secretary, Board of Park Commissioners, to Major Fred V. Chamberlain, Commanding Twenty-First Infantry, Camp Walter R. Taliaferro, San Diego, Calif.

Re: Panama Canal Bldg.

Dear Sir: I wish to advise that your communication has been brought to the attention of the Board of Park Commissioners, and that said Board in regular meeting assembled, has directed me to quote to you the following except from its minutes:

“Executive Secretary hereby is directed to inform the Commanding Officer of the Twenty-First Infantry that the Board of Park Commissioners is ready and willing to take over the Panama Canal Building now held under lease by the Twenty-First Infantry, but, in taking over said building, it does not waive its claim to loss and damage to the building and fixtures while under lease to the Twenty-First Infantry, said claim being now on file.”

Our Mr. Harper will present this letter in person and will, at your convenience, inspect the premises and release you from further responsibility.

Pending wreckage of the building by the Park Department, it is requested that you provide a sentry for the premises.

Very truly yours.

October 15, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:3. Art Notes, by R. R. — The Indian Arts: The tools in the various cases at the Museum attract much attention.

October 15, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:7. Letter from “An Enlisted Man,” demanding square deal.

Simply because a man wears a uniform is no reason that he will throw his money to the winds. San Diego merchants, particularly proprietors of restaurants, fail to realize this.

October 16, 1917, San Diego Union, 14:1-2. Coloratura soprano pleasing; large audience greets Miss Inga Orner at Spreckels organ; bouquets presented.

October 16, 1917, San Diego Union, 14:2. “Community Sings” to be repeated next Sunday afternoon.

October 17, 1917, San Diego Sun, 4:3-5. Water colors by Arthur G. Vernon exhibited in California Building.

October 17, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:3-6, 5:1-3. Secretary of Treasury William G. McAdoo spoke to 6,000 at Organ Pavilion yesterday; made plea for liberty bonds, denounced pacifists; introduced by Lyman G. Gage, secretary of treasury in McKinley’s cabinet.

October 17, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:6. Rockwell Field is announced as U. S. Aviation base.

October 19, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 7:1. Mayor Wilde lands his fist on visitor who wants job; money lender called him bad name, says Wilde; man is taken in by police.

October 19, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 7:1. Progress is reported on work at Lower Otay dam.

October 19, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 7:2. Luncheon given in honor of Congressman Kettner at U. S. Grant Hotel to be meatless spread.

October 19, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 7:2. Suit begun to abate Hotel Harvey as nuisance.

October 19, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 7:3. People’s Peace Council is out; offices in Scripps Building left by Pacifiers.

October 19, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 7:3. Colored soldiers form contingent; Draft Boards sent notices to men who will leave for North on October 27.

October 19, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 7:4. Veteran troops, Arizona’s finest, arrive at Camp Kearney; many members of 158th Regiment saw service in Cuba and on border.

October 24, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. A big entertainment is to be given tomorrow night at the Organ Pavilion by the U. S. Marines camped in the park. Nine vaudeville acts and four four-round boxing matches are on the program. The show is given to raise money for the marines’ football team.

October 24, 1917, San Diego Union, 7:1. Marines plan “big doings” for football money; nine vaudeville acts and four boxing exhibitions to be staged at Balboa Park tomorrow night.

October 24, 1917, San Diego Union, 7:3-4. Meatless Tuesday observed generally by San Diegans.

October 25, 1917, San Diego Herald, 1:1-2. Mammoth pageant of freedom will be allegorical picture of universal peace.

October 25, 1917, San Diego Sun, II, 7:6. Colonel D. C. Collier is to manage Santa Fe central railroad running from Santa Fe to Torrence, New Mexico, for a group of New York capitalists who have purchased the line; is visiting here for a few days.

October 25, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:2. Talent galore on program of Marines tonight.

October 26, 1917, San Diego Sun, II, 9:5. The Saturday night dances given by officers and men stationed on the Exposition grounds are proving a big success. It is estimated that about 2,000 persons were present at one which was held last Saturday night on the Plaza de Panama.

Ensign Conover stated today that he hoped San Diego and the Exposition would be made a permanent naval training station.

October 26, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:1. Soldier Quartet to be heard at Organ Sunday; men from Company 15, Coast Artillery, will give concert.

October 28, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:7, 5:1-4. Evangelist Billy Sunday spoke to 12,000 at Camp Kearny and to from 10,000 to 12,000 at Stadium yesterday; attacked “booze.”

October 28, 1917, San Diego Union, 9:1-3. Pageant of Freedom to prove epoch in San Diego’s history, prediction; notable gathering of distinguished persons expected in city November 14.

October 29, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:3-6. Mr. Eno still has a nice exclusive park business.

Judge Henry C. Ryan and his companion of the Park Board Trust, F. F. Grant, have exemplified the truth of the old saying that you can’t keep a good man down, and that there are more ways than one of killing a dog. Mr. Eno is still on the job.

A few months ago, The Sun uncovered and bared to the public gaze a little transaction of the Park Board Trust, by which L. L. Eno, a downtown curio merchant, was placed in charge of the refreshment concessions in Balboa park, receiving as his compensation al the net profits from the sales of refreshments and sundries to soldiers, sailors and civilians, save and except the sum of $125 per month, which sum should revert to the park department.

