Balboa Park History 1928

January ?, 1928. Board of Park Commissioners approved planting a grove of trees west of Pershing Drive about opposite Olive Street to honor women of World War.

San Diego Union

Annual Edition

(Note: Page order is confusing since Annual Edition consists of several untitled sections with same page sequence.)

January 1, 1928, 5:4-6. San Diego Zoo does remarkable work in preserving native wild fowl; 250 valley quail brought into Zoo by County game wardens to save them from the cupidity of hunters.

January 1, 1928, 15:1-2. Natural History Museum announces January program.

January 1, 1928, 2:3-5. Fine Arts Museum to exhibit important Spanish paintings and works of sculpture, by Reginald Poland, director.

January 1, 1928, Society Section, 4:7-8. Rickert-Baker wedding in St. Francis Chapel.

January 1, 1928, Industrial Section, 16:1-2. San Diego’s Park system includes about 2,600 acres; 32 separate parks, by John G. Morley.

January 1, 1928, Industrial Section, 16:3-4. Natural History Museum part of cultural center in Balboa Park, by Clinton G. Abbott, director.

January 1, 1928, Industrial Section, 16:5-6. San Diego Art Society in Balboa Park object of gifts, by Reginald Poland, director.

January 2, 1928, San Diego Union, 4:5. Star of India makes splendid marine museum.

January 2, 1928, San Diego Union, 7:1-3. San Diego’s cultural life enjoys unique advantages, by Gertrude Gilbert, president Amphion Club.

January 2, 1928, San Diego Union, 7:4-5. Yorick Players’ Little Theater in Balboa Park, by Havrah Hubbard.

January 2, 1928, San Diego Union, 11:3-4. Outdoor Christmas pageant beautiful feature in Balboa Park, by Reginald Poland.

January 2, 1928, San Diego Union, 11:5-7. San Diego Zoological Gardens provide natural habitat for remarkable collection.

Probably the most interesting institution in San Diego, the one claiming the greatest amount of attention, week in and week out, is the San Diego Zoological Society, with its extensive gardens in the heart of San Diego where the Society houses one of the finest collections of wild animals in captivity. Not only is the Zoo interesting for itself, for its natural charm of its location and a landscape development that makes the most of the natural advantages, but it is also interesting because the San Diego climate makes it possible to keep happy and healthy a wider variety of animals that can be kept anywhere else in the United States.

There are the snowy polar bears from the Arctic, and the elephants and lions from tropical jungles, the camels from the heated deserts, apes from all climes, kangaroos from the antipodes, pythons from the torrid swamps and forests of India and the birds from all over the world. San Diego has in its Zoo a number of animals which have never been kept successfully in captivity anywhere else I the world.

During the past year the Zoo has largely increased its facilities, mostly due to the generosity of individual benefactors, but in no small part because of the interest and support of all the people of the city. The greatest single addition to the Zoo has been the beautiful new hospital and research building, perfectly arranged and equipped for the care of the animals in the Zoo, and for the most exacting scientific research in plant and animal disease for the benefit of agriculturists and cattlemen of this part of the state. The building and its equipment were the gift of Miss Ellen B. Scripps.

Last spring the citizens of San Diego showed their faith in the Zoo by going to the polls and voting a charter amendment making the Zoo for all time secure in the possession of the land it now occupies. Through a technicality, the amendment was ruled illegal, but it is expected that the people will show the same enthusiasm for the Zoo when the matter comes up for a vote next time.

Arriving in San Diego at the exact hour that Colonel Lindbergh arrived in Paris, the largest shipment of animals and birds ever sent out of Australia came to the San Diego Zoo last spring. This shipment included many rare specimens, one of the smallest primates in the work, the “night ape,” about as big as a chipmunk, magnificent tigers, rare black panthers, the comical cassowaries, deer, wallabies, kangaroos, and a host of brilliantly colored birds, some as rare and difficult to capture as they are beautiful to look at.

This shipment added enormously to the prestige of the Zoo and to the quality and extent of its exhibits. Now, in order to maintain its leadership, the Zoo has sent another expedition to the South Sea Islands, the East Indies and the Malay peninsula, whence will be brought back more birds and beasts, and some extensive efforts are to be made next year to breed these valuable birds in captivity.

The Zoo has also acquired during the past year the old emigrant clipper ship Star of India, formerly the Euterpe, which is being overhauled and converted into a permanent marine museum. The vessel was the gift of James W. Coffroth, and was brought into port from Oakland by the local naval reservists. Eventually the Star of India will have a permanent location on the waterfront as the central exhibit of a great aquarium.

The Society carried on an extensive and well-planned educational campaign, and is accordingly a valuable addition to the city school system as well as one of the most popular places in the city for whose who visit San Diego and for those who like to wander about the pathways and watch the animals from many lands.

January 7, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:4. Holdup uses red light on car in park; gets $60; robber then drives from 6th and Laurel Streets in Real Estate man’s auto.

January 7, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:5. Yorick Players do well in “Anything to Oblige” by Austin Adams.

January 9, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:8. Mrs. A. O. Nelson, San Diego policewoman, told a man rushing at her in Date Street Canyon to stop. He came on. She put a bullet through each of his right legs and shattered his right heel with three shots from her revolver.

January 9, 1928, San Diego Union, 9:4. Zoo directors to hold annual meeting tonight.

January 11, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:3, 2:3. Dr. Harry M. Wegeforth and Dr. Arthur Wegeforth, San Diego physicians, filed a suit for $200,000 damage in a libel action against San Diego County Medical Society yesterday because of charge of “unprofessional conduct” published in Bulletin.

January 11, 1928, San Diego Union, 9:6-7. Three are injured as auto, street car collide in Balboa Park above High School.

January 15, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 2:4-6. Nature classes at O’Rourke Zoological Institution, by Dr. W. H. Raymenton (illus.).

January 15, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 7:3-7. U. S. Navy’s “Pink Palace” nearing completion at cost of $3,000,000 (illus.).

January 19, 1928, San Diego Union, 7:1-2. Mayor Clark designates tomorrow as “Schumann-Heink Day”; diva to give her last recital here in evening (illus.).

January 21, 1928, San Diego Sun, 12:2. “Zoo” wrangle before Council; ouster move is started against O’Rourke employee.

Demand that Dr. W. H. Raymenton vacate the Nevada building in Balboa Park, part of which his is using for living quarters, was filed with the City Council today by Dr. Harry M. Wegeforth, president of the Zoological Society of San Diego.

Dr. Raymenton, an employee of P. J. O’Rourke, head of the O’Rourke Zoological Institute, occupies for building for carrying on experimental work with insects.

Last October, the park board passed a resolution asking Dr. Reymenton to vacate the premises within 90 days. More than this time has elapsed now the communication states and Dr. Raymenton is still in the building.

January 22, 1928, San Diego Evening Tribune, 1:5-8, 2:1-2. Citizens laud Tribune’s suggestion for great Exposition here in 1942.

January 22, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:8, 2:4-5. Colonel Ira C. Copley purchases Union and Tribune.

January 22, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:4-1, 2:1. San Diego National Guard units to stage annual drill in Plaza at Balboa park Tuesday in competition for trophies.

January 22, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 2:3-4. Dr. Harry Wegeforth asked City Council to oust Dr. W. H. Raymenton from his headquarters in the old Nevada State Building yesterday.

January 22, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 2:5. Fine Arts Society gives out names of new officers.

January 22, 1928, San Diego Union, Development, 4:1-3. Balboa Park ranks seventh as play area, by F. J. Haskin; Philadelphia as largest of playgrounds in nation; Los Angeles is second..

January 24, 1928, San Diego Union, 15:2-3. Equestrian Club has supper in Balboa Park after drive.

January 25, 1928, San Diego Union, 7:2-3. Zoo’s “Big Bertha” is useless as Dr. Raymenton digs in; City Council washes hands of O’Rourke squabble.

With Dr. W. H. Raymenton still holding the fort at the O’Rourke Zoological Institute building in the Zoological Gardens, Balboa Park, despite efforts of the Zoological Society to make him vacate, the City Council yesterday adopted a “hands off” policy and declared the O’Rourke forces and the Zoological Society forces can “fight it out.”

Efforts of the Zoological Society to oust Dr. Raymenton, who is director of the O’Rourke Institute, fell flat before the council at yesterday afternoon’s session, as did also the demand of O’Rourke’s attorneys to know just “what is the legal status of the Zoological Society, under the charter, in Balboa Park.” Nor was any attention paid by the council to a suggestion by O’Rourke’s legal forces that the city reimburse Mr. and Mrs. O’Rourke for the money invested in the institute building.

Boiled down, facts in the case are briefly as follows:

At an investment of approximately $50,000, Mr. and Mrs. P. F. O’Rourke sometime ago moved the old Nevada State building into the Zoological Gardens and extensively remodeled it for institute purposes.

Friction arose between the O’Rourke forces and the Zoo forces, and, after long controversies, a ruling finally was made by S. J. Higgins, then city attorney, that the building, because it was on Zoo grounds, belonged to the Zoological Society. The park commission, last October, acting on this opinion, adopted a resolution declaring that the building belongs to the Zoological Society and giving the O’Rourke organization 90 days in which to vacate.

This 90 days was up a few days ago, but Dr. W. H. Raymenton, director for O’Rourke, who has living quarters as well as offices in the building, has not vacated, and efforts of Dr. Harry Wegeforth, president of the Zoo, to dislodge him have proved futile. Dr. Wegeforth last Friday sent a letter to the City Council asking that the city attorney be instructed to oust Dr. Raymenton.

When this letter came before the council yesterday, Councilman McMullen immediately moved that the request be disregarded, declaring that the council has not business mixing up in the affair.

“Don’t you wish to get into this fight?” demanded Mayor Clark.

“I do not!” declared McMullen. “Let ‘em fight it out.”

The council then voted to wash its hands of the entire affair.

Attorney Whelan, in his communication, outlined in some detail the expense the O’Rourkes have been in to give the children of the city an institute in Balboa park. The tenor of his communication indicated that court action may result if any attempt is made by the Zoological Society to oust Dr. Raymenton.

January 29, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:5. Colonel Copley buys Independent; merges paper with Union; daily, started in 1925, will cease publication today.

January 29, 1928, San Diego Union, 3:4-6. San Diego Zoo is making good start on collection of native water birds (illus.).

