Balboa Park History 1923

Zoological Garden Developments

Installation of Ornamental Lamp Posts

Bond Issues to Pave 12th Street through Park, to Fund Zoo,

Parks and Plazas through Assessment

and to extend Date, Upas and 28th Streets

and Russ Boulevard. Approved.

American Legion Gets Building

Floral Society in Kansas Building

San Diego Players in Fisheries Building

Ellen Scripps Gives Money to Zoo

O’Rourke Junior Zoological Building Planned

Python Is Force-Fed

Elks Have Circus

Two-Week Musical Programs

Scientific Library Opened in California Building

Gardner and Slaymaker Present Plans to Re-Landscape

East Plaza of Balboa Park

President Harding Memorial Service

Nevada Building Sold to Private Party

Cristobal Building Torn Down

New Structure Built for Poultry Exhibit

Zuni Pueblo Repaired

Bird House at Zoo Completed

Farm Bureau Fair at Balboa Park

Frank H. Buck Removed as Zoo Director

Dog Killed Deer at Zoo

Music Festival

Reception for George W. Marston

Tennis Tournament

Nevada Building to House Children’s Center

of Zoological Society

Navy Wants More Land in Balboa Park

Christmas Tableaux



January 1, 1923, San Diego Union, 2:3-4. Scientific Library is assured in Park; W. W. Whitney, retired capitalist, donated $30,000 for this purpose; will be houses in California State Building.

January 1, 1923, San Diego Union, 3:1. State College traditions go back to 1897; houses 500 students.

January 1, 1923, San Diego Union, 4:1-6. Splendid Zoological Gardens in Balboa Park; bird, animal, reptile life represented in striking display; many specimens housed through unique system; wild beasts confined by hidden barriers; picturesque trails lead to series of miniature dams where seals, alligators, wading birds disport themselves.

It has been said of the United States marines that they “boast like the devil, but always make good.” The Zoological society was accused of boasting when it announced just 12 months ago that it had taken over 150 acres in Balboa Park and would build thereon the finest zoological garden in America. People who considered this a wild boast are now marveling at the progress made toward than end. The 12 month’s record set forth in this article is remarkable for the immense amount of work done and for the high quality of every installation that has been made, especially in view of the fact that every dollar of the more than $50,000 expended in this work was secured by the Zoological society through subscriptions and freewill offerings.

Protection of the animals and equipment from vandalism and other destructive elements was the first consideration faced by the society. Nearly $10,000 was required to place a permanent steel wire fence around the zoo area. The money was subscribed and the very best and most appropriate fence that money could buy was erected.

More Then 200 Reptiles Exhibited

The reptile house, formerly the International Harvester building, was restored and equipped at a cost of $10,000 and is used as a main entrance to the zoological area, as well as to house the more than 200 reptiles exhibited there. The mezzanine floor of this building is used to house the offices of the society.

Lawrence M. Klauber is the herpetologist in charge of this exhibit and has been eminently successful in building up a reptile display, interesting both to science and to the casual sightseer. Boa constrictors and pythons, two of each, attract the greatest attention and a crowd may always be found viewing them as they draw their huge, sinuous trunks about their den.

The small California blue boa is not so spectacular in appearance, but is of greater interest to science, he being the only reptile of his genus so far north. Other non-venomous snakes are the racers, blue red and banded; a variety of colubrids; gopher snakes; pine snakes, hog-nosed snakes; garters and water snakes. Three varieties of king snakes are of interest, each being a deadly enemy of the rattlesnake, which he attacks, kills and devours at every opportunity. The most attractive of the king snakes is banded with brilliant markings of red, black and yellow.

Copperheads from down east; flat, stubby moccasins from the swamps of the south; and many varieties of rattlesnakes, including the western diamond from Texas, the Pacific and the red diamond from California; the horned rattler or sidewinder from the desert; the Arizona mountain diamond; timber rattler from Pennsylvania, and the very rare pallid rattler, or Mitchell of this state, are all represented. This is said to be the largest collection of rattlesnakes shown in an American zoo.

The lizard family is represented by the Gila monster, the desert terror, over which scientists engage in heated arguments; the Australian horned lizard, armed with wicked spines from nose to tail; the so-called “Two-headed lizard” from Africa, and a number of local varieties.

Seal Lagoon Is Feature

West of the reptile house lies the seal lagoon, 30 by 100 feet in extent, reflecting in its surface the surrounding orange trees and buildings. This was designed for the habitation of harbor sea, and an island grotto furnished them a resting place and playgrounds.

Beyond the seal lagoon, the model group of cages for small animals stands. Large quarters, walled on three sides with hollow tile, concrete floored, with roof and front of welded wire mesh, are built around a hollow square, in which are located store rooms, work shops and general service yard. There are 31 cages, with connecting runs for convenience in changing animals from one cage to another. Special attention was paid to the sanitation of this group and to providing thoroughly warm, comfortable and safe quarters for the animals. Experts have said that efficiency, the welfare of the animals, sightliness and convenience to the public have been combined here to an extent not equaled in any other known zoo.

In this group are 102 animals, including wolves, coyotes, wildcats, badgers, coons, porcupines, black bear, right-tailed cats and skunks, all from the United States; monkeys, catemondas, kinkajou, lemurs, apes, hyenas, etc. from the tropical regions of this and other continents.

Enormous Flying Cage to be Built

Eagles, hawks, ravens, owns and parrots are exhibited in the sections just north and south of the small animal cages. The site has been chosen for an enormous flying cage for birds of prey, and construction will be started in January of this year. The cage will rise from the bottom of a deep ravine, or canyon, a distance of 60 feet and is 20 feet above the area surrounding the canyon. It will be 60 feet in width and 180 feet long, and will be constructed entirely of steel, in order that no heavy beams or uprights will obstruct the view. The natural growth, including native shrubbery and trees 60 feet in height will be left in the cage, so that the birds will live under the most natural conditions possible.

From the broad mesa upon which these improvements stand, a mile and a half of easy trails, following the contour of the canyons, lead to the various dams and grotto sites to the south, west and north. Tules, cattails and rushes add to the beauty of the wading, or shore bird, pond, and serve a useful purpose in providing hiding places and nesting grounds for any denizens of shore and marsh lands. This pond was designed for herons, cranes, coots, gildees, willets, alegrettes and the numerous wading birds native to this vicinity or that stop briefly during he migratory seasons.

The pond of the shore birds is first reached by the southern, or “seal pond” trail, and below it is the dam, behind which a number of sea lions, ranging in size from tiny babies to the big chaps, five or six feet long, romp and play in deep water, or sun themselves on warm banks, sleeping and barking in their dreams, just as dogs do in the hunting season.

Alligator Pond Attracts Many

Below the seal dam is the alligator pond, where nearly a dozen huge saurians bask in the mud, or, submerged to eyes and nostrils, float about in the hope that some foolish bird or animal will drop within striking distance. The largest of the ‘gators is 12 feet long and weights about half a ton. When he is hungry a quarter of beef appeals to him as an appetizer.

The aquatic bird dam lies north of the alligators and is one of the most admired features of the zoological garden. Like the seal dam, it is of reinforced concrete and is a replica of one of the many beautiful dams that store water in the mountain section of San Diego county for the enormous demands of the city and county. This dam restrains a broad lake in the midst of a forest of eucalyptus trees, and provides an ideal setting for wild geese, teal, mallard, widgeon, the rare wood duck, pelican, gull, cormorant and a large number of other aquatic birds, from the fresh water lakes of this section and from the nearby beaches and islands of the Pacific ocean.

The site of the lion, tiger and bear grottos is reached by the northern, or “bird canyon” trail from this point. Construction is in progress on these features at the present time and they should be completed early in the spring. Great interest has been evinced regarding these grottos, as they will be of the modern “cageless” type. Vast excavations will be made in hillsides, which will be inclosed on three sides by cliffs and rocky ledges, modeled on existing natural rock formations of this vicinity. The front will be protected by a concealed moat, so that, to all appearances, there will be nothing between the observer and the ferocious inmates except a waist high hedge. The depth and width of the moat will be such as to afford absolute protection, although invisible.

Buffalo Paddocks Are Installed

The buffalo paddocks, which five sturdy members of the nearly extinct American bison family now share with a dozen goats, lie west of the bird dam and extend to the northwestern border of the area. Adjoining them are the tracts set aside for elk paddocks, deer corrals and quarters for other ruminant animals.

The northern mesa, or table land, will be devoted to an animal hospital, keeper’s residence and other practical purposes of the institution.

The construction already undertaken covers only the very immediate needs of the society. Animals now in temporary quarters will fill every cage and den under construction, and it will be necessary to more than double the amount of animal quarters to take care of the exhibits that the society expects to secure during 1923.

Among the assured additions to the animal collection for 1923 are a shipment of animals from Australian, 50 parrots from Central America, iguanas and reptiles from Panama, animals and reptiles from Brazil, two leopards, mountain lions, an elephant, a tiger, all in addition to local animals and birds and to the various monkeys and other small animals to be obtained from other zoological gardens through trading off of extra specimens.

Members of the Zoological society are recipients of frequent hearty congratulations on the remarkable progress make during the last year in regard to the work that has been done. Dr. H. M. Wegeforth, president of the society, says:

Society Does Good Work

“People who recently have visited the zoological gardens express amazement when they see how much we have done in the last year. We feel that we have done well and that our work merits appreciation. Our directors, out architect, Lewis Gill, and landscape architect, Nathaniel E. Slaymaker; L. M. Klauber, our curator of reptiles, and many others have worked hard, without compensation, to help us realize our ambition that San Diego should have the finest zoological garden in America.

“The cooperation of these men and the generosity of those who have realized with us that this institution would be of incalculable value as an educational feature for our children, a course of entertainment for out visitors, with enormous advertising possibilities, and have helped us with subscriptions have made our progress possible. The help and encouragement given us by the large number of people who have assisted by donations, by praising our work, by joining the society and offering to render assistance cannot be overestimated. It is not our zoo. Neither I nor any officer nor other person connected with the society derives one white more benefit from it than does every other person in San Diego. It is San Diego’s own zoological garden, in San Diego’s own park, and we feel that everyone should enjoy it to the fullest; that everyone should heartily support it, not with money necessarily, but with goodwill and a boost when the opportunity offers.

“I recently returned from a trip to the east coast, where I went for the sole purpose of studying the best zoos and all the conditions responsible for their excellence. We are trying to combine all the good factors in our own zoo and to eliminate the bad ones.

“The fact that most impressed me on my trip was that all the worthwhile zoos were conducted by such societies as ours, composed of private citizens with no political axes to grind. The failures invariably were conducted as cogs in political machines, operated by city governments, built up by one administration and torn down by the next.

Admission Fee Is Small

“At nearly all the important zoos I found that admission fees were charged, except at the national institution at Washington, D. C. In New York, Philadelphia, Cincinnati and other cities a charge of from 25 cents to 35 cents was made and some of them had no more to show for it than we have.

“Our board has decided upon an admission fee of 10 cents for adults, except members of the society who are admitted free. All children are admitted free and urged to come often. The zoo is essentially for the kiddies and the fees collected from adults are used to purchase new animals for everyone to see. It is inconceivable that any adult would object to the payment of so small a fee, knowing that every penny so received goes toward increasing the attractions of the zoo. Certainly no greater list of attractive exhibits ever was shown in San Diego for so small an admission.

“By the close of the New Year we shall have $100,000 worth of improvements in the new zoological garden. The improvements we are about to start upon will make an even greater showing than do those already installed, as much of the work has been of a practical and preliminary nature, such as surveys, maps, plans, service years, shops, etc.

“We have made good. We have done more than we promised to do in one year, more even than we hoped to do, and we are going to do still more in 1923. We are grateful for the encouragement and help we have received. To express our thanks to each individual is not possible. The results of our work must be a token of our appreciation.”

January 1, 1923, San Diego Union, 4:4-6. Interesting facts about new San Diego Zoological Gardens.

Location — 150 acres lying west of the Alameda and north of the exposition section in Balboa Park.

Cost — The more than $50,000 worth of cages, dams and other construction accomplished by the San Diego Zoological Society during 1922 cost the taxpayers, as such, exactly nothing. This fund was raised by the society through subscriptions, donations and entertainments.

Prospects — The Zoological society has available and in prospect for 1923 at least another $50,000 for new construction.

Maintenance — The common council has been asked to appropriate $10,000 for the maintenance of the zoological garden in 1923. This will cover only employment of animal keepers, feed of animals and other current expenses.

Gate Fee — A gate fee or admission charge of 10 cents will be made for adults. There will be no charge for children or for members of the Zoological society. Money derived from admission fees will be devoted to purchase of new animals, reptiles and birds. (Admission charges of from 10 cents to 50 cents are made at zoological gardens everywhere in the United States, with few exceptions.)

Operation — The zoological garden is operated by the San Diego Zoological society for the benefit of the children of San Diego. The land and buildings, the animals and other exhibits, as well as every improvement financed and constructed by the society, immediately becomes the property of the city of San Diego.

Officers – The following officers and directors of the San Diego Zoological society serve without compensation or pay of any nature:

Dr. Harry M. Wegeforth, president; Joseph W. Sefton, Jr., treasurer; T. N. Faulconer, secretary; N. E. Slaymaker, landscape architect; Louis J. Gill, architect; John L. Bacon, engineer; Col. A. T. Balentine, director; Dr. W. H. Raymenton, director; Frank C. Spalding, director; Miles S. Edgerton, director; D. D. Wray, director; L. M. Klauber, curator of reptiles.

Annual membership in the San Diego Zoological society coast $5. This entitles one of free admission to the zoological garden every day in the year; and the money helps to increase the attractions.

January 1, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:1. San Diego’s park system famed throughout world; exposition buildings restored to former beauty; Balboa Park has commercial value to City; visitors enchanted by garden spot situated in center of community.

The physical valuation of nearly $7,250,000 placed upon the lands and improvements comprising the park system of the city of San Diego conveys but faintly the actual meaning of Balboa Park and lesser tracts of park lands to the people of San Diego, Ample facilities for recreation fulfill the accepted purposes of a public park. Among the features are music, flowers, art galleries, museums, drives and foot-paths through miles of verdure, tennis courts, picnic grounds, golf courses, a large and beautiful stadium, a zoological garden, orange orchards and hilltops, from which may be viewed enchanting panoramas of island-dotted ocean, majestic mountains and the intervening miles of stately business blocks, city homes and ranch lands.