As the records of the park department showed the net profits from the concessions to be averaging around $1200 per month, The Sun demanded the canceling of Mr. Eno’s contract. The contract was canceled and the city park department today is richer by several thousand dollars than it would have been had Mr. Eno been allowed to carry out the illegal Grant-Ryan-Eno agreement. It is but fair to say that Arthur Cosgrove, who has a vote when a motion for adjournment is before the board, refused to sanction the agreement with Eno.

When the good people of San Diego has been awakened by The Sun to the sort of deal that was being given them by the Park Board Trust, the howl that went up was of such force and duration that Mr. Eno was declared by board member to have been let out, and the public resumed its slumbers.

Many citizens and taxpayers state that they have applied to the park board for the privilege of selling their wares to the soldiers and sailors in Balboa park. On the grounds that “the army and navy wouldn’t like it,” every one of these petitioners had been turned down, but Mr. Eno continues to sell his postcards, kodaks and gewgaws, whether the army and navy like it or not.

October 30, 1917, Letter, C. Gamborg Andresen, Lieutenant Colonel, U. S. Marine Corps, commanding, to John Morley: Request to construct a section of a military trench in the plot of ground south of the Montana Building.

October 30, 1917, San Diego Sun, 4:6. Stockholders in Panama-California Exposition are turning over their $6,500 balance to San Diego Museum; already more than 50 percent of the stock has been assigned to the museum

October 30, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:1. Quartet of soldiers hit in recital Sunday afternoon at Organ Pavilion; big audience gathers to hear Coast Artillerymen stationed at Chula Vista who display fine voices.

October 31, 1917, Letter, John Morley to C. Gamborg Andresen, Lieutenant Colonel, U. S. Marine Corps, granting permission to construct a trench south of the Montana Building.

October 31, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Henry Schumann-Heink, son of the famous singer, left this city yesterday for the Naval Training Station at San Pedro, where he was ordered to report for service. His wife and daughter will make their home at Grossmont with his mother while he is away.

October 31, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:3-6, 5:2-6. Joffre Boulevard name selected for 80mile scenic road encircling San Diego; businessmen of city plan paved highway at luncheon.

October 31, 1917. San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Parks vs. Payrolls.

The action of a majority of the City Council in refusing to a shipbuilding company a site on the waterfront north of Broadway may be satisfactory to those who can see in the development of the city only hard and fast lines, possibly subordinating the commercial _____ to the aesthetic, at least in that part of the city. To many others, The Union believes the decision has been very much of a disappointment. In fact, there is good reason for the belief that this step, regardless of the identity of the company making the application, was wholly at variance with what a majority of the people of San Diego want.

San Diego is already very well equipped, at least for a city of the size of this, with parks, playgrounds and recreation spaces. The great city park, with its 1400 acres, is rather more, indeed, than San Diego needs now. In addition, there are various playgrounds, all of which are needed and are well used. The cost of these enterprises, designed for the recreation and physical well being of the people is considerable — all that the city can well afford now. For instance, the upkeep of Balboa Park and the smaller parks is now about $100,000 a year. This, too, although only half of the large park is now developed, and by no means all of that which is developed is being cared for by the city alone, as various government enterprises are using it.


Maintenance has been the chief work of the Department for the month with the exception of the rearrangement of the planting in the Conservatory and Botanical Building, also repairing the roofs of the buildings occupied by the Navy Department, a complete record of which will be furnished on completion.

Twenty-seven hundred plants were utilized in the Exposition grounds and Botanical Building and two hundred in the balance of the Park system consisting of the following varieties.


1 Alosphylla Australia

3 Alocasia Machrohizia

85 Cuphea Manicata

100 Cyclamen Persicum Giganteum

400 Lilium Longiflorum

1986 Chrysanthemums

135 Pimula Sinensis

6 Swainsonia Galegifolia

6 Sansveria Zealanica


12 Erica Melanthera

4 Leptospermum

4 Pyoporum Acuminatum

135 Marguerites (Yellow)


The Cocos and Seaforthia Palms in the Conservatory have been removed and transplanted in the Botanical Building and along the parking strip on Park Avenue (6th Street). The large Araucaria Bidwilli tree was chopped down as it was too large to move from the Botanical Building. Bamboos and surplus shrubs were removed and palms from the Conservatory planted in their place. The readjustment of the planting in the Conservatory is nearly completed. The cost of removing the palms amounted to $210.00 and completing of the work will bring the total of nearly $500.00. While this has been extra work it has been done by transferring men from other sections, making no increase in the payroll.

General pruning on the Exposition grounds is being done and the remodeling of the Montezuma formal garden is now underway and will be planted to pansies for winter and spring blooming.


November 1, 1971, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Soldiers from Camp Kearny and apprentice seamen for the Naval Training Station in Balboa Park this morning started on their campaign through the city and county to secure pledges for food conservation.

November 2, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Over 20,000 signatures were secured to pledge for food conservation by squads of soldiers and sailors who canvassed the city and county.

November 4, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:5-6. Henry C. Ryan, attorney, writes letter branding San Diego Sun story malicious, false; story appeared August 10; charged Park Board with graft in the authorization of the planting and cultivation of tomato plants in the park garden for free distribution; also discusses arrangement made with Mr. Eno by previous Park Board to sell photographic and kodak supplies in park.

November 4, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:3-6. Council urged to grant two military requests by government officers, by John T. Flynn.

Within the last two days important military requests have been presented to the City Council by the government officers in charge. . . . One request was for the use of Pueblo lands near La Jolla for maneuvering purposes. . . . The other request came from Captain Leeds, district engineer in charge of harbor work, etc., in which the city is invited to cooperate with the federal government in providing a bulkhead to impound channel dredged material on the 500 acres recently ceded for naval base purposes at Dutch Flats.

