Balboa Park History 1929

January, 1929, California Garden, Vol. 20, No. 7, 11-13. Balboa Park — An Asset to San Diego, by John G. Morley (San Diego Union, January 1, 1929, Annual Edition, 5:1-8).

Annual Edition

(Check newspaper for correct sequence of page numbers.)

January 1, 1929, San Diego Union, 3:1-2. Growth of San Diego Zoo reads like fairy tale; institution is valuable factor in education of children in San Diego.

The name of Hagenbeck forever will be associated with the outdoor zoological exhibit and the barless type of installation for wild animals in captivity, but it remained for the Zoological Society of San Diego to apply this principle to a zoo in a way which has produced what is considered by many authorities to be the finest example of open-air installation in the world. When Charles M. Lee, for many years a member of the Board of Directors of the Zoological Society of Philadelphia, made the statement to the officials of the San _______________nageries: San Diego has a zoological garden,” he conveyed the meaning of the words, perhaps in a clearer way, than any other person has done.

The comparatively young organization has taken a rough, uncultivated piece of ground, consisting of approximately 150 acres, and taking advantage of every opportunity offered by nature, has converted it not only into a remarkable series of animal enclosures, but into a garden spot which is entirely in keeping with the justly famous Balboa Park in which it is located.

To the lay person and even to some of the professional zoo men, the striking feature of the exhibit is the nearness of the animals to the observer, and their seemingly unconfined condition. For, unlike other open-air grottoes, you are unconscious of the moat which separates you from the beasts, so cleverly is it concealed.

Many interesting comments arise from this feature, from the lady who returns to the office to report that the lions are unlocked, but as they have not discovered it, they have not made their escape, or the man who comes in to demand that the guinea fowls be prevented from flying over the moat into the lion grotto for fear they will be killed and eaten, to the prominent member of the National Association of Park Executives, who refused to stand and watch the huge cats until he had “picked out his tree,” there is every sort of comment and question.

To see the lions rolling and stretching on their benches, just a few feet away from you, with nothing visible to restrain them, is to enjoy all of the thrills of an African adventure.

The real animal man, however, is more impressed with the condition of the animals and their contentment and unconcern, and their total disregard of the observer, so close at hand. Those who are familiar with this feature of the Zoological Garden could not but be impressed with the marked similarity between the habits and actions of the lions in the exhibit here and the pictures of “Simba,” in the wonderful African film exhibited by Martin Johnson.

The lazy contentment is characteristic of all cats when they are unmolested and satisfied with their lot. The director of one of the largest zoos in the world when seeking fresh stock for his lion exhibit, after visiting all the other lion farms and exhibits in the southwest, selected, without a minute’s hesitation, the young pair of lions which had been born and raised in the San Diego Zoo.

Upon his return home, the purchaser, in an interview to the press, remarked: “You think it strange for an east coast man to go to San Diego for his lions, but in no place in the world, except on the African veldt, will you ever see such African lions as they have at the San Diego Zoo, and that is not all, for there in San Diego they raise the biggest and finest sea lions in the world. Also, I know, for I just bought the biggest one in captivity and brought it home with me.”

Aside from the open grottoes, however, there are several other features in the Zoological Garden which are just as unique and startling when compared to enclosures elsewhere, even though they are not as widely advertised nor so widely copied. Many of the visitors to the Zoo become so interested in the activities on the nearest mesa that they do not reach any other part of the grounds unless they happen to look over toward the north end of the garden and see four mysterious towers rising among the trees of the deer mesa.

A few come to the office to inquire about what they see, but many more investigate for themselves and thus discover one of the most interesting exhibits to be seen in any zoo in the world.

The mountain sheep and goats have been gathered together from all the far corners of the world and brought here for exhibition purposes. For their delight and good health they have been furnished with a high mound of steel and concrete which extends 80 feet straight up into the air. With a base about 10 feet square and a top of not more than four square feet, the side provided for the convenience of man with a slanting runway and many jutting rocks and corners, these make admirable substitutes for the crags of their own selection in their natural habitat.

It seems incredible that anything except a cat could cling to the steep sides and ledges, but both the sheep and goats run or leap from ledge to shelf with perfect ease, balancing on their sharp hoofs on minute projections until they reach the top, whence they survey the world about them intently, as if forced to protect themselves and their flock from the approach of danger.

