Balboa Park History 1925

January 1, 1925, San Diego Union, Historical Section, 4:1-8. Mercy Hospital, one of finest and best equipped hospitals on Pacific coast; I. E. Lovelass of San Diego, architect.

January 1, 1925, San Diego Union, Navy Section, 8:3-5. Naval Hospital buildings to date cost $3,069,391; estimated cost additional projects $827,000; area 17 acres; number of buildings 11; work in progress and cost including painting of buildings $10,425; extension to nurses’ quarters $145,000; wards and other structures $425,313; projects contemplated and their estimated cost: nurses’ quarters $115,000; officers’ quarters $96,000; mortuary $10,000; gate house $10,000; corpsmen’s quarters $280,000; isolation building $179,000; present group designed for 630 beds; average of 433 patients according to hospital records; 3,532 treated during fiscal year 1924; average enrollment at school of hospital corpsmen is 40 students.

January 1, 1925, San Diego Union, Park Section, 1:1-5. San Diego built around beautiful Balboa Park; fast becoming splendid cultural center of community; recreation, education find ideal facilities in city’s biggest park.

January 1, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:6-8. Yorick Theater affords players cultural center.

January 1, 1925, San Diego Union, 2:1-8. W. E. Kier Construction Company built new Mercy Hospital; built Maryland Hotel; first six units of Naval Hospital in Balboa Park; Red Cross Building and Administration Building on North Island; nine buildings at Marine Base and others.

January 1, 1925, San Diego Union, 2:8. Balboa Park golf course is close in.

January 1, 1925, San Diego Union, 3:1-6. San Diego Museum provides educational facilities excelled no place else, by Dr. Edgar L. Hewett, director.

January 1, 1925, San Diego Union, 3:7. Outdoor organ Balboa Park’s great feature.

January 1, 1925, San Diego Union, 5:1-2. San Diego Zoo now fourth among those of America; foresight and hard work bring success to project, by T. N. Faulconer.

January 1, 1925, San Diego Union, 5:3-4. Art Department, San Diego Museum, needs supplies.

January 1, 1925, San Diego Union, 5:4. Park natural habitat for Zoo animals.

January 1, 1925, San Diego Union, 5:5. Zoo officials.

January 1, 1925, San Diego Union, 5:6-8. Natural History Museum oldest in Southern California, by Clinton G. Abbott.

January 1, 1925, San Diego Union, Park Section, 6:1-2. Tropical and semi-tropical plans adorn Balboa Park, by John G. Morley. (Note: spelling of all botanical names should be checked for accuracy.)

San Diego is located in the semi-arid and semi-tropical zone and many rare trees, shrubs, palms and other exotic plants that have to be grown under glass in the northern and eastern states, thrive well out of doors in our excellent climate and the luxuriant growth attained furnishes our park with a distinctive and charming diversity of character that cannot be duplicated in the colder areas of the country. While we are able to grow successfully nearly all the plants of the temperate zones, we utilize many that come from the warmer sections of the world, both from the tropical and semi-tropical zones.

The majority of our trees come from the southern hemisphere. From Australia we have the eucalyptus in many varieties; acacias, one of our finest flowering trees, which commences to bloom in December and continues in succession until June, according to the varieties we grow; Tristania conferta, a very beautiful tree, the flowers and foliage somewhat resembling the eucalyptus, but a more umbrageous habit of growth and which in Australia, its native habitat, is utilized extensively as an avenue; Pittosporum Undulatum, the Brisbane box, is another beautiful tree, with dark green glossy foliage and covered with sweet-scented flowers in the early spring. This variety is also extensively planted as a shrub and for hedges. Hymenosperum Flavum is a very fine medium-sized tree with sweet-scented yellow flowers; the Casuarinas, very striking trees in the character of several varieties; Agathis Australia, the Kauri pine, a very interesting coniferous tree from New Zealand; Ficus, the rubber trees from Australia, South America and the East Indies; Araucarias from Australia and also the Norfolk Islands off the coast of South America; Eugenias and Lagunarias from Australia; the coral trees from South Africa; Bauhinias from tropical Africa and China; Schinus Molle and Teberenthifolia; the pepper trees from South America; camphor trees from Formosa and Japan; pine trees from subtropical countries; our own native pines, evergreen oaks, cedars, cypress, cherries, fir trees and many others are conducive to the great variety and character of our park landscape.

Many Varieties Beautify Parks

Many varieties of shrubs from the same zones are grown and intensify the beauty of our park plantings. The following selection is worthy of mention: Coprosma Bauerians, a shrub that is conspicuous by its beautiful glossy green leaves. In New Zealand, its native habitat, it is frequently grown as a tree for avenue planting. It may be advisable to grow it in Southern California with like treatment. The dwarf Grevilleas from Australia are also a very pretty shrub and planted extensively. Grevillea Thelemanniana is the variety utilized more than any other — the graceful foliage and red and yellow flowers produce a charming effect. The Pittosporums in several varieties; Myoporums for seacoast planting, and the Swainsonias of several colors and varieties, are also natives of Australia; Rapheolepis Ovata and Indica are very fine dwarf shrubs from China, and also the Hibiscus Sinensis in several varieties and colors thrive luxuriantly. The Ericas of heathers from South Africa and the Mediterranean region, the Escallonias from Peru, the Melaleuca and Callistemons, with flowers resembling a bottle brush, and in all shades of colors — these interesting shrubs are from Australia. Chosia Ternata, a beautiful white flowering shrub from Mexico, and the Cestrums from the West Indies, including the sweet-scented, night-blooming variety; Cestrum Noethurnum; Naudina Domestica, with its beautiful colored foliage and red berries from Japan; and many others from the warmer climates are utilized Special mention is here given to our famous Christmas flower, Euphorbia Pulcherima, or, as we call it, the Poinsettia, which adds a crimson glory to our gardens during the holiday season in midwinter, and which is grown by the thousands for cut flowers for the Christmas season. The plant is a native of Mexico, to which country we are indebted for so beautiful a flower at this season of the year.

Tropical Vines Thrive Luxuriantly

The climbing vines from the tropical and sub-tropical zones are also a fine addition to our park planting, notably the Bougainvilleas from South America, in several varieties, which thrive luxuriantly and produce a gorgeous effect with their abundance of blooms. The tender varieties of Bignonias, the Campsidium Valdivadum from Chile, is one of our choicest climbers, with its pretty glossy green foliage and clusters of tubular flowers. Passifloras, Philodendrons, Jasmines, Rhyncospermum, Jasminoides, Solanums, Sollyas, Tecomas and the Vitis, or evergreen grape, furnish us with charming effects on the buildings and pergolas of Balboa Park.

Other interesting plants which add to the to the tropical and semi-tropical plantings are the numerous varieties of palms from all the warm climates — Dracaenas and Cordylines from Australia and the Canary Islands; bamboos from China and Japan; bananas; Phormium Tenax and other varieties of New Zealand flax; the Strelitzias, or bird of paradise flower, from South Africa; these with the tropical grasses and the fine collection of water lilies from all over the world, provide a choice selection of material to use in our parks system that few cities in the country are enabled to enjoy, as do the visitors and residents of San Diego.

6:1-8. Music, art represented in cultural activities of community’s progress, by Gertrude Gilbert.

7:1-8. Aerial view of U. S. Naval Hospital

January 1, 1925, San Diego Union, 8;2-4. New Junior High School on crest of Point Loma in modified Spanish; architect Edwin F. Banning (illus.).

January 4, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:4. Police pickup 11 sticks of dynamite west of Naval Hospital; safe crackers may have placed the explosive in park in hope of returning to get it and boil it down to extract the nitroglycerin, of which it is composed.

January 5, 1925, San Diego Union, 16:7-8. Richard A. Addison calls on citizens to defend park property from vandals; eucalyptus trees uprooted; animals teased at Zoo.

Why is it that sane and intelligent citizens will stand quietly by and see other people destroy property or steal such things as flowers and potted plants, benches, garden hose, etc. in their own public parks, is a problem which is perhaps deep enough to tax the mental powers of even our most learned psychologists.

Full-grown persons, seemingly in possession of all their faculties and evidently not extremely near-sighted, are known to have looked on in utter unconcern while several small boys uprooted a dozen young eucalyptus trees which were recently set out in one of the canyons of the zoological gardens.

On a number of occasions, potted plants, pots and all, have been stolen in broad daylight while hundreds of citizens passed calmly by, caring little or nothing what damage was done, believing it to be a matter outside their concern. Flower-pulling is a common pastime with many of the visitors to our beautiful Balboa Park.

Teasing the animals at the zoo is another offense of common occurrence. Although the age cage carried large signs forbidding the feeding of these specimens, the keepers find it necessary to watch constantly to see that their charges are not made sick by being fed candy, chewing gum, and other ridiculous things.

And the most puzzling thing about it is that law-abiding citizens, who wouldn’t think of doing such things themselves, stand by and permit others to perform these acts of vandalism. The park belongs to the citizens of San Diego. When we find someone committing a nuisance, let’s assert our rights as citizens, appoint ourselves policemen, and take steps to prevent its recurrence. Or if our dispositions are too retiring to allow us to do this, we can render valuable service by notifying those in charge.

January 8, 1925, San Diego Union, 9:3. J. L. Nusbaum, superintendent of Mesa Verde National Park, will speak to pupils at Francis W. Parker School, using slides on ancient Indians; Nusbaum planned and built the Pueblo Indian Village now used as headquarters of Boy Scouts.

January 8, 1925, San Diego Union, 11:3. Colonel D. C. Collier says San Diego offers greater inducements to the homeseeker than Florida, with business conditions equaling the best.

January 8, 1925, San Diego Union, 13:1. Balboa Park station makes mail record; on December 22 a total of 7,494 parcels was handled; in the 15 days that station operated 40,500 packages carrying insurance were handled.

January 10, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. Permit issued yesterday for erection of Children’s Home Building in Balboa Park at a cost of $90,600.

January 11, 1925, San Diego Union, 16:2-7. Drawing of $200,000 dance hall at Mission Beach; architects Lincoln Rogers and F. W. Stevenson.

January 11, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:7, January 12, 1925, 1:3-6, 2:2-3, and January 13, 1925, 3:2-6. San Francisco will dedicate outdoor organ in Palace of Legion of Honor; gift of John D. Spreckels to city; Dr. Humphrey J. Steward will play after Marshall W. Giselman, organist of the Palace; cost $100,000; designed for either outdoor or indoor recitals.

January 15, 1925, San Diego Union, 8:1. Max Winter of Los Angeles gets contract to build Children’s Home at 16th and A Streets; Mrs. Waldo Waterman, architect.

January 16, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. Only a smoke barrage laid down by feeding chemicals into Naval Hospital furnace succeeded in driving a psychopathic ward patient from the lofty perch he had taken atop the tall smokestack of the institution yesterday afternoon.

January 20, 1925, San Diego Union, 17:6. Extensive park paving program put on ballot; bond issue of more than $100,000 submitted to City Council by Park Commission yesterday; paving of 6th Street from Date to Upas Streets along the park; paving of streets on the east and north side of the park; widening of Pershing Drive five feet on each side; Council eliminated proposals to pave West Boulevard and the road up Cabrillo Canyon.

January 21, 1925, San Diego Union, 9:5. Chamber of Commerce named sub-committees to help develop San Diego parks yesterday; George W. Marston will head sub-committee appointed to confer with John Nolen on plan for park development; J. W. Snyder to head sub-committee to investigate the proposal to establish a four-year college in the park; A. E. Scott to head Pershing Drive beautification sub-committee; Frank J. Belcher to head road paving sub-committee; architectural standards for the park will be cared for by William Templeton Johnson, chairman, Richard S. Requa, Louis J. Gill, Frank P. Allen, L. P. Delano, Lincoln Rogers and H. L. Sullivan.

January 28, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:7-8. John D. Spreckels gives Mercy Hospital $300,000 for completion of south wing.

January 28, 1925, San Diego Union, 12:1. Zoological Society President Wegeforth tells Optimists that San Diego Zoo is a great city asset.

“During 1923 nearly 100 pictures of our zoo were published in the illustrated sections of the big city newspapers in every state in the Union,” said Dr. Wegeforth. “In motion pictures, the zoo and our expedition for elephant seals have been shown in almost every theater in the United States, always with the name San Diego prominently displayed. If it ‘pays to advertise’ then our zoo is paying enormous dividends to San Diego.

“The zoo is educational as well as recreational. We entertain thousands of school children, provide men to escort classes from the city schools through the grounds and to inform them fully concerning the exhibits. Through the generosity of Mr. and Mrs. P. F. O’Rourke a handsome junior zoo building is being fitted up for the use of the children. The auditorium of this building will be available for meetings of all organizations interested in nature study, the preservation of wild life and allied causes.”

January 28, 1925, San Diego Union, 12:2-3. Illustrated folder of Southern Trust and Commerce bank shows beauty of Balboa Park.