November 4, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:5-6. Thomas Ryan writes letter criticizing Councilman’s Tideland Lease “excuse.”

In these strenuous times of war the government is calling for our boys and we are sending them; it is calling for our money and we are buying Liberty Bonds; but when it asks a lease of a part of out idle waterfront for shipbuilding, San Diego is put in the position of a slacker and our Solons turn down the request as these tidelands are desired for ornamental purposes and are too good for industries.

November 4, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:8. Art Notes, by R. R: Indian Arts — in case number 4 at the San Diego Museum may be seen two Indians working from the solid granite forms to express there thought of life on a well-cut monumental stone.

November 5, 1917, Letter, Captain S. S. Brundred, 21st Infantry adjutant, to John Morley, requesting Park Department to take over Panama Building and the Safety First Building pending the claim for loss therein.

November 5, 1917, San Diego Sun, II, 7:3-6. Just Among Ourselves, by W. H. P., regarding Ryan and Park Commissioners.

You may have been a perfectly dandy judge in Indiana, Mr. Ryan, but here in San Diego, you’ve been a darned bad public servant and the nicest thing you could do right now would be to resign and get off the job and take your friend Grant with you. Do you get that?

November 9, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. In place of the usual Sunday concert at the Spreckels Organ in the Park this Sunday, Father Flynn, who so stirred the Rotary Club yesterday with a talk on his experiences about Verdun, will speak on the work and needs of the Red Cross in France. There will also be some vocal and instrumental music.

November 9, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:8, 2:4. Irregularities charged in funds of city parks; no record of funds found.

Failure of Commissioner Ryan to account in full for a fund he is said to have collected from Griffing Bancroft for the park funds and a lack of records of a large collection Commissioner Grant is alleged to have personally made from the U. S. Navy Department are two of the counts.

November 10, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:6. Park Board affairs to be probed.

In spite of a feeble response uttered this morning by Park Commissioner F. F. Grant, through the columns of the morning Alibi, the official organ of the park board trust, an investigation was begun by City Attorney Cosgrove into the handling of public funds by Grant and H. C. Ryan, the trust members.

November 10, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:8. Art Notes, by R. R.: The Art Gallery — an exhibition of pictures by San Diego artists will open November 13.

November 10, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:1. Many families are removing to San Diego; indicated by large amount of household goods consigned to city.

November 10, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:4. Commissioner F. F. Grant replies to story in San Diego Sun on expenditures; says books are kept properly; City Auditor Moody has sent City Attorney Cosgrove a letter stating Park Fund is now exhausted and that the Board is borrowing money from the banks at 6 percent.

November 11, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:5, 12:2. Park head urges mayor to probe affairs of Board; “merely a misunderstanding,” says Mayor Wilde after listening to all sides.

November 11, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:5-6. Henry C. Ryan, Park Board member, writes letter scoring attacks and insinuations by “male person masquerading as editor” of The San Diego Sun.

This stuff reads like the mouthings of some wild-eyed I. W. W. or an Emma Goldman.

November 12,1917, San Diego Sun, 1:6. EDITORIAL: Come on, Jedge — If you’ll agree to sue us for libel — make it $50,000 Jedge — you could use that, now couldn’t you? If you’ll agree to sue, we will agree to just make a nice lady-like defense, and help you get all the damages you can — isn’t that fair enough?

November 12, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:6. Extra deputy to check park accounts; City Auditor Moody lays plans for the employment of an extra deputy.

November 13, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:3. Soldiers win commendation from Walter P. Moore, vice president of the San Diego City Council, for deportment less than four arrests a day with 30,000 service men stationed here; 85 percent of those arrested charged with intoxication.

November 14, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:1. Frank C. Osgood, deputy city auditor, to probe Park Accounts.

November 14, 1917, San Diego Sun, 7:2-8. Palace of Industrial Arts proposed by Rau and Palmer, Inc. as permanent market; plans drawn by Henry Lord Gay, architect, and Robert Ime Recht, associate architect.

November 14, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:3. Opening night of annual exhibit of San Diego Art Guild in Fine Arts building last night.

November 14, 1917, San Diego Union, 6:3-6. Training Station eleven takes football game from Coronado High School lads by 27-6 score.

November 14, 1917, San Diego Union, 6:3-4. Exempted draft men are barred from Navy.

November 14, 1917, San Diego Union, 6:5. Christian Scientists maintain place for servicemen in Spreckels Theater building.

November 14, 1917, San Diego Union, 6:6. Naval Training Station basketball team is making great record.

November 14, 1917, San Diego Union, 7:1 Utah field artillery football team at Camp Kearny will not be permitted to make the trip to Salt Lake City during the Thanksgiving holidays.

November 14, 1917, San Diego Union. 7:3. New radio school attracts sailors at Naval Training Station; classed held daily with fifty men in attendance; 100 taking night course; five men obtaining the highest marks in examinations each week are sent to Harvard University for further study; the Naval Y. M. C. A. at Balboa Park is assisting the men in their studies.

November 14, 1917, San Diego Union, 7:3. “Fake” wrestling match last night at Balboa Park entertained sailors.

November 15, 1917, San Diego Sun, II, 9:4. “Community Sing” planned at Organ Pavilion next Sunday afternoon; enlisted men and civilians invited.

November 16, 1917, Letter, Captain S. S. Brundred, 21st Infantry, adjutant, to John Morley requesting permission to use a plot of ground east of the zoo as a pistol target range.