Scorning the easier and _____ method of descent, they furnish ______ a thrill by leaping straight down the steepest sides of mound, either to the ground, or, bringing themselves up with a sudden jerk, they come to a full stop at the very edge of a narrow shelf, all four feet occupying a space less than six inches square, then with a breathtaking leap they land on the earth10 or 15 feet below.

Those who see this sight never forget to return to the deer mesa for further thrills. Not contents with the means at hand furnished for their climbing habits, the goats have developed the bad habit of climbing the wire mesh fences which are put there for the protection of trees and walking sedately on this tight wire, they browse on the young trees, keeping them in a constant state of dilapidation, but adding, nevertheless, to the pleasure of visitors.

Another triumph of zoological exhibit with which the whole world has become acquainted by the thousands and pictures and stories which have been published about it, and is surpassed by nothing of its kind in the world. It is constructed over a ravine, or “Barranca,” as they say in California, which faces toward the sunny south, and is, therefore, suitable for birds from all over the world.

By keeping the top line of the cage horizontal and lengthening the arches to correspond with the slope of the hills, an enormous height has been attained, while at the same time at the upper, one may stand on a level with the birds , flying or perching at the very top of the cage. The hillsides, thus enclosed, are terraced in their natural contours, while the surfaces of the ledges are of earth to permit of digging and scratching for worms.

Trees have been planted in anticipation of its location. So full grown trees lift their heads nearly to the top of the cage, but not quite, for in this cage are many birds which are accustomed to long flight, and, as it is kept, the wood ibis, the frigate birds and the white egret can extend their huge wings without fear of wire or steel support because this cage is so constructed that not an interior support nor guy wire is contained in the whole cage.

There are now more than 220 birds comprising 20 species inhabiting this aviary. The trees furnish shelter and nesting places and, in addition, caves are built into the terraced walls. Running water and pools add to the natural setting for the wading birds, such as egret and flamingo.

Frigate birds, which never have been successfully kept in captivity, thrive here and feed from the air, receiving the fish thrown by their keepers as they circle in gigantic arcs. Of all the birds in the wild state here, they are the quietest and most law-abiding of creatures.

Ruby-eyed Kagu from the island of New Caledonia lurk in the undergrowth during the day and at sundown come forth to entertain the visitors with their mating dance, their crests elevated, and their spotted wings outspread.

A crested currasow builds her nest just as she would in the tropical forest of her birthplace, and down on the stoniest of ledges, a thick-kneed stilt laid her egg among the brown stones from which it was indistinguishable, brooding in all sorts of weather and protecting her home fiercely until she hatched out a downy speckled chick.

Golden pheasants, purple gallinule, Java peafowl, and roseate spoonbills add color to the cage, while sooty tern, whistling tree ducks and cooing doves furnish noise to the silent collection in this marvelous aviary.

No exhibit, with the single exception of the reptile collection, is housed entirely indoors nor supplied with artificial heat. On the other hand, every specimen in the collection is provided with a shelter into which they may retire. Most of the exhibits are arranged so that they may be cared for and fed from the inside, an arrangement which is better for the animals and keeps a more sightly enclosure. The monkey cages are arranged in a hollow square with inside enclosures open to the sun for those which receive the least sun in the exhibition cage.

Between the series of grottoes, which are built in the canyons, pools for water animals and birds have been planned, and, though the series of grottoes are incomplete, there are at present seven such ponds, containing water fowl and seal, sea lion and alligators. The two largest are exact replicas, built to scale of two of the dams in the city’s impounding system, so without any effort except the short trip into the Zoo, one interested in the subject could form a very good idea of the means by which the city provided itself with sufficient water for its long dry seasons.

The whole garden has been laid out along a line of development planned in the beginning by competent landscape engineers, and this plan has been strictly adhered to, thus accounting for some of the present barren stretches which will be later filled with the proper species.

No matter how complete it becomes, however, it will always be different from other zoos, for the individual creature is placed in its proper surroundings. Nocturnal animals are provided with logs and caves for their daily sleep, and if you are disappointed in seeing nothing but the back of a woody opossum, or the quills of a sleeping porcupine, remember that it is more than cruel to force them to change their natural habits, and a return tip to the Garden after sundown will more than reward you for waiting, for then they will be abroad and stirring as they would in the wilds.

The Zoological Garden was built to show the public things of nature as they are, not as man compelled them to exist, and to create in the public, especially for children, a love for and interest in the creatures which will _____ to their preservation in nature. Many visitors have found in it the fulfillment of their ideals and are taking to other places the story of its collection so that it may be copied in many places and in many ways.