January 29, 1925, San Diego Union, 12:1. Two koala bears arrive for Zoo; more than 200 specimens of animal life brought back from Australia by T. N. Faulconer (illus.).

January 29, 1925, San Diego Union, 12:6-7. John Nolen arrived here last night with plans for San Diego’s future.


February 1, 1925, San Diego Union, 12:4-5. Hugo Klauber tells early history of Balboa Park.

February 4, 1925, San Diego Union, 8:4-5. T. N. Faulconer praises Sydney’s great Zoo.

February 4, 1925, San Diego Union, 24:2-3. Colonel D. C. Collier made Director-General of Sesqui-Centennial Celebration to be held at Philadelphia in 1926; salary of $25,000 a year.

February 5, 1925, San Diego Union, 7:1. John Nolen addresses Realty Board: ” . . . avoid congested districts in your city, beware of crowded areas of population and provide liberal traffic spaces in planning the city of the future.”

February 6, 1925, Meeting of Board of Park Commissioners.

Present: Commissioners Klauber, Johnson and Forward.

The secretary stated that a Mrs. Gilbert had submitted an offer to repaint the announcement slides at the organ; her charge to be $5.00 for the lot. The offer was not accepted, and upon motion of Mr. Forward, seconded by Mr. Johnson, the superintendent of parks was authorized to have the painting done under his supervision.

The secretary was instructed to send written communication to the Board of Playground Commissioners authorizing them, when building new fence around Golden Hill playground, to include land on the south side between playground and alley; also to extend playground four feet on the north to allow for regulations size of tennis courts.

The secretary presented replies to office letters sent to the superintendents of New York St. Louis and Philadelphia zoos, which were referred to the president of the Board.

February 6, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:5, 3:5-6. John Nolen urged full-time city plan secretary in talk before Civic Committee of the Chamber of Commerce yesterday.

February 6, 1925, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: On City Planning

It is within our power to build a unique, beautiful and efficient community, and it is our duty to do so, lest chance and haphazard development spoil everything that ought to remain unspoiled.

February 10, 1925, San Diego Union, 7:1. The City Council to consider transferring to the Navy Department another section of Balboa Park today.

February 10, 1925, San Diego Union, 10:2. “B. B.” writes of the Children’s Hospital and the U. S. Naval Hospital in Balboa Park (illus.).

February 10, 1925, San Diego Union, 24:1. Voters to pass on paving at the March election.

February 12, 1925, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Zoo

As to the charter amendments affecting the zoo, they do not embody any great changes, but are designed to cut out a little of the former “red tape” and promote efficiency in administration. They should be passed without much difficulty.

February 14, 1925, San Diego Union, 9:4-5. Zoo elephants full of pep after vacation; ready to give San Diego children rides; N. E. Slaymaker has redesigned the buffalo paddock to provide a roadway through that portion of the Zoo.

February 14, 1925, San Diego Union, 12:4. The Board of Park Commissioners announced yesterday it has approved the granting to the Navy Department of additional land in Balboa Park.

February 15, 1925, San Diego Union, 10:5. A. F. Mercier, San Diego & Arizona Railway official, names Zoo director at annual meeting yesterday.

February 15, 1925, San Diego Union, Building & Development, 3:1-2. D. C. Collier opens sales of lots on overlook across valley from Mission Hills (illus.)

February 16, 1925, San Diego Union, 2:3. 7:1. Seventy four sets of twins romp before 5,000 spectators in prize parade at park; twin round-up held by Publicity Department of the Chamber of Commerce to tell the rest of the world about San Diego’s phenomenal increase in population since the last census. Kinograms Pathe News, International News, Fox News, and the Leavitt Cine Picture Company were represented by cameramen at the twin round-up.

February 16, 1925, San Diego Union, 7:1. Illinois State Society speaker Dr. Harry Frank lauded Lincoln’s ideals at Organ Pavilion yesterday afternoon; war tunes by G. A. R. fife and drum corps; Wallace Moody led Community Singing.

February 19, 1925, San Diego Union, 8:3. Circus, Auto Exhibit and Industrial Show coming to County Fair building under auspices of San Diego Chapter of Greeters of America (photograph of ten baboons that do everything but talk). Show to run eight days — afternoon and night — is planned to raise funds for the national Greeters’ convention which will be held here in June; to be held at County Fair building starting March 14; producers are Meeker and Oatman, professional circus men; local merchants are asked to exhibit merchandise.

February 22, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1. 5:5-7. Full city planning program presented here for first time; John Nolen suggests harbor improvement, general park system, more playgrounds.

February 22, 1925, San Diego Union, 3:3-4. John Nolen says San Diego’s recreational areas are inadequate and that Balboa Park has little to offer in way of solution.

March 8, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 3:4-5. Zoo shipping surplus specimens to other Zoos.

March 10, 1925, San Diego Union, 24:1. City Council votes to take $3,500 from Park Fund; Park Commissioners had expected City to use general budget money for tennis court equipment; receipts from courts will come to about $150 a month and this revenue will go to the Park Department.

March 11, 1925, San Diego Union, 24:2. H. R. Mitchell, business manager of New York Zoological Park, praises San Diego institution (photo).

March 14, 1925, San Diego Union, 12:1. Greeters’ Circus will open today; four hundred children from city institutions to be guests of hotel men this afternoon.

March 14, 1925, San Diego Union, 12:2-3. Visiting sailors show interest in animals at Zoo.

March 15, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:6. Greeters’ Circus wins plaudits on opening evening; exhibitions and acts entertain 6,000 during day; industries show products.

March 15, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 2:1. Music program to be given in Civic Auditorium; 35 Carol Club girls to sing a song especially written for the occasion; artists from San Diego Conservatory of Music to take part; Orpheus male quartet to sing several numbers; Wallace Moody to lead Community singing.

March 15, 1925, San Diego Union, 2:3. Sailors flocked to Civic Auditorium for big dance last night arranged by civic agencies.

During the evening it was announced that many of the sailors who could not get rooms ashore would forfeit their Sunday liberty if they went back to their ships during the night, and an appeal was made for quarters for the boys.

The dance was arranged by the civil agencies to entertain the sailors and show them the best time possible. Another dance will be held Wednesday, and still another Saturday, it was announced.

March 15, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 5:3-4. Today is Navy Day at Zoo for special benefit of bluejackets, “Diablo,” the 23-foot python, will be taken out and given an airing.

The rule limiting the riding of the elephants to children will be waived in favor of the sailors, and “Mike,” the funny little Borneo orangutan, will be taken out of his cage so that he may be photographed with the boys in blue.

Of special interest to visitors will be the largest herd of California sea lions in captivity. The zoo herd now numbers 30 specimens, ranging from big fellows that weight 600 to 700 pounds, down to the youngsters of 70 or 80 pounds, that are being held for training purposes. Three of the largest will be shipped soon to the Philadelphia zoological gardens, while the smaller ones will go to Karl Hagenbeck at Hamburg, Germany, where they will become members of his famous sea band and will learn feats of balancing and acrobatics.

As Snooky, chimpanzee movie star, will return to her Hollywood home some time this week to resume her place among the stars of filmdom, it is expected many who have enjoyed visiting here during the year will go to the zoo today to say goodbye.

The special events that will take place today in the following order:

Four baby lions will be on exhibition all day, as will the little Australian bear. Mike will leave his cage at 10 a.m. and after a stroll about the grounds, will spend several hours in a tree that has been set up for him in the inclosure about the seal lagoon. The big python will be taken out for an airing at 2 p.m. and the elephants will be saddled at 3.

Anticipating a large crowd and a warm day, the zoo people have ordered the usual quantity of ice cream and soft drinks.

March 19, 1925, San Diego Union, 5:3-6. Greeters invite sailors to see park circus (illus.).

March 19, 1925, San Diego Union, 11:4-5. Army, Navy Committee of Chamber of Commerce urges San Diego voters to authorize park land grant to U. S. Navy: “the land which is needed is wholly unsuitable for park purposes.”

March 20, 1925, San Diego Union, 8:3. Prospects bright for Philadelphia says Colonel Collier; returned home after an absence of two months.

March 20, 1925, San Diego Union, 9:1. Chamber of Commerce says $130,000 to improve park is important.

March 20, 1925, San Diego Union, 9:2. Park Board urges gift to Naval Hospital; comes out for favorable vote but holds no more land may be granted; letter, A. S. Hill, secretary, to A. E. Holloway, Chamber of Commerce president.

March 20, 1925, San Diego Union, 9:3. Greeters to give away de luxe coupe at conclusion of Circus in Balboa Park (illus.).

March 20, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 14:4-5. Admiral Robertson to officiate at San Diego Girl Scouts Court of Awards tomorrow at Girl Scout headquarters in the Pepper Grove.

March 22, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:3. San Diego Zoo will give “Diablo” first meal in five months; 23-foot python will be forcibly fed at Seal Lagoon this afternoon.

March 23, 1925, San Diego Union, 12:5-6. Zoo favors bonds for paving; Alameda Drive, on which entrance to Zoo is located, is to be widened from 24 feet to at least 30 feet and paved.

March 23, 1925, San Diego Union, “Snuggle,” tiny koala bear from Australia, to have a mate.

March 24, 1925. Special bond election of $130,000 to construct roads and boulevards in Balboa Park and Mission Park; $135,000 to widen Pershing Drive.

March 25, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:1, 2:6. Bacon is reelected at primary; bond issues and propositions carry; small vote cast.

Tidelands for Navy for Emergency Fleet plan, repair station, shipyard and drydock station

Yes 16,861

No 826

Hospital site grant Yes 13,472 Official Count 16,374

No 1,110 1,281

Park paving bonds Yes 12,198 Official Count 14,703

No 4,455 5,981

March 27, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:1, 3:2-3. Officials think library, paving bonds defeated; issues fall short two-thirds.

March 28, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:3. Senator Ed P. Sample and Assemblyman Byron J. Walters to sponsor a bill calling for an appropriation of $100,000 by California for a state building at Philadelphia Sesquicentennial International Exposition; Colonel Collier spoke yesterday on senate floor for five minutes.

March 28, 1925, San Diego Union, 5:3. Mayor Bacon changes mind on Zoo plan; says that if charter amendment goes through Zoo employees would be under civil service; all income from Zoo would go into the City Treasury as does income for other departments; also objects to turning over a section of the park to a private organization.

Opposition of Mayor Bacon to the proposed amendment which would give to the Zoological society control over the park lands occupied by the zoological gardens, came as a complete surprise yesterday to members of that organization. In a statement issued yesterday, the mayor came out in opposition to the amendment which will be voted on at the coming election.

“This is the first intimation we have had that Mayor Bacon is opposed to the plans of the Zoological society,” said Dr. Harry M. Wegeforth, president of the society.

“When the matter was presented to the city council and debated before that body, the mayor did not offer a word of opposition. December 15 of last year, the measure was passed and adopted by the council by unanimous vote, and was signed by Mayor Bacon without hesitation. We are at a loss to know why he had changed his attitude.”

The two charter amendments asked by the Zoological society were to have been on the ballot at the primary election this month, but were deferred by decision of the council until the April election. In a statement issued by the society at the time the matter received the favorable consideration of the mayor and council. It was pointed out that “the first proposition is to merely set aside the Zoological gardens so that the building of these gardens can be continued as laid out by the landscape architect, N. Slaymaker. It does not in any manner change the purpose for which this area is set aside.

The second proposition merely allows us to expend money directly through the city purchasing department instead of the park board.”

That statement covers the entire plans of the Zoological society, its officers declare. Study of the situation during the years of hard work on the part of members which has built up the zoo to the point where it is a great asset to the city, convinced them that greater efficiency can be obtained if they have direct supervision over their part of the park and this is all they are asking, they point out.

Friends of the zoo are expected to really to the support of the proposed charter amendments in the coming election.

The mayor’s opposition to the zoo amendment is expressed in a signed statement he gave out yesterday. It is as follows:

“The proposed amendment turning over a section of Balboa Park to the exclusive control of a zoological commission I believe should be defeated for the following reasons:

“First, the present Zoological society has done wonderful work in developing the zoo. They can receive private funds and disburse them as they see fit. Should the amendment go through, it would place all the employees of the zoo under civil service, and, in the language of the city attorney: ‘All expenditures of the board shall be made pursuant to city charter, and all income must go into the city treasury, as does the income in any other city department.’

“Secondly, I do not believe that any one section of the park should be turned over to a commission appointed from a private organization.

“Thirdly, I believe the park should be maintained intact. We have given away too much park land already. We must maintain one central control. It would be setting a dangerous precedent to turn any of the city’s functions over to a board appointed by and from a private society.

“JOHN L. BACON, Mayor.”

March 28, 1925, San Diego Union, 5:5. T. N. Faulconer, Zoo director, to quit June 15; is leaving to engage in a business which offers higher financial returns.

He has been director of the zoo for about a year, during which time it has added hundreds of new specimens, and has grown in size and importance until now it ranks with the finest institutions of its kind in the country.