Park Appreciated by San Diegans

All these the park affords for the entertainment and enjoyment of San Diegans and visitors alike, and the alacrity with which $110,000 recently was subscribed for the purpose of restoring the exposition buildings in Balboa Park evidenced that the people of San Diego, rich and poor, appreciate the fact that public spirit and able supervision, aided by perfect climatic conditions, have created in San Diego a park system of world-wide renown.

While it has be no means been a primary consideration with the authorities in charge of the park system, it is worthy of note that Balboa Park has a great commercial value to the city, in that it presents to visitors a southern California in miniature, portraying on the model farm the diverse and abundant crops that may be produced, and so enchanting eastern visitors with San Diego and its possibilities as to create in them an irresistible desire to live in this land of sunshine and flowers.

The park system is operated under direction of a board of three park commissioners, appointees of the mayor, who serve a period of three years each, without compensation. Actual direction of park maintenance is in charge of the superintendent of parks, the records, accounting and other office details being under supervision of the executive secretary.

Riot of Blossoms Source of Wonder

Blossoming flowers by countless thousands adorn the parks of San Diego on Christmas and New Year’s Day, as abundant and sturdy as in midsummer. This is a source of wonder and delight to visitors from north and east, and a testimonial in nature’s own script to the even and delightful climate of southern California.

The Rose garden, while not at best until spring, is a place of perennial beauty. The gardens south of the Organ Pavilion are planed in seasonal flowers and through the winter months present a many-colored picture of blossoming cannas, dahlias, zinnias and roses.

The Botanical building is filled with exotics and is maintained at all times in a state bordering upon a tropic jungle. The walks wind through tunnels of tree ferns, lianas and strange plants, whose names mean nothing to the average unscientific hearer.

The formal gardens north of the Balboa Park auditorium are a source of interest to visitors. Trim hedges protect beds of flowers that change with the procession of the seasons, affording such variety of blossoms throughout the year that one never tires of its charm.

Oriental Gardens Are Unique

Surrounding the Japanese tea pavilion are the oriental gardens, maintained by Mr. and Mrs. Asakawa, who lend an atmosphere of the flowery kingdom to the gardens as well as the pavilion itself where cakes and tea from Japan are served to visitors, with ice cream and other American refreshments.

The Montezuma garden, famed for its annual pansy display, is one of the most unique formally planted areas in the country. More than 70,000 pansy plants are placed in its path-bordered paths each spring. Words cannot picture the riot of color, or the richness and variety of hue, the telling effect that a sight of this huge expanse of colors has upon one seeing it for the first time. Beds of solid purple, golden yellow, snow white, maroon, black and scarlet, form a border in which literally hundreds of varieties mingle in utter confusion.

Zinnias take the place of pansies in the Montezuma garden through the summer and fall. The size and depth of color attained by this flower in this favored spot merit the praise that is liberally heaped upon them, but it is the pansies, late in the spring, that evoke from travelers, who have looked upon the most beautiful of the world’s treasures, all the superlatives their vocabularies afford.

January 1, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:2-3. San Diego Park System: Board of Park Commissioners

Hon. Henry C. Ryan, president; John Forward, Jr., secretary; Hugo Klauber, commissioner.

  1. N. Faulconer, executive secretary; John G. Morley, superintendent.

Value of city parks, including buildings of Panama-California Exposition, zoological gardens, municipal camp grounds, golf course, stadium, Spreckels Organ Pavilion, and other improvements, $7,250,000 (from city’s assessor’s valuation).

Number of parks, 23. Total acreage of parks, 1,921.

Tax allowance for park maintenance and improvements, $93,976.

Public service institutions operated by park commission: Automobile camp grounds, golf course, San Diego stadium, daily concerts Spreckels Organ Pavilion, refreshment stands, tennis courts and athletic fields, Torrey Pines lodge and refectory.

Other institutions operated in parks under permits by park commission include: San Diego Zoological garden, Natural History museum, San Diego museum, Civic auditorium, Pepper Grove picnic grounds, Children’s center, Academy of Fine Arts, Fine Arts Gallery, Boy Scouts at Painted Desert, Girl Scouts.

January 1, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:4-7. Civic Auditorium is great asset.

Two years ago a group of public-minded citizens, representing various civic and welfare organizations of this county, requested from the board of park commissioners the use of the old Southern Counties building as an auditorium for the people throughout the city and county.

The building was granted by the park board and that which has so long been the dream of this earnest, far-seeing body of citizens began to be a reality. A committee, composed of a member from each organization represented, was organized, and under this body the work began.

The granting of the building and the forming of a committee to carry on the work was the beginning of a long year of hard work of planning ways and means to finance this tremendous undertaking — the rehabilitation of a building condemned as unfit for use. At the time it was taken over not one dollar was available as a start for the fund.

The first effort made to raise the money was the “Spring Frolic,” a circus and pageant produced under the direction of the committee, which netted $2,000, inspired confidence and brought the realization that there was a way to do it if the right spirit was backing the effort.

Many Donations Are Made

The Ad Club of San Diego gave as its donation to the fund $1,000 that had been raised for the purpose of restoring his building some time before by staging the “Mission Play,” and this gift added much to the confidence and hopes of the committee.

Meanwhile it was necessary to commence the work if the building was to be saved and with the fund previously mentioned to which was added a few small amounts derived as benefits the contractors began the restoration of what was to be the Balboa Park auditorium. Realizing the city’s need of an auditorium and appreciating the unselfish and untiring devotion of the men and women who were giving their time without stint to make this a success, merchants, limber dealers, and roofing men extended credit for the building materials, etc., and the contractors and architects donated time and services for the supervision of the work.

At this juncture of the work a reorganization was affected and the Balboa Park Auditorium association was formed under which affairs have been carried on since that time.

The club women inaugurated the movement to hold an opening ball, to officially open the building to the public. In this early part of June 1921, plans were consummated and on June 16 one of the most brilliant and successful balls ever given in San Diego took place. Six thousand dollars was derived from this benefit, which sum aided greatly in refilling the now nearly depleted treasury. Everyone’s assistance had been enlisted in this effort and it was thoroughly a community affair.

Substantial Amounts Added to Fund

A number of other benefits were given by local civic organizations, accomplishing splendid results and adding substantial amounts to the fund. The Amphion club has given three large benefits, raising $2,401.00 to buy chairs and help install the furnace. The Goofs’ club gave a benefit ball to raise money to repair the roof and turned in to the auditorium account, $1,262.50. Other amounts to be used in the building fund are Silver Gate Business Girls, $189.75; Daughters of Liberty, $50; Auditorium and Civic Center, $249.87.

Approximately $25,000 has been spent on rebuilding, refitting and re-furnishing the auditorium to date, and this entire sum has been raised by benefits or by rentals derived from the use of the building.

A great many things still remain to be done before the building will be completely restored according to the plans and aims of the committee.

It is impossible to overestimate the value of the Balboa Park auditorium to the community, It has been in constant demand for benefits, dances, lectures, political meetings, conventions, pageants, carnivals and many other things that go to make up the community life of a city, bringing the people together and by its desirable location in beautiful Balboa Park, its adaptable arrangement an splendid capacity, making possible plans of every kind, it has become a home to organizations of every description in both city and county, and affords to organizations throughout the state and along the coast a setting unsurpassed for the holding of conventions and conferences.

January 1, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:8. Main structures in park are rehabilitated; $110,000 obtained by public subscription expended in restoration.

Restored to more than its pristine beauty, in that age and the growth of surrounding trees and shrubs have effaced the newness that mars all things new, the Exposition Grounds in Balboa Park now offers to the world a store of architectural and landscaped beauty not equaled in America. All the main buildings of the Exposition have been completely restored, and the park commission now is engaged in razing the few small structures not considered worthy of restoration, in order that no inharmonious note may be left to break in upon the perfection of the picture.

Approximately $110,000 has been devoted to this work, all of it donated by San Diegans and visitors. The announcement that $100,000 would be required to restore the exposition buildings met with the instant approbation of the public and those who conducted the campaign to secure this fund say that never in their experience have they found people so glad to give.

Director of Works G. Edward Chase, who was placed in charge of operations as soon as the fund was raised, has found the buildings to be in an excellent state of repair with the exception of foundations, roofing and staff work. These items were of a more or less temporary nature, as it was never considered possible that San Diego would attempt to preserve the buildings after the expiration of the exposition period. The structural work was found to be in the best of condition, as all beams, trusses and supporting members of every sort were designed to bear the exceedingly heavy loads of exposition displays and exposition crowds. Mr. Chase had estimated the restored buildings, with order care in maintenance, will last at least 20 years.

January 1, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:8. New Fine Arts Building given to San Diegans.

The 1922 program of new construction and improvements in Balboa Park is of no less importance than the restoration work that has been done in the last year. Of greatest magnitude, perhaps, is the construction of the north end of the Plaza de Panama, on the site of the Sacramento building, of a Fine Arts building, a gift to the people of San Diego by Mr. and Mrs. A. S. Bridges.

The Fine Arts building, the plans of which are being completed by William Templeton Johnson, architect, for Mr. and Mrs. Bridges, will be of reinforced concrete, fireproof in every particular, and designed with special regard to surrounding landscape and architecture and to the purposes for which the building is dedicated. It is said that the new building will cost approximately a quarter of a million dollars.

The prospect of having so fine a structure devoted to the encouragement of artists and the development of the fine arts has aroused great enthusiasm in local art circles, to which the fine working light and rare scenic beauties of San Diego have attracted prominent artists from all over the world. Prominent members of the San Diego Art Guild and other local art organizations believe that in presenting a Fine Arts building to the people of San Diego, Mr. and Mrs. Bridges have laid the foundations for the establishment in this city of one of the greatest art centers in America.

January 1, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:8. Spreckels Organ is park feature.

The Spreckels Organ Pavilion and America’s largest outdoor pipe organ, the gift of Messrs. John D. and Adolph Spreckels to the people of San Diego are located just above the high scenic point of land at the south end of the Exposition grounds in Balboa Park, and from its graceful colonnades may be seen a view of city, bay, ocean and mountains that has intrigued the dozens of artists who have tried to reproduce it on canvas.

Daily throughout the year, except on the possible half dozen afternoons when rain interferes, concerts, free to all who care to attend, are given by the official organist, Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart.

During the summer months, when warm evenings and moonlight are tempting, moonlight concerts are given and each of these occasions has been rewarded with capacity attendance.

Plans are now being discussed for the installation of a high-power broadcasting apparatus, in order that the daily concerts and other musical events given at the Spreckels Organ Pavilion may be heard by radio in the homes of those thousands from other cities and other states who have not the opportunity of being present in person.

January 1, 1923, San Diego Union, 6:1-2. Natural History Museum is popular institution, by Clinton G. Abbott, director Natural History Museum.

January 1, 1923, San Diego Union, 6:1-6. Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart gives daily organ recitals on splendid instrument.

January 1, 1923, San Diego Union, Navy Section, 2:1-6. Millions expended by government in naval works here; hospital designed for 1,000 patients; commissioned in 1922; cost $2,300,000; marine brigade post, cost $3,000,000; 382 acres of dryland and 292 acres of unreclaimed wetlands (approximately 732 acres in all); training station comprises 21 buildings on 255 acres of bayshore land; as it now stands $3,200,000 is cost; Naval base station on North Island covers 542 acres; costs thus far $3,824,000.

When completed marine post will contain 45 buildings on an area of 52 acres.

January 1, 1923, San Diego Union, Sports, 4:7. Municipal auto camp is popular with tourists; 10,000 automobiles take advantage of fine Balboa Park equipment in 1922.

January 1, 1923, San Diego Union, Sports, 4:8. Tennis courts will be built in Balboa Park; Park Commission sets aside idea tract of land near Painted Desert for sport.

January 1, 1923, San Diego Union, 4:8. Former exposition buildings new form large art center.

January 1, 1923, San Diego Union, 16:4-6. 30,000 used municipal golf course during 1922; total membership of over 1,500; 18-holes; daily ground fee, 50 cents; receipts for year, approximately $9,000.

January 1, 1923, San Diego Union, Historical Section, 6:4-5. New ornamental lamp posts will be installed in Balboa Park; 85 in number; cost about $5,000 in place; made of concrete with crushed marble as aggregate; Goofs’ Club has raised $1,500 toward cost; not as ornate as temporary ornamental standards of Exposition days.

January 1, 1923, San Diego Union, Historical Section, 6:5. Garden of roses near western end of Cabrillo Bridge in perpetual bloom.

January 3, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:7. Park Board asks for more money; charter amendment sought authorizing tax levy increase for park purposes.

January 3, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1-3. Free Saturday afternoon lectures will be resumed at Natural History Museum.

January 4, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:4. Council refuses police power to city park board; under present system council has enacted practically all regulatory powers asked by the Park Board.

January 6, 1923, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: San Diego’s Best Asset

Shortly before his death, A. W. Whitney gave $30,000 for the equipment of a library of scientific works to be housed in one of the buildings in Balboa Park. It is the intention to make the library the nucleus of the most comprehensive collection of scientific data in the United States. The library is a San Diego institution, financed by a San Diego citizen with San Diego money. Its equipment, therefore, should be manufactured and installed by San Diego industries.

The cost of this installation is estimated at about $10,000 in shelving, cabinets, furniture and decoration. The money should be expended in San Diego, provided the contract is awarded to the lowest bidder.

January 18, 1923, San Diego Union, 7:3. Campaign will start today for Park radio fund.

January 25, 1923, San Diego Union, 2:5. Pershing Drive fund supporters to meet; committee believes subscribers are opposed to truck traffic on the drive; recently the Council voted to permit 5-ton trucks on city roads; drive cost $25,000; citizens raised $16,000.

January 26, 1923, Minutes of Park Commissioners.

Present: Ryan, Forward and Klauber. Absent: None.

Executive secretary was directed to request common council to authorize purchase from American Cement Products Co., Los Angeles, forty five lamp standards of the design formerly adopted by this Board, at $35.00 each, f. o. b. Los Angeles, and for two additional standards for the Board of Education, as requested by the secretary of that board, Will Angier.

Executive secretary was authorized to rent to the Sciots for a dinner on the evening of March 31, the Cristobal Café Building, at a rental of $50.00, including lights.

Executive secretary was directed to draw for approval of this Board, a permit, authorizing occupation of the Fisheries Building by the Community Players, conditioned upon their promise to restore and maintain the building in good repair during their occupancy.