January 1, 1929, San Diego Union, 3:5-6. Some animals wander loose around local zoo grounds.

An interesting and unusual feature of the San Diego Zoo is the number of animals turned loosed to wander around the grounds and perhaps the most popular and best known of these is “Moses,” the little fox squirrel.

He greets the visitors to the entrance and escorts them to the peanut case, then he stands up and begs for them so prettily that no one is hard-hearted enough to refuse the appeal.

The most common of these uncaged exhibits are the pigeons, the peacocks, the guinea fowl and wild turkeys, but if you are a careful and quiet observer, you will see the Bob-white quail, the California valley quail, the African Vulturines, chucacalas, pheasants and water guan wandering about on the edge of the undergrowth.

January 1, 1929, San Diego Union, 3:1-8. Mission Cliff Gardens, on rim of valley, one of City’s show places.

January 1, 1929, San Diego Union, 5:1-8. Balboa Park is gem of southland; lawns and trees from emerald background for eye-pleasing buildings, by John G. Morley.

In submitting this article for the perusal of readers of the Union Annual, I am writing more from the viewpoint of Balboa Park as a commercial asset than from its horticultural beauty or influence, which as been written of so frequently.

In the Magazine Section of the Los Angeles Times of September 20, 1928, George H. White writes as follows in regard to Balboa Park and the San Diego Exposition of 1915-1916:

“As a small city undertaking an international exposition, San Diego probably had more to gain than any of the larger cities which have held expositions in the last quarter of a century. Certainly the greatest civic asset which San Diego boasts at the present time is a legacy of its Exposition — Balboa Park improved . . . transforming a sage-grown waste of park lands in the center of the city into a beauty spot of landscaping and architecture that wins acclaim of world travelers.

“Architecturally, the Panama-California Exposition, by its permanency, has been a genuine influence in general for the adoption of a Spanish type of architecture that as now come to be known . . . as the Southern California style. The landscaping and plantings at the park exposition played a big part in the architectural influence through the exemplification of harmonious gardening. Flowers, trees and shrubs from all parts of tropical, sub-tropical and temperate zones embellish not only the exposition site, but have been extended over 600 acres of the 1400-acre park that borders the business district and is surrounded by residential areas.”

Continuing, Mr. White writes of a fine arts gallery, natural history museum, scientific library, archaeology museum, outdoor organ, zoological garden and a stadium. Facilities for the enjoyment of the people in addition to those mentioned are roque courts, tennis, golf course, horseshoe pitching and bridle paths; and continued improvements have produced for San Diego one of the famous parts in America.

Balboa Park by the visitation of hundreds of thousands during the exposition and the last 12 years since its close, has been one of the causes for many new residents locating here. While many have come because of the naval activities, both on sea and in the air, it was nevertheless large due to the prominence given San Diego during the World War when the main buildings of the former exposition in Balboa Park were made available for use as a naval training center. This brought to the attention of the government the possibilities of San Diego as a base for navy, marines and the aviation departments of the army and navy.

Through the efforts of Congressman Kettner and other influential citizens at the time, who realized what an asset San Diego possessed in its land-locked harbor and equable climate, have led to the establishment of permanent bases for all these branches of the government together with the immense naval hospital in the park.

That the improvement of Balboa Park for the 1915-1916 exposition and continued upkeep and development has been the means of selling San Diego not only for the government departments, but also for numerous business enterprises cannot be denied. Its temperate climate and scenic beauty have been the means, to a great extent, of the increase in population from that of a small town in 1911, when the building of the exposition was commenced, to a city of around 160,000 people at the present time.

The article of Mr. White — the views expressed by many visitors from all over the United States and other countries, who have marveled at the horticultural beauty contained within this centralized area, all proclaim Balboa Park to be the chief asset of the city, and as the accepted plans for the continued development of the recreational facilities and the horticultural beautification of Balboa Park are gradually completed, it will continue to be the chief attraction from the esthetic standpoint and a commercial asset of undoubted value.

The public park system of San Diego includes 28 separate parks covering a total of 2,600 acres and ranging in size from the mere “breathing space,” a block square at the Plaza to Balboa Park’s 1,400 acres, around which the city is built.