January 29, 1928, San Diego Union, 7:5. H. B. Stiles wants more tuneful programming at park organ and substitution of piano at times.

January 29, 1928, San Diego Union, 12:1-2. Baker Thomas wants Balboa Park endowment fund as civic investment.


February 1, 1928, San Diego Union, 12:2-4. Medieval costumes made for “Love of Three Kings,” scheduled at Yorick (illus.).

February 2, 1928, San Diego Union, 14:1. Mayor Harry Clark leads dedication of new San Diego Play Center at Central School grounds; Jerome S. Pendleton, president of Playgrounds Commission, presided (illus.).

February 2, 1928, San Diego Union, 2:5. City Planning Commission opposes plan to widen 6th Street from Upas Street to University Avenue.

February 4, 1928, San Diego Union, 7:3. Yorick Players give San Diego great treat, by J. F. Lord.

February 5, 1928, San Diego Union, 14:1. The Guan, popularly known as a wild turkey, lies in wait at Zoo and robs victims of peanuts (illus.).

February 5, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 6:4-5. Katherine F. Travis says park organ recitals need no improvement.

February 5, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 6:5. Charles F. Mann agrees with Stiles.

February 5, 1928, San Diego Union, Development, 4:1-4. Sixth Street and City headed north for record development (illus.).

February 5, 1928, San Diego Union, Development, 8:2-6. Sketches of First National Trust and Savings Bank at 30th and University Avenue; design by Richard Requa and firm, taken from building in Toledo, Spain.

February 7, 1928, San Diego Union, 8:1. Citizens’ group demands Playground Chief be removed from Civil Service and job put under recreation and school officials.

February 8, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:6. Playground group reaffirms agreement for joint selection of superintendent.

February 9, 1928, San Diego Union, 9:5-6. Fred Baker asserts Playgrounds Superintendent should be elected under Civil Service regulations.

February 10, 1928, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: For the Playgrounds

Superintendent of Playgrounds should be taken out of Civil Service classified list.

February 11, 1928, Communication, Joseph Jessop to John G. Morley (Board of Park Commissioners, Box 1, San Diego Public Library) asking for use of lawn of Stadium for archery practice by students of High School

February 12, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:4. Maybe something is dumber than turtles at San Diego Zoo, but what can it be? (illus.).

February 15, 1928, San Diego Union, 11:3-6. Neighborhood Recreation Conference Committee issues statement on playgrounds controversy.

February 18, 1928, San Diego Union, 11:1. Convention Committee of Chamber of Commerce has tentatively selected a site for 20,000 seat Convention Hall close to former Civic Auditorium in Balboa Park.

February 18, 1928, San Diego Union, 12:1. Mayor Clark upholds ruling in hiring of play advisor; says superintendent must be obtained from Civil Service list.

February 19, 1928, San Diego Union, 12:1-6. Civil Service Commission asserts Neighborhood Conference exceeded authority on playgrounds problem.

February 19, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:2. You will have to know your peanuts today or a cossowary cop will get them at Zoo (illus.)

February 21, 1928, San Diego Union, 9:1. City architects promise aid in Convention Hall; William H. Wheeler, president of Architects’ Association; those attending meeting yesterday were John Siebert, Irving Gill, Richard Requa, William Lodge, Louis Gill, William H. Wheeler, A. J. Hamilton, J. H. Cowles, Oscar Knecht, Curtis Tobey, W. B. George, Hal Hobson, A. W. Olmstead, Edgar Davis, D. W. Campbell and A. E. Clemshaw; site of experimental fruit orchard, west of former Civic Auditorium in Balboa Park, favored.

February 24, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:5. Municipal golf course to local man hinges on plans offered; Park Board to pass on proposal of W. H. Buoy to remodel course; estimated cost $150,000.

February 26, 1928, San Diego Union, 18:1. Two new species of snakes added to Zoo in 1927.

February 26, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 4:1. Educators and Zoology experts praise work of O’Rourke Institute.

February 28, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:4, 2:6. Council refuses to grant cheap water for golf course in park; declares W. H. Buoy, who seeks lease, must pay City full cost of about $18,000 a year.

February 29, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:6. City wants men to police park; two policewomen relieved of park duties.



March 2, 1928, San Diego Union, 12:2-3. Yorick Players bill double program for Balboa Park Little Theater Tonight.

March 3, 1928, San Diego Union, 19:4. Yorick Players do good acting in double bill, by J. F. Lora.

March 4, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:4, 2:4. Mayor Clark urges permanent structures for group in park.

Hoping to create a comprehensive system for the permanent location of institutions in the section of Balboa Park once used as the exposition grounds, Mayor Clark is working on a play under which the various organizations now housed there may unite for their common good and establish some definite program of development.

Under this plan some of the institutions, whose purposes are similar, would be consolidated, and all would be allotted permanent sites for future development. Maps would be prepared showing the location of the various institutions as definitely agreed upon.

The old exposition buildings, which now shelter most of the organizations having displays and meeting places in the park, are rapidly going to decay, some faster than others. One by one these buildings must be replaced by permanent structures when the organizations occupying them are able in some way to finance the improvements. When permanent locations have been decided upon, it is believed that funds can be raised by public subscription and in other ways for the erection of new buildings.

Several wealthy citizens are said to be considering donating funds for new buildings, provided suitable sites are offered, just as A. S. Bridges financed the construction of the art museum which bears his name, and as John D. Spreckels built and presented the great Organ Pavilion to the city.

The old exposition buildings are mostly still beautiful from an exterior standpoint and look quite substantial to the casual observer, but their underpinning is becoming weakened and several of them are in bad condition. Further repairs to these buildings, which were erected as temporary, but which have stood for upward of a decade, would be expensive and far from enduring. Hence, the desire to arrange the various organizations under some sort of a board of control, providing proper sites for each, and eventually erecting suitable permanent structures.

March 4, 1928, San Diego Union, 12:1-2. Zoo family gets remarkable hospital, medical service, ultra-modern equipment; San Diego institution compares with best in country.

March 4, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:5-6. City Council may soon consider a plan to build a modern golf course in Balboa Park.

March 4, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 3:4-5. Community Week for Blind to start this afternoon with program at organ.

March 6, 1928, San Diego Union, 11:1. Park Board asks annual levy be raised to pay for golf course operation.

March 7, 1928, San Diego Union, 3:5-6. San Diego Zoo wants “rattlers” for use in making anti-venom solution.

March 8, 1928, San Diego Union, 7:3. Councilmen ask full estimates on golf course; all data on project demanded before ordering optional tax levy made.

March 8, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:3-5. Organizations back plan to use schools for playground purposes of community.

March 11, 1928, San Diego Union, 19:2-3. Zoo has only Kagus known to exist in United States (illus.).

March 11, 1928, San Diego Union, Development, 1:1, 2:1-2. Pueblo lands to bring rich income when sold by city; authorities estimate greater San Diego will realized 30 millions from heritage on Linda Vista.

March 13, 1928, San Diego Union, 3:5. Councilmen vote three to two to keep southeast section on harbor front at foot of 28th Street for playground.

March 15, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:4. Local girl, 24, kidnapped at Inspiration Point in park by stranger wearing police uniform, badge.

March 16, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:1-2. Mme. Schumann-Heink reported seriously ill.

March 16, 1928, San Diego Union, 9:1. Predict dismissal of officer in alleged kidnapping of San Diego girl from park; investigation shows officer was far from beat in taking Miss from car (illus.).

March 16, 1928, San Diego Union, 9:3. Dr. Stewart declares park organ plays no notes of “jazz.”

March 18, 1928, San Diego Union, 8:2-4. L. M. Klauber says horned toad does not live indefinitely without water or light (illus.).

March 18, 1928, San Diego Union, 8:6-8. Exposition in Long Beach to bring host to coast; to be held July 27 to August 13.

March 22, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:4-5. Pioneer citizen Daniel Cleveland honored on his 90th birthday.

March 25, 1928, San Diego Union, 8:4-5. Richard Requa to leave on tour of Mediterranean countries.

March 25, 1928, San Diego Union, 18:3-8. Daniel Cleveland review history of Episcopal Church in San Diego.

March 25, 1928, San Diego Union, 21:3-5. Baby bobcats show affection for child at San Diego Zoo (illus.).



April 1, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:4-6. Seventeen new deer bring San Diego Zoo atmosphere of Europe, Asia, Africa wilds (illus.).

April 1, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:4-5. Horseshoe tossers seek barnyard golf title in Balboa Park.

April 3, 1928, San Diego Union, 24:2-3. $10,000 specimen for San Diego Zoo destroyed by fire at Singapore.

April 4, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:5. Anonymous guarantees to be used for fireproof Natural History Museum; $125,000 offered for new museum in park.

April 5, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:1-3. Scout ceremonies and conference of Old Boy Scouts of Southern California; 420 delegates leave for home with new ideas; 52-piece boy band features assembly; majority of delegates slept and took their means in Indian Village.

April 5, 1928, San Diego Union, 26:4. Lyman Bryson names Associate Director of San Diego Museum.

April 6, 1928, San Diego Union, 9:5. Playground body given more time to study plans.

April 8, 1928, San Diego Union, 16:4. Inspector Oscar Knecht declared Sherman, Logan, Hamilton, Fremont, Normal Heights, Edison, Central Schools, made of wood, menace to children’s lives.

April 8, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:3-6. Easter celebration in Organ Pavilion today.

April 8, 1928, San Diego Union, 2:1. Carpenter wins championship in horseshoe tournament by scoring 362 points (illus.).

April 10, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:5. Schumann-Heink gives Grossmont home to veterans.

April 15, 1928, San Diego Union, 11:3. Havrah, Howard, production chairman of Yorick Players, says Park Board favors modern community theater in Balboa Park.

April 15, 1928, San Diego Union, 11:4-5. Floral exhibit to be held in plaza building, Balboa Park, April 21 and 22.

April 15, 1928, San Diego Union, Development, 1:2, 2:1-4. Frank P. Allen, Jr., architect of Hamilton’s Store at 7th and C Streets; permit for $150,000 building to be taken this week (drawing)

April 23, 1928, San Diego Union, 11:1-2. “Diablo,” giant python, to get public meal at Zoo today.