Upon motion of Mr. Klauber, seconded by Mr. Forward and unanimously carried, executive secretary and superintendent were ordered to make such improvements and additions to the present refreshment stand in Building No. 5 as might be necessary to bring its appearance up to the standard set by its surroundings.

A committee of citizens, purporting to be a representation from the approximately 15,000 citizens and property owners north and east of Balboa Park, appeared and requested that no trucking be permitted on Pershing Memorial Drive. Letters supporting this request were presented, as well as resolutions adopted at a mass meeting of citizens and by the San Diego Realty Board. The letters were from Chas. A. Small, J. P. Hymer, Mayor J. L. Bacon, Rufus Choate and Jos. W. Sefton. Another letter was filed in which H. F. Heller protested closing Pershing Drive to commercial traffic. Several speakers urged that commercial use of Pershing Drive be not permitted, and C. K. Fitzgerald, representing the trucking interests, took the opposing view.

Upon motion of Mr. Forward, seconded by Mr. Klauber and unanimously carried, it was ordered that Ordinance no. 5380, the measure now governing the city parks, be not changed, and that the police department be requested to enforce its observance.

Superintendent Morley was directed to place large signs at each end of Pershing Drive, setting forth the traffic limits as stated in Ordinance no. 5380.

Upon motion of Mr. Forward, seconded by Mr. Klauber and unanimously carried, it was ordered that the following buildings be offered for sale in due form as provided for in the city charter: Sacramento Building, Salt Lake Building, Washington Building, Cristobal Building.

It was further ordered that the following buildings be wrecked and salvaged at once: those buildings south of the Fisheries Building and between the street car line and Park Boulevard, also

that the Natural History Society be requested to remove from the park the old Nevada State Building, Theosophical Building.

On condition that they repair and maintain the Standard Oil Building, authority was given the San Diego Zoological Society to take over and use that building in connection with the Zoological Garden, it having been stated that it was necessary to have a resident keeper who should have charge of the zoo at night.

Executive secretary was directed to write Mr. Burns of the San Diego Electric Railway, urging that street cars be stopped at the south end rather then the north end of the East Gate Arcades. IT was further directed that the street railway company’s attention be directed to the fact that the East Gate Arcades were built by that company and were regarded as being under jurisdiction of that company, wherefore this Board feels that the company should be responsible for the restoration of the arcades to conform with other restored buildings in the park.

It was ordered that the superintendent of parks take steps as early as possible to plant out or hide by planting the lumber yard and service yard from view of Park Boulevard.

January 27, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:1. Trucks barred by Park Board act from using Pershing Drive; immediate legal contest is forecast by announced intention of operators to benefit by paving.

January 28, 1923, San Diego Union, 15:1. Goofs’ announced ten-day Mardi-Gras for Park radius


February 4, 1923, San Diego Union, 20:1. Dedicatory exercises of the Theodore Roosevelt Junior High School will be held next Wednesday evening, February 7.

February 4, 1923, San Diego Union, Automobile Section, 4:3. Park Board called off a tractor demonstration of Park hill.

February 7, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:2. Dedication of Theodore Roosevelt Junior High School in auditorium this evening.

February 8, 1923, San Diego Union, 3:4-5. Roosevelt Junior High School dedication is impressive ceremony.

February 18, 1923, San Diego Union, 6:4. San Diego Consolidated Gas and Electric employees and friends to hold costume ball at Civic Auditorium, Wednesday, February 21.

February 18, 1923, San Diego Union, 10:4. Organ classics heard daily in Balboa Park; Dr. Steward now in his ninth year.

February 21, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:6. Annual Washington anniversary Community Sing and program will be held at Organ Pavilion tomorrow (Thursday) afternoon.

February 28, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:8. Navy training activities to center here; number of officers and men to be stationed in San Diego within ten months; estimated at 20,000 to 25,000 (1/4th of entire Navy); submarines and tenders ordered here; monthly payroll, $3,500,000.

February 28, 1923, San Diego Union, 10:6. Bond issues on primary ballot, March 20, include $30,000 for paving 12th Street through park to Exposition grounds.


March 3, 1923, San Diego Union, 22:2-3. San Diego Sciots will open convention frolic at Balboa Park tonight in County Fair building.

March 4, 1923, San Diego Union, 11:4-5. Balboa Park’s needs increase; issue to be submitted to voters; article by Winfield Barkley: The City Council has wisely included in the coming election, March 20, a proposition increasing the minimum provided for parks from eight to ten cents per $100 of assessed valuation. . . Another most worthy proposition includes a bond issue for $30,000 with which to pave the continuance of 12th Street to the former Exposition grounds.

March 4, 1923, San Diego Union, 13:2. The Fisheries Building of Exposition days may become permanent home of San Diego Players if City Council grants a petition filed yesterday by that organization; building will be made into a theater with a platform stage and seating capacity of 300.

March 7, 1923, San Diego Union, 12:4. Hazardous task on park building dome completed; painting interior of California structure has been in progress for three weeks; H. Chester Prose and J. T. Seville in charge of project; dome painted a light buff; state authorities considering plans for painting of the model of the ship “Cabrillo” which adorns the spire of the building.

March 9, 1923, Minutes of Park Commissioners.

Present: Ryan, Forward, Klauber. Absent: None.

The bid of J. A. Alpert upon the seven buildings advertised by this office being the highest submitted to the purchasing bureau of the city, the buildings were sold to Mr. Alpert. Executive secretary was directed to advise the purchase bureau that the bid on the Theosophical Building had been rejected, but that the sale of the remaining six buildings could be closed. The high bid on the six buildings amounted to $2,625.00, exclusive of plumbing, which this department reserved.

A committee of Roque players appeared to request that the roque courts be installed in Balboa Park. Sixth and Redwood, Sixth and Fir, and Sixth and Date streets were the three locations proposed, the Sixth and Fir apparently being favored by the majority of the committee. Superintendent Morley stated that the two courts would cost approximately $500.00, and the committee was directed to submit a proposition for financing the construction and the maintenance of the courts in order that this board might have definite information upon which to base its action upon the request.

Upon motion of Mr. Forward, seconded by Mr. Klauber, it was ordered that trucks of not to exceed one-ton capacity, when carrying not in excess of a one-to load, be permitted to use Pershing Drive and the extension of Eleventh Street, under Cabrillo Bridge, to the north end of the park. The superintendent was directed to have park employees stop all other commercial traffic in the park and to have violators of the ordinance prosecuted.

Request of Chas. A. Small that shoulders be placed along Pershing Drive was read, and it was ordered that this office advise Mr. Small that we would take care of the matter as soon as possible.

The lease of certain grounds in Balboa Park for tennis courts was read and officially approved. The term of the lease was declared to be three years with two-year renewal clause at option of the lessee. (Approved, March 16, 1923, T. N. Faulconer, Exec. Secr.)

March 9, 1923, San Diego Union, 4:3. READERS’ VIEWPOINT.

Editor: Permit me to offer two suggestions to the commissioners of Balboa Park for the improvement of same, namely, that the space near the Laurel Street entrance, formerly occupied by an exhibit of monkeys and bears, be cleared of the vacant cages which at present disfigure the landscape and obstruct the view into the canyon.

Also, that a foot path be made into the canyon at that point for the conveniences of many visitors who, like myself, would enjoy the beautiful walk, which at present exists from the viaduct through the canyon to the end of Eleventh Street.

Yours faithfully,

A Well Wisher.

March 9, 1923, San Diego Union, 9:3. Plan campaign to carry park funds increase; Park Board members explain necessity for protecting great San Diego investment.

March 10, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:7. Python kills boa in snake duel at Zoo; big serpents lock in death grip which Gordon Flemmer, keeper, can’t break until one is lifeless.

March 10, 1923, San Diego Union, 3:3. Repairs are now in progress on the last structure of the restoration program, the horticultural building; G. E. Chase, director of works, estimates funds on hand with pledges still unpaid will be sufficient to complete work; Claus Spreckels, manager San Diego Electric Railway Company, has agreed to rehabilitate peristyle forming east entrance to Park in connection with installation of new street car terminal planned for Park.

Marcy 13, 1923, San Diego Union, 9:3-4. Goofs installed 135 new concrete lamp posts in Park; organization raised more than $4,000 through a series of dances and unsolicited donations.

March 14, 1923, San Diego Union, 7:4-5. John F. Forward, Jr., Park Board member, sets forth vital need to two amendments in upcoming election providing larger allowance.

March 15, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:6-7. Wild boar roots his way into alligator’s home at Zoo; alligator gulps — that’s all.

March 16, 1923, San Diego Union, Special front page. Police chief seizes San Diego Herald for attacking Mayor Bacon; orders printers to stop; ejects watchman; issue contains charges of vice and corruption; Editor A. R. Sauer has been indicted by Grand Jury and arrested Tuesday night on a libel charge filed by W. A. Doran.

March 16, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:6-7. Navy has spent fifteen millions here in five years.

March 18, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1-2. Police chief backs down on suppression of San Diego Herald.

March 18, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:3-6. Drawing of architect’s perspective of new Army and Navy Y. M. C. A. building.

In considering the design of the building, the architects say a style that has been adopted which will show an expression of architectural relationship to the group of government buildings in the district — the new naval air station, marine barracks, naval hospital, and naval training station — all of which were designed by architect Lincoln Rogers, while serving as commander in the naval reserve forces.

March 18, 1923, San Diego Union, Society-Club, 10:5-6. Henry C. Ryan, president San Diego Board of Park Commissioners, said last year San Diego spent $92,000 for park maintenance; gifts to Zoological Society to date amount to more than $75,000; cites gifts of W. W. Whitney and Mr. and Mrs. A. S. Bridges; points out necessity of favorable vote on amendment.

March 20, 1923, ELECTIONS: Proposition 2: Not less than ten cents nor more than sixteen cents on each $100 property valuation for parks, plazas and squares; at least one cent for Zoological exhibits

Yes 9821 No 4194

March 20, 1923, ELECTIONS: Proposition 9: Vote granting 9 acres for Russ Boulevard, 6.9 acres to Upas Street and 6.5 acres to 28th Street

Yes 10012 No 3713

March 20, 1923, ELECTIONS: Bonded indebtedness of $30,000 for construction and completion of the permanent pavement of road in Balboa Park extending from northerly end of 12th Street through Balboa Park and connecting with the existing pavement at the Exposition grounds

Yes 12597 No 27l3


March 20, 1923, San Diego Union, 4:3. READERS’ VIEWPOINT.

Norman W. Smith, Commander (CEC), U. S. Navy, Public Works Office, 11th Naval District, claims Office of Public Works Officer prepared designs, details and plans for all projects, except those taken care of by Bureau of Yards and Docks, Navy Department, Washington, D. C.; Lincoln Rogers was in Public Works Office in San Diego for less than two years as a Naval Reserve officer, but was not engaged by Government as an architect to design naval buildings of this district. San Diego Union adds postscript, saying Rogers “merely stated he had designed the buildings of the Naval Training Station.”

March 20, 1923, San Diego Union, 8:5. Work on Stephens and Company’s office building to start soon at 3rd Street and Plaza as old structure removed (illus.).

March 21, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:1-2. Bacon scores clean majority of mayor; Held and Stewart lead in Council race; all propositions and bond issues carry; less than half registration votes.

March 22, 1923, San Diego Union, 4:3-4. Lincoln Rogers, architect, makes reply on naval buildings.

My attention has been drawn to a letter in your issue of March 20, signed “Norman M. Smith,” appended to which is a correction which I personally requested you to make prior to my knowledge of the article to which said letter refers.

Without any desire on my part to do any injustice to Commander Smith himself, or any of his naval or civil officer force, or to detract from such credit as may be due to them individually or collectively, the actual facts relative to the designing of the various groups of government buildings in this district, irrespective of the statements contained to the contrary in said letter, are as follows:

The naval air station and marine barracks were designed by Bertram Goodhue of New York, an architect of national reputation, and his work was carried out during the period when I was stationed at the Bureau of Yards and Docks at Washington, D. C., where the naval hospital group, as well as the additions thereto, were also designed.

As regards the very positive reference as to the period of my service in the department being “less than two years,” as the letter implies, I may state that my period of service covered from the early part of 1917, when the United States entered the war, until my resignation from the service, July 1922.

At the close of the war, when I planned to return to my practice of architecture and also to resume my duties as architect to the Catskill aqueduct in New York (from which I was called by the navy department), I was prevailed upon by the department, much against my will, to continue on active duty at the Bureau of Yards and Docks at Washington, for the explicit purpose of designing the naval training station at San Diego and the plans for this, as well as those for other buildings in connection therewith, were approved at the department at Washington, D. C. Later on I was directed to proceed to San Diego to supervise their construction and my traveling orders from the navy department so read.

This letter is written to keep the record straight in the public mind, and the facts contained herein can be confirmed in the office of the commandant of this district.

Lincoln Rogers.

March 30, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:4. Rotary approves Naval Hospital; San Diego Club inspects new park buildings and enjoys luncheon.

March 30, 1923, San Diego Union, 6:5. Submarine base removal from San Pedro to start July 1; San Pedro base must be abandoned by March 4, 1924.

March 31, 1923, San Diego Union, 7:5. Handel chorus will be organ Easter feature; Community Sing to follow recital at Organ Pavilion tomorrow afternoon.

March 31, 1923, San Diego Union, 21:7-8. Voices of wild may be heard at Zoological Garden in Park; by Frank Forrest Gander, curator of mammals.



April 1, 1923. Municipal auto camp discontinued; camp situated on high point in north end of park; about 15 acres; accommodations for approximately 500 campers.

April 1, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1. Magnificent resort to be established at Mission Beach by John D. Spreckels (illus.).

April 1, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 11:1-2. Mayor Bacon will lecture on San Diego water problem at Natural History Museum tomorrow.

April 3, 1923, San Diego Union, 7:5. Dramatic Order of Knights of Khorrasan to given drill concert in Balboa Park Saturday evening at Organ Pavilion, followed by a theatrical ball at Civic Auditorium.

April 4, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:4-5. San Diego Museum, one of few places containing date for study of Yucatan, by W. E. Pate, secretary San Diego Museum.

From time to time recently in the daily press there have appeared articles of explorations carried on by American institutions in the ruins of the ancient cities of Mexico, Yucatan, Guatemala and Peru.

In The San Diego Union for April 3, there is an account of the proposed work at Chichen-Itza in southern Yucatan by Dr. Sylvanus Morley of the Carnegie Institution. Many of the readers of The Union have doubtless wondered where more information could be secured about Chichen-Itza and the other prehistoric cities of Yucatan and Guatemala. To all such we would say that San Diego is one of the two or three cities in the United States where such information may be secured.