Dividing to some extend the business and residential sections, Balboa Park lies on a table land corrugated by deep canyons which burrow towards the bay and ocean, thus affording many an exquisite vista. Six hundred acres of this park are highly developed, having been superbly landscaped and plotted for the great international exposition of 1915-1916. The beautiful buildings are now converted to the use of numerous cultural organizations and supply splendid facilities for the proper presentation and enjoyment of music, art, drama, museum, zoo and other educational features.

Any attempt to picture the charm of this great park, its buildings, its drives and walks, its gardens, shrubs or trees, or even to pick out its greatest feature, would be futile in the extreme, because to each individual Balboa Park offers too wide an appeal and he must, of necessity, center his approbation on one or two details which, like at not, another overlooks entirely in his particular admiration of something else. Six hundred acres intensely developed both in landscaping and architecturally is more than one mind can encompass though visited regularly over a long period, for each day brings forth its quota of shrub or flower and even the architect is contriving his frequent contribution through the courtesy and financial aid of an interested citizenship which is constantly adding to what the park officials are able to do for the upkeep, maintenance and improvement of this great park.

The topography of the park while difficult to handle in some respects with its deep canyons cutting through here and there offering road-building obstacles, is on the whole an advantage which has afforded exceptional opportunity for pleasing diversity in landscaping. The character of the climate, too, makes it possible to utilize with success a wider variety of flora, perhaps, than any other park in the country. In addition to these natural advantages, the erection of the beautiful exposition buildings adds still another exceptional feature to this great park. Built and grouped with an eye to adornment but still not particularly with the thought of permanency, the idea of preserving them gradually grew upon the community after the exposition has come to an end and nearly a score of these buildings have now been restored and occupied under the practical control of certain organizations for the public good.

Owing to this liberal policy of the park board, thousands of public-spirited citizens have given of their energy, time and money for the establishment and upbuilding of a variety of cultural institutions which are lending their influence in the development of the finer side of the community, and affording pleasure to thousands of visitors.

Artists from the east and from the capitals of Europe have visited San Diego that they might put upon canvas the charm that has made this spot a lure to lovers of beauty from the ends of the world, and many of these canvases have been admired in the galleries and salons of Paris, London and Rome.

Nowhere in this country has nature so favored the horticulturist and the profusion of blossom never wanes. The seasonal flowers of summer and spring are literally crowded out by the no less prolific growth of fall and winter. The procession is endless and of infinite variety. Stately yuccas from the arid desert grow among the massed foliage of jungle origin., and tropic llanas bind the tall trucks of pines that germinated beneath the snows of the far north. Flaming hibiscus from the South Seas flaunts its radiance amid roses and lilies, against a background of graceful palms.

The main entrance to the park is by way of Laurel Street, which leads to Cabrillo Bridge, whose quarter-mile span connects the Exposition grounds with the western part of the park. From this bridge the view is one of the most delightful to be had in the city. At 112 feet straight below may be seen the lotus pond where in season lotus and pond lilies spring in thousands, casting their reflection upon the quiet bosom of the pool.

To the north, bison and other ruminants are seen grazing in their paddocks at the Zoological Garden, and the southern outlook embraces the downtown district of the city, the San Diego Bay, and beyond that, the Silver Strand of Coronado, ruffled with the silvery lace of breaking surf and the still more distant Coronado Islands of Old Mexico.

At the east send of the bridge stands the Administration Building, flanked by the majestic tower of the California State Building, housing the San Diego Scientific Library. Facing the California Building and with it forming a small plaza, is the Fine Arts Building, with exhibition galleries and the Academy of Fine Arts.

East of these and facing each other on either side of the main street or Prado are the Science of Man and Indian Art Buildings, in which are shown the archaeological, anthropological and Indian Arts exhibits of the San Diego Museum. The buildings form the western wall of the Plaza de Panama, a paved court where public festivities, outdoor dancing, fiestas and similar entertainments are of frequent occurrence.

The American Legion Building, at the northeast corner of the plaza, reconstructed for activities of the Legion, contains one of the finest museums of World War relics in the west.

The Foreign Arts Building, at the southeast corner of the plaza, has been reserved for expansion of the Natural History Museum, which now fills to overflowing the old Canadian Building of exposition days. The mounted specimens of native animals, current and extinct varieties, the herbarium and other exhibits form an exceedingly interesting display of the fauna and flora of San Diego County.