Faulconer just returned from a trip to Australia a few weeks ago, bring with him any new and interesting animals.

March 28, 1925, San Diego Union, 9:3. Residents of Park Avenue on 6th Street ask that the street be placed in Zone B to permit apartment and bungalow courts on the street and to prevent commercial buildings.

March 29, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 6:1-2. Members of Zoological Society, using slogan “Keep Zoo Out of Politics,” ask public support in election April 7.

“The San Diego zoological gardens were started primarily for the benefit of the children of the city,” says Dr. Harry M. Wegeforth, president of the society since its formation. “The many donations made by public-spirited citizens have been made directly to the children. The zoo is providing a splendid source of entertainment and instruction to the young. The directorate and membership of the San Diego Zoological society is devoting its time and efforts to administering the affairs of the organization for the children’s benefit and we ask that the public cooperate to the extent of voting in favor of the two amendments which will aid us in our work.”

History of zoological gardens in the United States shows that municipal zoos have been failures, while those managed by zoological societies have been uniformly successful, San Diego zoo supporters contend. Where city officials or commissions have control, politics creep in, with an impairment of efficiency, they contend, while public-spirited citizens who devote much of their time and thought to the direction of the zoo through a society invariably attain the best results. Boston and Los Angeles are cited by society members here as examples of what happens to the zoos when politics are permitted to enter in the management.

Before the present zoological society was organized, San Diego had a few animals on display in Balboa Park. A few buffalo, several bears and a fine collection of birds were shown, the birds and the fine cage on the Sixth street side of the park being the gift to the city of Joseph Sefton. But the birds have died and have never been replaced, their places being taken by pigeons. On the other hand, the San Diego zoo has prospered under the able direction of its board of directors until it now is regarded as one of the city’s best assets and has a collection of animal and bird life excelled by very few in the entire country.

An overwhelming vote in favor of the two amendments asked by the Zoological society is expected by the friends of the zoo.

March 31, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:4-6. Junior Zoological Society sponsoring a straw vote among school children on issue of Zoo and politics (Note: this was not a paid political advertisement.).

Same Ballot

YES I want my Zoo kept out of politics and would vote for Proposition No.

6 if I could vote on April 7.

NO I don’t care what becomes of the elephants and ponies and other

animals and would vote against No. 6.

March 31, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:1, 2:1. The city clerk announced yesterday that vote canvass shows that library and park bonds lost last Tuesday while the transfer of the Bonita pipe line bonds to a water bond fund carried; a check of figures revealed that a mistake had been made in an earlier count.

March 31, 1925, San Diego Union, 7:1-4. T. H. Eslick, engineer in charge of construction of devices of Luna Park, Mission Beach, outlined plans for $125,000 fun palace yesterday; general decorative scheme will be futuristic.

March 31, 1925, San Diego Union, 15:3-6. Drawing of San Diego Athletic Club by William H. Wheeler of San Diego and the firm of Walker and Eisen of Los Angeles; to be situated at corner of 6th and A Streets.


April 1, 1925, San Diego Union, 7:2-4. Children eager to vote Saturday on taking San Diego zoo out of politics; ballot included.

April 1, 1925, San Diego Union, 8:3-4. Wegeforth, Klauber debate amendment to put control of Zoo under San Diego society.

April 2, 1925, San Diego Union, 10:5-8. Paid political advertisement “Vote No on 6, Save Balboa Park” by Balboa Park Preservation Committee.

April 2, 1925, San Diego Union, 11:4-6. San Diego children expected to take advantage of “special election” at Zoo; balloting to keep institution out of politics will be held Saturday; ballot included.

April 2, 1925, San Diego Union, 24:3-4. Park Commission views on Zoo amendment given.

April 3, 1925, Letter to The San Diego Union from George W. Marston,

I have read with interest and full approval the statement of the Park Board regarding the charter amendment proposed by the Zoological Society. In my judgment there is no question whatever that Balboa Park would be seriously injured by the passage of the Zoo amendment.

It should be remembered that the Zoo has attained its present high standing under existing charter regulations and that the Park Board has assisted and encouraged the development of the Zoo, rather than hindered it. Indeed, its interest has been so marked that it has allowed the Zoo to do some things contrary to the Board’s judgment. For instance, the treatment of the hill north of Cabrillo Bridge where the buffaloes range. This use of the land by animals that destroy every plant and make the hill look like an ill-kept barnyard is entirely contrary to a proper landscape treatment. The park commissioners realize and deplore this, but have permitted it because of the general good management of the Zoo and their desire not to interfere.

There are two points in this illustration: first, the Park Board is friendly to the Zoo; second, the Board should retain the power to restrain the Zoo, or any other society in the park, from injuring the park as a park. Our city charter wisely places general control of all park land under one body. There are always a score of corporations and societies that have a foothold in Balboa Park and there will be more in the future. It is a splendid thing for the city that educational and recreational societies can be grouped in a central place. But the ground itself should be held by the city so as to preserve some unity in respect to landscape treatment, roadways, water system, telephone lines, fire protection, use of buildings, etc.

Balboa Park is primarily a park, to be cherished as a place of natural beauty. Although it is one of the largest parks in the country, the time is coming when the building of hospitals and school houses, or even libraries and museums, must cease, or else we shall have a city there instead of a park.

We have a good park, we have a good Zoo, and there are many other good things in the park. But Balboa Park and its fine accessories did not come by chance. It represents great ideals, civic enterprise, labor, money, continuous planning, and, withal, an enormous amount of good management. The results have been extraordinary and justify our great pride in the park. It has all been done under unified control and it seems to me that this proposed change is not only uncalled for but exceedingly foolish.

Furthermore, I venture to say that nine-tenths of all out park and exposition builders, those who have borne chiefly the cost and toil of the upbuilding, are against any change of general policy. The children should have their bears and parrots and monkeys, but older heads should not let false sentiment and misunderstanding of the real issues swerve them away from well tried and sensible administrative policy.

Dr. Wegeforth says that future park boards may not be as just and considerate as the present one. He fears that a future unfriendly board might work great injury to the Zoo. I beg to answer that a future board of the Zoological Society might not be as fair and competent as the present one. In that case, if the Zoo board had control of its land, could it not do great injury to the park and stir up any amount of trouble?

The Zoo is probably the most popular institution in the park and its directors deserve praise for their successful efforts to found a great and worthy zoological garden. Nevertheless, it does not follow that the city should part with the control of its land and give to one of the park organizations such powers and rights as would break up the park entirely if likewise given to the other organizations. Every consideration of the rights of the city, the management of the park, and the interests of the Zoo itself, calls for the defeat of this amendment.

(Signed) G. W. Marston

April 3, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:2-7. Councilman John A. Held urged San Diego voters to support Zoo charter amendments: “For what better purpose could part of any park be used than for zoological gardens?”

April 3, 1925, San Diego Union, 4:5-6. Patrick O’Rourke, Zoo director, urges support of charter amendment No. 6 to be voted on next Tuesday.

April 3, 1925, San Diego Union, 5:3-5. Captain F. W. F. Wieber, commandant of San Diego Naval Hospital, is honored on eve of retirement after 40 years in service.

April 3, 1925, San Diego Union, 9:2-4. Dr. Wegeforth says Park Board can abolish “Kiddies’ Zoo” under present system; people must remove danger by correcting charter; children’s ballot included.

April 4, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:3-6. Amendment legally gives to zoo what Park Board once went on record to provide, citizens learn; in 1921, the Park Board set aside land for the Zoological gardens and asked the Council to approve the action; letter from Park Board to Council, October 7, 1921, included.

April 4, 1925, San Diego Union, 8:3-5. Heavy vote predicted on Park today when children decide future of Zoo; children’s ballot included.

April 4, 1925, San Diego Union, 9:6-8. Paid political advertisement from Balboa Park Preservation Committee stating Federated Trades Council and Chamber of Commerce urge “No” vote on Amendment No. 6; map of Balboa Park included.

April 4, 1925, San Diego Union, 8:2-3. Letter from George W. Marston expressing opposition of Amendment No. 6 (See above, April 3, 1925).

April 5, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:8, 5:4. Children trudge through rain to support Zoo; kids urged to vote “Yes” on Amendment No. 6.

April 5, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:7-8. Dr. Harry Wegeforth says opponents of the Zoo amendment declare they are friends of the Zoo, but they are spending more money advertising against it than they ever gave for the upkeep of the Zoological gardens.

April 5, 1925, San Diego Union, 15:2-5. Kenneth Gardner, City Planning Commission, prepares plans for Civic Center for Ocean Beach; Council asked to call election there on $200,000 bond issue.

April 6, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:2-7. Dr. Wegeforth says San Diego Zoo will die lingering death if Amendment No. 6 fails.

April 6, 1925, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Three Propositions.

That the people of San Diego want the zoo, and want the best sort of zoo that the city can reasonably support is not open to question. This proposition suggests that the administration of the zoo be turned over to the organization that has carried it to its present high standard. That is all. It doesn’t propose to take a slice of Balboa park away from the people — or even from the park board that now controls its. It proposes to give the administration of the zoo to the organization that at present administers it, and its only effect would be to relieve the zoo commission of the obstacles that are always present when two sets of directors — however friendly — are empowered to direct one institution.

Opposition to this amendment has come up unexpectedly, at the last minute, with a slogan of “Save Balboa Park.” These opposing the amendment have asserted that the zoo’s present condition is the result of “the present system,” and have urged that the “system” be retained. The argument does not hold water, of course, as any of the zoo directors can cite improvements made by the zoological society despite the present system, not because of it.

Inasmuch as the zoological society has a membership of 1,000 or more San Diego citizens, and a directorate that includes the mayor and a member of the park board, we cannot see that any “ruin” to Balboa Park is likely to result from allowing the Zoological society to take full charge of the splendid zoo that it has created.

April 6, 1925, San Diego Union, 12:1-2. Open Forum hears debate on Zoo amendment; Dr. Harry Wegeforth appears for proposal of keeping institution out of politics and William Templeton Johnson speaks against proposed change.

April 6, 1925, San Diego Union, 15:3. Court of Honor held at Indian Village Friday evening; 50 scouts appear for badges at outdoor ceremony; Troop 30 wins.

April 7, 1925, Proposition 6: Creates Board of Zoological Commissioners and places Zoological exhibit under their control; tax of not less than 10 cents or more than 16 cents of each $100 valuation of property for improving parks, plazas and squares; at least 2 cents of each tax to be used for maintenance of Zoological exhibit.

First count Yes 3,647 Second Count Yes 3,847 Yes 7,930

No 4,033 No 6,088 No 13,242

April 7, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:6-7, 3:2-3. The Hammer Club indorsed Zoo amendment after address by director Faulconer and Dr. Wegeforth; Faulconer said attitude of Park Board toward Zoo was similar to its attitude toward the American Legion and former servicemen in general; Wegeforth said Park Board should be abolished.

April 7, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:3-6. Friends say sentiment in city is turning in favor of Amendment No. 6; voters urged to follow children.

April 7, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:1-8. At the polls today remember the police and the fireman, the city employees and the Zoo and vote “Yes” on Amendments Nos. 1, 4 and 6.

April 7, 1925, San Diego Union, 12:2-3. Charles Liftchild, former member of Spokane Park Board, urges citizens to vote yes on Amendment No. 6.

April 8, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:1-2. Bruschi, Weitzel, Maire elected to City Council; school bonds carry; zoo amendment lost; police, firemen win.

April 9, 1925, San Diego Union, 5:4-5. Mrs. Howard Dudley will tell stories to children at Balboa Park, Saturday, April 18, in that part of park adjacent to 6th and Laurel Streets.

April 9, 1925, San Diego Union, 10:1. 10th anniversary of San Diego Exposition held in 1915-16 brings to mind many colorful scenes of days when park was tourist mecca.

April 12, 1925, San Diego Union, 14:4. Easter festival to be held today at Spreckels Organ; recital by Dr. Stewart and soprano solos by Mrs. A. B. Starkey.


April 21, 1925, San Diego Union, 9:3. Truck men want their park road up Powder House Canyon; what has become of $5,000 allowed for thoroughfare asks Council; road would be used for heavy trucking not permitted on Pershing Drive; truck people were told to go to Park Board for what they want.

April 24, 1925, San Diego Union, 5:6. Directors of Chamber of Commerce confer with San Diego California Club regarding a representation at the Sesqui-Centennial Exposition to be held in Philadelphia; Colonel Collier urged representation.

April 24, 1925, San Diego Union, 9:7-8. George W. Marston, Wheeler J. Bailey and Reverend H. B. Bard asked City Council conference for annual funds to support San Diego Museum; Museum plans to move from its present quarters to a permanent building near the California Building; directors want to abolish admission fee; exhibit valued at nearly $200,000.

April 25, 1925, San Diego Union, 8:4-6 and April 26, 1925, Classified, 1:1, 4:1-2. Flower Fiesta with roses as queens shines today in resplendent Civic Auditorium.