April 23, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:3, 2:6-7. Flower show mirrors beauties of San Diego spring; exhibit is riot of blooms (illus.).

April 26, 1928, San Diego Union, 7:1. A. S. Hill, executive secretary of Park Commission, tells City Council W. P. Bell, Pasadena golf architect, is making plans and estimates for the proposed new golf course in Balboa Park.

April 26, 1928, San Diego Union, 7:4. Engineers plan $10,000 park at foot of 28th Street.

April 26, 1928, San Diego Union, 10:4-5. Fur seal specimens lodged in San Diego Zoo (illus.).

April 29, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:4-6. Judge Higgins urges passage of bonds to give schools more playground space (illus.).

April 29, 1928, San Diego Union, 8:2-4. Four baby wolves at San Diego Zoo are getting on their feet (illus.).


May 4, 1928, San Diego Union. Congratulations showered on Marston’s at Golden Wedding celebration (illus.).

May 5, 1928, San Diego Union, 2:3. Yorick Players convulsed first night audience at Roosevelt Junior High School auditorium.

May 6, 1928, San Diego Union, 15:3-5. Spring deliveries at San Diego Zoo keep stork on job working overtime (illus.).

May 6, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. San Diego Zoo to house 25 Galapagos tortoises.

May 6, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 4:3-6. Schoolgirls rally around Maypole at Scottish Rite Women’s party in Balboa Park (illus.).

May 8, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:5. To end O’Rourke dispute in park; Council to base action on study of Institute’s records for last year.

Requested by Mayor Clark to act one way or another on the park board’s recommendations that the O’Rourke Institute building in Balboa Park be turned over to the Zoological Society, the council yesterday called upon the institute officials for a report of their activities through the last year. Through this report the council hopes to determine if the institute should be allowed to remain or if the Zoo authorities should be given the building.

City Attorney O’Keefe told the council that he will start ejectment proceedings whenever the council desires that he do so, but that it may take a long time to “get ‘em out.”

Mayor Clark told the council that Dr. Wegeforth, president of the Zoo, indicated that he will retire and turn the entire Zoo over to the city, unless some effort is made by the council to turn over the building to the Zoo.

May 11, 1928, San Diego Union, 11:2. William Templeton Johnson, local architect, busy in Spain; is inspecting buildings he designed for Exposition at Seville.

May 13, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:4-5. Sciots give Mothers’ Day program at Organ Pavilion this afternoon.

May 13, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 2:3-6. San Diego Zoo known as source of trained sea lions for use in vaudeville and circus acts (illus.).

May 14, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:4-5, 2. Two thousand Spanish War Veterans arrive in San Diego for opening session of 25th annual encampment with memorial services for dead; four-day meeting will start in Balboa Park at 9 a.m. today (illus.).

May 15, 1928, San Diego Union, 12:4. Switzer drain plans held up; Council seems means to distribute cost of project on property generally; drain would carry off flood waters from Switzer Canyon in Balboa Park; Councilman Seifert says his plan to build dams in park canyons is proper solution.

May 16, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:1. San Diego yesterday approved school bond issues by majorities ranging from 4 to 1 to almost 6 to 1 with the State College proposal having the biggest majority; $150,000 for new high school buildings.

May 18, 1928, Letter, Clinton G. Abbott, Director, San Diego Natural History Museum, to Board of Park Commissioners (C. Box 1, Board of Park Commissioners, Correspondence, San Diego Public Library; File: San Diego Society of Natural History, 1916-1929).


Pursuant to provision made by the City Council in the Supplemental Budget, May 14, to the amount of $4,000 for the San Diego Natural History Museum during the remainder of the year 1928, we hereby request that an ordinance be prepared creating the following new positions under Civil Service requirements:

Curator of Birds and Mammals. Requirements: Ability to secure specimens of wild birds and mammals and to prepare them according to accepted museum standards; ability in osteological preparation; curatorial charge of the Museums’ collection of birds and mammals, including labeling and indexing; knowledge of the sciences of ornithology and mammalogy, with ability to diagnose material collected and describe new species; experience in the maintenance of field camps and in packing; knowledge of all branches of photography.

Salary $2,750 per annum.

Museum Custodian. Requirements: Complete janitorial care of museum building, including sweeping, cleaning glass, washing paint, etc.; ability as carpenter and cabinet maker in the manufacture of cases, etc.; familiarity with fumigation methods with Mercurial and Bisulphide solutions; familiarity with recharging of chemical fire extinguishers; ability as stereoptician operator, automobile driver, and of sufficient intelligence to be in complete charge of building on Sundays and holidays.

Salary $1,329 per annum.

Librarian to Scientific Library. Requirements: Training in and knowledge of librarianship methods; familiarity with cataloging, shelf-system, typewriting, correspondence, and personal service required in a reference library; knowledge of foreign languages and familiarity with technical literature sufficient for the requirements of a library wholly devoted to the arts and sciences.

Salary, half time: $900 per annum.

Curator of Plants. Requirements: Familiarity with the characters and identity of native and cultivated plants of Southern California; ability to prepare herbarium specimens; curatorial charge of the Museum’s herbarium, including accessioning, indexing, etc.; collection and maintenance of a continuous exhibit of fresh wildflowers and plants; ability to conduct public walks for the study of plant life.

Salary, part time: $840 per annum.

I am

Very truly yours,

(Signed) Clinton G. Abbott, Director.

May 20, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:6. Educational work at San Diego Zoo resumed with City and County students attending classes.

May 20, 1928, San Diego Union, 20:1. Commissioners reach agreement on use of tidelands; 28th Street area to be devoted to commerce; playgrounds to be moved to larger site near destroyer base.

May 20, 1928, San Diego Union, 21:1. Zoo birds given new home to rear young; citizens donate part of fund required for construction; companies donate lumber.

May 23, 1928, San Diego Union, 8:1. Governor C. C. Young to rededicate Indian Village; state executive to review Boy Scout troops at exercises tomorrow.

May 25, 1928, San Diego Union, 10:7-8. Governor Young rededicates Indian Village (illus.).

May 27, 1928, San Diego Union, 7:5-6. Spectacular snake newcomer in Reptile House (illustration of lizard recently added to collection).

May 28, 1928, San Diego Union, 11:8. Irving J. Gill to wed today in Palos Verdes.

May 29, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:4. Ejectment suit to settle row over Institute in Balboa Park; City Councilmen vote to start action against O’Rourke interests, following appeals.

Determined to settle definitely a controversy of long standing, the City Council yesterday by unanimous vote, instructed the city attorney to start proceedings for the ejectment of the O’Rourke Institute from the Zoological Gardens in Balboa Park.

The action was taken after an earnest appeal had been made to the Council by Gordon Gray, T. T. Mercier and other prominent members of the Zoological Society, who declared that such a step is necessary or the work, development and progress of the Zoo will be retarded. Councilman Frank W. Seifert made the motion to start the ejectment proceedings and Councilman Louis C. Maire seconded the motion.

It was reported, although no formal announcement was made, that Dr. Harry M. Wegeforth, founder and guiding spirit of the Zoo, had tendered his resignation to the Zoological Society because of the previous failure of municipal officials to evict the O’Rourke forces, but that the Society had refused to accept his resignation. Directors of the Society paid many high compliments to Dr. Wegeforth when they addressed the Council yesterday.

In urging the removal of the O’Rourke organization from the Zoo grounds, A. T. Mercier said, “With conditions as they are, we meet obstacles every time we attempt to make a step forward.”

“We are all proud of the Zoo,” said Gordon Gray, “and of Dr. Wegeforth, the man who made it possible. Thousands of children and adults enjoy this great attraction and anything that interferes with its success is working against the best interests of the city. Dr. Wegeforth has given more time to the work than any other citizen would have given. This O’Rourke building, the old Nevada building, is on ground set aside for the Zoological Society. A resolution passed by the Park Commission turning the building over to the Zoological Society has not been obeyed by Mr. O’Rourke. I cannot see that the O’Rourke Institute has any standing in the face of the city attorney’s opinion and the Park Commissioner’s action.”

“It has reached a point where it is going to be either the Zoo or the O’Rourke Institute,” declared Mayor Clark.

Councilman Dowell remarked that O’Rourke had announced that he wanted to be heard before any action was taken by the council.

“Our only remedy is to get the O’Rourke Institute out,” replied Mr. Gray. “I don’t see that O’Rourke is entitled to any more consideration in this matter.”

Dowell wanted to lay the entire matter over until Councilman Bruschi returns from the east, but Gray asserted that the council already had delayed its action too long.

“I am informed that the O’Rourke forces are circulating petitions demanding that admission free to the Zoo be done away with,” said Gray. “Children and men in service uniforms, you know, are admitted free.”

Stanley Hale, presumably representing the O’Rourke forces, told the council he had been asked to request that no action be taken until Attorney Whalen, representing the Institute’s interest, returns from a trip out of the city. Hale said that, as he understood it, petitions being circulated by O’Rourke do not ask that the admission fee be abolished.

“What difference does it make if Whalen is here or not,” asked Mayor Clark. “O’Rourke told me, and so did his attorney, that they would get out when the city put them out and not before. I cannot see any chance to compromise this matter.”

“Investigations have convinced me that proceedings for the ejectment of the O’Rourke forces are necessary for the best interests of our Zoological Gardens,” said Councilman Maire. “At first, I thought it might be only a personal quarrel, but I have been convinced to the contrary.”

The history of the case is briefly this:

Several years ago, Mr. and Mrs. P. J. O’Rourke, at considerable expense, moved the old Nevada building from its exposition site in the park to the Zoological grounds and fitted it up as an institute. For a time things went well, but later disagreements arose between O’Rourke and the Zoological Society, particularly between O’Rourke and Dr. Wegeforth, president of the society.

The Zoological Society decided to take over the work of the institute and the city attorney ruled that the building belonged to the park, not to O’Rourke, and was subject to the wishes of the Park Commission. The Commission then ordered it turned over to the Zoo. Employees of O’Rourke refused to vacate and Dr. Wegeforth appealed to the Council to eject them. The Council at that time refused to act.

Further appeals were made recently. Mayor Clark, announcing that he had been informed that Dr. Wegeforth would throw up the Zoo management unless the Council took action. The Council then asked for a written report on the activities of the O’Rourke Institute, which has not been filed. Instead, petitions favoring the Institute have been in circulation in various parts of the city. About a week ago it was announced that Dr. Wegeforth had sent in his resignation, but the directors of the Society, instead of accepting it, decided on one last appeal to the Council, which yesterday had the desired effect.