South of the Plaza de Panama, flanked by its graceful peristyle framing glimpses of the blue Pacific, the great Spreckels organ commemorates the love of two brothers for their fellow citizens. The largest outdoor pipe organ in the world, a gift to San Diego of John D. and Adolph Spreckels, is heard daily in concerts throughout the year, and is a source of unending delight to San Diegans and visitors from elsewhere.

Just north of the Prado and east of the American Legion Building, the Lagoon, with its thousands of pond lilies and lotus blossoms, mirrors the lath dome of the Botanical Building, through which giant bamboo, nearly 70 feet in height, poke their fronded heads. In this building and in the adjoining conservatory are displayed the luxuriant tropical planting that would not thrive even in the mild climate of San Diego. Rare exotics and the more delicate native flowers are shown here under the most perfect growing conditions and are the subject of admiring comment the year round.

The Domestic Arts Building, one of the largest and handsomest of the Exposition group, is in frequent use for industrial and agricultural exhibits, the annual county fair being the most important of these features.

The Pepper Grove picnic grounds is one of the most popular sections of the park. Groups of tables in shaded nooks, convenient drinking fountains, playground apparatus and other equipment attract to this spot many picnic parties each day. The local Girl Scouts occupy two buildings in the Pepper Grove, and their activities add greatly to the life and spirit for which this part of the park is noted.

The Zoological Society has taken over three of the Exposition buildings and have restored them for use in administrative, education and exhibit purposes, in connection with the 150-acre tract that has been transformed into an extensive zoological garden. The largest group of animals, birds and reptiles in the west is maintained in this zoo.

The Painted Desert occupies a large are in the north end of the park and comprises a group of replicas of Indian community houses. This during the exposition was regarded as one of the greatest attractions ever shown, and it was considered of so great value to the community that the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, by whom it was built, was prevailed upon to donate it to the city. The Painted Desert is now occupied by the Boy Scouts, for whom it makes an ideal group.

In addition to its supremely beautiful landscape effects, its museum exhibits and its attractions for lovers of art and music, Balboa Park provides facilities for those who have athletic tendencies. An 18-hole golf course, a battery of six concrete surfaced tennis courts, horseshoe pitches, miles of dirt road for equestrians, and many more miles of quiet trails for pedestrians afford ample encouragement for outdoor exercises.

Baseball and football, track meets and similar sports may be indulged in on the several fields located in the park, while the huge concrete bowl stadium, seating 35,000 people, is reserved for the more important football and baseball matches.

January 1, 1929, San Diego Union, 6:8. Annual County Fair attracts record crowds.

(Note: the following article is copied from an undated clipping and included here as the most likely source.)


Generous Display of Varied Products Indicates Prosperity of District, by Felix Landis, Secretary County Farm Bureau.

For the past 11 years the San Diego County Farm Bureau has conduced a county fair in Balboa Park. Starting in a small way with no capital save a subscription fund of $3,000 furnished by individuals from all sections, the fair has steadily advanced until it has become one of the major fairs of the state.

The fact that Balboa Park had been developed for the Panama Pacific exposition [sic] and that several buildings, not in use, were so grouped as to lend themselves to the needs of a fair, made it possible to launch the enterprise on little more than a desire. That desire was not for a mere celebration, or carnival of fund, nor was it just for a temporary business stimulant by bringing people into the city for a few days of sightseeing and spending. The impelling thought was to furnish an urge to agricultural and industrial development by exhibiting yearly to the public, the finest and best products that come from our farms and factories.

It was also recognized that the strongest motive for improvement springs from a desire to excel. The competitive showing of products therefore not only acquaints all people who attend with the possibilities of the county’s production, but also brings about more thoughtful effort on the part of the producer, with better products the result.

As there had been no fairs or exhibits within the county for many years, and no special inducement toward quality production, it was wisely determined to protect local exhibitors from competition with other sections of the state, where the influence of past competition was plainly noticeable in the quality of the livestock and farm products available.

For eight years entries at the San Diego county fair were confined to those that were produced or owned by the citizens of the county. The result was an immediate and general response on the part of local people. The number of entries and the number of producers participating increased rapidly, the fair expanded and attracted attention throughout the state. A decided improvement in the quality of exhibits was plainly noticeable within five years. This was especially apparent in all livestock classes, as the field and orchard products of San Diego county lands have ever been of good quality. As the worthiness of local livestock became more pronounced, local exhibitors, prideful of their animals, professed a willingness to compete on harder terms, and with the eighth fair, all livestock classes were opened to competition from the world.