April 25, 1925, San Diego Union, 22:1 and April 27, 1925, 3:4. American Legion Lyceum is planning to accommodate one of its biggest crowds tomorrow evening when a double program will be presented, including a music program and an address by Congressman Swing in War Memorial Building, Balboa Park.

April 27, 1925, San Diego Union, 5:5-6. Miss Kate O. Sessions writes engagingly from Europe.

April 27, 1925, San Diego Union, 9:6. Boy Scouts to hold field meet at Indian Village Friday evening.

April 28, 1925, San Diego Union, 22:2. Biggest roller coaster in world promised patrons of Mission Beach Amusement Center; Prior and Church to start work within 10 days (illus.).

April 30, 1925, San Diego Union, 12:2-3. Dr. Wegeforth returned from Mexico City yesterday.


May 3, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 5:4-5. Dr. Wegeforth, recently returned from Mexico City, will be followed by about ten crocodiles, porcupines, pheasants, parrots and turtles.

May 5, 1925, San Diego Union, 10:5. City Council appropriates $8,000 for installation of new water mains on 6th Street from Date to Upas Streets; City has no funds to pave half of street that abuts Balboa Park; a half-paved street along Balboa Park is generally regarded as an eyesore and a danger to traffic.

May 5, 1925, San Diego Union, 12:3. Humane Society gave Zoo critic, Richard Wolfe, small comfort; cruelty charge and demand for removal of President Wray because he is a member of the Board of Directors of the Zoo failed to score.

The fact that Richard Wolfe has not been and is not a member of the San Diego Humane Society did not prevent him yesterday from appearing before the board of directors, accusing the San Diego Zoological society of cruelty in its treatment of the zoo animals, and demanding that the humane society remove its president, D. D. Wray, because he is a member of the board of directors of the zoo, which he characterized as “the enemy,” and “the torture society.”

For some reason, however, Wolfe did not get much farther than the elephants that he complained were chained by their hind legs. Apparently the directors felt that Wray knew more about his job as Humane society president and as zoo director than Wolfe knew, and that the elephants may possibly be made happy without feather beds or Roman baths.

“I don’t care to go into the matter,” said Wolfe, after reading for five minutes letters that he had written to the press and which had been written in answer to his charges. “I just want to lay the matter before you,” he said, and then started in on a 15-minute attack on the management of the zoo and the fitness of Mr. Wray to serve as president of the society.

He objected that the elephants at the zoo were tied short by a chain on one leg, that they had neither food nor water, and that the day was hot. He objected, too, that there was no attendant taking care of them. He did not say definitely, but he inferred that the weather was much hotter than it is in the torrid zone from which the animals came. It was so hot, he said, that they were forced to stick their trunks down their throats to extract therefrom moisture with which to anoint their backs.

He was informed via the indirection of an answer published in the press that the elephants were tied outside while a concrete floor was being completed for the elephants to stand on. But nothing seemed to satisfy Wolfe.

“This is just an evasion by this man, Faulconer, whoever he is,” he said. “And besides it is a cruelty to make heavy animals stands on concrete all day. Think how their feet will hurt at night!

“I do not feel that our president is the proper person to serve as president while he is a director of the zoo. It was clever work by the enemy in making him a director of the torture society, so that this Humane society will not interfere. They have already been forced to take the main entrance out of the snake house. We were told that if the charter amendment was not passed the zoo would die. Well, I think it is on its death bed now.”

“I never go to the zoo because I don’t like it,” was the opening shot fired by Miss May Dillenbeck, who was there to hold up Wolfe’s hands. She concluded her remarks by declaring that she knows all about what is going on up there at the zoo.

“Dr. Wegeforth is just trying to shut us up by having our president on his board of directors,” she continued. “You will print only defenses of the zoo. A veterinarian should be in charge of the zoo, not a vivisectionist like Dr. Wegeforth. Untold cruelty is going on up there all the time. The forcible feeding of the anaconda is terrible.

Miss Dillenbeck was interrupted at this point, and told that it was a kindness to force-feed the big snake, and that it was done to save his life.

“That my be true,” she said, “but it need not be done in public. It is humiliating for the anaconda to be fed that way. After all, a serpent is a serpent.

“You will see that one of these days there will be strict laws that will prevent keeping any animals in captivity. There will not even be goldfish in bowls.

“And the worse is yet to come. The zoo says it is going to put up a hospital for animals. The tigers died from neglect and so have other animals. That hospital will not be for sick animals. It will be for vivisection, for experiment on our dogs and cats. And we will soon be hearing the heart-rending howls of anguish from that hospital when we go to the park. Oh, I know all about that place!”

There was a moment of silence before Mr. Wray arose to defend himself against the charge of being a director of the zoo.

“I did not know,” he said, “that there was any such terrible place in the park. I do not think Dr. Wegeforth knows all about this ‘cruelty.’ I was under the impression that the zoo is a real asset to the city and an educational exhibit. I visit it at lease once a week, and I have never seen any cruelty.”

One member of the Humane society directorate immediately arouse and expressed her confidence in President Wray and in the zoo. She expressed pleasure at the thought that the Humane society and its ideals were so well represented on the directorate of the zoo. She apparently expressed the feelings of the other directors, for the subject was dropped. Wolfe, not being a member of the organization, was hardly in a position to move the removal of the president. Instead, he rose majestically and announced that he had intended to ask for a Humane officer’s star, but that he did not care to represent an organization with the attitude expressed and he would not honor it by wearing the star. Thus speaking, he left the room, and the meeting adjourned.

May 8, 1925, San Diego Union, 7:3. Fine Arts Society of San Diego filed incorporation papers yesterday with County Clerk.

May 9, 1923, San Diego Union, 1:3-6. Tender love scenes in Balboa Park viewed by youths from camouflaged hiding place; certain secluded spot in Balboa Park much frequented by spooners; police pried out of the youths a list of names of the “lovers,” which now reposes in Police Department safe.

May 10, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. Wallabies and Wallaroos, Wombats and Tasmanian Devils coming to San Diego Zoo.

May 10, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:2-3. San Diego will pay fitting tribute to mothers in program at Organ Pavilion in Balboa Park this afternoon; Sciots Band of 52 pieces to be assisted by Carol Club of 50 voices.

May 13, 1925, San Diego Union, 7:3. Women’s Civic Center plans reception to mark opening of Persimmon Room of Civic Auditorium (illus.).

May 14, 1925, San Diego Union, 8:3-4. Playground Department to hold annual May Festival Saturday on lawn in rear of Montezuma Gardens.

May 15, 1925, San Diego Union, 11:4-5. Dr. Harry Wegeforth, Zoological Society president, opposes Dr. Edgar Hewett’s plan to unite San Diego Museum, Natural History Museum, Zoological Gardens, Civic Auditorium and others activities in Balboa Park under one management.

May 20, 1925, San Diego Union, 9:1. Souvenir Guide Book on Balboa Park published under authority of Park Commissioners will be on sale in the park.

May 20, 1925, San Diego Union, 11:1. U. S. Mine Sweeper Ortolan brings several species of birds from off west Mexican coast for San Diego Zoo; joint project of Mexican and American scientists.

May 23, 1925, San Diego Union, 7:3. Judge Chambers upheld Park Board’s traffic ordinance banning merchandise deliveries in Balboa Park by truck without permission from Park Board.

May 24, 1925, San Diego Union, 22:4-5. Kate Sessions recounts interesting sights in Rome.

May 29, 1925, San Diego Union, 7:4. American Legion Lyceum invites public to honor dead; impressive memorial services will be held in Balboa Park Sunday evening at War Memorial Building auditorium; Naval Training Station Band will give concert.

May 30, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:7-8, 3:1-2. Mission Beach dedication attracts thousands.

May 30, 1925, San Diego Union, 13:1-2 and May 31, 1925, Classified, 1:2-4, 3:8. San Diego to honor Civil War veterans today, Saturday; City will pay tribute to survivors of Grand Army of the Republic and departed soldiers; big parade; march to Organ Pavilion where services will be held; program at American Legion Building Sunday evening.

May 31, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:5, 3:2. Twelve new animals arrive at local zoo from India; time requires 6 months through many tangles in federal regulations.

May 31, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 3:3-4. Kate Sessions writes of visit to St. Paul’s at Rome and to Church of St. Francis of Assisi.


June 2, 1925, San Diego Union, 12:1. John Nolen, city planner, is employed to beautify park; to get $5,000 for detailing improvements; $1,500 to come out of park funds and $3,500 from private citizen subscription.

June 3, 1925, San Diego Union, 12:4-5. Elks plan big patriotic program in Balboa Park on Flag Day, Sunday, June 14; Carl H. Heilbron, chairman.

June 4, 1925, San Diego Union, 7:4. Zoo attendants needed at park; Zoo authorities have asked Civil Service Commission for a foreman and two new animal attendants.

June 7, 1925, San Diego Union, 8:3-4. Zoo offers $20 reward for capture of escaped stork.

June 10, 1925, San Diego Union, 5:2. Zoological Society to safe lives of 40 starving animals; agrees to take move collection in Idaho as humanitarian act.

June 12, 1925, San Diego Union, 8:5-6. San Diego Museum will reopen tomorrow, public invited; reorganization made possible by building of new art gallery; some of finest collections in world are now shown in new quarters, by Edgar L. Hewett.

June 14, 1925, San Diego Union, 5:5-6. Seals, sea lions, pelicans, cormorants arrive at Zoo today from Coronado Islands.

June 14, 1925, San Diego Union, 10:2-3. Paris Exposition seeking to discover modern style.

June 20, 1925, San Diego Union, 11:4. Three High School orchestras to unite for concert at Organ Pavilion tomorrow, Sunday, afternoon.

June 21, 1925, San Diego Union, 5:4. Combined elementary, high school bands gave semi-annual concert at Organ Pavilion last Tuesday afternoon (illus.).

June 21, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:4-5. Handicap of wounded Adjutant Stork fails to retard births as new Zoo residents arrive; bird found near Santee badly wounded; investigation at Zoo showed bird had been shot.

June 22, 1925, San Diego Union, 10:3-4. Forty animals and birds, once property of motion picture star, housed at San Diego Zoo.

June 25, 1925, San Diego Union, 5:5 and June 26, 1925, 1:4, 3:2-3. San Diego Senior High School graduation of 338 students at Organ Pavilion today.

June 28, 1925, San Diego Union, 2:1-4. Photograph of roller coast under construction at Mission Beach.

June 28, 1925, San Diego Union, 7:4-5. Dr. Ray Hastings of Los Angeles will give organ recital today in Balboa Park.

June 28, 1925, San Diego Union, 13:5-7. Strange tropical animals and bears from polar region are Zoo’s latest additions.

June 28, 1925, San Diego Union, 20:1-2. Ninth letter in travel series by Kate O. Sessions describes her visits to Brussels, Rotterdam, Leyden.

June 28, 1925, San Diego Union, Society-Club, 1:8. Balboa Park chapel scene of wedding.


July 4, 1925, San Diego Union, 5:5-6. Zoo gets permit to capture female elephant seal in Mexico; expedition seen to leave for only known herd of such animals.

July 4, 1925, San Diego Union, 10:4-5. San Diego Zoo offers cash prizes to amateur snake collectors.

July 5, 1925, San Diego Union, 11:3-4. 10th in a series of letters by Kate O. Sessions describes Rotterdam, Haarlem, Amsterdam.

July 5, 1925, San Diego Union, Society-Club, 3:5-7. Trip through park academy uncovers artists in making; summer session just opened; by Julian Brovold.

July 5, 1925, San Diego Union, Society-Club, 8:3-4. Vast building activities going on to improve Naval Hospital here; description of various departments and a resume of one month’s financial output, by Wilmar Francis Minor.

July 9, 1925, San Diego Union, 8:4-5. Lions, leopards and tigers at Zoo are getting hungry, old nags wanted to feed them.

July 12, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 4:4-5. Gladys Hollingsworth will give organ concerts three times weekly during the absence of Dr. Stewart.

July 12, 1925, San Diego Union, 7:5-6. Mr. and Mrs. Lyman J. Gage of Point Loma gave reception and musicale Friday evening at the Art Center in Balboa Park; 400 invited guests.

July 14, 1925, San Diego Union, 9:1-2. Dr. Harry Wegeforth, Zoo president, tells club men his impressions of Mexico in Hammer luncheon travelogue.

July 15, 1925, San Diego Union, 10:3-4. Garden fete to be given in patio of Civic Auditorium Saturday afternoon, July 25, for the Nazareth house, new orphan’s home.

July 19, 1925, San Diego Union, 15:4. Big collection of snakes kept in park; campers urged to familiarize themselves with kinds of rattlers found in state.

July 19, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:6-7. “Diablo,” zoo python, to swim again today and keep right on swimming until he eats.

July 19, 1925, San Diego Union, Society -Club, 11:3-6. Park Place vested choir will given program of music at Organ Pavilion today.