May 29, 1928, San Diego Union, 8:1-2. City to honor dead of all wars tomorrow; four-division parade; services at Organ Pavilion.

May 31, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:7, 7:3-7. City pays tribute to dead on Memorial Day (illus.).


June 3, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:4. O’Rourke files petition against removing park institute; says he will carry fight to highest court if ejection attempted.

June 3, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:5-6. Two thousand school children will sing at festival at Organ Pavilion today.

June 3, 1928, San Diego Union, 6:4-6. Zoo baby orangutans to demonstrate table manners Sunday morning.

June 4, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:6. Burglar awakens Marston to rob him of gift watch and cash.

June 4, 1928, San Diego Union, 7:1-2. Closing program in students 3-day Music Festival, by Mike Lustig.

June 5, 1928, San Diego Union, 7:1-2. City Council stands pat on Institute ousting; refuses to reconsider order to start suit of ejection of O’Rourke unit in park despite strong arguments; owners score lack of cooperation.

June 6, 1928, San Diego Union, 7:3-4. City moves to oust institute from zoo; City Attorney says legal proceedings to eject O’Rourke organization will be started within week; director states case for threatened establishment.

June 7, 1928, San Diego Union, 3:2. Problem of dam in park worries Mayor; Council officials visit Switzer Canyon to ascertain liability in case of flood damage.

June 8, 1928, San Diego Union, 10:7. Seifert revived park dam plan; Balboa Park project to come up in Council again Monday; petitions in circulation.

June 10, 1928, San Diego Union, 16:3-6. Goat born on top of “mountain” at Zoo hits stride as climber right off; mother chooses summit for home; keeper surprised at discovery.

June 10, 1928, San Diego Union, Development, 1:2-7. La Valencia Hotel to be feature in America’s Riviera (illus.).

June 17, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:4-6. Zoological Institute founder tells of fight to maintain children’s center work in park; San Diego woman has spent $50,000 on building City Council would take away, by Mrs. P. F. O’Rourke., honorary president of the Zoological Institute of San Diego.

“Do you know what is the real trouble between the Zoo and the O’Rourke Zoological Institute?” is a question asked by many citizens of San Diego.

I will tell you something of this affair. Several years ago I was working for the Children’s Center in a building in the pepper grove. It was taken over by the Girl Scouts as a headquarters building. In New York they have a similar one. At that time Dr. W. H. Raymenton, then a director in the Zoological Society and the educator in the Zoo, was conducting classes and lectures in the Standard Oil building, a building left over from the exposition.

Knowing of my interest in children and my various activities in their behalf, he asked me for the money to move the building across the street to the Zoo grounds and reconstruct it, whereby it should be used in part for a Children’s Center and in part fore educational purposes, similar to that now carried on by the O’Rourke Zoological institute.

Dr. Wegeforth, president of the Zoo, joined in the request and persuaded me to move the building onto the Zoo grounds, with the understanding that my purposes were to be carried out. Plans were drawn and published in the newspapers. In The Union of May 18, 1923, a ground plan shows an auditorium and moving picture room, library, exhibition room, stage, dark room for photography, and two rooms for offices.

Dr. Wegeforth came to me at various times suggesting various modifications. He asked for one end of the building for a concession for ice cream cones and refreshments. To this I consented, but the entrance to the Zoo grounds was to be outside the building. When I went to view the building, I found he had taken three rooms for offices and ticket office, with turnstiles admitting visitors through the building into the Zoo. In all the rest of the building was installed a lunch counter and kitchen, just as it is now. It was done and so I submitted to it, with much dissatisfaction. It had cost me about $7,000.

Dr. Raymenton was naturally very much disturbed in having the education plans of the Junior Zoological Society for children so arbitrarily thwarted, and expressed his feelings most vigorously to Dr. Wegeforth and me.

I told him to be patient and I might be able to do much better for the cause. I had become very much interested in his educational work for the children, which has received the written indorsements of our leading educators at home and abroad.

For more than 20 years he was the president and director of the Natural History Society of Worcester, Mass., and has a score of letters testifying to the great value of his educational work for the children of that city, written by its representative citizens and educators.

His educational plans for the children appealed to me. I was about to go east. On my return in the fall, I again discussed with Dr. Raymenton a Children’s Center and an educational institution.

We learned that the fine Nevada building had been sold to the wreckers and was to be destroyed. I decided to buy it back from the wreckers and endeavor to carry out my original plan. I bought the building and we planned to move it down to the pepper grove next to the Girl Scout headquarters. Various sites were discussed. Dr. Wegeforth came into the discussion. He was very desirous and insistent that the building should be moved onto the Zoo grounds, and that the two organizations should cooperate. This I did not want to do, but he promised hearty cooperation with our educational plans and said he would fence off the building from the Zoo grounds. This he did, but he did not cooperate with our educational plans.

Owing to our experience with Dr. Wegeforth in the Standard Oil Building, Mr. O’Rourke and I decided we would never lost control of the building. For convenience, Dr. Wegeforth volunteered to act as my agent and purchased the building with the check I gave him, but all subsequent bills for the reconstruction of the building were paid directly to the subcontractors. Any bill that was sent to the Zoological Society was returned to be directed to me personally. The purchase, removal, reconstruction and equipment of this building has cost me more than $50,000.

Dr. Wegeforth professed cooperation, but there were many broken promises and utter disregard of my wishes. The educational work was hampered in many ways. We had to abandon the idea of future cooperation with Dr. Wegeforth.

After consulting various influential citizens, we decided to incorporate the Junior Zoological Society under the name of the O’Rourke Zoological Institute of San Diego, a distinct legal entity with a separate board of directors, an advisory board, and an educational committee of representative citizens.

Neither Mr. O’Rourke nor myself ever intended to present nor did present the building in question to the San Diego Zoological Society. As indicated by the bronze tablets placed on the building, it was dedicated by Mr. O’Rourke and myself to the little children of San Diego.

It was the intention of Mr. O’Rourke and myself and was so understood by Dr. Wegeforth that the building in question was to be used by and equipped for an organization separate and distinct from the San Diego Zoological Society. It has, however, always been our wish and expectation that the two organizations would be able to work in harmony and in conjunction with one another, and the two organizations would have done so, if Dr. Wegeforth had not almost immediately after our establishment in the building, tried to destroy the institute.

The City Council, listening to only one side of the controversy, presented by the attorney of the Zoological Society, decided to evict the O’Rourke Zoological Institute from this building so that the courts may decide on a technical point as to the ownership of the building.

This eliminates wholly the equity in the building and justice toward citizens who have spent generously and patiently of their time and money in spite of the many handicaps, annoyances and obstacles, in carrying out a plan for the education and betterment of the children of San Diego.

If the institute is evicted from this building, do you think it will be conducive to inspiring other public-spirited citizens to contribute money for a like purpose?

We have asked for no help from the city. We have an excellent curriculum. We have many letters from parents, visitors and the leading educators of the city as to the educational value of the work at the institution for the children.

The work has been carried on and financed wholly independent of the taxpayers. This I believe to be the only institution of its kind in the city that has not asked aid from the taxpayers. We have done much and have only asked for the privilege of continuing and extending this work for the children of San Diego.

This week from San Francisco comes the notice that Frank Forrest Gander, instructor in the O’Rourke Zoological Institute, has won the adult prize of $100 in a statewide contest for the naming of a state bird and Jack Binkley, age 13, a student in the institute, the children’s prize of $50. The friends of the institute have a right to feel proud of the record it has made in the last three years as an educational institution in our city.

June 17, 1928, San Diego Union, 20:4-6. Zoo python consents to bath but will take meal from sausage grinder as usual today; huge serpent will be stuffed in public this afternoon after sun bath on lawn.

June 17, 1928, San Diego Union, 22:3-6. State College graduates to get diplomas at Organ Pavilion.

June 17, 1928, San Diego Union, Development, 1:3-7. Doors of Agua Caliente ready to open (illus.).

June 18, 1928, San Diego Union, 18:5-6. “Diablo” breaks fasts with 425 pounds of hamburger.

June 20, 1928, San Diego Union, 8:1-2. Collectors of O’Rourke Institute get specimens of desert life in La Puerta Valley.

June 22, 1928, San Diego Union, 12:1-8. High School graduates 455 at Organ Pavilion (illus.).

June 24, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 3:1-4. Board of Directors of Zoological Society replies to Mrs. O’Rourke in Institute row; states its side of controversy over rights to Nevada Building in park.

Submitted by the board of directors of the zoological society: A. T. Mercier, vice president; D. D, Wray, secretary; F. C. Spalding, treasurer; Gordon Gray.

The question being asked by so many interested citizens, “What is the trouble between the zoo and the O’Rourke Zoological Institute?” was so ably and fully answered in the article beginning with these words appearing under the name of Mrs. P. F. O’Rourke in The San Diego Union of June 17, that it only remains for us to reiterate some of the points which she so clearly set forth and upon which the Zoological Society of San Diego bases both its moral and legal claims to the Nevada Building, and upon which the officials of the City of San Diego have seen fit to order the return of the building to the Zoological Society.

As Mrs. O’Rourke states, it was through the work of “Dr. Raymenton, a director of the Zoological Society and educator in the zoo,” that she became interested in the nature work that the society was already doing among the children of San Diego. To head this work Dr. Raymenton has been appointed by the directors of the Zoological Society, and under its auspices, he was “conducting classes and lectures in the Standard Oil Building, a building left over from the exposition.” This same building had been offered to the Zoological Society several times for whatever use could be made of it, the first offer being contained in a letter from the Board of Park Commissioners, dated May 15, 1917, offering the use of the building to the Society as soon as it was vacated by the 21st Infantry. Dr. Raymenton in dealing with Mrs. O’Rourke, therefore, as she states, until 1926 was acting in the capacity of a director and educator of the Zoological Society and accepted her gifts as an agent of the Society. The work was one of the Society’s activities, widely advertised by him as such and he could not, acting in good faith with the Society, direct any of its work into foreign channels without the consent of the officials of the Society.