November 16, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. President Henry C. Ryan, of the Board of Park Commissioners, in a communication to City Attorney Cosgrove covered all the points made by Auditor Moody as to the methods of the Commission, giving full explanations of all the transactions in which the Commission took part.

November 16, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:7-8, 6:3. Judge Ryan is guilty of misconduct by his own admission; held funds rather than depositing them with the city treasurer as called or in the city charter.

November 16, 1917, San Diego Union, Women’s Page, 8:5. The enlisted men of the Army and Navy stationed in San Diego are invited to the big “sing” at the Organ Pavilion next Sunday afternoon.

November 16, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1. Park Board makes full explanation covering charges; President Henry C. Ryan, in communication, replies to complaints of City Auditor H. L. Moody.

November 16, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:2-4. Thousands of participants ready for great pageant of Freedom; complete full dress rehearsal to be held at Stadium tonight.

November 18, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:7, 4:3. 40th U. S. Army Division, 30,000 strong, passed in review yesterday before great throng at Camp Kearny, by B. P.

November 18, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:8, 4:3-4. “March of Democracy” shown before vast audience at Stadium; great historical events portrayed with vivid realism from Marathon to setting up Republic in America; eight episodes depict world struggle; camels and oxen used.

November 18, 1917, San Diego Union, 4:8. Art Notes, by R. R. — Mrs. Scofield’s statuette “Hippity Hop” at Art Guild exhibition in Balboa Park.

November 18, 1917, San Diego Union, Sports & Auto Section, 1:2-3. Plan proposed to move 23 of 26 elk from Balboa Park to deer park in Cleveland National Forest between Descanso and Campo; Dr. Harry Wegeforth, president of Zoological Society, and Nels Dun, sportsman, approve.

November 21, 1917, Letter, Executive Secretary, Board of Park Commissioners to Captain S. S. Brundred granting permission to use a plot of ground east of the zoo as a pistol target range.

November 21, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Owing to the fact that the U. S. Government owes the Park Commission $17,000, it will not be necessary to hold up the pay of any park employees as the money will be forthcoming shortly.

November 21, 1917, San Diego Sun, 6:3. Take the flying course in Park.

Naval officers and mechanics, who are soon to become naval flyers at Rockwell field on North Island, are now receiving a course of instruction at the naval headquarters in Balboa park, pending the completion of their school on North Island. Under the command of Lieut. Earl Spencer, Jr., the members of the school are fast acquiring the first course in the art of flying.

Only the best men available are being taken in the flying corps, as upon these men will devolve the duty of guarding the fleets from attack by hostile aircraft and submarines. Skilled men of every trade are wanted for this highly important branch of the naval service. Mechanics, tailors, electricians, photographers and others are especially desired. Promotions will come rapidly to those who shown an aptitude for naval aircraft work.

New buildings are to be erected on the western half of North Island and the army flying school, which is now located here, will vacate in favor of the naval flyers as soon as the buildings are completed.

November 21, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:1. Turkey shortage here for Thanksgiving predicted.

November 21, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:3. Park employees’ payroll is not to be held up; Board, city attorney, auditor find way to make money due; United States owes $17,000 for work performed by Park Board preparing for the coming of naval apprentices to Balboa Park; original indebtedness amount to about $46,000.

November 22, 1917, San Diego Herald, 3:4. Our advantages for expositions and conventions.


San Diego has received big interest on every dollar invested in her great Exposition. The interest did not stop when the lights went out at midnight on January 1, but will continue to be added to San Diego’s account for decades to come. It is to be expected that San Diegans will be the last ones to accept the Exposition benefits.

It there were no other benefits, this one of being placed indelibly on the map is worth the money invested.

The Exposition itself has convinced the five million visitors, who came here during the two years, that San Diego is a wonderful place to live. Further than this the Exposition greeted the most influential men in the United States and made them friends of San Diego.

As to the tangible effects of the Exposition, San Diego will receive a wonderful park, invested with the memories of a great world’s exposition, and every drive, and every remaining feature will bring a message from the days of San Diego’s early glory.

Now that the Exposition has come to a close, the larger and more substantial buildings can be retained and used for convention purposes.

The splendid stadium in the park is another feature which impresses all visitors. The stadium is probably the finest in the United States from the point of utility. Money might build a more costly one, but nowhere else will climatic conditions permit the full use of which is possible only here.

November 22, 1917, San Diego Herald, 8:1. San Diego’s greatest charm is beautiful Balboa Park, by T. N. Faulconer.

“When San Diego has become a city of a million inhabitants, then will she have caught her with her park system.”

These are the words of a prominent official of the United States War Department, who recently visited San Diego to inspect the Army, Navy and Marine camps in Balboa Park.

Numerically and in acreage, San Diego always has been blessed with a superabundance of parks. Scattered here and there over the entire incorporated area of the city, are twenty-three parks, totaling in area nearly two thousand acres, and, thanks to the appreciation of a generous public and more especially to the adventitious circumstances of Balboa Park having been chosen as the site for the Panama-California Exposition, San Diego may claim the distinction of having one of the most beautiful parks in America, as well as to enormous park acreage.

Nor do size and beauty comprise entirely the value of this unusual park system, for the old Exposition grounds and buildings have aided in no small measure the city of San Diego in “doing of her bit” for the nation at war. Two thousand apprentice seamen are in training in the Exposition grounds, with the famous Plaza de Panama for a “deck” or drill ground, and the Exposition buildings, stripped of their exhibits, and fitted out for barrack, armories, executive offices, canteens and other necessary navy quarters.