July 20, 1925, San Diego Union, 10:5. Book prepared by Publicity Committee of the Balboa Park Auditorium Association to commemorate 10th anniversary of Panama-California Exposition to be called “A Book of Memories” by Lillian Pray Palmer, editor.

July 21, 1925, San Diego Union, 6:3. John S. Baughman, chairman of Liberty Bell Publicity Committee, during visit here, praised Colonel Collier for work he has done in eastern city for Exposition celebration.

July 25, 1925, San Diego Union, 11:2-3. Honolulu zoo trades gazelles for local lions, porcupines, bear, foxes, badgers and eagles.

July 26, 1925, San Diego Union, 16:1-2 Tormented chimpanzees spit water at lawless zoo visitors; special police protection is asked for animals; rule breakers face arrest.

July 31, 1925, San Diego Union, 10:2-4. Photographs of Constance Dolores School of Art Dancing who will present a patriotic dance program this afternoon at Organ Pavilion.



August 2, 1925, San Diego Union, 12:1-3. Letter from Kate O. Sessions describing Strasbourg, Lucerne.

August 4, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:4, 1:5. Mayor Bacon demands explanation of rental of city beaches to persons charging tolls; Councilman Louis Maire protests action of Park Commission in leasing certain beach lands to private individuals.

August 4, 1925, San Diego Union, 4:3. Two feminine sleuths to protect Balboa Park patrons from men annoyers; Council adopted an ordinance yesterday providing of two women detectives for duty in the playground; men are said to be luring young girls to the park; the men who have been annoying women and children are those the authorities are after.

August 14, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:8, 2:1 and August 16, 1925, Classified, 1:3 (with drawing).

“Park Manor,” $750,000 apartment, will be built here; structure will have 82 suites; 6-story building at Spruce and Park Avenue to have every convenience known; Rogan and Company, representing a syndicate including the First National Bank, the Security Commercial and Savings Bank, and Stephens and Company, to construct; building design by Frank P. Allen, Jr.

August 14, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 13:1, August 15, 1925, 22:1 and August 16, 1925, 1:6-7. John D. Spreckels to be honored on his birthday next Sunday by musical program at Organ Pavilion; Carl H. Heilbron handling details.

August 16, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 4:1-2. The unlucky 13th forced feeding of “Diablo,” the Zoo python, this afternoon may result in his death.

August 17, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:8, 2:2-3. Crowd honors John D. Spreckels on his 72nd birthday (illus.).

August 23, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:3-5. San Diegans throng audience to view 19th annual fall flower display.

August 23, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 6:3-6. Ernest Pickering announces plans for new $1,000,000 pleasure pier at Pacific Beach (illus.).

August 23, 1925, San Diego Union, Development, 1:8, 2:2. Richard S. Requa, architect, advises city to follow styles set by padres; wants a Southern California style inspired by the missions, the architecture of the Mediterranean countries, the colonial style of Mexico, and the Indian pueblos of the southwest.

August 27, 1925, San Diego Union, 8:5. San Diego Zoo proves money made in two years; net profit of $3,193.37 is realized by Zoological Society; auditor’s report of 7-month period that closed July 31; operating cost $19,899; Wegeforth plans to take Faulconer’s place as director when Faulconer retires September 1; will save director’s salary of $5,000 a year; net worth of Zoo was $250,000.

August 30, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:7. Aged man drops to death from Cabrillo Bridge.

August 30, 1925, San Diego Union, 16:2-7. Photograph of new Fine Arts Gallery.

August 30, 1925, San Diego Union, Development, 8:1-2. Gardens of Gunn Home in Coronado, designed by Requa and Jackson, reflect style of Alcazar Gardens in Spain.


September 1, 1925, San Diego Union, 7:3. Council resents Realty Board’s protest; the Park Commission and not the City Council was responsible for granting a lease of city beach lands to private interests near Torrey Pines.

September 13, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:4. Zoo entertains old folks, Edgemoor farm inmates are grateful for day of pleasure in Balboa Park.

September 13, 1925, San Diego Union, Development, 2. Requa said homes in Southern California should express unity and harmony in a distinctive style; disapproves of ornate and freakish buildings (illus.).

September 16, 1925, San Diego Union, 3:4. Judge Frank C. Collier, younger brother of Colonel D. C. Collier, presided as judge of Department No. 1 of the Superior Court in San Diego in the absence of Judge J. M. Marsh; Collier is a judge of the Superior Court of Los Angeles.

September 18, 1925, San Diego Union, 9;4. Citing poor health, Hugo Klauber resigns from Park Board.

September 19, 1925, San Diego Union, 5:4-5 and September 20, 1925, Classified, 2:3-5. Lions Club to give old folks trip to zoo and sightseeing drive.

September 19, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 13:4. Richard A. Addison will assist Dr. Harry Wegeforth in administration work at Zoo.

September 20, 1925, San Diego Union, 5:5-6. W. H. Curtiss, M. D., urges establishment of state societies building in park.

September 20, 1925, San Diego Union, Development, 6:2-4. What Constitutes a Home, by Richard S. Requa.

September 20, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:2-7. Queer pets delight visitors to Zoo; tame wildcat, skunk and monkeys entertain children and grownups.

September 20, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 4:7. San Diego County Fair in Balboa Park, September 30 to October 3, to present daily rodeo.

September 23, 1925, San Diego Union, 15:4. Miss Gertrude Gilbert and Miss Bess Gilbert were hostesses at a luncheon held recently in the Japanese tea garden in Balboa Park for the executive board of the Amphion Club.

September 24, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:8. United States to spend $500,000 on Naval Hospital here; new group of buildings will be constructed on 5.25 acres of park land recently donated to government by San Diego; 5 officers’ quarters, isolation ward, hospital corpsmen’s school and dormitory.

September 27, 1925, San Diego Union, 16:1-5. Dr. Wegeforth recognizes three birds at Zoo as Southern American tinamous.

September 27, 1925, San Diego Union, Development, 5:3-6. Architecture and Home by Richard Requa: The more simple and unadorned a building can be, especially a residence and express its purpose with pleasing lines and good proportions, the greater is its architectural merit.

September 28, 1925, San Diego Union, 5:2. Dr. Harry Wegeforth took Dr. Roy Campbell’s place at First Congregational Church last night and spoke on kindness to animals.

September 30, 1925, San Diego Union, 8:1. Board of Education accepts Campbell Construction Company bid for completion of high school auditorium at $109,923; fireproof and equipped to sea 2,400,

September 30, 1925, San Diego Union, 9:1. Seventh County Fair opens in Balboa Park today; Chamber of Commerce will give ball in Civic Auditorium tonight welcoming men of the Pacific fleet; tomorrow night the Fair will stage a barn dance in the Auditorium.


October 1, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. San Diego horses make beautiful exhibition at County Fair’s first night.

October 1, 1925, San Diego Union, 7:1. John Nolen in letter to Howard Angler of the City Planning Commission asserts city progress has been made; work he is doing for San Diego is slow but gratifying; he is paid $10,000 for his services, $7,500 of which he has already received.

October 1, 1925, San Diego Union, 8:1-7. Thousands attend opening of annual County Fair; horse show, rodeo and industrial demonstrations.

October 1, 1925, San Diego Union, 24:3-4. Three thousand sailors of destroyer force dance at Civic Auditorium.

October 2, 1925, San Diego Union, 8:1-6. Escondido takes agricultural sweepstakes; second day County Fair marked by larger attendance than opening; estimated more than 10,000 passed through gates.

October 4, 1925, San Diego Union, 2:1-5. Idea that San Diego Zoo is self-supporting exploded; gets its reward by providing educational features; starts 1925 with debt of $26,000; donations reduce amount to $13,000; operating costs always in excess of combined receipts for its varied activities, by Dr. Harry Wegeforth.

Judging from the comments one hears at the ticket window of the San Diego zoo in Balboa Park, many people have somehow developed the idea that the zoo is self-supporting and is being conducted as any other business for monetary profit. But such is not the case, and financial gain has never been the aim of the Zoological society.

The zoo started the year of 1925 with a debt of $26,000, but through the generosity of a public-spirited citizen and the rental of some animals, which included the camels given to the zoo by the local Shriners sometime ago, this debt has been reduced to $13,000.

The operating cost of the zoo has always been in excess of the total of the combined receipts obtained from all of its many sources of revenue. It has been necessary to depend largely upon the charitableness of certain San Diego citizens, who have had the welfare of the zoo so much at heart ever since its earliest conception that they have contributed generously and continuously, and with the realization that they were aiding one of the finest of San Diego’s public institutions.

Such an institution as this one is not usually founded as a money-making proposition. Greater results than mere financial rewards may be and are accomplished through the maintenance of all educational projects. And in this day and age, when the native fauna of this and all other countries is fast disappearing, it is only through such organizations as zoological societies that the general public may received satisfactory and pleasurable enlightenment along the lines of animal life and history.

A list of the expenditures necessary to the upkeep of the zoo would include many items foreign to the average livestock business. Aside from the expenses connected with the department of administration, the corps of attendants, the feeding and housing of animals, and other more obvious needs, it is necessary to provide for new buildings, the building and repair of roads, comfort stations, benches, and for the care of the landscape, many of these things are not included when the expenses of the ordinary stock business are being itemized.

But while the zoo has not realized financially on its investment, it has known a greater profit than any material gain. It has accomplished that toward which it has directed every effort, the education and amusement of thousands of interested persons. Young and old alike take keen pleasure in watching and studying the many exhibits which are found here, and the splendid quarters which have been provided for the animals add to the enjoyment of the visitors. The naturalistic and barless quarters which have been built for many of the animals have meant greater expense than the ordinary, old-style, iron-barred cage would mean, but the satisfaction of seeing the animals so much at home offsets the difference in the cost of construction.

The location of the zoo grounds has provided a picturesque setting for the hundreds of specimens on exhibition, but the recent work of widening the canyon paths into broad walks has added greatly to the pleasure of a jaunt over the trail that takes in all of the zoo. The benches that are placed near the cages afford an opportunity for relaxation while watching the animals, and hundreds of trees, vines and shrubs, which have been planted, will in the near future provide shade and add beauty to the surroundings.

These things mean added expense, but all are necessary to the welfare of the zoo. Innumerable smaller items constantly present themselves for consideration; some to be ignored, others of necessity to be undertaken.

And each one prevents to some extent the realization of any profit, financially speaking. The zoo is still many thousands of dollars in debt, and expects to be for some time to come.

Although it is not generally known, and the zoo officials modestly refuse to crow much about the matter, they have through their anti-venom distribution department, actually saved six human lives in San Diego county from the fatal effects of rattlesnake bite. Each year 200 people in the United States meet death through the bite of venomous snakes, and the heads of the zoo feel that if, through their knowledge of the snake and its deadly bite, they can lessen the percentage by one life, they have rendered a service to mankind that can hardly be reckoned in dollars and cents.

Mr. and Mrs. Patrick F. O’Rourke certainly were not anticipating any interest on investment when, at a personal cost of between $40,000 and $50,000, they purchased two of the Exposition buildings, moved them across the road into the zoo grounds, and put them in first-class condition, decorated and equipped them, and presented them to the Zoological society.

One of these buildings is used as the zoo’s administration and concession building, and the other as a Junior Zoo, where children are to be taught the life history and habits of the animals of the world by Dr. W. H. Raymenton, a noted educator.

The people of San Diego should take great pride in claiming Miss Ellen B. Scripps as a fellow citizen. Miss Scripps has given liberally to the zoological work in the past, and has recently made possible the establishment of a zoological research and biological study building, which is to be erected next year upon the zoo grounds. Here will be a place where men, scientifically inclined, may study after completing their college work to fit themselves for a life of service to mankind. When this great institution and the Junior Zoo . . . . [are] functioning, San Diego can proudly boast of having the greatest and most outstanding zoo in the world. Nothing like it has ever before been attempted. Certainly the dollars sign could hardly be the god or one who could conceive and foster and work for such an enterprise.

The result of scientific research is not remuneration in dollars. A man who devotes his life to such study does so in the full knowledge that he is destined to remain a poor man as the wealth of the world is reckoned, but he is vastly wealthy in the satisfaction of knowing that he is performing a great and unselfish service to humanity.

For the modest admission fee of 10 cents the zoo offers no apology. Animal food costs money and the animals must be fed. As for the zoo paying dividends over and above the operating cost, the though is absurd, and a glance around the garden of the thousand or so of exhibits will bring the realization of its absurdity.

But, as has been said before, the zoo has never hoped for monetary reward. The knowledge that it has been of educational value to the children and grown-ups of San Diego, adding materially to their scientific knowledge, and that through its collecting excursions and the general interest it has aroused in outdoor things, as well as through its spacious exhibition grounds, it has provided outdoor recreation which keeps healthy children healthy and makes weak children strong, all this means the greatest profit, the only reward for which the San Diego Zoological society has ever striven.