When he announced Mrs. O’Rourke’s intention of purchasing and restoring the State of Nevada building for the educational work at a meeting of the Board of Directors of the Zoological Society on September 18, 1923, Mr. O’Rourke moved that Dr. Raymenton, then a member of the Board of Directors, be made manager of the Junior Zoo and Children’s Center under “the direction and control of this Board.” This motion was seconded by Mr. Burnham and unanimously carried. Therefore, when Dr. Raymenton became “much disturbed by having the educational plans of the Junior Zoological Society thwarted” by Dr. Wegeforth, it would seem that the proper place to air such feeling would have been to the Board of Directors to which he was officially responsible and of which both he and Mr. O’Rourke were members; failing to agree with the body’s plans and directions, the honorable and natural course would have been to have resigned from an organization with which he was so entirely out of sympathy before starting another.

On December 17, 1925, however, Dr. Raymenton, feeling thus “thwarted” by Dr. Wegeforth, “expressed his feelings most vigorously” by the following letter:

December 17, 1925

“Dear Dr. Wegeforth:

“I have been working along the lines that you suggested in your letter of December 7, and I think you will be pleased with what I have done in the interests of the Zoological Society, the Institute and the educational part of our work.

“You say that you feel I should be ‘one of the watch dogs of out interests, and the interest of the educational end of it.’ That is exactly what it has been my aim to do. If we can carry out the educational plans that I have in view, and of which I have the written indorsement of some of the foremost educators in America, I shall feel that the time and strength I have put into the cause has been well worth while and the result will rebound greatly to the success of your administration in making the Zoo one of the great educational assets of the City of San Diego.

“I am going out of the city for the day, but I shall hope to see you again and go over the situation in the interest of bigger and better work.

Sincerely yours,

(Signed) “W. H. Raymenton.”

Hardly a letter that would indicate much mental disturbance or dissatisfaction with the conduct of the person to whom it was addressed.

“After consulting various influential citizens,” Mrs. O’Rourke decided, in 1926, “to incorporate the Junior Zoological Society under the name of ‘O’Rourke Zoological Institute.’” Rather a peculiar decision for a private individual to make in regard to a branch of a society over which she had been given no jurisdiction; The Junior Zoological Society was started January 23, 1917, by Dr. Fred Baker and the late W. H. Porterfield, upon which date the by-laws being prepared for the newly organized Zoological Society were ordered changed to include such an organization. As adopted by the Society in 1917, the by-laws contained three sections of Article 12 which provide for the Junior Zoological Society and the status of its members as part of the society. Upon whose authority and by what right Mrs. O’Rourke and these influential citizens could assume control of any part of the Society and convert it into a private corporation, in 1926, she fails to make clear.

Having moved the Nevada Building, already in Balboa Park, into the Zoological Garden, to quote again, “Mr. O’Rourke and I decided that we would never lose control of this building.” To just what extent are Mr. and Mrs. O’Rourke superior to the authority of the state of California and the charter of the City of San Diego? A building placed in the park, except under an act of the legislature of the state of California providing for the original ownership of the buildings used for the exposition, becomes ipso facto, the property of the City of San Diego for park purposes. This building was moved onto territory, controlled, through agreement with the Board of Park Commissioners, by the Zoological Society of San Diego, for the purpose of maintaining therein a zoological exhibit. Therefore, according to the opinion of the city attorney, ‘since the Board of Park Commissioners was acting within its rights in setting side territory for the Zoological Society to maintain such an exhibit, and since a most creditable exhibit is being maintained, and since the agreement is still in force, it includes the control, management and possession of the old Nevada Building, which has been moved onto this territory with the official consent of the Park Board. So it clearly appears that the Board of Park Commissioners and city officials have agreed that the Zoological Society, and not Mr. and Mrs. O’Rourke, has the right to determine the control, management and occupancy of the Nevada Building.

Although the active management of the Zoological Garden has been invested in Dr. Wegeforth, and to that extent he has appeared to be the person most concerned in this controversy, and through his intense interest in the development of the zoo he has made most of the overtures toward reconciliation, it is a matter of the utmost concern to the entire membership of the Society. The Board of Directors of the Zoological Society has unanimously agreed upon all action take in regard to this building. So concerned has the Board of Directors been at the disruption of so vital a part of the Society that the matter has been brought up at nearly every Board meeting for discussion beginning with the spring of 1926. At this time, Mr. O’Rourke was one of the Board of Directors and vice president of the Society, taking an active part in the discussions and clearly stating his opposition to any break in the Society and assuring the Board of his efforts to restore harmony and his personal regret at the rupture fostered by Dr. Raymenton.

Mrs. O’Rourke states: “It has, however, always been our wish and expectation that the two organizations would be able to work in harmony and in conjunction with each other, and the two organizations would have done so if Dr. Wegeforth had not almost immediately after our establishment (apparently meaning the Zoological Society’s pre-empted Junior Department) in the building tired to destroy the Institute.” The following letter might indicate the direction of Dr. Wegeforth’s efforts.

March 1, 1926

Mrs. Patrick O’Rourke

2900 Park Avenue

San Diego, California

“Dear Mrs. O’Rourke:

“The situation which as arisen in regard to the O’Rourke Institute and its relation to the Zoological Society has caused some of the directors to request met to call a special meeting to consider the matter.

“Personally, I am sure your wishes are not to hurt the Zoo but to foster its work and I know that if you are in full possession of al the facts we can rely upon your cooperation. I know that you, like ourselves, seek only what is best for the interest of the Zoo, the park and the people of San Diego.

“I wish you to feel that you can call upon me at any time and I personally appreciate everything that you have done. If there is any information that I can give you to help clarify the situation I will be glad to do so.

“Yours very sincerely,

“Harry M. Wegeforth, M. D.

“President, Zoological Society of San Diego.”

To this letter Dr. Wegeforth received the following replay:

2900 Park Avenue

March 1st, 1926.

“My dear Dr.

“Your letter dated March 1, I received in my mail this morning. I will refer it to the Board of Directors of the O’Rourke Zoological Institute for consideration. Expecting excellent cooperation and harmony, I am

“Very sincerely yours,

(Signed) “Maude O’Rourke

What consideration this matter received: when, or if, the Board of Directors of the O’Rourke Zoological Institute met, and what the results of such consideration were, was never communicated to the directors of the Zoological Society of San Diego nor to its president. Perhaps, Mrs. O’Rourke’s efforts and wishes for harmony and cooperation met with disaster from within her own organization — the article seems a little indefinite upon this point.

Every zoological park has depended largely for its initial development upon donations made by public-spirited citizens, interested in see such public enterprises prosper. Money donated for such purposes, however, does not vest the control of the grotto or building in the individual making the donation; established custom and precedence in such matters precludes the possibility. Nor have any other of the persons making these contributions sought to control or disrupt the organization because of their financial assistance.

To quote again, “Neither Mr. O’Rourke or myself ever intended or did present the building in question to the Zoological Society.” But at the Board of Directors meeting which we have mentioned before, on September 18, 1923, Mr. O’Rourke allowed himself to be appointed by the president of the Zoological Society on a committee to take care of the removal and restoration of the Nevada Building, and throughout the period of reconstruction, was thus acting in the capacity of agent or representative of the Zoological Society. “As indicated by the bronze tablets placed on the building which “dedicated to the Children of San Diego” and is maintained and developed for their education and pleasure by the Zoological Society of San Diego, as set forth in the by-laws adopted in 1917, reads similarly.

Because the Zoological Society appreciates so fully and wishes to acknowledge in a way that will be perpetually before the public, the generosity of those who have contributed so generously of their means to its support and development, it has from the beginning chosen to mark every gift to the Society for the children of San Diego with a permanent and dignified bronze plaque, in addition to publication in the newspapers. Nearly every cage bears this uniform tablet, naming someone who has become interested in the work being done through the solicitation of some member or officer of the Society, principally Dr. Wegeforth, and who has contributed funds toward the maintenance and development of the part of the work in which they are most interested for the good of the whole. The gift of Mr. and Mrs. O’Rourke was given the same recognition in the same spirit that all others have been received, and it is “dedicated to the children of San Diego” with the rest of the Zoological Garden by the Zoological Society of San Diego.

June 24, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 5:6-7. Rocky Mountain sheep at Zoo increased to five.

June 25, 1928, Letter, E. N. Jones, president of the Board of Park Commissioners, to Colonel Milton A. McRae, president Fine Arts Society of San Diego (C. Box 1, Board of Park Commissioners Correspondence, San Diego Public Library; File: Fine Arts Society, 1922-1930).

It is with sincere regret that I feel compelled to inform you that, after a careful and detailed examination of our budget estimates for the ensuing year, I do not see my way clear to increase the budget estimate for the Fine Arts Gallery beyond the sum of $20,000.

June 30, 1928, San Diego Union, 7:2-3. Council creates position of City Playground head; takes position out of Civil Service; job will probably go to J. Kearns.



July 1, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:4. Naval Hospital to concentrate training school activities here; Commander Daniel Hunt assigned to command local unit scheduled to start work in new building August 1; Navy will abandon present training school at Mare Island; building to be uses for training school has been erected at the Hospital at a cost of $136,000; it is 220 feet long and 40 feet wide with two wings, each 100 feet long and 40 feet wide; has four floors.

July 1, 1928, San Diego Union, 15:1. New Civic Symphony Orchestra to give first concert today at Organ Pavilion; Nine Marcelli will conduct opening program starting at 4:45 o’clock.

July 1, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:3-6. Airplane and speedboat used to capture 70 white pelicans on Salton Sea for San Diego Zoological Society (illus.).

July 1, 1928, San Diego Union, Development, 1:1. William H. Wheeler, architect, has drawn up preliminary plans and submitted a design to the Chamber of Commerce for a municipal auditorium and convention hall; no site has been selected.

July 2, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:1. Applause greets Civic Symphony’s first concert.

July 3, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:2. Navy expends $1,304,000 on buildings here during last 12 months, including seven buildings at the Naval Hospital.

July 8, 1928, San Diego Union, 9:1-3. San Diego Zoo asks cooperation of public in halting vandalism, cruelty to animals, by Belle J. Benchley, executive secretary.

July 8, 1928, San Diego Union, 19:3-5. Anna O. Shepard, curator of anthropology at San Diego Museum, returns with information on Mimbres tribes of New Mexico Indians (illus.).