Nearly two thousand Unite States Marines are quartered in the buildings grouped about the Spreckels Organ Pavilion. The daily grind of grueling drills and exercises preparatory to “going over the top: are wearing on the nerves, and, in their leisure hours, men of the Marine Corps enjoy to the fullest their beautiful surroundings.

Upon the Isthmus, where in Exposition days the raucous voice of the ballyhoo man and the conglomerate strains from a dozen or more sideshow bands made might hideous, sounds only the footfall of a sentry, the bugle notes of “taps” and the sharp challenges of the guards. Here are spread the tents of the Twenty-first Infantry and of Coast Artillery sections, polishing up their bayonets and their French in final preparation for the longed-for orders for the eastern seaboard and the Front.

Because of this military conception it has been made possible for the Park Department to maintain the Exposition grounds, for all practical purposes, in their pristine Exposition glory, and none of the handsome temporary structures will be razed during such occupancy. Thousands of pigeons still haunt the famous Plaza and the visitor to Balboa Park still has his or her picture taken in the midst of a hungry host of them feeding from hand, head, shoulder or any other part of the anatomy upon which grain has been placed for them.

And to Balboa Park San Diego business people are more deeply indebted than is generally realized. Nearly $1500 is being expended in San Diego each day for foodstuffs for the men encamped in the Exposition grounds. The monthly payroll for the men in these camps is slightly in excess of $150,000. Just what proportion of this amount is spend in San Diego is, of course, problematical, but, to quote not one, but many army and naval officers, “two trips downtown and a soldier or sailor borrows cigarettes until the next payday.”

In addition to the fourteen hundred acre Balboa Park, nearly six acres of lawn, shrubs and flowers are maintained at La Jolla.

On Point Loma, Spaulding Park and Cabrillo Park are under cultivation and are much utilized by tourists and automobile parties from the city.

Washington Square, or Old Town Park, about which centers much historic interest, is visited by many thousands of people each year.

New Town Park in the southwest section of the city, perhaps, affords more pleasure and necessary recreation to the working people of the city and to the man out of a job than any other park in the city. Here congregate the factory men and women from nearby industrial plants to absorb sunshine and fresh air during the noon hour. Here the down-and-outer, unmolested, rests his weary bones and gathers together his courage for another joust with outrageous fortune.

The Broadway Plaza, where blazes in nightly splendor the electric fountain donated to the city by Louis J. Wilde, affords to the weary shopper and the footsore sightseer a haven of rest. Its green lawns, modern and well-kept comfort stations, and resting places have proven a boon to the men of the cantonment at Camp Kearny. Strangers in a strange land, they find it stupid business roaming the sidewalks and waiting for stage or train to carry them back to camp, and, on liberty days, the Plaza lawns are almost obscured from sight by the khaki-clad figures reposing on its inviting bosom.

There, no doubt, are isolated hamlets in the United States where San Diego is but a name, but the praise of San Diego’s parks, upon the lips of millions of visitors, has gone to the four corners of the civilized world. San Diego has charmed visitors from all over the world and to Balboa Park does she owe the greatest of her charms.

November 23, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. All park employees will be paid their salaries at the usual time as the American National Bank will take the note of the Park Commission until such time as the money owed by the federal government to the Commission is available.

November 24, 1917, San Diego Union, 10:1. People’s Chorus of seventy-three voices will sing at Park tomorrow; organization under direction of Willibald Lehmann to be heard at organ.

For civilians the charge of admission is nominal, being at the usual rate of 25 cents throughout, plus a war tax of about two cents.

November 25, 1917, San Diego Union, 13:2-5. Naval Aircraft School arouses interest in flying here.

Lieut. Earl Spencer, Jr. and Lieut. Frank Simpson, Jr., respectively commanding officer and executive officer of the naval aircraft school are both veteran naval airmen.

The first of a number of seaplanes which have been ordered for the local naval school is now at Balboa Park. Simultaneous with instruction in naval training, the ninety youths that now form the enlisted personnel of the school are being taught aviation from the ground up.

November 25, 1917, San Diego Sun, Society and Club, 2:3-4. Peoples Chorus to sing today; capacity audience expected at Organ Pavilion; Mrs. W. H. Porterfield, soprano, will appear as soloist; Willibald Lehmann to conduct.

November 26, 1917, San Diego Sun, 10:1. Peoples Chorus concert in Balboa Park Sunday afternoon enjoyed.

November 28, 1917, San Diego Union, Women’s Page, 10:2. Peoples Chorus wins praise; Mrs. W. H. Porterfield sang the aria “Il est doux” from “Herodiade” by Massanet with Willibald Lehmann accompanying her at the piano.

November 28, 1917, San Diego Union, Women’s Page, 10:2. Thanksgiving service in park tomorrow; all churches in city will join; soloists: Mrs. W. H. Porterfield, soprano; Miss Eleanor Lee, contralto; Dr. H.J. Steward, organist.

November 29, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. There will be a big Thanksgiving service at the Spreckels Organ, most of the churches in San Diego being represented.

November 29, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:4. Cheerless Day For These Boys

Right on the public roadway through Balboa Park and bordering the Isthmus which once range with the mirth of exposition throngs — right within sight and hearing of Thanksgiving celebrations — are a group of the loneliest boys spending the most cheerless Thanksgiving of their lives.

Wearing the white uniforms of interned sailors, they are penned up in a hog-wire quarantine camp, waiting until the navy doctors are satisfied there are no disease bugs in their systems.