October 4, 1925, San Diego Union, Development, 2:2-5, 7:8. Richard Requa says avoid shames in home construction.

October 4, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 8:4. County Fair attendance exceeds 30,000 horse show awards last night.

October 4, 1925, San Diego Union, Society-Club, 9:4-5. Letter from Biarritz by Kate O. Sessions.

October 6, 1925, San Diego Union, 3:5. Board of Education plans greater use of Balboa Park Stadium for physical education of San Diego school children.

October 8, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:6, 2:6. City Auditing Committee disputed right of Park Commissioners to spend city funds for silver loving cups; trophy in city golf championship tournament from Jessop and Sons cost $25.

October 9, 1925, San Diego Union, 7:1. Sciots to hold novel initiation on Zoo grounds tomorrow night.

October 11, 1925, San Diego Union, 10:2-3. West Coast producers has rented one of Balboa Park buildings from Park Department.

October 11, 1925, San Diego Union, 14:1-8. Three Indian girls present scenes of primitive life at Art Center Auditorium in former New Mexico Building.

October 11, 1925, San Diego Union, 16:2-5. Four European storks received at San Diego Zoo (illus.).

October 11, 1925, San Diego Union, Development, 7:1-4. Bungalow Book Bungles, by Richard Requa: If this passion for quirks and vagaries is not restrained, I shudder at the prospect of our buildings five years hence.

October 15, 1925, San Diego Union, 4:4-5. George W. Marston guest of honor at Pomona College 38th birthday celebration held at Café Cabrillo last evening.

October 15, 1925, San Diego Union, 9:2-3. R. D. Hodges, field representative of Pacific Rural Press, gives San Diego County Fair high praise.

October 18, 1925, San Diego Union, 7:3-5. “Mickey,” a young bull elk, joins doe and calf at Zoo (illus.).

October 18, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:4. John F. Forward, Jr. elected president of Park Board; William Templeton Johnson and E. N. Jones are other Board members.

October 18, 1925, San Diego Union, Development, 3:1-4. R. O. Young, sales manager of D. C. Collier Realty organization, announces a concentrated sales campaign on all types of Point Loma property.

October 18, 1925, San Diego Union, Development, 8:1-3, 9:3-7. Richard S. Requa answers questions from readers.

October 20, 1925, San Diego Union, 5:2. School Board bans “Russ” as name for High School; members act favorably on petition of teachers students and Parent Teachers Association.

October 21, 1925, San Diego Union, 8:4. U. S. Marines to get bronze tablet from San Diego Zoo in acknowledgment of gifts on numerous specimens.

October 21, 1925, San Diego Union, 15:3. An exhibition of painting and sculpture of local artists is now being held in Art Center in the New Mexico Building, Balboa Park.

October 22, 1925, San Diego Union, 5:4-5. In an address before San Diego Realty members at Café Cabrillo yesterday, Richard S. Requa urged San Diego to follow Spanish type of architecture.

October 25, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:6. Naval Hospital will open to Public October 27, Navy Day; the hospital now has 750 beds; during coming year this will be increased to 1,000; an average of 600 patients at present.

October 25, 1925, San Diego Union, Development. San Diego’s Great Opportunity, by Richard S. Requa.

October 25, 1925, San Diego Union, Society Club. 3:3-4. Art gems at gallery in New Mexico Building, by R. E. D.

October 30, 1925, San Diego Union, 7:1-3. Annual Kennel Club display at County Fair Building today.

October 30, 1925, San Diego Union, 11:1-3. Following advent of four white storks, baby water buffalo arrives at Zoo Friday morning (illus.).

October 30, 1925, San Diego Union, 16:8. Colonel D. C. Collier resigned today at director-general of Sesqui-Centennial Exposition; threatened suits of exhibitors who spent large sums of money in equipment against City of Philadelphia because of cancellation of agreement for exhibit space; building program curtailed.

The program was cut at the suggestion of Mayor Kendrick from seven buildings to cost $12,000,000 to two exhibit buildings and an auditorium to cost $3,000,000. Collier will remain with the organization in an advisory capacity until December.

October 31, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:2, 5:3. J. L. Frothingham, dog show judge, dies suddenly at Balboa park.


November 1, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:1. New Spreckels building on Broadway between 6th and 7th Streets to start December 1, cost of $2,000,000; John and Donald Parkinson, architects.

November 1, 1925, San Diego Union, 2:4-5. Nature walks, excursions and lectures to be Natural History Museum features.

November 1, 1925, San Diego Union, 8:3. Collection of parrots on exhibition at Zoo to be sent to Taronga Park Zoo, Sydney, Australia.

November 1, 1925, San Diego Union, Society-Club, 1:2-4. American Legion Auxiliary will give benefit bridge tea at War Memorial Building; proceeds to be used to continue relief work at Camp Kearny.

November 1, 1925, San Diego Union, Society-Club. Captain L. M. Taylor, chaplain of 11th Naval District, addressed Women’s Civic Center on relief work of Naval Aid Society at Civic Auditorium.

November 1, 1925, San Diego Union, Society Club. 14:3. Catholic Charities Ball to be given November 20 at Civic Auditorium.

November 2, 1925, San Diego Union, 10:2. Boy Scouts plan Court of Honor session at Indian Village Friday.

November 3, 1925, San Diego Union, 5:6. School Board would cut cost of new Russ Auditorium by eliminating “superfluous ornament and equipment”; architect Lincoln Rogers said plan would make building look like a barn.

November 4, 1925, San Diego Union, 14:4-6. Committee of Lions delegated to re-roof two buildings at Girl Scout Headquarters, Balboa Park (illus.).

November 4, 1925, San Diego Union, 16:1-2 and November 8, 1925, 17:1. A bronze tablet in memory of World War dead of San Diego County, gift of General and Mrs. Marshall O. Terry of Coronado, is being installed on north wall of American Legion Building in Balboa Park; formal dedication will take place

Sunday, November 15.

November 6, 1925, San Diego Union, 26:4. South side of California tower in Balboa Park was illuminated last night for first time since exposition days; lights arranged by G. H. P. Dellman of Gas Company.

November 8, 1925, San Diego Union, Development. Selecting a site for a home, by Richard S. Requa.

November 8, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 5:3. Weird call of white-handed gibbon greets break of day in Zoological Gardens (illus.).

November 10, 1925, San Diego Union, 16:1. Mayor and City Council clash over park fund; Councilman Maire made a motion that the mayor be “instructed” to direct the Park Commission to spend some of its funds on the east side of Balboa Park; Mayor Bacon responded: “The Park Board is not taking any instruction from the mayor and the mayor is not taking any instructions from the Council.”

Park Board has neglected Pershing Drive and the east side of the park. The Council decided that $4,000 should be spent at once to widen and beautify Pershing Drive.

November 15, 1925, San Diego Union, 2:2. Echidna, link between birds and mammals, one of oddest creatures found in zoo.

November 15, 1925, San Diego Union, 22:2. Former mayor Louis J. Wilde donated $99 to Mercy Hospital community wing campaign; he had already donated $1200, but did not want to make it $1300 as it is an unlucky number.

November 15, 1925, San Diego Union, Development, 1:4-5. Spanish-style house designed by Requa and Jackson for Marston Harding of Boston is being constructed on cliffs near Del Mar.

November 15, 1925, San Diego Union, Development, 4:1. Financing the home, by Richard S. Requa.

November 15, 1925, San Diego Union, Development, 4:7. Drawing of home designed by Requa for Edward S. White at Rancho Santa Fe.

November 15, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1, 4:1-2. Memorial to World War dead will be unveiled here today.

November 16, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:8, 2:5-6 and November 24, 1925, 26:1-2. Impressive ceremonies dedicates War Memorial; “Lest We Forget” key to service; bronze bears 190 names of San Diego heroes (illus.).

November 17, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:7-8. Council will bar trucks near park; done on petition of prominent citizens including George W. Marston, Hugo Klauber, Frank J. Belcher, Jr., O. E. Hodge and I. I. Irwin.

November 17, 1925, San Diego Union, 8:1-2. Lack of field space handicaps high school; Board to ask Park Commission for new contract with broader provisions and perhaps construction of new playground.

November 20, 1925, San Diego Union, Development, 7:2-5. General considerations for planning the home, by Richard S. Requa.

November 23, 1925, San Diego Union, 20:1-2. Dr. Wegeforth says Zoo reptiles get regular soaks.

November 25, 1925, San Diego Union, 19:1. Russian string quartet plans appearance at Yorick Theater evenings of November 30 and December 8.

November 26, 1926, San Diego Union, 1:1, 2:2-5. City Auditorium burns; Balboa Park building completely destroyed by spectacular blaze; flames started from oil-fed furnace; former exposition structure demolished just before Firemen’s Annual Ball; insured for $12,000.

Fire that started in the oil-fed furnace completely destroyed the Civic Auditorium early last evening. So rapid was the spread of the fire and so fierce were the flames that the building was doomed before a single piece of fire apparatus reached the park.

Nine companies surrounded the blazing structure but, although the firemen risked their lives to get into advantageous positions, they were unable to do more than keep the flames within the building and force the walls to fall in rather than out onto the streets. Only $12,000 insurance was carried on the building and furniture, and it is estimated the structure could not be replaced for less than $120,000.

The fire started about 7 o’clock as the auditorium was being made ready for the annual Firemen’s Ball. Had it occurred an hour later some loss of life would have been almost inevitable, for the dance floor would have been crowded with revelers and the streets about the building, needed for the use of fire apparatus, would have been filled with parked automobiles.

With the flare-back of the oil furnace that heated the building, the flames seemed to mount at once to the roof according to those first on the scene. The walls, the whole roof and the cornice surrounding the roof were all aflame with almost miraculous speed. The flames shot hundreds of feet into the air and were seen in all parts of the city before they had 15 minutes start. Almost immediately people began to pour into the park from all directions by automobile, afoot and on the street cars. All available police were rushed to the fire, and a group of Boy Scouts were organized to help the police keep the thronging spectators behind the fire lines.

Despite the streams of water that were poured onto and into the building as rapidly as the fire companies were swung into action, the battle was lost before it started. The water seemed hardly to lessen the intensity of the flames and at one time an aerial ladder, on which the firemen were directing a hose through the roof, caught fire and had to be wet down. There were times when one company or another seemed for a moment to have mastered the fire in one section of the building, but the blaze broke out with renewed vigor as the towers, walls and cornices crashed into the flaming pit of the auditorium.

Two sailors who had gone into the park early to attend the ball were the first to enter the blazing building. While the early arriving spectators lined the walks and shouted warnings, the two men — W. A. Pickney and R. J. Zeller — crashed the front doors and made a dash for the big United States flag with which the auditorium was decorated. They tore down the flags and pennants as fast as they could until the smoke was so thick they could hardly find their way out and there was imminent danger that the roof might fall in on them. Pickney, a third-class fireman, is attached to the electrical school at the naval training station, and Zeller is a seaman attached to the battleship Mississippi.

Among the fortunate aspects of the fire is that fact that there were no serious injuries. Company No. 2 was in the greatest danger with a post at the north or back side of the auditorium. Ladders were up and the men were on the roof pouring water into the holocaust below them. Other members of the company were in the arcade trying to work through the back door. Someone felt the trembling of the roof and gave warning just in time for the men to jump back from danger before the roof fell in. The margin between life and death was a matter of about two seconds.

There was another narrow escape on the same side of the building when some men were trying to sal____ furniture through a small ______ door. Two men were in the ______ room when an ominous cracking warned them that a section of the cornice some 30 feet long was about to fall. The door to the room was blocked with chairs and it was with difficulty that the men forced their way to safety just as the blazing timbers fell behind them. An instant later the iron stack from the furnace fell away from its burned supports and crashed down where Company 3 had escaped only a few minutes before. Again there was a scurrying for safety and a group of firemen got out from under just in time.

The only injury reported was to Captain F. W. Haslam of Company 11, who had a finger of his left hand painfully cut by a falling timber, and would have been seriously hurt if not fatally injured, but for his helmet which turned the blow. Captain Haslam’s injury was dressed by Dr. C. E. Rees, department surgeon, who was on duty at the fire.

Another fortunate feature of the fire was that the slight breeze that was drifting in from the northwest carried the gigantic pillar of flames, sparks and blazing bits of wood to the southeast and away from every other building in the park. An easterly breeze would have made it difficult if not impossible to save the county fair building and then the other buildings in line to the west and south, including the American Legion War Memorial building and the Natural History museum which houses a collection which probably could not be replaced for less than a quarter of a million dollars.

With the wind making no trouble for them the fire fighters were able to concentrate their efforts on the civic auditorium, and, as section after section of the walls toppled inward, they gained gradual mastery of the flames. The last section to fall was the northwest corner. After that crashed down it was just a question of pouring in enough water to flood the wrecked interior and put out any stray fires concealed in the debris. The southwest corner remained standing as did parts of the front wall and all of the lower section of the east wall, but these leaned dangerously and will probably be pushed over as soon as possible to protect those who will find it necessary to inspect the ruins.