July 8, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 4:2-5. Civic Orchestra to give second concert at park today, by Wallace Moody.

July 13, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:4, 2:3. Park Board cuts $164,170; responds to City’s request by reducing estimate of $388,170 to $224,000; largest item lopped off was $45,000 for municipal golf course; Park Commissioners Colonel E. N. Jones and George W. Marston, Superintendent John G. Morley and Executive Secretary A. H .Hill attended yesterday afternoon’s session; estimates made for institutions in park were cut 20 percent while operating and maintenance budget was cut about the same amount.

July 13, 1928, San Diego Union, 2:3. Park Budget Cuts: It was decided to ask for $29,280 for the Zoo; $16,000 for the Art Museum; $9,600 for the San Diego Museum; $6,000 for Natural History Museum; and $2,580 for Organ Pavilion.

July 15, 1928, San Diego Union, 3:3. Miss Ruth Haroldson, violinist, and her sister Miss Gail Haroldson, pianist, pleased audience at Organ Pavilion in free concert yesterday afternoon through the courtesy of the State College summer school.

July 15, 1928, San Diego Union, 13:3-5. World’s youngest trained lion is to be placed on exhibition at Zoological Gardens today; animal, adopted by Mrs. Johnson, wife of Zoo foreman, is fed on cow’s milk and olive oil (illus.).

July 15, 1928, San Diego Union, 14:6. Dr. H. J. Stewart goes on vacation.

July 15, 1928, San Diego Union, 18:1-4. Annual report of directors outlines progress and efficiency of Children’s Home.

July 16, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:1-2. Civic Orchestra wins hearty applause for concert at Organ Pavilion yesterday, by Wallace Moody.

July 16, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:4. Archers hold shoot at 6th and Laurel Streets.

July 16, 1928, San Diego Union, 10:1-2. O’Rourke Zoological Institute devises new scheme to give County Boy Scouts lessons in natural history at park.

July 16, 1928, San Diego Union, 22:6. Free classes in nature study conducted each summer by O’Rourke Zoological Institute have started off with rush; 20 girls and 19 boys registered at end of first week.

July 17, 1928, San Diego Union, 12:5-6. Ed Fletcher presents $150,000 park tract near Lakeside to County as bequest of late Hugh Thum.

July 22, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:3-5. Fine Arts Society rearranges exhibit of pictures by groups in local gallery; many new canvasses adorn rooms with American collection for first time, by Reginald Poland (illus.).

July 22, 1928, San Diego Union, 8:3-5. Huge brook of young alligators expected to emerge soon from nest at San Diego Zoo (illus.).

July 22, 1928, San Diego Union, 8:1-4. Pioneer from New England credited with saving Balboa Park for San Diego, by Daniel Cleveland.

July 22, 1928, San Diego Union, 11:1. Russell Keeney, civic orchestra violinist, to play solo this afternoon at Organ Pavilion.

July 22, 1928, San Diego Union, 12:4. Skeleton found June 27 in Balboa Park has been identified as Walter Williams; foul play suspected.

July 23, 1928, San Diego Union, 3:4-5. Great ovation given City’s Civic Orchestra, by Wallace Moody.

July 23, 1928, San Diego Union, 10:3-4. Wedding at St. Francis Chapel in Balboa Park.

July 26, 1928, San Diego Union, 2:2-3. Brush fire blackens 30 acres in Powder House Canyon in Balboa Park yesterday afternoon.

July 27, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:3, 2:1. City planners want uniform color scheme in port buildings.

July 27, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:6. Radio broadcast of Balboa Park organ to begin August 10; KFSD granted permit after guaranteeing park of fund for service.

July 27, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:2. Skeleton found on municipal golf course June 27 listed among unsolved mystery cases; police fail to identify remains.

July 27, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:6. William Templeton Johnson to quit as member of Park Board.

July 28, 1928, San Diego Union, 3:1. Governor C. C. Young speaks at opening of Pacific Southwest Exposition in Long Beach.

July 28, 1928, San Diego Union, 20:1. Believe park body is that of E. J. Marks; hinted at suicide.

July 29, 1928, San Diego Union, 10:2-4. New “three-room bungalow courts” ready for occupancy of primates at local Zoo; Mischief-proof cages of flexible wire have latest built-in features.

The three-room bungalow courts, which have been under construction for the last few months at the Zoological Garden, are now ready for occupancy. This is a model bungalow court, designed for the exclusive use of primates, each unit containing a large living room with latest designs in built-in features, a dining nook and upstairs sleeping room. There is no kitchen, as the meals are furnished and served without any additional charge. Children permitted. No dogs allowed.

So might read an advertisement for the new series of cages in the northeast corner of the primate cage, which has been recently remodeled. These are cages which have no equal and have been made as nearly mischief proof as it is possible to construct them. Soon after the monkey cage group was constructed the management of the zoo realized that it has made a grave mistake ton construct them of anything but flexible wire. All of the monkeys, but especially the large baboons, began at once to work upon the wire, shaking, pushing and pulling with all their strength. Any rigid wire will break under such strenuous abuse so it was not long before the work of patching and repairing had to begin.

It was not until this year, however, that the society could afford the necessary funds to replace all of this wire, , and it was urgent that other improvements in construction be made at the same time. These new cages are built so that the animals are fed in the back of the cages in the lower compartment, which also is enclosed in heavy chain link wire.

The sleeping quarters, which may be opened to the sun, are built above this outdoor eating room and the entire center of the yard is cemented in order that it may be cleaned by hydraulic pressure. In these cages you will see some of the monkeys you have been missing of late.

July 29, 1928, San Diego Union, 14:1. Nature classes hear address at Zoo Institute. At a joint meeting of the boys’ and girls’ nature classes of the O’Rourke Institute yesterday, W. B. Wright of the Natural History Museum staff talked to the students about butterflies, answering their questions and telling them many interesting things. . . . His talk was illustrated with specimens from the study collection of the O’Rourke Institute.

After Mr. Wright’s talk, Frank P. Gander, who has charge of the free nature classes held daily at the O’Rourke Institute, conducted a contest between the boys and girls. This was to determine which of the classes was the most expert in identifying the natural history specimens in the study collection.

The free nature classes of the Institute are open to all the boys and girls of the city who are interested in nature, and are held daily, except Saturday.

July 31, 1928, San Diego Union, 12:3. Art body seeks cent tax-levy on each $100 valuation from County Supervisors for budget next year; plans outlined for free classes Saturday morning for creative work of County School children.



August 2, 1928, San Diego Union, 8:3. Royal A. Brown, organist, praises work of Travers, instrument’s caretaker, recently deceased.

August 4, 1928, San Diego Union, 18:5. Lester Olmstead appointed to Park Commission to fill post vacated by William Templeton Johnson.

August 5, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:4-6. Fiesta Mexicana promises to be 3-day celebration in Balboa Park (illus.).

August 5, 1928, San Diego Union, 20:1. Flower exhibit to be held in Balboa park, August 18-19.

August 5, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 3:1-4. Flamingoes at San Diego Zoo (illus.).

August 6, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:4. Civic Orchestra 6th concert at Balboa Park, by Wallace Moody.

August 8, 1928, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORAL: His 50 Years (on Marston store anniversary).

August 9, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:3-6. Open of Marston store golden anniversary (illus.).

August 9, 1928, San Diego Union, 24:3-4. Colonel E. N. Jones announces entry in Supervisors’ race; president of Park Board and former Army officer (photo).

August 11, 1928, San Diego Union, 10:1-2. First concert from park organ will be broadcast through KFSD today (illus.).

August 12, 1928, San Diego Union, 12:1-4. Zoological Society seeks to reduce herd of elk as dad threatens his youngsters (illus.).

August 13, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:6. Civic Orchestra proves worth in 7th concert, by Wallace Moody.

August 14, 1928, San Diego Union, 12:1. Supervisors eliminate Fine Arts Society tax levy.

August 16, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:1. Forty planes to darken sky at dedication of Lindbergh Field today.

August 19, 1928, San Diego Union, Development, 1:3. Annual County Fair to picture splendid farming progress.

August 19, 1928, San Diego Union,, Development, 3:4-5. It’s up to private funds to preserve America’s historic structures, by Frederick J. Haskins.

August 19, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:3. Twenty-second annual Flower Show in Balboa Park.

August 19, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:4. Man, age 80, hit by auto as he tries crossing Park Boulevard at east entrance of Balboa Park.


August 20, 1928, Letter, A. S. Hill, executive secretary of Park Board, to Clinton G. Abbott, Society of Natural History (C. Box 1, Board of Park Commissioners Correspondence, San Diego Public Library).

Appropriation for fiscal year 1928-1929 will be $2,000 because of reduced appropriation for

support of Park Department.

August 20, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:4. Thousands hear Schumann-Heink in Balboa Park program; great diva and protégé, Miss McCoy, honor Civic Orchestra in final concert, by Wallace Moody.

August 21, 1928, San Diego Union, 12:7. Board accepts plans for Gymnasium at High School.

August 24, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:2. Park officials to ask Council about fund cut.

August 26, 1928, San Diego Union, 3:4-6. San Diego County Indian woman reproduces pottery forms of her tribe for display at San Diego Museum; Malcolm Rogers has just been appointed field archaeologist for Museum (illus.).

August 26, 1928, San Diego Union, 9:2-5. San Diego Zoo gets rare Mouflon species of sheep (illus.).

August 26, 1928, San Diego Union, 14:1-6. Story of San Diego’s First Prisons Shows Strange Contrast to City Jails Today, by Daniel Cleveland.

August 26, 1928, San Diego Union, 18:3. Society of Our lady of Perpetual Help will hold a bazaar at American Legion Hall, Balboa Park, Saturday and Sunday, September 1 and 2.

August 26, 1928, San Diego Union, 10th Annual County Fair Section

2:1-2. Large exhibit of pigeons will be featured at Fair.

2:3-5. 10th annual San Diego Fair promises best attractions in County history, by Felix Landis,

manager of Fair.

2:5. Electric washer to be featured at County Fair.

5:1. Many take space for exhibits.

5:2-3. Fireworks display to portray history of California for County Fair visitors (illus.).

6:1. Plenty parking spaces allowed for Fair guests.

August 27, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:3-4. Admission to County Fair will not admit bearer to Zoo.