It was Colonel D. C. Collier who on November 4, 1911 wrote as follows to Doctor Edgar L. Hewett at Santa Fe, New Mexico: “It is the purpose of the Panama-California Exposition at San Diego to illustrate, as has never been done before, the progress and possibilities of the human race. You will appreciate the large part that Archaeology and Ethnology must take in such a scheme. We cannot afford to do such a great work for the year 1915 only. We propose that what we shall do shall stand as a permanent contribution to the world’s progress. The management will guarantee that not less than $100,000 shall be expended by this department for expeditions, installations and maintenance. As a result, expeditions were conducted by Doctor Edgar L. Hewett to Guatemala and Yucatan and material secured which has ever since been under the care of the San Diego Museum.


Three of the finest replicas of Maya art were presented by Messrs. George W. Marston, Joseph W. Sefton and Doctor Edgar L. Hewett, All the archaeological specimens from Central America have been housed in the California Building.

Upon entering the California Building, the first thing which one sees is the entrance portal to the temple at Chichen-Itza. On either side are representations of the plumed serpent. The head of the serpent is on the ground and the tail supports the lintel. As will be noticed, feathers have been introduced on the serpent.

On either side of the vestibule are the tablets from the old temple at Palenque which according to many archaeologists go back centuries before the Christian era. One of these is the Tablet of the Sun and the other the Tablet of the Cross. On the Tablet of the Cross is the sacred bird on top, always a source of interest and discussion. Are we to understand that this is the Christian cross? If it can be, when and how did it get over to Yucatan? Most American archaeologists hold that the cross in Ancient America is the symbol of the four world quarters.

On the columns of the either side of the entrance are the two bas-reliefs from Palenque, one representing a very old man with a tube in his mouth. A very interesting account is found in Mrs. Nuttall’s article in the Peabody Museum Papers, Volume 2, 1901. A careful study of her article along with Bulletin 57 of the Bureau of American Ethnology by Morley, shows how near the starting point of Maya chronology comes to the proverbial 40004 B. C.


The article in The Union states that two of the temples at Quirigua will be excavated soon. This city was cleared and partly excavated by Doctor Edgar L. Hewett from 1910 to 1914. From here came the great monuments in the California Building.

The replicas of the turtle and dragon show the wonderful carving which these ancient people could do with stone chisels. From the turtle there is much to be learned and we are told in the Popol Vuh that is was on the back of the turtle that the three ancients were saved when the great flood covered the earth. The great turtle is pronounced by Dr. Holmes, the leading authority in ancient art, to be one of the finest examples of ancient sculpture in existence.

The largest monument must cause wonder to all who gaze at it. How was it transported, how erected, and how cut out of the quarry with such primitive tools as they possessed. The carving is intricate and wonderful. In The Literary Digest for June 21, 1919, there is an article by Frank C. Higgins of New York, one of the most noted Masonic antiquarians in the United States, dealing with this particular monument. Dr. Hewett says the romance that has been read into these ancient monuments and inscriptions would make volumes of fiction.


Carlos Vierra, famous Santa Fe artist, accompanied the Exposition expeditions to Central America and has left his impressions of six of the ancient cities in six beautiful murals, and Mrs. John Berman Smith made the wonderful frieze in the California Building whose praises have been sung not only in the United States but abroad, of the life and times of the ancient Maya, secured through years of study and reading in the School of American Research. Four of the panels represent the sacrifice of the virgins in the sacred well to propitiate the rain god, mentioned in The Union article.

For a few weeks longer the California Building will be closed while the Scientific Library is being installed. As soon as the building is opened to the public again, we would invite everybody to come and see these particular collections which can be seen and studied nowhere else in the United States to such good advantage as I the San Diego Museum, and which are being “discovered” by the outside world 10 years after being explored, studied and brought here by San Diego enterprise.

April 6, 1923, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners

Present: Commissioners Ryan, Forward and Klauber.

By unanimous vote the San Diego County Tennis Association was given permission to use such buildings in the south end of the Painted Desert as they might require for dressing rooms, showers, comfort station, locker rooms and storage, provided that a satisfactory arrangement with the Boy Scouts, tenants of the Indian Village, could be made.

Proposition of Mr. Swatzfeger, on behalf of those persons interested in the installation of roque courts in the park, to lend this department the necessary funds for the construction of such courts, and to take his reimbursement fees from fees obtained from players, was not acceptable to this board. Executive secretary was directed to inform Mr. Swatzfeger that this office could not legally enter into a contract to borrow money. It was suggested that the roque players should organize and raise funds for court construction on a similar basis to that employed by the Tennis Association.

Dr. E. L Hewett and Cuthbert Homan appeared before the board in the interests of a group of artists who desired to take over the New Mexico and Kansas buildings for studios and to use the west side of Building No. 4 for the same purpose. It was stated that his organization wished to charge rental for studios, the revenues derived in this manner to be devoted to the repair and maintenance of the buildings.

Dr. Hewett and Mr. Homan were advised that this board would consent to such use of the New Mexico Building, provided that it be put in such state of repair as to be satisfactory to this board from the standpoint of safety and appearance. They were advised to confer with G. E. Chase, in charge of the restoration work in the park, and with the Superintendent of Parks relative to the cost of repairs.

A committee of citizens from north and east of Balboa Park appeared and requested that shoulders be placed along the pavement on Pershing Drive, and that several small changes be made to improve certain conditions which they deemed dangerous.

April 6, 1923, San Diego Union, 7:4. Dramatic Order Knights of Khorrasan offer free band program at Organ Pavilion Saturday evening.

April 8, !923, San Diego Union, 1:1, 7:5. American Legion to have War Memorial in Balboa Park; committee aims to raise $15,000 to equip building recently given; four interesting collections of war relics to be housed in structure; $1,420 raised in first day’s effort.

April 8, 1923, San Diego Union, 11:4. “Sally,” talented baby chimpanzee, arrives at Balboa Park for day; kiddies to be admitted free; special entrance provided north of Reptile House.

April 14, 1923, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Memorial Headquarters

It is a fine and practical spirit that is actuating individual San Diegans from day to day to add their contributions to the American Legion fund for a memorial and headquarters building in Balboa Park.

April 15, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 5:2-4. Grotto for lions at Zoo on exhibition.

April 16, 1923, San Diego Union, 10:5. Thousands visit San Diego Zoo each day; snakes interest; animals living out of doors all year is constant marvel to easterners.

April 17, 1923, San Diego Union, 9:4-5 and April 19, 1923, 15:3-5. Kansas Building given Floral Society as permanent home; rose show to open Saturday in Civic Auditorium; proceeds from rose show this year will go toward the restoration of the building.

April 21, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:2. Lion’s Club will dedicate lion’s grotto in Park; public invited to see huge beasts restrained only by concealed moat.

April 21, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:3-4. San Diego Players dedicated Little Theater to “Yorick”; opening play “The Romantic Age” by A. Milne.

April 21, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:6. Natural History Museum displaying wild flowers as part of rose show which will open in Civic Auditorium this afternoon.

April 22, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1. “King of Beasts” happy in new grotto; grotto made possible by $11,000 gift from Miss Ellen Scripps; San Diego Lion’s Club officiated at dedication; Miss Scripps gave another $10,000 for the network of paths and roads that traverse the hills and canyons of the Zoo; still another $10,000 for cages of birds of prey, and pledged $5,000 a year for three years to pay the salary of the director of the Zoo.

April 23, 1923, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Yorick’s Theater

The Yorick Memorial Theater will offer real entertainment, Yorick believed in that. It will be no place for the intellectual puritan, the so-called “highbrow,” who prates of plays with a purpose, or plays with a deep significance, or plays that are “above” the level of the average mind. Yorick had small patience with the pose of supremacy, whether in the intellectual or the moral field.

April 27, 1923, San Diego Union, 20:2-4. Children of the Children’s Center in Balboa Park to present play, “The Naughty Princess,” in Pepper Grove tomorrow afternoon (illus.).


May 5, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:4. Spajous arrive at Zoo; three agouties and twelve parrots included in gift from U. S. Marines.

May 5, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:6. Senate committee indorses $10,000 appropriation for repair and maintenance of California Building.

May 6, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. Zoo starts new buildings for rhinoceros and birds.

May 6, 1923, San Diego Union, 6:4-5. American Legion hopes to dedicate Memorial Building, May 30.

May 7, 1923, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Spajous

It is not extravagant to say that the San Diego zoo is helping to make more cultured citizens and more intelligent statesmen. It is bringing us closer to the far parts of the earth by bringing to our notice the strange and interesting creatures that nature has evolved in them.

May 9, 1923, San Diego Union, 7:1. Senate finance committee approved build to appropriate $1200 to reimburse the trustees of the California Building in Balboa Park for the maintenance of the building.

May 10, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:4. The entire playground commission has threatened to resign because the city council turned down a plan to purchase additional land for the University Heights playground.

May 13, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1-2. Mr. and Mrs. Patrick F. O’Rourke donate funds for O’Rourke Junior Zoological Building; estimated cost completed and equipped $25,000; Louis J. Gill, architect; with the new building the total of permanent improvements will come to $150,000 (plans).

May 18, 1923, San Diego Union, 7:4. High School plans graduation at Organ Pavilion in June.

May 20, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:4-7, 3:1-6. Text of John D. Spreckels’ talk to 135 citizens at dinner in Hotel del Coronado last night.

May 21, 1923, San Diego Union, 10:1. Hundreds of San Diegans flock to Zoological Gardens to see two Indian elephants; compound prepared for them; funds must be raised to complete payments.

May 21, 1923, San Diego Union. Classified, 1:1. Spanish War Veterans renewed youth in picnic at Pepper Grove yesterday.

May 27, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:3. Orangutans to be shown in special cage; elephants will soon be safe to ride.

May 28, 1923, San Diego Union, 2:5-6. Crowds estimated at 5,000 adults and 10,000 children visited Zoo yesterday to see elephants and other exhibits.

May 30, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:6-7, 5:4-5. Memorial Day ceremony to take place at Organ Pavilion; many patriotic organizations to participate.

May 30, 1923, San Diego Union, 18:2-3. 23-foot python poses unwillingly for photograph at Zoo; held up by five Zoo employees (illus.).

May 31, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:6-7, 7:1-5. Memorial Building assured by generosity of General and Mrs. Terry who pledged to give $5,000 to complete fund; they previously had given $1,000; formally dedicated yesterday afternoon.

May 31, 1923, San Diego Union, 2:1-2. Veterans place wreaths in impressive memorial service at Balboa Park.


June 1, 1923, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Memorial

The American Legion’s campaign for a War Memorial building in Balboa Park has culminated in a curious mixture of success and disappointment. The memorial building is assured, but the plan by which it sought to gain it failed. It is undeniable, too, that the plan for financing the building was an important part of the entire project.

Memorial building will not be built by the “miles of many” but by large sum supplied by General and Mrs. Terry.

June 2, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:4, 6:3-5. San Diego Naval Training Station commissioned yesterday.

June 3, 1923, San Diego Union, 4:6. Mice for snakes needed at San Diego’s Zoo; monthly feed bill for animals, birds and reptiles is in excess of $300.

June 3, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:4-5. Pachyderms and reptiles to keep open house at San Diego’s Zoological Gardens today.

June 5, 1923, San Diego Union, 8:3-4. One thousand women hear Mrs. Chase’s lecture on good taste in the home at the Civic Auditorium.

June 9, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:7-8. Indian Village in Park swept by fire; executive headquarters of scouts not damaged.

June 10, 1923, San Diego Union, 10:6. Massed bands to play concert at Balboa Park on June 23; more than 200 San Diego musicians will unite in community program.

June 11, 1923, San Diego Union, 16:4. Plan to rebuild Indian Village; blaze badly damaged two rooms in Zuni pueblo.

June 14, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:1-2. Appreciation dinner tendered John D. Spreckels and his son Claus at U. S. Grant Hotel last night.

June 14, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:6, 2:1-4, Two young elephants and compound in which they are installed given to San Diego Zoological Society by John D. Spreckels.

June 14, 1923, San Diego Union, 8:1. Frank H. Buck, new director, under 3-year contract with Zoological Society.

San Diego History Center History News, Vol. 23, No. 5, May 1987, p. 3. Past Comes Alive, Fascinating facts from the Archives, Frank Buck in San Diego.

The legendary adventures of Frank ‘bring ‘em back alive” Buck captivated millions of people throughout the world I the 1930s and 40s. Celebrated to this day for his exploits as a wild-animal hunter and trader, Buck is less well known for his brief tenure as director of the San Diego Zoo.

Frank J. Buck went to work for the zoo on June 13, 1923. Signed by the Zoological Society to a three-year contract, the forty-one year old Buck came to San Diego backed by the strong recommendation of Dr. William T. Hornaday, director of the famed Bronx Zoo. Three months later, Frank Buck was unceremoniously fired.

Buck decided to sue the Zoological Society and its president, Dr. Harry M. Wegeforth, for breach of contract. Claiming that he had given up his lucrative animal-collecting business to work in San Diego, as well as damage to his reputation, Buck sought damages of $22,500.

Force-feeding snakes

In a court deposition filed in January, 1924, Buck recited a litany of grievances, most of them focused upon the actions of Dr. Wegeforth. The zoo president, Buck claimed, had interfered with “practically everything” and has conspired with the board to “belittle and disparage” his efforts as director. He also alleged that Wegeforth had been responsible for the deaths of 150 snakes that had been force-fed with a sausage snuffer. Buck stated that he had been fired after he built a new bird cage without personal authorization from Wegeforth.

Quite a different story emerged from the testimony of Dr. Wegeforth’s board member Thomas N. Faulconer, and several others. All witnesses flatly denied Buck’s allegation that snakes had been killed by force-feeding.

According to these witnesses, Buck’s problems stemmed from his unwillingness to consult with the board on everyday policy. Frequently, he deliberately defied board directives. “The whole character of the man,” Wegeforth testified, “was insubordination.”

There was more involved that a clash of wills. Wegeforth charged that Buck was “incompetent” and “could not be trusted.” On one occasion Buck had ordered nameplates for the animal cages and pens. The order had to be returned when it was found that half of the names had been misspelled by Buck. Wegeforth also cited examples of Buck’s failure to recognize disease or properly care for sick animals.