Perfect cooperation between the various companies of firemen, the police, civilian deputies, and boy scouts made the battle as effective as it could possibly be. Many of the firemen were off duty at the time the fire started and were dressed in their best uniforms ready to attend their annual social function. These men were conspicuous in the fire, joined with their properly armored comrades in every kind of dangerous and dirty work.

While the fire was still at its height, Assistant General Manager Neil Brown of the Mission Beach Amusement Company sent word to Fire Chief Louis Algren, that the Mission Beach casino would be available to the firemen without cost if they desired to proceed at once with the annual ball as soon as the fire should be extinguished. The chief declined the offer with thanks, explaining that the men would be in no condition to conduct such an affair properly after the strenuous work of the evening. He expressed his appreciation for the offer and for the promptness with which it was made.

The department was put to a severe test during the evening for while every effort was being directed toward the extinguishing of the fire in the auditorium, another alarm was turned in from 2420 Madison Avenue. It was reported that two cottages were afire, and Chief Algren immediately dispatched a battalion chief and two companies. They found, however, that only one cottage was involved, the property of David McAllister. The flames were easily extinguished and the cottage was only partly destroyed. A whole block of cottages was threatened, however, and the prompt work of the fireman probably prevented a second bad fire. This blaze is said to have been started when McAllister attempted to clean some clothes with gasoline.

Shortly after the two companies had been sent to this second fire, the spectators were startled to see a bright red flare in the northern sky, obviously a third fire. The crowd started to desert the fading fire in the park in expectation of a new thrill, but someone remembered that the state college students were burning a monster bonfire on the athletic field to generate enthusiasm for today’s football game.

There was no more beautiful building in the exposition group than the Civic auditorium, known in the exposition days as the Southern Counties building. It was in this stately structure of exquisite Spanish design that the counties of the glorious southland exhibited their choicest products to the thousands of visitors who flocked to San Diego in 1915-16.

It was estimated last night, after the raging flames had reduced the structure to charred timbers and ashes, that it could not be replaced for less than $120,000. Insurance on the auditorium amounted to only $10,000 with an additional $2,000 carried on the furniture used in the building.

At the close of the exposition in 1916, the Southern Counties building was turned over to the board of park commissioners, who in turned conveyed the use of the structure to the federal government in connection with the naval training station then established in Balboa park. During the war days it was a disbursing and supply base for the naval trainees and a part of the large ground floor area was used as a storeroom for naval clothing. At various times clothing valued at more than $1,000,000 was stored in the north wing of the building.

With the end of the war, the building reverted to the board of park commissioners, and in 1920 that body, petitioned by a group of women prominent in the work of the Women’s Civic Center, to convert the structure into a civic auditorium for public use. Among the group of women who initiated and aided this change were Miss Alice Lee, Mrs. Dalla G. Haman, Miss Gertrude Gilbert and Mrs. Lillian Pray Palmer. Their request was granted by the park board and the building became known as the Balboa Park Civic auditorium.

Under its new name it gained national prominence as one of the finest structures on the Pacific coast for the holding of big conventions and important public gatherings. It was the scene of state conclaves of various civic and fraternal organizations and within its walls were held political assemblies, grand balls and holiday events in addition to many lectures and public entertainments. It was also a meeting place for many local civic bodies.

In 1922, the committee of women in charge of the auditorium was reorganized under the name of the Balboa Park Auditorium association, of which Mrs. Haman was president in 1922-34 and Miss Lee president from that time to date. Following reorganization of the committee, steps were take to rehabilitate the civic auditorium and in the last five years women members have raised more than $40,000 for this purpose.

Under their direction a new floor was installed, a new roof was laid, a modern heating plant was built and five kitchens were thoroughly equipped for the handling of large banquets and dinners.

Businessmen of the city in 1923 were of the opinion that other exposition buildings near the auditorium could not be rehabilitated, but spurred on by the results obtained by the women’s group in improving the auditorium, they succeeded in raising about $110,000 which was used to restore the American Legion building, the Art building, the Natural History museum and the County Fair building.

Miss Lee said last night that steps would be taken immediately seeking the erection of a new and modern Civic auditorium, preferably on the same site. Besides Miss Lee, officers of the association include Mrs. George McKenzie, first vice president; Mrs. Lydia Fo_____ Frank, second vice president; A. H. Wright, secretary; and O. F. Darnall, treasurer. The board of directors includes 20 prominent San Diegans.

November 26, 1925, San Diego Union, 2:2-3. Jewel of exposition buildings had varied service in its short life.

November 27, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:7, 2:5-6. Finer Civic Auditorium city’s aim; more desirable and fireproof building to replace that razed by blaze; hundreds visit ruins.

Plans for rebuilding the Civic auditorium as a fireproof structure better adapted to auditorium purposes than the old building, were forming yesterday as nebulously as the wraiths of smoke that still drifted over the blackened heap that was once the most beautiful building in Balboa park.

Officers of the Civic Auditorium association began at once to count the cost, to figure on ways and means and to hope and plan for the phoenix they hope to see arising from the ashes of their seven years of hard work. A committee from the junior chamber of commerce will meet today with a committee of directors in an effort to work out some sort of plan.

Neither the officers of the association nor the public are under any misapprehension regarding the cost of an undertaking such as the rebuilding of the auditorium.

The new Bridges art museum is costing more than $300,000.

The new high school auditorium will cost, when completed, about $380,000. With slightly different construction and the elimination of the elaborate opera chairs and stage equipment, the building could be reconstructed as a fireproof auditorium for less than either of the buildings mentioned; but, even so, no permanent construction of any size could be built for less than a quarter of a million dollars.

That the auditorium association will have the full support of the city became evident yesterday when two more volunteers came into The Union office with $5 each, expressing the hope that enough such donations will come in to warrant proceeding with plans for a new auditorium.

“Enclosed find five bricks for the new Civic auditorium,” wrote Lewis W. Fox of the county horticultural commission.

The other “five bricks” to come in yesterday came from Captain W. P. Cronan, U. S. N. (retired), known all over the city as “Billy.” With his “five bricks” Billy Cronan wrote:

“The loss of the Civic auditorium appears to be a blessing in disguise, for had the fire broken out two or three hours later, with the building crowded and the adjacent streets congested with parked automobiles, there might have been many lives lost.

“Furthermore, the building was ill-adapted to its purpose, being especially deficient in the two qualities the most desirable in that the acoustics were bad and the floor unfit for dancing.

“A plan occurs to me for the replacement of this building without delay, as a matter of civic pride. First, replace the Civic auditorium with a fireproof building of approximate design, simple in character, with especial regard for acoustics and dancing. Second, raise the money needed by popular subscription in amounts limited to $5 each maximum, from individual citizens, and 25 cents each maximum from school children, so that everyone can share. Third, the construction of the building to be superintended by a committee of businessmen selected by the chamber of commerce. Forth, subscriptions to be paid at banks, newspaper offices, and in the schools.

“Enclosed find check for $5.”

It is pointed out that any reconstruction must be fireproof, both for the sake of economy and because the city zoning law would never permit the erection of another frame structure in the park.

The tragedy of the fire is two-fold: the loss of the Civic auditorium, one of the most beautiful buildings in the park, and the small amount of insurance carried on the building, which was 13 or 15 times as valuable as the total of the fire insurance policy. The reason for the small insurance, is that the building, like the other temporary structures in the park, was nothing but tinder, an ideal place in which to start a disastrous fire. The rates for insurance on the building were prohibitive, and the maximum that the Association could afford was carried. As a matter of fact, it is understood that directors of the association decided last year not to renew their insurance as they were paying too much for it. The company, however, renewed the insurance and the directors decided to pay the premium, so that at least was saved from the wreckage to pay for clearing up the debris.

“All those old exposition buildings are nothing but fire traps,” said J. W. Sefton of the Natural History museum, last night. “I go to bed every night afraid that I will wake up in the morning to see the park buildings wiped out and with them collections of material that could not be replaced for less than $1,000,000, and in several years of hard work. In the Natural History museum alone we have exhibits worth about a quarter of a million dollars. But we cannot afford to carry proper insurance. The rates are too high.

“I made myself very unpopular some years ago by advocating the razing of the park buildings. They are a real menace. The people here are living in a sort of fool’s paradise. We think we have something in the park that is beautiful and of which we can be proud. In reality, we have some houses of tinder. They are pretty to look at, but we may wake up any morning and find them gone, and our million dollars worth of exhibits with them. If there had been an east or southwest wind last night, nothing could have saved the county fair building, and probably the other buildings right up to the new Bridges museum on the plaza.”

The blackened pit and the few standing skeletons of what once were walls attracted almost as large crowds to the park yesterday as swarmed in Wednesday afternoon to watch the blaze. The fireman and policemen had roped off a large area about the ruin, however, so that no sightseers could get within range of the walls if any of them should collapse. A detail of firemen was on duty all day, searching through the ruins for signs of fire, and putting out little blazes that were hidden under the old charred timbers, protected from the tons of water that had been poured onto the building the night before.

The front and rear arcades of the building still stand. The gray room at the southeast corner seems almost untouched by the flames; an elaborate paper-confetti decoration suspended from the ceiling being unscorched. The kitchen and equipment in the basement were hardly damaged. Water, however, had ruined the room, and the second story was destroyed by fire. The east wall still stands, a paper-thin layer of charred wood supported by a coating of plaster on the outside. Parts of the north and west wall remain, and the room at the southwest corner charred and soaked with water, is a funnel through which chairs, pianos, and other furniture of the room and the persimmon room on the second floor were poured into the basement when the burned floor joists gave way in the center.

The great hall of the auditorium is a blackened pit, filled with writhing steel tie rods, fallen ceiling, and great twisted roof and ceiling beams, either all but consumed or charred from end to end and warped by the heat and the water. It is a black chaos of plaster, burned flooring, beams, rods, and charred decorations, all soaking with water.

As in the case of every fire, someone was heroically useless. Some unknown hero rushed into the blazing hall and tried to rescue the big bass drum belonging to the orchestra. All he hauled out was the canvas truck in which the drum is transported from place to place, while the drum itself, worth several times the cost of the trunk, was destroyed.

The E. P. James Symphonic band, which was to have furnished music for the firemen’s ball, had already placed its instruments ready for the beginning of the night’s entertainment. Everyone of the instruments was lost, adding some $425 to the total loss of the building itself. The instruments were not insured, Mr. James explained, due to the high insurance rates on instruments moved about from place to place as were these.

November 27, 1925, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Questions

The community has lost $120,000 through the destruction of a civic auditorium which was both a first-class fire hazard and insufficiently insured. It was our good fortune, not our good management, that prevented a terrible loss of life in the auditorium fire. . . . Might it not be wise to appraise other public buildings in the light of what we have learned from this disaster?

November 27, 1925, San Diego Union, 7:4. Thanksgiving Day services at Spreckels organ yesterday morning drew thousands.

November 28, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:5, 3:3-4. Fire Chief Algren says water supply failed at fire; City Manger Rhodes denies charge, blames alarm tardiness for park loss; discuss rebuilding plans.

San Diego’s newest problem, “How shall we replace the civic auditorium?” centered at the city hall yesterday, but nobody seemed to have the answer.

Mayor Bacon said he intended to take the matter up with the auditorium association, but that Miss Alice Lee and Mrs. Della Haman, two of the leaders in that organization, are out of the city.

Because of the many “drives” just ended and the fact that the Community Chest soon will be appealing to the people again, the mayor said he disliked to start a movement to raise funds for an auditorium by popular subscription.

The fact that so little insurance — $12,000 in all — was carried on the building, was deplored yesterday, but it was explained that insurance on such structures is high and that the association was without funds to carry more insurance. Insurance men are beginning to write letters to the council offering to insure the other buildings for larger sums, but it is doubtful if the park commission, or organizations controlling certain buildings, can find the money.

City Manager Rhodes denied yesterday that the firemen were handicapped by lack of water pressure at the fire Wednesday night. Rhodes declared a check of the pressure showed enough water was available to put out any fire had the firemen been there in time.

The manager blames the tardiness in alarm for the destruction of the auditorium, declaring that was beyond control before the fire apparatus arrived.

The elimination of every possible fire hazard in the exposition buildings in Balboa Park was urged yesterday by Louis Algren, fire chief, as the most important step to be taken in connection with the preservation of those structures.

“We found Wednesday night,” said chief Algren, “that the water supply in the park is not dependable, and it is only through the purest luck that we did not lose every building in the exposition limits.

“Every fire hazard must be eliminated from these structures if we hope to keep them. The history of like structures throughout the United States is a history of destruction, for they are invariably destroyed by fire, often with loss of life.

“All events, such as the county fair, should be prohibited in the exposition buildings. Large crowds of people, flimsy decorations, flaming exhibits — all these may result in a holocaust which may be obviated by preventive measures, but which is inevitable if definite steps against them are not taken now.