Starting tomorrow the County Fair will be held in Balboa Park directly north of the main entrance of the Zoological Garden. Persons who wish to go to the zoo, but are not interested in seeing the fair, can enter by this gate without playing the admission fee into the fair grounds, as the gate is out of the fair territory.

The price of admission to the zoo through the south gate does not include the entrance to the fair, and for the five days that the fair is in session the exit gates opening into the fair grounds will be closed, unless proper credentials admitting the bearer to the fair are shown. This precaution is taken so the fair association will not suffer financially from the arrangement. Extra pains will be taken to have a bus available for those who go to the zoo by the south gate. A temporary station will be arranged at the foot of the hill and regular trips will be made.

August 28, 1928, San Diego Union, 16:2-3. County Fair and Horse Show to open tonight with parade; history of state will be presented in fireworks at 8 o’clock.

August 29, 1928, San Diego Union, 8:1-2. Attendance records broken at County Fair opening.

August 30, 1928, San Diego Union, 10:1. El Cajon wins community sweepstakes at Fair.

August 31, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. Buildings in village museum planned by Henry Ford to portray historical periods in England and United States.

August 31, 1928, San Diego Union, 8:3-4. Park Board opposes new road in Torrey Pines; would mar scenic beauty of natural preserve.

August 31, 1928, San Diego Union, 8:6-7. Women to hurl rolling pins in contest at Fair today.

August 31, 1928, San Diego Union, 8:8. Board will ask Council for more park funds.

August 31, 1928, San Diego Union, 22:5. George W. Marston urges City to preserve beauty of Sunset Cliffs.



September 1, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:5. Howard S. Reed returned from Siberia and Siam with skulls and skins of tigers for California museums.

September 1, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 13:2-3. Many features will make last program of County Fair.

With all attendance records shattered, the county fair and horse show will close this evening at 11, with the largest array of live stock, the finest horse show yet seen, the largest amount of industrial exhibits and a better showing of county produce than ever before.

The attendance record fell Friday night, and it is estimated that a 35 percent gain will be made this year. The entire showing this season will set a mark hard to compete with next year, but fair officials say that with the interest shown this year, next year will see many improvements. More room for exhibits and live stock will be needed next year, and Felix Landis says that plans will be made to enlarge the grandstand for the horse show.

Today the fair offers its final program of amusements and entertainment. At. 2 p.m., in the arena, the Camp Hearn troop, which has been highly entertaining all week, will present its final efforts. With expert horsemanship and exceedingly fine animals, this company of man has won the praise of the crowds each day.

Following the exhibition at 3:30, the Robin Hood Archery Club will present a contest of skill and daring. The club will be out in full force and Joseph Jessop, president of the club, assures the crowd of a demonstration well worth while. The bowmen will be so placed in the arena that all parts of the grandstand will be good vantage points for viewing the targets.

The last event of the horse show will take place in the arena at 8. At 8:30 free dancing will be in order and Wonderlich’s orchestra will furnish the music.

September 2, 1928, San Diego Union, 12:2-7. Kenneth Gardner makes plans for completion of city’s major thoroughfares (illus.).

September 2, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 2:1. Records broken as County Fair closes.

September 2, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 2:2-3. Gems of early France given to Art Gallery; five figurines presented by Mr. and Mrs. F. K, Dupee, by Reginald Poland.

September 2, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 2:5-6. Tiny Indian porcupine born late last week in Zoo is bundle of thorns (illus.)

This was such a rare and interesting event in the history of the zoo, the birth of an Asiatic porcupine, that lest some accident befall it among the adult specimens, the mother and baby have been moved temporarily to an empty bird cage

There is an interesting exhibit of these queer animals at the zoo, consisting of three varieties, the Indian, the crested African, and the Canadian.

All of the porcupines, with the exception of the mother and baby, live at peace with one another in one of the burrowing group enclosures just below the turtle pens.

September 5, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:7, 2;6. Park Board tells Council that reducing its funds was an injustice.

September 6, 1928, San Diego Union, 13:5. Yorick Players to open season in Balboa Park.

September 7, 1928, San Diego Union, 10:1. Park Board wondering who will foot bill for Convention of Park Executives at Balboa Park, September 27 and 28.

September 9, 1928, San Diego Union, 3:4. Life among aborigines of San Diego County exhibit in California Building (illus.)

September 9, 1928, San Diego Union, 16:1-3. Great part of Zoo’s phenomenal growth due to cast-off materials and junk (illus.).

September 9, 1928, San Diego Union, 23:3. Yorick Players to open season Friday at 8 p.m.

September 9, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 7:2-8. The Story of a Courthouse, by Daniel Cleveland.

September 10, 1928, San Diego Union, 6:6. Boy Scouts hold Court of Honor at Indian Village.

September 13, 1928, San Diego Union, 13:1. Mexican colony to stage Fiesta of Independence Sunday; “El Grito” will be given from balcony of American Legion Building; grand ball Saturday night in American Legion Building.

September 16, 1928, San Diego Union, 19:3. Owner donates brown-bear cut to Zoo (illus.).

September 16, 1928, San Diego Union, Development, 1:7, 2:3-4. Construction of U. S. Grant Hotel 18 years ago is recalled as turning point in San Diego’s march to prosperity.

September 23, 1928, San Diego Union, 3:3-5. Galapagos tortoises left here in May for the New York Zoological Society for experimentation in propagation of the rare creatures (illus.).

September 30, 1928, San Diego Union, 18:2-5. Park executives of country find San Diego Zoo miracle of development.

September 30, 1928, San Diego Union, 20:1-3. Bits of Old and New Spain caught in camera by Richard S. Requa shown at Art Gallery, by Ralph Morris (illus.).



October 3, 1928, San Diego Union, 9:3-4. Ninth series of Nature Walks by Museum starts Saturday.

October 7, 1928, San Diego Union, 17:1-2. The San Diego Union will celebrate its 60th birthday Wednesday.

October 7, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 4:2-3. Dr. R. S. Whiting, pathologist in animal ills and injuries, joins forces at Zoo (illus.).

October 7, 1928, San Diego Union, Society-Club, 13:2-5. Amphion Club has long and successful career, by Wallace Moody.

October 14, 1928, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:4-6. Miss Ellen Browning Scripps, in 92nd year, keen of mind though frail of body (illus.).

October 17, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:6-7. Sick Officers’ Quarters, Contagious Ward and Corpsmen’s Barracks at Naval Hospital cost $655,019.

October 21, 1928, San Diego Union, 7:2-4. New duplex bungalow at Zoo for Quaker parakeets.

October 24, 1928, San Diego Union, 12:3-4. Tam Deering explains methods of obtaining state park.

October 24, 1928, San Diego Union, 21:2-3. City report shows increase in playground use.

October 25, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:3. Manager of Operations Fred M. Lockwood selects Torrey Hill road.

October 26, 1928, Letter, A. S. Hill, Executive Secretary, Park Department, to Mr. Frank W. Seifert, City Councilman, San Diego, Calif.

Dear Mr. Seifert:

In compliance with your request for a statement in the matter of construction of Bridle Paths in Balboa Park, I submit the following:

One and three-quarter miles of Bridle Paths were constructed at a total cost of $5,482.99 — which included engineering services, labor and material for grading, drainage system, etc.

Funds for the work were supplied as follows:

Appropriated from city funds $2,000.00

Donation by Cabrillo Riding and Driving Association 1,809.00

Total $3,809.00

An appropriation of $4,000.00 for the work was provided in the Park Department Budget for the Fiscal Year 1928; but owing to the change in Fiscal Year, only half of that amount was available to June 30th, at which time the new Fiscal Year became effective. It will be seen, however, that the Park Department actually spent $3,673.99 in this construction after using the entire donation of the Riding and Driving Association.

Yours very truly,

(Signed) A. S. Hill

Executive Secretary,

Park Department.

October 28, 1928, San Diego Union, Development, 1:1. Torrey Pines, Mesa Artery and Pershing Drive plans studied; early start promised on Seifert’s plan to construct dam in Power House Canyon and another lower down in the park. Hydraulic engineer H. N. Savage studying situation.

October 29, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:4. Mme. Schumann-Heink will sell Grossmont place; proceeds to go to World War Veterans of Minnesota.

October 30, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:2. Louis Algren, Fire Department Chief, several months ago recommended a reservoir be constructed in Balboa Park to supply water for emergency; D. L. Bissell, deputy city engineer, W. W. Albin, water superintendent, and Algren yesterday made a survey of proposed Switzer Canyon dam site in park; will hold 100,000,000 gallons at a cost of $275,000.

October 31, 1928, San Diego Union, 8:3. Yorick Players initial date for season changed from November 3 to December 8.


November 11, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:7-8. Balboa Park Armistice Day program to start at 10:30 a.m. at Organ Pavilion.

November 11, 1928, San Diego Union, 12:3-5. Feeding animals at zoo (illus.).

November 12, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:1-2. Armistice ceremony at Balboa Park.

November 15, 1928, San Diego Union, 9:5. At a meeting Tuesday night, Committees representing Improvement Associations indorsed Councilman Frank W. Seifert’s plan for controlling flood waters of Switzer Canyon by building a dam at the upper end of Balboa Park.

November 25, 1928, San Diego Union, Development, 1:1, 2:3. Park Improvements outlined.

Complete transformation of the northeastern part of Balboa Park from its present wild state to one of the most attractive areas in San Diego’s big playground is part of the program of the Park Commission for the coming year. All that has held this work back has been the temporary shortage of funds due to the changing of the fiscal year and consolidation of the city and county tax agencies.

Revaluation of the property in San Diego will show, it is believed, a much higher valuation than in the past and consequently more liberal appropriations for public work is looked for by officials.

It is the park commissioners’ belief that the residents bordering on the northeastern part of the park are entitled to the improvements that have been outlined for the coming year. Landscape architects have been busy for months in the administration building on plans for park development which it is expected will show greater results than commensurate with the money expended over a large area.

The program for the northeastern area includes the laying out of new walks and drives, setting out of shrubbery and plants and the planting of lawns. The undulating surface of the land with its hills and shallow gulches, together with the numerous level spaces, affords opportunity for the work of the landscape architect, and when the plans are carried out it will not be many years before the northeastern section of the park will rival in beauty the older areas which have won praise from the thousands of visitors to Balboa Park since the days of the exposition.