Skin care for elephants

The final straw was an incident involving the zoo’s two Indian elephants — Joy and Happy. Buck believed that the hides of the elephants, which appeared dry and cracked, would benefit from “oiling,” a practice that Dr. Wegeforth knew could cause pneumonia or Bright’s disease. Despite the president’s orders, Buck oiled the elephants. Wegeforth recalled: “they quickly became piteous-looking creatures, their trunks grew flaccid and seemed about a foot longer than usual, and their abdomens almost touched the ground. I was afraid they were doomed.”

Fortunately, Joy and Happy recovered. Frank Buck, however, was sacked.

On Feb. 20, 1924, Superior Court Judge C. N. Andrews ruled against the plaintiff Buck and ordered him to pay court costs of $24. He soon left San Diego and resumed his career as a “zoological collector.”

Frank Buck’s autobiography, All in a Lifetime, does not mention his lawsuit against Wegeforth. Interestingly, “while acting as temporary director of the San Diego Zoo,” he does claim credit for inventing a method for force-feeding snakes.

Richard W. Crawford, Archivist/Historian.

June 14, 1923, San Diego Union, 14:1. Council favors Balboa bus line; Zoo president, Dr. Harry S. Wegeforth, asks service from street car stops to point of interest; distance from 5th Street car line to Organ Pavilion, Zoo and other parks of park too much for elderly people to walk.

June 15, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:4. Python forcibly fed at Zoo yesterday; first meal in 3 months.

June 15, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:6, 2:6. Women, bound hand and foot, found semi-conscious in Balboa Park.

June 16, 1923, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: San Diego’s Players

Could Yorick have returned for a space either last Tuesday or Wednesday evening and strolled into “his” theater, then adequate eulogy might be read “On the Margin” today of the triumph scored by the San Diego Players. The allusion, of course, is to our Yorick, not Hamlet’s, and to the playhouse that the Players so graciously named after him. Chuckling with pride and glee he might be pictured, after witnessing his faith in the players so abundantly justified by their performance of that difficult masterpiece, Stephen Phillip’s version of the ancient tragic love story of Paolo and Francesca.

June 17, 1923, San Diego Union, 9:1. Bands rehearse for concert at Balboa Park Organ Pavilion which will begin next Saturday afternoon at 5 o’clock,

June 17, 1923, San Diego Union, 14:3. Headed by P. T. A., 400 school children spend afternoon at picnic in the Zoological Gardens; the donkey path was the busiest part of the Zoo throughout the afternoon.

June 17, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 9:1. San Diego women call mass meeting in Civic Auditorium; County Federation and Civic Center join in cooperative move for greater city.

June 17, 1923, San Diego Union, Building, 2:2. Learn more data of Park suicide; man had come from Los Angeles seeking work; lived on 5th Street; his head was blown off by a charge of dynamite.

June 18, 1923, San Diego Union, 6:3. Navy wants lower water rates; will not undertake landscaping of facilities unless these are granted.

June 18, 1923, San Diego Union, 18:2-4. Elks open circus at Balboa Park with record-breaking crowd present; many industrial exhibits and fine auto display in old Varied Industries Building; free dancing on grounds.

June 19, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. Three fine camels, pick, of large motion picture herd, coming to San Diego tomorrow; herd has been assembled for use in some scenes of “The Ten Commandments” by Laskey motion picture establishment.

June 20, 1923, San Diego Union, 6:4. Approximately $650 has been added to the American Legion War Memorial building within the last week.

June 20, 1923, San Diego Union, 8:2. Elks to welcome men of U. S. Navy at circus tonight.

June 21, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:3. Boys’ Gymnasium at High School to be renovated; superintendent Johnson says present accommodations are unfit for use; renovated gymnasium will have lockers, dressing rooms and showers for 1200 boys in the high school.

June 21, 1923, San Diego Union, 22:5-6. San Diego industrial exhibits draw keen interest at Elk circus; three days of show remain; big display of Southern Electric Company.

June 22, 1923, San Diego Union, 9:1. High School orchestras to play Sunday afternoon; combination of 135 members will be heard in concert at Organ Pavilion.

June 23, 1923, San Diego Union, 7:2. Massed bands will play today (Saturday); concert of more than 200 musicians at Organ Pavilion to begin at 5 o’clock.

June 23, 1923, San Diego Union, 7:2-3. Elks to give away autos and popularity awards at big circus this evening.

June 24, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:3. Three camels in temporary quarters at Zoo while permanent quarters are built.

June 24, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:8. Two week’s music program begins here today; opens with high school orchestras at Organ Pavilion this afternoon.

June 24, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:8. San Diego massed bands play to thousands; directors take turns in leading; successful park concert is first of series planned for Community Music Association program here.

June 25, 1923, San Diego Union, 2:1. High School orchestras give beautiful Organ Pavilion concert.

June 25, 1923, San Diego Union, 2:5-6. Elks entertain record crowd at Balboa Park; estimated attendance of 20,000 last Saturday; total attendance for nine performances about 110,000.

June 26, 1923, San Diego Union, 8:2. Organ recital by Royal A. Brown; solos by Mrs. Annie Broderick, mezzo-soprano, today.

June 27, 1923, San Diego Union, 2:3-4. Naval Hospital will hold two-day clinic for American Medical Association; demonstration of possibilities of aerial ambulance.

June 27, 1923, San Diego Union, 11:6. Orpheus Male Quarter to sing in night recital in Balboa Park; fifth night of special Music Week to be observed at Organ Pavilion.

June 28, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:5. Board votes High School’s locker rooms will be in new building; old basement quarters at hilltop will not be remodeled.

June 28, 1923, San Diego Union, 6:3. Rear Admiral E. R. Stitt, chief of the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, says Congress will be asked for $750,000 next year to construct additional buildings at Balboa Park Naval Hospital.

June 28, 1923, San Diego Union, 20:3. Moonlight music entrances approximately 2,000 at Organ Pavilion.

June 29, 1923, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

Present: Commissioners Forward, Klauber and W. Templeton Johnson, whose certificate of appointment by Mayor John L. Bacon and oath of office were presented and ordered filed, he having been appointed to the vacancy created by the expiration of the term of office of the Hon. Henry C. Ryan.

Commissioner Forward was elected president of the Board and Commissioner Klauber was elected official secretary.

Upon request of F. L. Hieatt, representing Community Music Committee, superintendent was authorized to assist in decoration of organ for certain programs to be give there, on condition that this department be reimbursed for expenses incurred.

The unsightly aspect of the Old Nevada Building, property of the Natural History Society, was mentioned, and executive secretary was directed to again take the matter up with officials of that Society, asking that immediate steps be taken to either place the building in first-class condition or to wreck it and remove it from the premises.

Rev. Howard B. Bard and Mrs. Stephen Connell, on behalf of the San Diego Museum, requested that that organization be permitted to use the New Mexico Building for an art school and for a gallery to take care of the overflow of the Fine Arts Gallery. Permission, subject to the same conditions under which the building was granted to a committee of artists at a recent meeting, was granted.

Executive secretary was directed to request Dr. H. J. Stewart to appear before this Board with a definite report as to the plans and prospects of the Professional Musicians Guild in regard to the San Joaquin Building.

June 29, 1923, San Diego Union, 2:6. Beauty graced San Diego High School commencement at Organ Pavilion yesterday afternoon.

June 30, 1923, San Diego Union, 7:4-5. Junior orchestra special feature on music festival program at Organ Pavilion today.


July 2, 1923, San Diego Union, 7:1. Young orangutan is one of the most popular newcomers at San Diego Zoo (illus.).

July 2, 1923, San Diego Union, 12:4-5. Dr. H. J. Stewart will play program and baritone Charles Payne Ross will sing for 10th day of the Community Music Festival at Organ Pavilion tonight.

July 3, 1923, San Diego Union, 3:4. La Jolla Opera Company will appear tomorrow night in a scene from “Il Trovatore” at Organ Pavilion.

July 3, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 13:1. U. S. S. Argonne, transport, brings Zoo fine collection of birds and small animals from Nicaragua.

July 4, 1923, San Diego Union, 18:2-3, July 5, 1923, 20:4, and July 6, 1923, 7:4-5. Friday night, 14th day of Music Festival, will be red-letter day at Organ Pavilion; Spanish and Mexican dancers and musicians; “Legends of the Yosemite” will be sung by Cadman Club of 22 male voices assisted by a chorus of Indian maidens to be portrayed by the Community Service Girls’ Glee Club.

July 6, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 11:3. Park Board reorganizes for continued work; Judge Henry Ryan, retiring; William Templeton Johnson, new member; John Forward, Jr., president; Hugo Klauber, secretary; driveway of southwest corner of Park is being regraded and planted; commissioners plan to make “lookout point” more popular by providing parking spaces, ample seating facilities and shade; promontory raised by addition of several thousand yards of dirt; new Fine Arts Building will be started in near future; Sacramento Building has been removed; restoration of arcades at east end of Exposition underway; construction costs being paid by San Diego Electric Railway Company.

July 7, 1923, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: An Inspiring Gift

The value of the new Fine Arts Building, soon to be begun in Balboa Park, can’t be adequately measured by the quarter of a million dollars that the construction will cost. Mr. and Mrs. A. S. Bridges have given San Diego a gift that lies quite outside the province of the mighty dollar mark.

July 7, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:2. Two men hold up woman in Balboa Park near Olive Street.

July 7, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 11:1-2. Music festival draws large crowd at Organ Pavilion; “Legends of Yosemite” by Dr. Stewart in setting of forest glades for Indian pantomime; 14th evening of Music Festival

July 8, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1-2. San Diego children name elephants Happy and Joy; choice is determined in total vote of 232,800.

July 8, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:7 and July 9, 1923, 5:6. Music Festival concert this afternoon at Organ Pavilion; last special event of 16 days of festival; Mrs. Theodore Barnes to sing Spanish songs; Southern California Melody Chorus to sing Negro spirituals.

July 8, 1923, San Diego Union, Society-Club, 4:2-3. Kamuela Searle models “Yorick” in bas-relief for Players’ Little Theater.

July 9, 1923, San Diego Union, 2:4-5. Music Festival closes after 16 days of well-attended concerts.

July 9, 1923, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Music Festivals.

The two weeks’ music festival, brimming as it was with enjoyment for thousands, and with a service deeper than any mere promotion of pleasure, has most certainly demonstrated one thing to all of use. It has demonstrated that the festival “belongs” here. Beyond any doubt this feature can and should be made an annual event, appropriate, typical and characteristic of one aspect of a many-sided city that finds its finest expression in the open air — in sunlight cooled by a breeze from the sea or under summer moonlight flooding Balboa’s gardens.

The great service rendered by this festival is, as we see it, the harmonizing of music’s gifts with the ever-present enjoyment of a beautiful open-air setting — a blending of universal and particular.

It is a part of the enjoyment of music, for many of us, to reflect on the ages of time, the lonely endeavor and the myriad visions of sublime things that have all served together to bring forth the harmonies enjoyed for a moment. In fine music there is an echo of all the long history of our kind, and there are ideas and rhythms that fleetingly express the glimpses of eternity which men of all times have sought and ever failed of attaining. Because of all that, music has its almost universal appeal.

These festivals bring that universal and eternal appeal to us in our civic home. They make intimate and personal, and serve to lend our accustomed landscapes a lasting atmosphere of contact with all this is fine and beautiful in the divine and ancient art of music. This is a deep service, worth of perpetuation.

If our civic park on the commanding hills lacks anything by comparison with the beauty spots of Europe’s old cities, it is because our monuments are new. Theirs are very old. Within the walls of Europe’s cathedrals and palaces and ancient castles there linger the thousand memories of other days — of the kings who knelt to receive their crowns from the chosen men of God; of the knights and ladies who made merry in those halls, and have now been silent for a thousand years; of the sturdy fighting men who died in agony to defend a tinseled banner, and are all forgotten now.

Yet something of this atmosphere is not beyond our grasp, and the years may bring it speedily. In fine music, rightly appreciated, there is this atmosphere of the world’s romance and sorrow. There are visions of heaven and hell and the void of waters troubled by the stirring of life, at the very birth of time. Fine music can bring to Balboa Park this meaningful background and make it significant to us and to coming generations.

In this view our music festivals in the open air seem almost necessary, for it is through these festivals that a spot we all love can find it finest expression to us all.

July 10, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:8. May expend $2,000,000 on Naval Hospital here; to be finest institution in country; city to be asked for 3 acres south of present site for additional buildings; money now available; City recently voted to give government title to the 17 acres on which the present units have been built; Admiral Edward R. Stitt: “The land is of little use to the city, while the hospital could use it to advantage.”

July 12, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:4. Famed California Building will be reopened to public Saturday for new library opening; exercises will be held on lawn at rear of building (illus.).

July 14, 1923. Dedication of San Diego Scientific Library in San Diego Museum.

July 14, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:6. San Diego Municipal Band to give concert at Balboa Park this afternoon; concert financed by donations of 20 public-spirited citizens.

July 15, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:2, 2:3. Mr. Spreckels presented elephants “Happy” and “Joy” to Zoo yesterday afternoon.

July 15, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1-2. Scientific library is opened with impressive ceremony; W. W Whitney memorial gift to City dedicated; collection aggregates 60,000 titles; is nucleus of educational center.

July 19, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:2, 3:5-6. President Warren Harding greeting will be held, August 6, at Botanical Building, Balboa Park.

July 20, 1923, Records of Park Department In Relation To Taking Over of Exposition Grounds and Buildings by the Navy Department for Training Station (George W. Marston Papers, Collection 219, Box 2, File 32, San Diego Historical Society Research Library).

The initial records of the Park Department of the City of San Diego regarding occupation of Exposition buildings and grounds in Balboa Park by the Navy Department for use as a Naval Training Station are such as to indicate that the idea was evolved some time prior to its formal presentation before the Board of Park Commissioners and that plans for tendering the premises to the Government were well developed before official action was first taken by the Park Commissioners.

Whether this idea originated with one or more of the Park Commissioners, with members of the Exposition Board or with Chamber of Commerce or Naval authorities is in no way indicated by park records.

The first official mention in park files is in the minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners, held on the fifth day of April, 1917, this being a special meeting held for the express purpose of authorizing Colonel D. C. Collier to proceed to Washington, D. C., and there tender to the War Department use of the premises. The following resolution, it being not shown by whom it was introduced, was unanimously adopted.