For every recruit at Balboa Park must spend a period in the quarantine as a measure of health protection to the hosts in training.

November 29, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:8. City’s operating department purchase bureau buys for Park Board; ordinance passed yesterday appropriating $1461 from park funds for purchase of cigarettes and tobacco; a savings of $490 or more than 30 percent anticipated over system of direct Park Board purchase.

November 29, 1917, San Diego Union, 9:6. Hostess Gallery in California Quadrangle opened to servicemen under auspices of Y. W. C. A.

November 29, 1917, San Diego Union, 9:6. As a result of an ordinance passed by the Council yesterday cigarettes and tobacco to be sold at the refreshments stands in Balboa Park will be purchased by the city operating department instead of by the park commission.

November 29, 1917, San Diego Union, 9:6. Thanksgiving program of athletic stunts for boys at the Naval Training Camp to be held on Plaza, auspices of Y. M. C. A.

November 30, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. The civic music committee has arranged a fine concert to be held at the Organ Pavilion next Sunday afternoon.

November 30, 1917, San Diego Union, 7:1-2. Lakeside entertains many with grand celebration; five thousand gather for Thanksgiving Day program; music by 157th Infantry Band from Camp Kearny; boys of the 18th Company execute drills.

November 30, 1917, San Diego Union, 7:3. Union services drew many to park; Dr. Lincoln A. Ferris, pastor of First Methodist Episcopal Church, delivered Thanksgiving address; impressive musical program; soldiers and sailors acted as usher and took up a collection for the benefit of the poor by the Associated Charities of San Diego


December 4, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. The payment of park employees for the rest of the year is now assured as the Park Board has received from the government a check for $13,969 for work on the Naval Training Station in the park. A sum of $8,000 is still due.

December 4, 1917, San Diego Sun, 11:5. Receipt of a Navy Department check for $13,969 received by Park Board, part payment for about $45,000 worth of work, of which about $8,000 is still due; park payroll for latter part of November paid with borrowed money.

December 4, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:6. Park Board gets $13,969; government pays for work done by city employees at Naval Training Station; balance still due about $30,000; check relieves tension by Park Board for some time.

December 8, 1917, San Diego Union, 11:1. “Community Sing” to be held at Organ Pavilion tomorrow afternoon; arrangements made by Miss Gertrude Gilbert; soldiers and sailors expected to be present.

December 10, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:5. Women of city knitting sweaters for men in Army Engineer Corps at Camp Kearny.

December 10, 1917, San Diego Union, 9:1. “Community Sing” at park marked by enthusiasm; affair held at Organ Pavilion yesterday afternoon is part of a nation-wide movement; singing led from stage by Mrs. L. L. Rowan; Mrs. M. P. Hesse at the organ.

December 14, 1917, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

A motion was made and carried directing the Executive Secretary to demand of the 1916 Exposition Company a statement of its account against the Park Department in order that the matter might be definitely settled before the close of the current year.

December 14, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Mrs. G. A. Haussen, singer, will give several solos during the organ recital Sunday.

December 15, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Impressive ceremonies in Old Town today when Mormon soldiers from Camp Kearny and city officials united in commemorating the Mormon battalion camping there 72 years ago.

December 17, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 14:1. Madame Schumann-Heink presented the regimental colors to the 21st Infantry this afternoon in the park, following a parade of the troops.

December 18, 1917, Letter, Board of Park Commissioners, to Quartermaster Rowe, 21st Infantry, San Diego, California

Dear Sir; Last June while the 15th Company of the Coast Artillery was located on the Exposition grounds we did repair work on account of plumbing for them amounting to $4.74. Bill for same was sent to them at that time but we have received no remittance covering same. As they have left the grounds and we do not know where to address them we thought you might be able to give us some information as to how to reach them in order to get this little matter adjusted before the end of the year. Any information that you may give us will be greatly appreciated.


December 18, 1917, San Diego Union, 11:6. Christmas celebration planned; fete to be held at Plaza de Panama; Miss Gertrude Gilbert making plans; four quartets to sing from four balconies on four sides of Plaza; Christmas living pictures modeled from famous paintings to be shown at Organ Pavilion.

December 19, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Owing to the generosity of Madame Schumann-Heink $300 was added to the wool fund for sweaters for the 21st Infantry.

December 19, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:3. Inter-Regimental contest set for New Year’s at Camp Kearny.

December 19, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:4. Madame Schumann-Heink gives $300 toward wool fund for the soldiers of the 21st Regiment.

December 19, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:5. Huge Christmas celebration planned at Camp Kearny.

December 20, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:3. Christmas carols to be heard plan most elaborate Yuletide celebration ever held in Balboa Park.

December 20, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:3 Psychology class for mothers to meet today in the psychology laboratory in the Indian Arts Building in Balboa Park.

December 20, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:3. J. M. Kendall, baritone, will sing at organ Sunday.

December 21, 1917, Letter (Indecipherable) Colonel, 21st Infantry, Commanding, to the Board of Park Commissioners, Balboa Park, San Diego, Calif.

Sirs” In connection with the claim for damages in the Panama Canal and streets of the Panama Buildings and the Hawaiian Village, during occupancy by the Officers and men of the United States Army, the following information is desired”

(a.) The sale value of the items upon which the total amount claimed is based, taking into consideration depreciation and the value at the time of occupancy by the troops.

(b.) The intentions of the Board as to the future use and occupancy of the buildings and streets in question at the time of the taking over of the buildings by the Commanding Officer, Camp Taliaferro.