Adding to the beauty of the extensive garden area south of the Organ Pavilion, it is the plan of the Commissioners to work in cooperation with the Rosarians of the United States in establishing here a rose test garden similar to those in France and England. This can be accomplished if the proper spirit is shown, said J. G. Morley, park superintendent, recently, and San Diego may have a rose garden, which for rarity and beauty of culture, will not have an equal anywhere on the Pacific coast.

It is the anticipation of the Park Commission to improve the municipal golf course along the plans designed for that work a year ago when it was proposed that bonds be issued to provide the necessary funds. The bond issue having been defeated, the Commission hopes to accomplish the improvement by other means which it is believed will make the golf course self-supporting. It is the desire of the Commission to provide a course that will add to the generally high standing of Balboa Park among the great parks of the country.

Sunset Cliffs come in for a generous share in the improvement program. IT is planned to improve the parking places along the top of the cliffs and to set out gardens and shrubbery, thus combining a view of sea and landscape that will be unequaled on the Pacific coast.

Provision has been made in the improvement program for the construction of several miles of bridal paths, made possible through budget and appropriation by the Silver Gate Riding and Driving Association. The bridal paths, of which already there are many miles, will penetrate parts of the park which heretofore have been accessible only by trails and never by automobile.

Plans which have been under consideration for the improvement of Torrey Pine Park soon will be carried into effect, according to Morley. While having in mind the preservation of the natural beauties of the Torrey Pines park, covering approximately 800 acres of undulating land, the landscape artist has not lost sight of the fact that its beauties can best be brought out by a system of trails and drives.

The plan of development includes a scenic drive along the cliffs as near to the coast line as possible. At an elevation of several hundred feet above sea level, this drive will give a magnificent view of both the ocean on the west and the mountains of the back country on the east. Trails and bridal paths will carry visitors to many interesting view points which have become famous for the magnificent growth of pinus torreyana, a pine tree found only in this vicinity.

Work in the Old Town Park, which was suspended several weeks ago because of shortage of funds, has been resumed and probably will be finished before spring. This improvement includes the installation of a sprinkling system and a new landscape effect. New lawns are being planted and shrubbery and trees are being set out.

Other park work included in the general program is improvement of De la Cruz Park in East San Diego; beautification of the waterfront from Hotel Casa Manana up the shore and restoration of the caves at La Jolla. A survey has been made of Hermosa Park, but no estimate of the cost has yet been made. Mountain View Park, at Boundary and Woolman Streets, is to be improved when funds are available, and the lawns in Golden Hill Park are to be extended and the landscaping remodeled.

November 30, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:1-2. Thousands join Balboa Park Thanksgiving service at Organ Pavilion yesterday morning.


December 2, 1928, San Diego Union, 4:3-5. Twenty-five varieties of ungulata at San Diego Zoo (illus.).

December 4, 1928, San Diego Union, 9:4. High School gym contract let at $11,000 savings; building to cost $68,900; other additions approved by Board of Education; Jarboe Construction Co. awarded contract; Frank P. Allen, Jr. drew plans; gymnasium will be divided into girls’ and boys’ sections.

December 8, 1928, San Diego Union, 1:4, 3:5. George W. Marston elected chairman of boy to obtain state park for San Diego County; Tam Deering, secretary.

December 9, 1928, San Diego Union, 12:1. Baby kangaroos at San Diego Zoo (illus.).

December 9, 1928, San Diego Union, Society-Club, 13:8, 15:1-3. California architecture will be distinctive, by Richard S. Requa.

December 9, 1928, San Diego Union, Development, 4:2-4. Drawings by Edgar V. Ulbrich for home for Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Reynolds in Chula Vista in Southern California Spanish style.

December 12, 1928, San Diego Union, 19:3. “Messiah” next Sunday at Organ Pavilion sung by Associated Choral Societies, by Wallace Moody, president.

December 16, 1928, San Diego Union, Society-Club, 18:6. Living Nativity pictures, carols, pageant to be given again at Balboa Park; rain interfered with presentation last year; will be presented New Year’s night if weather does not permit on Christmas night.

December 16, 1928, San Diego Union, 5:2. Albatross added to Zoo attractions.

December 17, 1928, San Diego Union, 2:4. Large audience hears “Messiah.”

December 23, 1928, San Diego Union, Society-Club, 8:4. Nativity Story to be depicted Christmas night; history of observance given.

December 23, 1928, San Diego Union, Development, 1:2-6. Drawing of new Fox Theater on block bounded by 7th and 8th and A and B Streets; Weeks and Day and William Templeton Johnson, architects.

December 23, 1928, San Diego Union, Development, 3:2-5. Photograph of Hamilton’s new building at 7th and C Streets; Frank P. Allen, Jr., architect.

December 26, 1928, San Diego Union, 8:3. Thousand view Nativity scenes at Organ Pavilion.

December 28, 1928, San Diego Union, 12:1. Pershing Drive widening awaits Council’s okay; Councilman Frank W. Seifert and Frank M. Lockwood, chairman of operations, indorse proposal to widen drive to 40 feet with shoulders two or three feet on the sides; drive will be straightened in several places.

December 29, 1928, San Diego Union, 9:1-6. Drawing of Spanish-Renaissance style structure on southwest corner of 29th and University Avenue designed by Quayle Brothers.

December 31, 1928, San Diego Union, 9:2-3. Advancement of science first objective in maintenance and management of San Diego Zoo.

“Maintaining a zoo.” How simple it sounds, how intricate it is in reality. Maintaining a zoo is not just keeping a collection of wild animals in inclosures in new, attractive and interesting ways. It consists not entirely in caring for these same animals, feeding them, doctoring them, cleaning their homes, adding to their numbers, or replace those who die. All of these do enter into the maintenance of a zoo in a large measure, for the exhibition feature is the best known and is, perhaps, the root of all the others. But the objects and aims of the Zoological Society of San Diego, stated in bylaws when it was incorporated, appear in the following order:

First, to advance science and scientific study of nature; second, to foster and stimulate interest in the conservation of wild life; third, to maintain a zoological exhibit; fourth, to stimulate public interest in the building and maintenance of a zoological hospital; fifth, to provide for the delivery of lectures, exhibition of pictures, publication of literature dealing with natural history and science; sixth, to operate a non-lucrative society for the mutual benefit of its members.

The results obtained in some of these directions, the phenomenal growth and the unique arrangement of the zoological exhibit, are too well known all over the world to need further mention. The San Diego Zoo is featured all over the United States and Europe as the outstanding zoo of the entire western part of the United States and the best example of open-air installation in the world. The famous zoological hospital has been built and is in operation. But its first object to advance science and the study of science. What has been done with that?

It enters everyday into the life of the zoo. First, so they may have to the fullest the advantages that the zoological garden has to offer, all children up to the age of 16 are admitted free. School classes of any age are not only admitted free with their instructors, but a lecturer and guide and buses are provided for their use. Children being admitted free, and constant visitors, they are protected in every way possible. There is not danger to them from auto traffic in the grounds and there is not a single record of a child, unaccompanied, being injured in the garden. They are as safe here as in their own back yards, and many parents recognizing this fact, bring them here in the morning with their lunch and leave them the whole day. Unconsciously as they watch the animals for their pleasure, they become familiar with them, their names, habits and native habitat. Hundreds of questions are answered everyday, for the children come to the zoo for information as to the care of pets, the classification of animals, birds and insects which they find about them, and for instruction and help in winning their Scout merit badges. The classes from the high schools and colleges of all southern California use the zoo not only in classwork but for individual project work and concrete information.

Through the research work being done in the study of animal diseases, there promises great advances in the cure and prevention of disease among domestic animals and wild species. There is little doubt in the mind of most nature students that the complete extermination of a species is due only in part to the hand of man and finally by the depredation of disease or some sort of cataclysm. If the disease can be eliminated wholly or in part by the scientific study and the development of remedies for it, great strides have been made toward the ultimate preservation of the species. This work naturally correlates with the second of the important aims of the Zoological society. Even the children know — perhaps they know better than anyone else in the community of the work that is being done to preserve and benefit wild animals in captivity and in the wild.

Many varieties of birds are being fostered in the zoo; in fact, it is becoming quite a game refuge, and ring-necked doves, quail, bob white, pheasants, guinea fowl, chacalacas, coots, wild turkeys, peacocks roam at will throughout the grounds. The children being in all of the injured squirrels, rabbits or deserted baby birds, wounded pelicans and sea gulls to be taken care of at the zoo, knowing that every effort will be made to feed the nestlings and cure the injured for the sake of preserving life.

Following this into a wider field, the Zoological society has come to be recognized, through the work of its officers, as one of the strongest agencies in the state working for the conservation of life. At the present time, it is the saving from wanton destruction the sea mammals of the Pacific coast, which is occupying the attention of many nature students and lovers. Thorough investigation is being made into the real amount of damage done to the fishing industry by these creatures and the best way to curb either the destruction of the animals or the industry. But the protection of such creatures as the Guadalupe fur seal, the Northern Elephant seal, the few remaining sea otters, must not be left to chance, and the Zoological society is bending every effort to prevent pelagic killing of all sea mammals, lest some of these rare ones be mistaken for the sea lion, which they aim to kill.

Consideration is extending farther from home and effort is being made to increase the numbers of the rare birds and animals which are threatened with extinction in lands even as far away as Australia. Climatic conditions here aid these attempts to foster life and great interests in being shown in the experiments. The animal under study just now is the kangaroo and its kin which suffer from a disease distinctive to their species, both in captivity and in the wild. A serum is being made in the laboratory which has been found to prevent further recurrences of the disease. These interesting animals breed and thrive well in the roomy pens at the Zoological Garden, and this may, in all probability, become not only a world market, but the depot where the species is kept from the extermination which is threatened them in their native land.

Added to the work in conservation is the effort being made constantly to secure new species or subspecies and to recover old ones. Reports of unusual birds and animals are brought to the zoo every day. Sometimes specimens are brought in, but every report is carefully checked and followed up. During the last year two varieties of snake heretofore unrecorded in San Diego County, though indigenous to the state, were brought into the zoo. These discoveries were directly due to the efforts being made by the society to eradicate fear of snakes and to stop the destruction of the harmless ones by offering prizes for their collection each year.

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