“Whereas the U. S. Government will be in immediate need of buildings and grounds to accommodate large bodies of troops for mobilization purposes, and

“Whereas there are a number of Exposition buildings in Balboa Park now unoccupied and adaptable for the use of the U. S. Army for temporary barracks, now, therefore,

“Be it resolved by the Board of Park Commissioners of the City of San Diego that all the unoccupied buildings in the Exposition grounds east of the Plaza de Panama be and hereby are tendered to the U. S. Government for army purposes, also such unimproved lands in Balboa Park outside of the exposition grounds as may be considered suitable for any purposes; also that Colonel D. C. Collier be and hereby is authorized to proceed to Washington, D. C. and to tender the use of said buildings and grounds to the War Department of the U. S. Government for an emergency concentration camp, the rental of said buildings and grounds to be free.”

The second document in this record is a letter from the Park Commissioners to D. C. Collier, enclosing resolution and authorizing him to proceed in accordance therewith.

Under date of April 6 are filed letters from the Merchants’ Association and Rotary Club, endorsing the action of the Park Commissioners.

Also under date of April 6, in the minutes of the regular meeting of that date, is shown a motion ratifying the adoption of the above resolution as the special meeting of April 5 in the Chamber of Commerce offices.

On April 10, the Park Commission telegraphed Colonel Collier at Washington to withhold from his offer the Alameda, Kern County, San Joaquin and Salt Lake Buildings, as these structures were desired by the U. S. Marine Corps, having occupied a large area south of the Organ Pavilion for several months prior to that time.

In accordance with authority given him by the Park Commission, Colonel Collier, on April 17, offered the buildings and grounds to the War Department, who referred the matter to General Silbert, commanding the Western Division of the U. S. Army. This was reported by Colonel Collier to the Chamber of Commerce, who in turn reported to the Park Commission.

General Silbert telegraphed the Chamber of Commerce that it was impracticable for the army to use the premises and that the offer was therefore declined. This telegram was under the date of April 28, together with a letter from Melville Klauber, chairman of the Army and Navy Committee of the Chamber of Commerce, in which he states that:

(1.) General Silbert, acting for the War Department, has rejected use of the premises for army]


(2.) That Admiral Caperton, on his own initiative, had taken up the matter of naval occupation

of the premises with G. A. Davidson, president of the Exposition.

(3.) That Admiral Caperton said that the navy badly needed space for a training station and

urged that steps be taken toward offering the premises to the Navy Department.

(4.) That the Army and Navy Committee of the Chamber of Commerce had tentatively offered

the premises for naval use and desired that the Park Commission ratify the action at the

earliest possible moment.

On April 30, the Park Commissioners received a telegram from D. C. Collier to the effect that, in accordance with telegram from Chamber of Commerce, he and William Kettner, Congressman from this district, had tendered the premises to the Navy Department, and had changed the letter and resolution of the Park Commission so that it authorized use of the premises by the Navy Department, instead of by the Army. The telegram also stated that the tender would be accepted. Also on April 30, a telegram was sent to Colonel Collier, advising him that his change of the resolution and letter of authorization had been confirmed. This telegram was authorized at a called meeting of April 30. At this meeting Lieutenant Swanson, port commandant for the U. S. Navy, appeared before the Board and asked that a permit be drawn in accordance with the offers made. Superintendent and executive secretary were directed to draw a form of permit similar to that under which certain parts of the park were already occupied by the U. S. Marine Corps.

At a called meeting of May 8, 1917, Lieutenants Menocal and Clements first appeared before the Park Commission and requested that offices in the Administration Building be turned over to them, saying that one of the exposition officials, Mr. George Burnham, had advised them they might use the same. This request was granted and the formal permit for naval occupancy of the premises was adopted and signed.

Superintendent Morley was later authorized to make such structural alterations as might be required by the navy, and he, with Electrical Foreman C. S. Harper, employed a large force of men for that purpose. Within the next few months, all the main buildings east of the Plaza had been refitted by park forces for naval use, and more than 5,000 naval recruits were receiving training in the park before the close of the year. This work of repairs and alteration cost the Park Department nearly $30,000, and this expenditure was refunded by the Navy Department. Park forces were engaged on this work day and night, and Messrs. Morley and Harper were highly praised by naval authorities for their able and untiring efforts.

July 20, 1923

I hereby certify that the foregoing has been compiled from records of the Park Department of the City of San Diego, that the essential facts from all records of the department in relation to the establishment of a naval camp are, to the best of my knowledge and belief, included herein.

(Signed) T. N. Faulconer

Executive Secretary

Park Commission.


July 21, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:2, 3:5. Crew of Eagle boat presents baby sea elephant to San Diego Zoo.

July 23, 1923, San Diego Union, 9:4. Forty-five Boy Scouts offer to clean up Park to prepare for President Harding’s visit.

July 24, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 11:4. Zoological Society seeks permanent grounds for Zoo; Society wishes to preserve present land in Park for Zoological purposes.

July 25, 1923, San Diego Union, 10:5. Plans prepared by Hoffman and Hansen for Boys’ Gymnasium, locker room, concert hall at High School.

July 29, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:3-6. Camel presented to Zoo by members Al Bahr Temple, Mystic Shrine.

July 29, 1923, San Diego Union, 4:7-8. Albertine Conture Harris writes poetic obeisance to Balboa park.

July 29, 1923, San Diego Union, 15:4-5. Drawing by Eugene Hoffman of proposed new gymnasium locker that will be constructed soon at the High School.

July 29, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:2-3. Elaborate plans submitted for re-landscaping east plaza of Balboa Park to be in keeping with restored east entrance building of Electric railway.

In order that the nearby area may be in keeping with the entrance building, now being restored to its former beauty by the San Diego Electric Railway company, the east plaza and surrounding grounds in Balboa Park are to be re-landscaped, according to announcement made last night by the Board of Park Commissioners.

A re-design of this section of the park has been submitted by Gardner and Slaymaker, landscape architects, and the new design has been formally accepted by the Park Commission.

The new plans call for radical changes in the east plaza. Four safety islands will be established for the protection of pedestrians passing through the plaza to and from the street railway station. Access from the railway station will be had by wide paths paralleling the northeast and south lines of the present plaza, extending from the ends of the walks on the north and south sides of the Prado. Within these paths will be planting strips, 15 wide [sic], entirely surrounding the plaza, intersected by the Prado on the west and by Park Boulevard on the north and south sides. This will restrict the plaza to approximately 130 by 145 feet, instead of 180 by 210 feet, as it now is.

This, it is hoped will almost entirely eliminate pedestrian traffic at the main intersection of the streets, thereby decreasing the danger and number of accidents. The average vehicular traffic over this intersection has been checked and the Park Commission has issued an authoritative statement to the effect that more than 5000 vehicles pass this crossing every day.

As all visitors to the park, several thousand each day, include many hundreds of children, patrons of the zoo, museums and other similar attractions, the danger of accidents is so serious that the Park Commissioners consider the betterment of conditions there a vitally important step.

The new planting scheme will virtually prohibit the use of the east plaza for parking purposes, and the Park Commission is now planning the opening of a large parking area east and west of Park Boulevard, just south of the east plaza, also to the west of Park Boulevard, north of the plaza.

Park Boulevard is to be reconstructed through the narrow section just north of this plaza and will be widened to 30 feet of paved surface. A new walk will be installed between the Boulevard and the Balboa Park Auditorium.

Owing to the fact that the two high masts, which in Exposition days bore enormous standards emblazoned with the colors of old Spain, have been declared unsafe, these stately landmarks will be removed.

Gardner and Slaymaker, through their interest in civic improvements and particularly in further developments of city parks, have presented the city with sketches of the proposed rehabilitation of the east plaza section, and in view of the labor and time involved in the preparation of so extensive a landscape scheme, the Park Commissioners have written the landscape architects, highly commending them for their public spirit as well as upon the excellence of their design.

July 29, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 4:7-8. Visitors praise flowers at Botanical Building in Park.

July 29, 1923, San Diego Union, Society-Club, 1:4-5, 2:3. Growth, purpose and plans of San Diego Museum, by Dr. Edgar L. Hewett, director.

July 30, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:1-3. President Harding worse; his tour of California canceled.

July 30, 1923, San Diego Union, 8:4-5. Every seat at Organ Pavilion filled yesterday for concert of San Diego Municipal Band.

July 31, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:8, 2:5. General John J. Pershing to spend busy day in San Diego; did not visit Balboa Park.



August 1, 1923, San Diego Union, 24:3. Miss Kate Sessions outlines plans for tree group in talk before El Cajon Farm Center.

August 2, 1923, San Diego Union, 9:4. John Doane to give organ recital August 9.

August 3, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:4-8. President Warren G. Harding dies.

August 3, 1923, San Diego Union, 6:3. Several youthful bathers under ten years of age were taken to Police Headquarters last Friday on a charge of swimming nude in lily pond beneath Cabrillo Bridge.

August 4, 1923, Letters, Board of Park Commissioners; Natural History Society sold Nevada Building to J. A. Albert for $401; moving or wrecking to be commenced before October 1, 1923.

August 4, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:6. John Doane organ concert will benefit completion of Balboa Park Civic Auditorium.

August 5, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:6, 14:5. Plans for $550,000 Army-Navy Y. M. C. A. by Lincoln Rogers ready for contractors.

August 7, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:8, 2:1-2. Memorial services for President Harding planned in Balboa Park Friday.

August 8, 1923, San Diego Union, 20:1-2. Investment bankers move into new building on downtown plaza at corner of 3rd Street (illus.).

August 9, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:1, 6:3-5. Greatest naval base in western America to be here; Bureau of Medicine and Surgery plan creation of hospital corpsmen school at Balboa Park this fall; two acres of land will be needed.

August 9, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:3, 3:5-6. Plan seating arrangements for 8,600 at President Harding Memorial Service at Organ Pavilion tomorrow afternoon.

August 9, 1923, San Diego Union, 7:4-5. Hundreds climb to tower’s top at California Building.

More of San Diego has been seem by more people during the last two weeks than in any equal period since the close of the Panama-California exposition, according to T. N. Faulconer, secretary of the park commission. That is one way of saying that the tower of the California building in Balboa Park has been open for the last two weeks, after being closed for nearly five years.

Within one hour Sunday, 227 visitors signed the register at the tower, and more than 50 percent of this number were from states other than California. Scotland, Canada, Cuba, New Zealand, Ireland and Hawaii were represented, and to each of these states and foreign countries will go kodak pictures made by these visitors showing the wonderful land and seascapes composing the incomparable view to be had from this, the highest viewpoint in the city.

More than 2,000 visitors have climbed the 612 (?) steps to the topmost platform of the tower since its recent re-opening and unanimously have voted the view was well worth the effort.

In order to prevent a recurrence of the vandalism that resulted in the tower being closed, visitors are now required to register before entering the tower, which is kept open only from 11 a.m. until noon and from 2 to 3 p.m. Custodian John Glenn is constantly in attendance and has thus far prevented the damage and defacement so prevalent when the tower was left open at all hours without restriction.

August 10, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:6, 3:5-6. San Diego pays tribute to dead President today.

August 11, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:8, 5:2-5. Estimate of 30,000 attend President Harding Memorial Service; U. S. Senator Samuel M. Shortridge delivered eulogy; Mme. Schumann-Heink sang “Oh Rest in the Lord”; U. S. Marine Band and organ supplied music; Kern-Tulare Counties building on the right of the Plaza used as a first-aid station for the few cases of fainting; problem parking automobiles.

August 11, 1923, San Diego Union, 9:1. Street railway transported 15,000 passengers from Balboa Park after President Harding Memorial Service.

August 12, 1923, San Diego Union, 12:5. San Diego Zoo asks share of Park receipts.

Finances for the upkeep of the San Diego zoo will be the topic of discussion at a conference to be held soon by the city council and the board of park commissioners.

The commissioners yesterday applied to the council for such a conference and the date probably will be fixed by the council tomorrow.

Sometime ago officers of the San Diego Zoological society asked for a share of the money derived from park receipts. The council transferred this application to the park board.

August 12, 1923, San Diego Union, 14:1-2. Children and grownups enjoy elephant and camel rides at San Diego Zoo (illus.).

August 15, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:4-5, 2:4. Mr. Spreckels praises American Legion’s first gymkhana; sends $1,500 check for Park War Memorial.

August 23, 1923, San Diego Union, 20:1. Park Commission Secretary Faulconer declares park traffic ruling must be obeyed; 16 drivers of commercial vehicles are fined $5 for driving in park; law has been on books for last 8 or 10 years; City Ordinance No. 5380 provides that one-ton trucks with one-ton loads may use Pershing Drive and 11th Street from north to south end of park; no commercial vehicles shall use either drive.

August 25, 1923, San Diego Union, 6:3. Replacing old Cristobal building, which was recently torn down, the County Fair this year will show its poultry, rabbits and cavies in a new building of its own.

August 26, 1923, San Diego Union, 12:3-4. Montezuma Gardens display zinnias six inches across, by T. N. Faulconer.

August 27, 1923, San Diego Union, 9:1. Repairs being made to Zuni pueblo, largest building in interesting group.

August 28, 1923, San Diego Union, 12:1. Tennis tourney is planned late next month for six new concrete courts near Indian Village.



September 2, 1923, San Diego Union, Real Estate and Development, 1:4-5. World’s largest flying cage is completed at San Diego Zoo; new bird house costs $15,000; gift of Miss Ellen Scripps.

The San Diego zoo’s new flying cage, the largest structure of its kind in the world, has been completed and will be dedicated with due ceremonies next Saturday. The birds which will make their home in the great enclosure will be placed in the cage early this week, and will be thoroughly “at home” when the dedication exercises are held. The great cage, built at a cost of $15,000, was made possible by the liberality of Miss Ellen Scripps of La Jolla, who has contributed liberally to the upbuilding of the city’s splendid zoo.

The flying cage occupies space in a canyon leading from the small animal’s cages to the seal pond. The cage follows the contour of the canyon, being 60 feet wide at one end and 90 feet in width at the other. It is 200 feet in length and at the lower end attains a height of 85 feet. Birds released in the big cage will have much of the freedom of the open spaces.

The first inhabitants of the flying cage will be the “wading birds,” a number of fine specimens of these kind being numbered among the zoo family. The larger flying birds will be the next introduced to their new home. The collection will be an interesting one, including Victoria crown pigeons, curassow from South America, white aigrettes, cranes of several varieties, plovers and other small birds.

The big cage is built throughout of steel and wire, and was made to order in San Diego. It will last indefinitely according to zoo officials who declare it not only the largest but the finest in the world. Cement walks have been placed around the cage and Supt. Morley of the city parks has put in a fine collection of flowers and plants.