(c.) The probable time of the wrecking of the buildings referred to.

December 21, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Arrangements have been completed for the installation on the Plaza at Balboa Park of a 60-ft. Christmas tree. The tree is for the soldiers and sailors at the park on Christmas even, when Madame Schumann-Heink will sing.

December 21, 1917, San Diego Sun, 3:5. Great Christmas tree is planned for Plaza in Balboa Park.

December 23, 1917, San Diego Union, 5:2. 60-ft. Christmas tree set up in Horton Plaza; Madame Schumann-Heink to open program on Christmas eve.

December 23, 1917, San Diego Union, 6:6. Jolly Christmas planned for boys at Naval Training Center; program of athletic events on Plaza Christmas morning.

December 24, 1917, San Diego Sun. Program at Community Christmas tree at Plaza tonight.

December 24, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:3. Mayor Wilde threatens to fire Park Board; wants the Council to back plan.

A new park board may be Mayor Wilde’s Christmas present to San Diego. Startling council at the very end of a languid session this morning, Wilde stated than an entire new board should supplant Commissioners H. C. Ryan, F. F. Grant and Arthur Cosgrove.

“Go ahead. It’s all within your jurisdiction,” said Councilman Bacon, after Wilde had suggested a round robin to discuss new members.

The mayor signified he wanted support of the council in such a change.

“We’ll give you reinforced concrete,” vowed Bard, laughing.

“Public affairs are too important to allow gross carelessness,” the mayor explained, “and the park board is too important. I don’t think Judge Ryan nor Grant nor Cosgrove would do wrong, but I think they have a whole lot to learn about the park business.

“They are in trouble with warrants and always are spending money when they have none in the treasury, the auditor tells me. They have their affairs straightened out for them, and still they disregard business methods.”

Moor then spoke and attributed the faults to ignorance, and not to willful wrongdoing. The mayor said he believed this was true, but he recommended that they “get together or get out.”

“There has been a great deal of complaint about the park board,” the mayor said.

Mayor Wilde appointed Cosgrove and Grant. Ryan was an appointee of Mayor Capps after Wilde’s election but before he took office. Even since The Sun expose of the notorious Eno contract at park refreshment booths, park irregularities have occurred, making it necessary for Auditor Moody to employ a deputy to audit the park board accounts, and install a system in accordance with the auditing methods required by the city charter.

The Eno contract was enacted by Grant and Ryan over the protest of Cosgrove. Subsequent difficulties have been various from a public fund by Ryan to the issuance of warrants without money to meet them in the treasurer’s office.

The mayor did not hint who may succeed the present members. Councilman Bard and Bacon emphatically stated they would stand by him in any change. Moore appeared to favor giving the members another chance. Bruschi was silent.

December 24, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:1. Christmas night pageant at Balboa Park; carols by vested choirs; living pictures of Bible stories; lighting effects.

December 24, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:2. Royal A. Brown, organist at St. Joseph’s Church at San Diego, gave recital at organ yesterday.

December 25, 1917, San Diego Sun, 1:7, 2:6. Joyous Christmas here observed in fitting manner.

December 25, 1917, San Diego Union, 1:2-3, 2:3. Yuletide greetings to soldiers, sailors, San Diego’s message; Madame Schumann-Heink sings “Star Spangled Banner” at municipal Christmas tree in Horton Plaza; 21st Infantry Band gives concert, including marching song by Raum and Eaton, two local women.

December 25, 1917, San Diego Union, 6:5. Christmas frolic held by future man-o’-warsmen; Pere Noel, alias Chief Master-at-Arms J. G. Murphy, presided at Navy Celebration.

There is a Santa Claus for sea folks as well as for land folks. This was proved last night when the jolly saint came to the former Cristobal café, now the mess hall of the United States naval training camp, Balboa Park, San Diego.

December 25, 1917, San Diego Union, 14:1. Pere Noel to reign at Balboa Park; Christmas carols, living pictures of Biblical scenes feature entertainment.

December 26, 1917, San Diego Daily Transcript, 4:1. Four quartets in red and white vestments last night sang Christmas carols at Balboa Park, afterward forming a choir and marching to the Organ Pavilion, carrying lighted candles, while singing “Holy Night.”

December 26, 1917, San Diego Sun, 2:3. Park Board is causing comment.

December 26, 1917, San Diego Sun, 9:3-4. Navy Training Station enjoys happy Christmas.

December 26, 1917, San Diego Union, 8:4-5. Navy Training Station lads have rollicking Christmas; carols sung early in morning; 2400 pounds of Turkey; “high jinks” began at 8:20; contestants dive in flour to bring up coins in teeth.

December 26, 1917, San Diego Union, 9:1. Carols are sung by vested choirs in Balboa Park; beautiful ceremony draws thousands; living pictures of events in life of Christ.

December 27, 1917, San Diego Union, 6:3. San Diego Naval Air School now largest in U. S.; more than 700 flyers and mechanicians at Balboa Park Aviation Institution; approximately 125 more will report for active duty January 2; by February 1 the total number of officers and men attached to the Naval Air Station at Balboa Park and the Naval Flying School at North Island is expected to exceed 1700.

December 28, 1917, San Diego Sun, 4:6-7. Mayor Wilde, in hot replay to councilman Moore, says San Diego has one foot in the grave.