“The exposition buildings are the pride of the city. The fire department feels that it can cope with any situation arising in the park with its present facilities, including Station No. 3 at Fifth and Palm Streets, Station No. 5 at Ninth and University, and Station No. 2 at Tenth and B Streets. But these facilities must have a chance to operate and this chance can be given only by regulation of the crowds frequenting the buildings and the events held in them.”

Chief Algren said that an investigation of the fire in the civic auditorium was started by his department immediately after the destruction of the building. John E. Parrish, acting assistant fire marshal, is in charge of this investigation, and a report of its findings will be submitted to the chief as soon as the work is completed.

The real work of preserving the buildings in the exposition grounds, according to Chief Algren, lies with the park commission, with which the fire department will cooperate to the limit, the chief said. He pointed out the fact that the enforcement of laws and regulations within the confines of the park lies largely with the park commission, and that the primary work of insuring the permanence of the exposition buildings must be done by the commission.

“The big thing,” the chief said, “is the elimination of every possible fire hazard. The fire department knows the importance of this — it is enough to say that the water supply Wednesday night failed dismally. The crowding of buildings must be eliminated, the holding of big affairs in which fire hazards are apparent must be prohibited, and, in general, a careful supervision of the buildings must be maintained if we are to keep these distinctive features of our civic progress.”

Mayor Bacon and City Clerk Wright, the latter secretary of the auditorium association, visited the ruins yesterday, but the mayor said he was not conducting an investigation and had no blame to place on anybody for the loss of the building.

Oscar G. Knecht, city building inspector, also made an inspection of the ruins and yesterday make public his findings as follows:

“The building department is not lamenting the loss of the Civic auditorium. Just a few years ago it was necessary to rebuild much of the underpinning and add additional shores and braces. The entire space beneath the main floor was a network of wood braces, struts, posts and ties. A regular kindling forest, so to speak.

“At one time the long span roof trusses started to fall. These were also rebraced and tied up, making them at least temporarily safe. This necessitated placing numerous ties and braces in the large attic open space, making another wood forest.

“Much of the electric wiring grossly violated the electric safety laws and was extremely dangerous.

“We have not forgotten that the building was only originally designed as a temporary structure, to last, perhaps, not more than five years. In the meantime, the patching, bracing and rebracing prolonged the structural safety at least a short while. However, the mass of kindling and tinder and the dangerous electric wiring created a potential fire hazard. It would have been possible for the entire basement to have been a mass of flames, and a crowd on the floor above would not have known the danger until part of the floor collapsed. For this reason alone, the building inspector is glad the building is gone.

“Our building ordinance does not give sufficient authority to condemn the building because of the large amount of wood construction. However, in another year or so the building would have been condemned for structural reasons, unless additional wood bracing and shoring was again resorted to.

“Most of the other frame and plaster fair buildings in the park are equally as dangerous, a few having nothing more than wooden foundations.”

November 28, 1925, San Diego Union, 7:1. Plan campaign to reconstruct Civic Auditorium; Committee from local organizations to cooperate in drive for funds; Junior Chamber of Commerce discusses ways and means.

November 29, 1925, San Diego Union, 14, 15. Daniel Cleveland recounts events in May 1869 and before.

November 29, 1925, San Diego Union, Development, 5:3-5. Planning the house for its site, by Richard S. Requa.

November 30, 1925, San Diego Union, 10:6-7. December program of Natural History Museum has several fine events for public.


December 3, 1925, San Diego Union, 7:1. Some definite plan of procedure looking toward replacement of the municipal auditorium will be announced in the near future following the appointment of Miss Alice Lee, president of the Balboa Park auditorium association, of a committee which will investigate and report on possible ways of financing the erection of a building to take the place of the structure destroyed by fire a week ago. Mrs. Lillian Pray Palmer favored reconstruction of the auditorium on the old site.

December 3, 1925, San Diego Union, 13:4. Zoo will honor all servicemen next Saturday; program arranged to show appreciation of aid in collection of animals.

December 4, 1925, San Diego Union, 4:3. Dr. Charles Bayless, John Hays Hammond, Wade H. Ellis, Major General Amos Fries have resigned from participation in Philadelphia sesqui-centennial in protest of the way the committee in charge has conducted its affairs.

December 6, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:6, 2:3-4. Reginald Poland of Detroit has been appointed director of the new Fine Arts Gallery in Balboa Park; budget for 1926 of $25,000 is secured by appropriation of the City Council through the Park Board of $19,000 and a gift of $6,500 from Mr. and Mrs. A. S. Bridges

Reginald Poland of Detroit has been appointed director of the new Fine Arts Gallery in Balboa Park. The members of the executive committee said yesterday they made this announcement with pleasure, feeling that in Mr. Poland they have found a man with all the qualifications to meeting the exacting requirements of the post.

“The successful management of such a great art gallery as the one Mr. and Mrs. Bridges have given to San Diego,” says the announcement, “requires equipment of three distinct sorts — executive ability, thorough technical knowledge and the gift of presenting art for the pleasure of the public. Mr. Poland, though still in his early thirties, has demonstrated the possession of these varied abilities. Knowledge of art he has breathed in from his boyhood for his father was head of the fine arts department t Brown University. He himself took his first degree in this department, his master’s degree at Princeton, and won a fellowship of the American Academy at Rome, which the outbreak of the great war prevented his using. He then spent a year at Harvard, using the collections in the Boston and Worcester museums in connection with his work. He had had four seasons of study in Europe in addition to two years with the American Expeditionary Force in France.

“One of these European years was spent studying with an expert in the galleries and museums of Central Europe and Italy. His last journey, accompanied by Mrs. Poland, he devoted chiefly to Spain.”

The year before he went over seas, Mr. Poland was appointed director of the Denver Art Association. At the end of the war he might still have used the fellowship at Rome, but Denver urged his return so strongly that he went back. The next year he joined the staff of the Detroit Institute of Arts. In Detroit he had managed the executive educational activities of the institute besides doing curatorial work in the museum and getting out many of the monthly bulletins. He has arranged lecture courses for different sorts of people — for children, for teachers, for the general public, and has given numberless lectures himself. His idea of what the relation between an art museum and the public should be is told by quoting a sentence of his in the October bulletin of the Detroit Institute:

“Instead of a gloomy vault containing treasures almost too precious to be even looked upon, the museum has become an interested, living friend, anxious to share its possessions with all. It now knows that the greatest joy comes in sharing beauty with others.”

During the five years he has been in Detroit, Mr. Poland has received offers from Columbus, Ohio, the Carnegie Institute, John Herron Art Institute of Indianapolis, the University of Indiana and the Chicago and the Pennsylvania museums. Recently he spent several days in San Diego conferring with the executive committee of the Fine Arts Society and expressed much enthusiasm for the opportunity offered here for the upbuilding of the finest sort of organization. He feels that Southern California is destined to become a great cultural center, especially on the artistic side, and is happy to have the opportunity to assist in this development.

Mr. and Mrs. Poland will arrive in town early in January and the Fine Arts Gallery will be opened soon after the first of the year. The budget of the Fine Arts Gallery for 1926 of $25,000 is secured by appropriation of the city council through the park board of $19,000 and by the addition of the generous gift of $6,500 from Mr. and Mrs. Bridges to complete the budget.

With the Fine Arts Gallery in Balboa Park, to house it with financial security and an able an enthusiastic director, the Society is looking forward to an interesting and successful first year in its new home. The officers of the Fine Arts Society are: Honorary president, Appleton S. Bridges; honorary vice president, Lyman J. Gage; honorary vice president, Miss Ellen Browning Scripps; president, Willett S. Dorland; first vice president, G. Aubrey Davidson; second vice president, William H. Sallmon; treasurer, William H. Wheeler; secretary, William E. Harper; members of the executive committee, Miss Alice Klauber and Miss Gertrude Gilbert.

December 6, 1925, San Diego Union, 12:4. Contagious disease department is to be added to navy institution in park.

December 6, 1925, San Diego Union, 25:3-4. Burrowing cages presented to children of San Diego; important feature at zoo; gift made by Colonel Milton A. McRae in name of grandson, John Paul Scripps; sleeping places for animals which choose to live under the ground.

December 6, 1925, San Diego Union, Development, 2:2-7. Architecture — its essential features, by Richard S. Requa, recounting impressions of Santa Barbara’s plans for reconstruction after earthquake.

December 6, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:2-4. Bronze tablets show Zoo’s appreciation of aid given by Navy and Marine Corps; tablets placed on two captured cannon just inside main entrance of Zoo.

December 6, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 2:5. Charles Liftchild writes suggesting aero alarm for park buildings.

December 7, 1925, San Diego Union, 7:4. Many Boy Scouts and their parents attend Court of Honor session at Indian Village.

December 8, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:3, 5:5-6, Hot controversy on plan to cut Russ decoration; Chamber of Commerce, Parent Teachers Association, and architects fight School Board suggestion to save $4,100 on auditorium; Frank P. Allen advocated dropping work on building until next year or whenever the necessary amount of money needed for finishing it according to architect Lincoln Rogers’ plan could be raised; William H. Wheeler expressed a similar view.

December 8, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 13:1-2. Specimen of giant condor comes to roost in Natural History Museum.

December 12, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:8, 2:4-5. Special tax urged to finance Civic Auditorium; Civic Auditorium Committee’s plan for reconstruction of park building proposes ten-cent levy per $100 for 3-year period; City Council must decide on election.

December 13, 1925, San Diego Union, 12:1-8. Daniel Cleveland tells of romance of San Diego 56 years ago.

December 13, 1925, San Diego Union, 19:2-4. Zoo’s veterinarian alleviates deer’s pain by extracting ulcerated tooth (illus.).

December 13, 1925, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:2-5. Show girls dressed to resemble “Mother Eve” frolic at Zoo (illus.).

December 13, 1925, San Diego Union, Development, 6:1-4. Cooperative City Development by Richard S. Requa reporting on San Barbara’s use of a board of architectural review to direct reconstruction along lines of fitting and harmonious design.

December 14, 1925, Letter, A. S. Hill, Executive Secretary, to S. J. Higgins, City Attorney (File: San Diego Society of Natural History, 1916-1929, Box 1, Board of Park Commissioners Correspondence, San Diego Public Library).

Museum of Natural History has applied to Board of Park Commissioners for an appropriation of $100,000.

Association owns exhibits and does not hold them in trust for people of San Diego.

Can Board legally appropriate money towards its support?

December 16, 1925, San Diego Union, 10:3. “San Diego’s Famous Park,” two-page illustrated article by W. S. Carson in December issue of Seeing California magazine.

December 20, 1925, San Diego Union, 22:3-4. Christmas carol program to be sung in Balboa Park; plans complete for community entertainment this afternoon at Organ Pavilion; Dr. Stewart to play and Girls’ Chorus to sing.

December 20, 1925, San Diego Union, Development. 6:1-8. Commentary on “Home Building on the Pacific Coast” article by Henry N. Saylor in Garden and Home Building, by Richard S. Requa.

December 20, 1925, San Diego Union, Society-Club, 1:1 and December 23, 1925, 12:1. Nativity tableaux will be presented in Balboa Park Christmas night; annual pageant to be presented by Amphion Club; spectacular event will be given at Organ Pavilion; idea originated during the second year of exposition in 1916; each year since that time an entertainment has been given at Organ Pavilion excepting the year of the war and the following year of the flu epidemic; three quartets will sing antiphonally from opposite sides on the peristyle and on balcony across from the Organ Plaza.

December 21, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:2. Bill, introduced by Congressman Swing of San Diego, provides $150,000 for construction of Officers’ Ward at U. S. Naval Hospital in Balboa Park.

December 22, 1925, San Diego Union, 7:3-4. City Council transfers control of San Diego Museum to Park Board; also appropriates $13,100 from general fund to maintain museum.

December 24, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:8, 2:2-3. City Council refuses to call election; city needs adequate water development, a new city jail, a new city hall more than a new civic auditorium; G. A. Davidson, Tom Deering, W. T. Johnson, E. B. Guild, Jr., Miss Alice Lee, Mrs. William Pate and Mrs. Dalla Haman spoke in favor.

December 24, 1925, San Diego Union, 7:1-2. Living Christmas tree at 6th and Cypress in Balboa Park to be scene of carol singing tonight.

December 25, 1925, San Diego Union, 5:3-6. Patients decorate U. S. Naval Hospital for Christmas.

December 25, 1925, San Diego Union, 15:5. Annual Nativity tableaux in park tonight.

December 25, 1925, San Diego Union, 24:2-4. Big Christmas feast for animals at Zoo.

December 26, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:2. 2:3-4. Crowd attends presentation of Nativity scenes at Organ Pavilion.

December 27, 1925, San Diego Union, 1:3-5. Mongoose, killer of snakes and rodents, comes to Zoo.

December 27, 1925, San Diego Union, Development. Rooms of the house, by Richard S. Requa.

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