Officials of the zoo are preparing an appropriate dedication.

September 8, 1923, Letters, Board of Park Commissioners: Ed Fletcher to Park Commissioners.

Inclosed find plan of proposed Powder House Canyon dam east of the Naval Hospital; also photos

taken by me in Mexico, Cuba and Florida showing palm groves and how effective they are along

the water’s edge.

September 5, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:6. Contract for paving 12th Street in Balboa Park goes to Griffith Company; submitted bid of $24,299; street to be widened near hospital.

September 7, 1923, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Schumann-Heink

September 7, 1923, San Diego Union, 7:4 and September 9, 1923, Classified, 16:2. Kiwaniis plan for festival next Sunday and Monday; will start Sunday evening at Organ Pavilion; Reverent George R. Lockwood of Chula Vista will talk on eclipse.

September 8, 1923, San Diego Union, 7:2. Zoological Society will dedicate new flying bird cage today (illus.).

September 9, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1-2. San Diego’s 17th annual flower show opens tonight in Civic Auditorium.

September 9, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 6:3. World’s greatest flying cage at Balboa Park is dedicated and presented to San Diego children.

September 11, 1923, San Diego Union, 22:5. Ringling Brothers Circus donates tiger, zebra and camel to Zoo.

September 12, 1923, San Diego Union, 7:4-5. Darkness of eclipse plays tricks on Zoo animals; sends some to be, wakes others.

September 12, 1923, San Diego Union, 10:2-4. Illustration of remodeled Commercial and Savings Bank at 5th and E streets; the only part of the old building that remains in the foundation and roof.

September 13, 1923, San Diego Union, 18:3-4. Cattle exhibition to open in Balboa Park Wednesday.

September 17, 1923, San Diego Union, 18:3. Tiger, zebra, camel presented to Zoo by Ringling Brothers Circus ticked over San Diego home.

September 18, 1923, San Diego Union. Special Section, 1-8. San Diego County Fifth Annual San Diego Farm Bureau Fair at Balboa Park.

September 22, 1923, San Diego Union, 20:2-3. Careless zoo visitor burns elephants’ hay.

September 23, 1923, San Diego Union, 14:4. Dr. Stewart will resume organ recitals this afternoon.

September 23, 1923, San Diego Union, 19:2-4. Spreckels Company makes a big hit with fine booth and exhibits at annual County Fair (illus.).

September 26, 1923, San Diego Union, 7:1. Thomas N. Faulconer, executive secretary Park Board, offered San Diego Zoo directorship (photo).

September 29, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 11:2. Frank H. Buck threatens to sue Zoo board; demands immediate hearing on charges that led to removal; employed at $5,000 a year and has held position for several months; was censured for building a cassowary pen without due authority.

September 30, 1923, San Diego Union, Real Estate and Development, 3:1-3. O’Rourkes plans $150,000 educational addition to San Diego Zoological Society (architect’s drawings and illustrations.)

Officers of the San Diego Zoological Society say that, through the philanthropy of Mr. and Mrs. P. F. O’Rourke, the establishment in the Zoological Gardens of an institution of specialized applied science is now assure. The O’Rourkes have purchased the Nevada State Building, one of the largest of the exposition state buildings and classed as one of the chief architectural attractions, which they will have removed to the Zoological Gardens and there restored, after which it will be devoted to the entertainment and education along natural history lines of the children of San Diego.

Mr. and Mrs. O’Rourke are engaged in restoration of the Standard Oil Building, recently removed by them to the Zoo grounds, and this will be used as an adjunct to the larger building. While the cost of removing, rehabilitating and fitting these new buildings for their new use will entail an expenditure of approximately $25,000, the completed group will be such as could not be built a present day prices for less than $150,000.

The O’Rourke group will be devoted especially to education by association. The Junior Zoological Society, which already has a membership of more than 100 boys and girls, will have its offices and meeting place in the group. Instructive lectures, illustrated by motion pictures as well as by live specimens of birds, animals and reptiles will frequently be given, and attendants will at all times be on hand to entertain and instruct budding naturalists on animal lore. In the last year the city schools have sent classes of children under the supervision of teachers to the Zoo for first-hand study of the animals, and this method has proven so successful that it has become necessary to designate one of the zoo attendants to devote almost his entire time to the several classes present each school day.


Playground apparatus will be installed for the children, and parents will be able to leave young children in the care of attendants, while their elders are viewing the extensive exhibits of the Zoo. The cooperation of the Children’s Center has been sought, and it is expected that the interest of that organization will be turned to this new project as it has been found impractical to maintain a Children’s Center in the Pepper Grove part of Balboa Park, as was at one time planned.

Dr. W. H. Raymenton, an educator of national reputation and a director of the Zoological Society, is at the head of the committee appointed to organize the Children’s Center and Junior Zoological departments made possible by the establishment of the O’Rourke group. He in common with men and women prominent in local educational work, predict that this new feature of the Zoological Gardens will prove to be the most practical and one of the most efficient means of public instruction the city has ever known. Knowledge will be imparted through bringing children of the city into direct contact with living specimens of animal life in such a manner as to indelibly impress upon their minds important natural facts without recourse to books or laborious study.

It is planned that reconstruction of the O’Rourke group shall be completed in time for Mr. and Mrs. O’Rourke to present these fine buildings to the children of San Diego as a Christmas present, and its is further planned that an enormous Christmas tree shall be a feature of the occasion.



October 2, 1923, San Diego Union, 4:4. Convinced that the paving of 12th Street in Balboa Park will not require all of the money voted for that purpose, the City Council yesterday instructed the City Manager to use the surplus in widening the road just north of the east entrance in the park.

The Council hopes also to construct some kind of a dirt road through Pound Canyon for the use of automobile trucks which has been prohibited from using the newly-paved Pershing Drive.

October 6, 1923, San Diego Union, 10:1-2. Ground broken in Balboa Park for addition to O’Rourke group; new cages of eagle and orangutan.

October 7, 1923, San Diego Union, 4:1. Dignified barn owls at San Diego Zoo disdainfully regard mere humans.

October 7, 1923, San Diego Union, 10:2-3. Deadly black diamond rattlers received at San Diego Zoo.

The deadly black diamond rattlesnake, terror of the Florida everglades and the bayou districts bordering the Gulf of Mexico, is the newest and most interesting exhibit in the Reptile House in the Zoological Garden at Balboa Park.

A shipment of seven of these beautifully marked reptiles was received yesterday from C. C. Tyler of Anthony, Florida, one of them being nearly six feet in length and the second largest rattlesnake ever exhibited at the zoo. One of the seven had apparently incurred the dislike of his fellows during the trip across the continent, as he had been repeatedly struck on the head and body, and has succumbed when the shipping box was open, upon arrival here.

Zoo authorities say that the rattlesnake is not susceptible to the venom of other rattlesnakes and death can only ensue when the long fangs penetrate the spinal cord or other vital spot.

The black diamond and the pigmy, the largest and smallest of the rattlesnake family, are plentiful in Florida, the former assuming such huge proportions that he has not difficulty in swallowing full-grown rabbits. The pigmy rattler has about the length and girth of a lead pencil, but his venom is no less deadly than that of the black diamond.

The copperhead is less plentiful in Florida, but the profusion of water moccasins, with which the everglades abound, more than make up for the scarcity of the copperhead.

The coral snake, especially dangerous because of his beautiful markings and harmless appearance, is found more commonly in Florida than elsewhere, although not especially numerous there. He is a living and dangerous confutation of the common belief that all venomous reptiles have stubby tails and flat, broad heads.

Fortunately, however, for Californians, there is no danger of picking up a deadly coral snake by mistake, as he is never found in this state.

The safe rule in California is easy to follow, as the rattler is the only venomous reptile native to this state, and he is easily recognized..

October 7, 1923, San Diego Union, 11:1-2. Fidella G. Woodcock, curator of plants, says San Diego Natural History Museum’s plant collection among best.

October 14, 1923, San Diego Union, 7:4. Park zoo gets three leopard seals after adventure at Coronado Islands (illus.).

The San Diego Zoological garden in Balboa Park is the richer by three fine specimens of leopard

seals, the fruit of an expedition to the Coronado islands, where several of the party came near being lost in the unusually heavy surf at the foot of the steep and rugged cliffs, where this variety of seal makes his winter home.

The leopard or harbor seal is seldom exhibited in any zoo as he is so wary by nature and so careful in his selection of inaccessible resting places as to make his capture a matter of extreme difficulty and hazard. The new exhibits have been placed in the seal lagoon, just west of the zoo’s main entrance, where they apparently are quite as happy as in their native element.

Officials of the Zoological society say that they are especially proud of the new seals by reason of the fact that they were captured by a party of men who give two days of their time and braved serious dangers in order that they might present these interesting animals to the children of San Diego. The party consisted of Harry B. Tellyer of the Bent Concrete Pipe company, Kenneth A. Gardner of Gardner & Slaymaker, W. H. Raymenton, a member of the zoo board of directors; S. E. Tellyer, Karl Tenney, E. L. Silver, LeRoy A. Dahm, and C. Russell. The party made the trip in Steve Solezzi’s Josephine Z, one of the staunchest fishing craft on the bay.

Dr. Raymenton, who is widely traveled and familiar with perilous undertakings, says that he had never seen a more hazardous venture than was the capture of the harbor seals on this expedition. The high seas were typical of the unusual conditions that have brought about so many shipwrecks on this coast with the last few weeks, and, in spite of every precaution, two members of the party came near being crushed against the cliffs under tons of water and being carried way to sea.

October 15, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:3-6. Bloodthirsty Airedale kills five deer beloved by children at San Diego Zoo; wounds two others.

An Airedale hound was found in the paddock at the Pepper Grove picnic grounds with the carcasses yesterday morning; park regulations forbid dogs from running loose on the grounds on penalty of a misdemeanor fine.

October 16, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:3-6. Two more Balboa Park deer succumb to wounds inflicted by savage Airedale in Pepper Grove (illus.).

October 17, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:5. Zoological Society is planning details for mountain lion hunt (illus.).

October 17, 1923, San Diego Union, 9:1. Plans for Fine Arts Building nearly ready; gift of Mr. and Mrs. Bridges will cost $300,000.

October 17, 1923, San Diego Union, 20:4. More buildings to be erected at Naval Hospital; plans and specifications forwarded to Bureau; will include additional ward, laboratory, out-patients ward and an incinerator; involve $500,000 expenditures; plans also being drawn up for Nurses’ Home at the Hospital.

October 19, 1923, San Diego Union, 11:4-6. All San Diegans invited to join in public tribute to George White Marston.

October 19, 1923, San Diego Union, 24:2-3. Information desk stresses attractions of Balboa Park.

October 20, 1923, San Diego Union, 7:4-5. Great outdoor Music Festival will be given in Balboa Park on Tuesday evening; “Legends of Yosemite: and “Scenes of Montezuma” expected to draw big crowd to outdoor organ.

October 21, 1923, San Diego Union, 20:3. Pair of mandrels and three mangabeys received at San Diego Zoo; eight baboons expected today; Zoo has nearly 50 primates embracing 13 distinct species (illus.).

October 21, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1. Music drama will be given in Balboa Park; scenic effects beautiful as grand opera; “Scenes from Montezuma” and “Legends of Yosemite” to be given Tuesday night (illus.).

October 21, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1-3. Arrangements complete for public reception honoring George W. Marston in Balboa Park tomorrow afternoon; reception to be held in Plaza back of California Building; Wallace Moody will start ceremony with Community Singing; Reverend Doctor Bard will deliver invocation; addresses by Melville Klauber, Senator War, Philip Morse and Mrs. A. E. Horton; Frank P. Allen and D. C. Collier among members of general reception committee.

October 21, 1923, San Diego Union, Society-Club, 3:3. Fine Arts Gallery in Balboa Park worth seeing; exhibition of advanced students of San Diego Academy of Fine Arts, which is located in Park.

October 22, 1923, San Diego Union, 7:5-6. Zoo gifts range from cow spider to mountain lion.

October 22, 1923, San Diego Union, 8:4-5. Five tennis tournaments will open city courts in Balboa Park October 27.

October 22, 1923, San Diego Union, 9:6. Luncheon to be held by Women’s Civic Center at Balboa Park Auditorium tomorrow afternoon; Councilman Fred Heilbron will talk of the work of the tree planting commission; a few reservations are available.

October 22, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 11:1. Organ Pavilion transformed for Music Festival to be given tomorrow night.

October 23, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:8, 2:56. E. J. Burns, assistant general manager of San Diego Eastern Railway, breaks ground for $3,500,000 Mission Beach-La Jolla line.

October 23, 1923, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: A Good Citizen . . . in praise of George W. Marston.

October 23, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:3-5, 9:2. San Diegans honor George W. Marston with 73rd birthday present; present his bust to City; more than 1,000 citizens on hand; bust to be placed in quadrangle of California Building; done by Scarpitta (?).

October 24, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:2-6. Crowd estimated at 10,000 enjoyed music and pageantry at Organ Pavilion last night (illus.).

October 24, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:7, 17:3. Thousands crowd plaza at Organ Pavilion to hear Music Festival.

October 27, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:4-5, 5:4-5. New Naval Training Station at Point Loma to be formally dedicated today.

October 27, 1923, San Diego Union, 9:3 and October 28, 1923, 5:4. Chrysanthemum show opened in new floral home of San Diego Floral Association in Balboa Park, formerly the Kansas Building.

October 28, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:8, 6:4-6. $4,000,000 Naval Training Station dedicated.

October 28, 1923, San Diego Union, 4:6. Dr. Wegeforth obtains more than 40 animals, birds, reptiles for San Diego Zoo during eastern trip.

October 30, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:6. Frank H. Buck, former director of Zoo, files suit; alleges he was forced out of place through no fault of his own; declares president of Zoological Society tried to arrogate to himself many responsibilities of the director.

October 30, 1923, San Diego Union, 10:6-7. San Diego Natural History Museum will open its autumn series of Sunday afternoon lectures beginning next Sunday.

October 31, 1923, San Diego Union, 12:5. Employees of San Diego Consolidated Gas and Electric Company to make merry in Civic Auditorium tonight at Halloween Spook Ball.


November, 1923, California Garden, Vol. 15, No. 5, 11. Balboa Park Notes, by John G. Morley, City Park Superintendent.