Now I don’t care a rap for this ungrateful-thankless-breadless-meatless office, but as long as I am here I will not let a failure in life who is not even on the tax roll, or as much as a dollar dog tax, tell me how it should run by office, and it is treason to the city government to play up a hostile who is wise only in his own conceit.

December 28, 1917, San Diego Union, 12:2. Reception to be held at Hostess Gallery in Balboa Park; War Work Council of Y. W. C. A. will entertain with open house Monday; hostess gallery situated in corridor of California Building and is entered from Fine Arts Gallery.

December 30, 1917, San Diego Union, 10:4. War Work Council of Y. W. C. A. tendered use of Hostess Gallery at Balboa Park.

December 30, 1917, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:3-4. Balboa Park zoo declared largest on Pacific Coast.

According to Keeper Friedman, the San Diego Zoological Society, of which Dr. Paul Wegeforth is president, has now the largest and finest collection of animals on the Pacific coast at Balboa Park.

Daily at 2:30 in the afternoon, except Monday, the animals are given their meals — breakfast, lunch and dinner, all in one — and the entertainment afforded the crowds of onlookers is wonderfully interesting. Many of the animals, including some of the lions, the big brown bear, wild cats, monkeys and hyena, have been trained by Friedman and perform at his bidding for the amusement of spectators.

Old and broken down horses are purchased by the society for use in feeding the animals at the Balboa Park zoo, and it takes three a week to take care of the daily meal.

Visitors are allowed at the zoo at anytime during the day, and cars on route No.7 and 11 now stop within a few steps of the cages, making unnecessary the long walk to and from the old Exposition entrance.

December 31, 1917, San Diego Sun, 3:1-2. City tax rate remains at $1.98; Old Town bridge item killed; Mayor Wilde wins.

December 31, 1917, San Diego Union, 7:6. Balboa sailors to hold fistic bouts on Plaza; Navy men will celebrate this evening with special New Year’s boxing show; area constructed.


The continued dry weather is proving a serious condition in the department, necessitating the use of every available hose, and the transfer of men to water the trees and shrubs on the North and East boundaries of Balboa Park. The trees and shrubs were planted without blasting the ground, consequently the root action is all on the surface and during a drought such as is at present existing, it becomes necessary to water all the trees and shrubs which in a season of rainfall would not be needed.

Several hundred trees and shrubs have died and should the dry weather continue much longer we will probably lose a great many more, as the limited number of employees does not permit of use being able to water sufficiently in a short time to overcome existing conditions.

The dry weather is also proving serious for the Park roads that have a large amount of traffic, as they are drying out and the binder will not hold as well as when there is some moisture in the roadbed. Consequently about all the team work is to be expended on road maintenance.

The rearrangement of the Conservatory has been completed and the change by thinning out some of the larger palms, etc. will prove very beneficial to the remaining plants. The pruning of the trees, shrubs, etc. in the Exposition grounds is about half completed and during the next two months the rearrangement of a large area of the planting will be necessary owing to the large growth of the trees and shrubs.

In the park, general maintenance has been the chief work with the exception of some seasonable planting for spring flowers. 16,912 plants were utilized in the Park and Exposition grounds, including the Formal Garden, which has been planted to pansies and schizanthus.

The Nursery Department has been busy with propagating and general nursery work. A large quantity of poinsettias and other decorating material was furnished by the nursery and other sections of the Park for the Officers and Hospitals of the Army and Navy at the Exposition grounds, Camp Kearny and Fort Rosecrans, the Children’s Home and Playgrounds for Christmas. Plants were also donated to the Navy Y. M. C. A., Chamber of Commerce and Children’s Home. Following is a detailed statement of the Nursery for the month to the various places.

(Statement not included.)


The roof and staff repair work on the Indian Arts, Science of Man, Administration Building and the warehouse and shops has been completed with the exception of two towers, one on the Science of Man and one on the Indian Arts Building.


Repairing the roof and parapet, walls and cornices of the San Joaquin Valley Building for the Naval Aviation School we used the asphalt salvaged from the skating rink. The balance of the material was purchase. The total amount of the bill was $330.00 including percentage.

Estimates have also been made for painting the West and South walls, repairing and waterproofing tower, cornice and staffwork for $350.00 on the San Joaquin Building for the Aviation School. As yet we have not received orders for the work.

Repairing the walls and staff at the East entrance and all buildings used by the Navy is nearly completed. $300.00 has been allowed for the work. Repairs to trusses, in the Southern Counties Building, has been deferred until January when we will be able to salvage the timbers from the Panama Canal Building. As they are well seasoned, they will answer the purpose much better than new timber.

The Department also erected stage and accessories for the Christmas night celebration at the Organ Pavilion, the cost of which will be paid by the Committee in charge of the evening’s entertainment.

Salvage sales for the month amounted to

Copper wiring and electric salvage 36.00

Lumber 49.20

Miscellaneous 59.13

Army Y. M. C. A. account 5.69

Navy Y. M. C. A. account .60

Naval Training Camp 127.86

21st Infantry .48



The three members of the California Commission had administered the California Building during and after the exposition of 1915 with funds secured from time to time from the state legislature. In correspondence with Governor C. C. Young and other state officials regarding the commission after Mr. Allen’s death, father was informed that the commission has no legal status after 1917, that it has been continued through acquiescence only, ant that in the future it would be considered as abolished. The funds currently appropriated would not be available; their appropriation was deemed illegal. Upon receiving this information the San Diego Park Commission assumed the responsibility of maintaining the California Building. Father and Mr. O’Hallaran were congratulated for having secured “illegal appropriations” for San Diego for such a long time.

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