In the article for this issue of the magazine, I take pleasure in stating to our readers that the reconstruction of the Conservatory Building in Balboa Park has been completed. The rearrangement of the planting, etc. under an entirely different plan was finished the first week in October, and for the past several weeks has been reopened to the public.

The conservatory has always been one of the most interesting features of Balboa Park during the Exposition days, and until several months ago, when it had to be closed for the reasons heretofore mentioned.

This was one of the buildings to be restored under the program of the Restoration Commission with the funds subscribed to restore the main buildings of the former Exposition, however, when the work on the conservatory was commenced, the funds were so limited that practically one-half of the work had to be completed from the funds of the Park Department, necessitating strict economy in the finances of the department to be able to complete his important feature of the system.

In removing some of the large palms from the building, it was found no drainage has previously been provided and the subsoil resembled a quagmire. This condition has been overcome by a drainage system. A new hot water system has been put in — the outside walls four feet high, built of concrete in place of the former wood construction, and concrete foundations for all supporting posts. The replanting plan resembles a garden, and on the sides of the house, the plant benches, instead of being continuous, are divided in sections with a rockery planted with ferns and other choice plants between the divisions. This change has proved very effective and harmonizes with the garden plan of the main portion of the conservatory. The arrangement of the planting gives the visitor when entering the conservatory, an extended and expansive perspective of palms, ferns, dracaenas, and other exotics, and when passing along the walks, the visitor is also able to observe the beauty and individuality of the many varieties of plants utilized in the new scheme of improvement.

In conjunction with the conservatory, it was hoped that the Botanical Building would also be repaired and the planting rearranged, but, because of financial reasons, this work has been postponed until 1924.

The popularity of these two features of the Park has proved to be one of its greatest attractions, and with the addition from time to time of other very choice tropical and exotic plants, and possibly the renewal of an early period of seasonal displays of chose flowering plants, bulbs and orchids, this effort of the Board of Park Commissioners will keep Balboa park in the forefront of civic beauty.

The conservatory contains some very fine plants, among which are some very fine specimens of palms, notably the Areca Lutesceus, one of the choicest, and a very rare species. There are several very fine specimens in the conservatory. It is not a single stem palm, but produces offshoots or suckers which grow up around the main stem, producing a beautiful and graceful effect. It is a native of the island of Mauritius, where it attains a height of thirty feet or more. The true name of the palm is Chrysalidocarpus Lutesceus, however, the common or trade name, Areca Lutesceus, is much easier of pronunciation and is more generally used.

Rhopalostylis Spaida (correct name), commonly called Areca Spadia, a native of New Zealand — one plant is in the conservatory and several fine plants in the Botanical Building. This palm, though susceptible to frost, thrives well if planted out of doors in a shady and protected situation.

Chamaedora Elatior, a very graceful palm from southern Mexico, is the tallest growing of the Chamaedoras, with long, slender, cane-like stems. The young plants of the Chamaedoras are very fine for decorative purposes and the varieties are more extensive than any other palm.

Cocos Waddeliana, a native of Brazil, the most beautiful and graceful of all the small palms, and many thousands are grown for use in fern dishes and for florists use. For conservatory planting they produce a charming effect, especially when growing among maiden hair ferns.

Howea Belmoriana and Howea Fosteriana are two choice palms from Lord Howe’s Island, for which they are named. The trade name for them is Kentia. These palms are grown more extensively for general decorative purposes than any other varieties, as they have proved to be the most useful for greenhouse planting out of doors in San Diego in sheltered locations.

Cycas Revoluta, the Sago Palm, is a native of Java. This palm is extensively planted out of doors in Southern California and Florida, and also extensively grown in greenhouses. The foliage under glass is much more graceful than when grown outside. The seeds are edible and they ripen in Florida. I do not know of any having ripened in California. The pith of the trunk is utilized in its native state for making sago by the inhabitants, hence the reason it is called the sago palm.

Phoenix Roebilenii is a native of the Laos region of Indo China and has the most graceful foliage of all the Phoenix palms. It is also recognized as being more tender than any other and will not withstand much frost. During the heavy frosts in San Diego in the winter of 1913, many that were planted in the gardens and lath houses were killed or seriously damaged. They are among the best decorative plants for all purposes for florists and many thousands are grown for that purpose.

November 1, 1923, San Diego Union, 24:2-3. Zoo leopard seals break fast after hunger strike lasting nearly three weeks.

November 4, 1923, San Diego Union, 16:1-2. San Diego Zoo attracts attention throughout the United States.

November 7, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:5, 3:7-8. Soviet motion picture, “The Fifth Year,” barred from showing at Civic Auditorium after protests made by San Diego organizations.

November 8, 1923, San Diego Union, 10:4. Armistice Day celebration scheduled for Balboa Park November 12.

November 11, 1923, San Diego Union, 11:7-8. Balboa Park zoo gets many new specimens, including eagles.

November 12, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:5, 2:4-5. Thousands hear Armistice Day program at Organ Pavilion; San Diego Sciot band gave concert; Reverend Dean Barnes delivered invocation; “Armistice Day Greeting” by Reverend Roy E. Campbell.

November 17, 1923, San Diego Union, 15:1. Club women active in drive to restore exterior of Civic Auditorium; more than $26,000 has already been raised.

November 18, 1923, San Diego Union, 2:4-5. U. S. S. Argonne brings consignment of Nicaragua birds and animals to Zoo.

November 23, 1923, San Diego Union, 12:2. Big Elks’ ball tonight in Civic Auditorium.

November 25, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:1. Park Zoo Now Houses Best Collection of Primates on Entire Pacific Coast; Specimens Range from Lowest Order to Orangutan, who Performs by Hour.

With recent arrivals filling in the gaps, the San Diego zoo in Balboa Park now has the most interesting collection of primates on the Pacific coast and one of the most complete in America. The order of primates, including all of the four-handed animals, is represented at the San Diego zoo by 48 specimens embracing 15 species of apes and monkeys, beginning with the marmoset, lowest of the primate order, and on up to and including a Borneo orangutan, nearest relative of man with the exception of the gorilla.

“Mike,” the orangutan, if measured by his intelligence and the similarity of his behavior to that of man, is not so far from being human after all. He loves applause and will perform dozens of original and amusing stunts by the hour, as long as he had an appreciative audience. Unless, however, he is being watched by an appreciative gathering, Mike just sits and thinks. Keeper J. E. Renshaw swears that Mike understands as much of what is said to him as does the average child of his own age, which is between 3 and 4 years.

Next in order comes the mandrills, a fine pair of youngsters recently brought to this country by Karl Hagenbeck, from whom Dr. Wegeforth, president of the Zoological Society, purchased them at the docks in New York City. At the same time eight baboons were purchased, a pair each, of the long-armed golden baboons, hamaydryas sphinx and dog-faced, all of them healthy young animals, youth being a desirable quality because of the greater ease with which young animals are acclimated and trained.

In addition to these specimens from the higher rungs of the ladder, the zoo has the following monkeys, Giant rhesus, red-faced wanderoos, sacred, sapajous, greens, pigtails, Javas and three distinct sub-species of spider monkeys.

November 25, 1923, San Diego Union, Real Estate and Development, 3:1-3. Drive for civic auditorium fund by women given hearty response; voluntary subscriptions past week exceed $1200 (illus.).

November 25, 1923, San Diego Union, Real Estate and Development, 8:1-2. Old Nevada Building moved to Children’s Center of San Diego Zoological Society (illus.).

November 26, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:4-5. Nature walk of Natural History Society records largest attendance; 137 persons last Saturday were taken on tour of Zoological Gardens, by T. N. Faulconer, director.

November 30, 1923, San Diego Union, 10:4. Union program drew record crowd at organ Thanksgiving services held under auspices of San Diego municipal association; Wallace Moody conducted Community Singing; Cadman Club sang.



December 2, 1923, San Diego Union, Real Estate and Development, 1:2-3. Baker Thomas writes letter urging beautification in conformity with Park.

December 2, 1923, San Diego Union, Society-Club, 1:2. Elaborate card party to be given Friday afternoon by society women as benefit toward restoration of Civic Auditorium.

December 7, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:8, 6:4. Navy seeking more land to expend $1,240,000 here in 1924; three acres asked for Naval Hospital on southerly slope of Inspiration Point; mayor and heads of Chamber of Commerce in favor; plan to spend $800,000 for hospital corpsmen training school; the three acres are inaccessible except to those passing through the hospital reservation.

December 8, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:4-5. Decide upon plan to beautify Naval Training Station grounds; Balboa Park will supply shrubbery; nurseries and citizens asked to donate.

December 9, 1923, San Diego Union, 22:4. Charles A. Small asks conference on Park budget; says City Council has not allocated money to beautify Pershing Drive promised by Park Board.

December 10, 1923, San Diego Union, 7:4. Plover colony added to Zoo feathered show; first canvasback joins the aquatic bird exhibit which includes 150 specimens.

December 10, 1923, San Diego Union, 10:2-3. Scout Headquarters in Park Made Habitable by Repairs.

Probably few people realize the extent of the work that has been accomplished by the money contributed by the 67 local firms and citizens as announced in the Boy Scout department of The Union last Monday. The buildings comprising the Indian Village have been in danger of collapse for several years and only three of the smaller buildings have been used by the Scouts, and these were badly in need of repair, as they were not usable in wet weather, owing to the leaky condition of the roofs. Now these three buildings have been made safe and comfortable and are said to be in better shape than when they were first built. The larger buildings have been braced on the inside so that with a little work each year they may be preserved for a number of years as one of the city’s interesting park exhibits.

The Scouts are keeping the grounds, known as the “Painted Desert,” open everyday to the public, and many visitors are welcomed each day. It is the hope of those in charge to be able within a short time to make some additions to the reservation of five acres that will make it better serve the actual needs of the Boy Scouts as a permanent weekend camp, where a well-supervised outdoor program may be conducted throughout the year in which the boys will learn to camp out and to take care of themselves under proper direction and leadership. When these plans are completed the Boy Scouts of San Diego will have the best and most unique permanent camp for boys in the world.

December 11, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:6-7, 3:3. Civic Auditorium body denies Klan use of hall.

December 12, 1923, San Diego Union, 12:5. Pershing Drive adornments put up to Park Board; Council decides Commission gets ample funds to provide for beautification; Councilman Weitzel said: “The big stick should be used on the Park Board.”

December 13, 1923, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Auditorium

We submit there is no reason why the Auditorium Association should deliberate behind closed doors.

December 15, 1923, San Diego Union, 6:5. Formal opening of War Memorial Building on January 6; Schumann-Heink selects day on which she can be present.

December 16, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:4-6. New gold-plated galleon rides as weather vane at top of California Building; weighs 500 pounds and is made of copper overlaid with gold (illus.).

December 16, 1923, San Diego Union, Real Estate and Development, 9:1-2. Balboa Park exposition buildings are all restored.

December 16, 1923, San Diego Union, Society-Club, 1;8, 3:1. Living pictures Christmas night in Balboa Park.

Reviving the novel and beautiful observance of the Christmas by the presentation of living tableaux of famous paintings of the Nativity and the singing of Christmas carols and chants, the Friends of Art and the Amphion club will Christmas night again present this novel and impressive spectacle of Balboa park for all San Diegans and visitors to the city.

Mrs. George W. McKenzie of the Friends of Art and Miss Gertrude Gilbert, president of the Amphion club, had charge of the three celebrations which were given in the same way during the two years of the exposition and the year following. Mrs. McKenzie, who is chairman of the pictures, representing the Friends of Art, and Miss Gilbert, who is chairman of the music, representing the Amphion club, will this year have as assisting committee in the Nativity pageant, Mrs. C. Fred Henking, Mrs. John Forward, Jr., and Mrs. L. L. Rowan.

This is now planned to become a permanent institution and it is expected that each year the beautiful group of living pictures will be shown on Christmas night at the Organ Pavilion, preceded by antiphonal singing of Christmas carols and chants by the four vested choirs of four churches of the city, from the buildings near the organ and from the peristyle.

The singing will begin a 8 o’clock and between 7:30 and 8:30 no autos will be allowed to pass through the Plaza de Panama, going east or west. The Cabrillo bridge, west of the park, will be closed to autos during that time, but not to pedestrians. This is done in order that the singing and ceremonial of the chanting choir, marching to the Pavilion with lighted tapers, be not disturbed.

Following are the pictures, reproductions from famous paintings by the masters, which will be shown in living tableaux:

Three scenes of “The Annunciation.”

“Holy Night with Christ Child in the Manger with the Shepherds”

“The Coming of the Wise Men”

“The Adoration of the Child”

“St. Agnes”

“The Holy Family”

“St. John and the Lamb”

“The Good Shepherd”

“Suffer the Little Children to Come Unto Me”

“Benediction of the Angel”

The pictures will be accompanied by appropriate Christmas music, which will be sung by the vested choir, composed of the combined quartets. The music for the pictures and the antiphonal singing is in charge of Mrs. L. L. Rowan. Following are the personnel of the four quartets:

Congregational quartet: Mrs. W. A. Porterfield, Miss Inez Anderson, George F. Reed and Harrison Palmer.

Presbyterian quartet: Mrs. C. C. Kempley, Mrs. Austin Shaw, George M. Hewes and Oscar Griffith.

Episcopal quarter: Mrs. Kenneth G. Barstow, Miss Grace Brady, Albert E. Johnstone and Sydney Gaines.

Unitarian quartet: Mrs. Theodore Barnes, Mrs. L. L. Rowan, Joseph M. Kendall and Joseph A. Farrell.

December 21, 1923, San Diego Union, 8:5. Benefit performance for Civic Auditorium to present diversified program; to be staged next week.

December 23, 1923, San Diego Union, 9:5. Special music New Year’s Eye; classical program to be given by vocalists in Organ Pavilion under auspices of Community Service.

December 23, 1923, San Diego Union, 15:6. Will close park zoo Christmas; employees and animals will have first quiet day in two years.

December 23, 1923, San Diego Union, Society-Club, 1:1-2. Living pictures to be seen Christmas evening in Balboa Park; Christmas carols will be sung.

December 25, 1923, San Diego Union, 5:3. Friends present Park Zoo with rare animals; antelope, elk, buffalo cows and whistling swans added to other attractions.

December 25, 1923, San Diego Union, 8:2. Sing Christmas carols tonight in Balboa Park.

December 26, 1923, San Diego Union, 16:4-5. 10,000 witnessed Christmas tableaux in Balboa Park last night.

December 30, 1923, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:4. Free elephant rides will be given children visiting Zoo New Year’s.

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