The result has been gratifying. San Diego county exhibitors have been able to win consistently from outside invaders and are now going afield themselves in search of contests. Poultry, rabbits, pigeons, cattle and horses from San Diego county win premiums in fairs throughout the coast states and are factors in any competition in which they are entered.

As a direct outgrowth of the San Diego county fair, the county government now sponsors exhibits in the national orange show, and the California state fair. Thousands of people are show the superior products of our orchards, our fields and our gardens, and our products are award many premiums.

One by one, the exposition buildings used by the fair for the first few years have been moved away or destroyed. Today only the old domestic industries building of the Panama Pacific exposition [sic] times remains for use. This has become the county fair building by common usage.

Year by year the fair has created buildings for its needs. Barns for cattle and horses, light and well ventilated, have been built. Sheltered pens for swine and goats have been added. The best type of poultry house to be found on any southern California fair grounds was constructed. This was followed a year later by a pigeon house of equal quality. The latest bit of permanent construction houses the rabbit exhibit, and is not equaled by any nearby fair. It is a fact that no fair in California, not even excluding the state fair, houses all of its livestock in permanent buildings as suitable for the purpose as those of the San Diego county fair.

Although the purpose of the fair is serious and constructive, it is not practicable nor economically possible to stage such an exhibition unless it is well patronized. The average citizen is not content with recreation that s serious and constructive only.

It is necessary to provide amusement, entertainment and play. Music, dancing, novel contests are regular features. Off times boxing and wrestling are programmed. Rodeos have been leading attractions at times and fireworks displays, or tableaux in fire, have been used in recent years. Experience indicates that the night horse show, in a well-lighted arena, finds greater favor than any other single effort and will be continued. The public demands variety, however, and additional diversions must be provided.

Each of the 11 years that the fair has been held, it has been to some degree a celebration, a suggestion of carnival has been apparent, people have come to San Diego from the country and neighboring counties, and retail business has been benefited. San Diego, city and county, have surely profited by the advertising that has been derived from the fair, but mainly, the influence of holding this yearly exposition has been one of self improvement and internal development. This community has progressed faster as a result of the fair and will achieve still more through its continuation.

January 1, 1929, San Diego Union, 7:1-2. Natural History Museum is place of wonders.

January 1, 1929, San Diego Union, 7:3-4. Museum’s taxidermy shop is interesting establishment

January 1, 1929, San Diego Union, 7:5-7. L. M. Huey, field collector, is employed by museum.

January 1, 1929, San Diego Union, 7:8. Marine Museum is feature of Star of India.

January 1, 1929, San Diego Union, 9:1. Naval Hospital in Balboa Park largest in United States; 1000-bed institution erected on hilltop overlooking city and beyond.

Located on an imposing site in the center of Balboa Park, the local naval hospital has grown to a 1000-bed institution, and is now the largest naval hospital in the United States.

In the last year, the frontage of the hospital has been almost doubled. A building for officer patients, with a capacity of 100 officers, a contagious ward with a capacity of 185, and a building to accommodate 150 students, and new officers’ quarters are among the projects of the last year.

The school for hospital corpsmen, formerly at Mare Island, has been moved to San Diego, largely because of the presence here of the naval training station. Not only are hospital corpsmen given their training there, but advanced courses are offered for pharmacists’ mates from the fleet.

The hospital with its extensive buildings, is one of the scenic spots of the city. In 1925 the city gave the navy five and one-half acres more land, so that the hospital grounds now include 22 and one-half acres. It would be difficult to find a better location for a hospital than the location of the one here, on its hilltop overlooking the city and the sea beyond.

Expenditures for new work at the hospital reached $750,000 last year, and many other units are planned. Among these are a ward to accommodate 175 more patients, a hospital corps barracks with a capacity of 300, and a complete modern laundry to take care of the hospital needs. The hospital corps barracks, to cost $300,000, will contain a garage, blacksmith shop, paint shop and storage rooms. If the families of offices and enlisted men are taken into the hospital, it will necessitate another building, probably about the size of the new sick officers’ quarters, and costing around $150,000.

A new outpatient department has been installed for the treatment of officers and enlisted men’s families. This unit consists of 14 examining rooms and doctors’ offices, with a small operating room. Four doctors are on duty here, and, during the last year, 21,419 office calls and 5,765 home calls were made by this department.

Approximately $1,000,000 per year is disbursed by the navy paymaster at the hospital. The cost of good in the last year was about $150,000, drugs and supplies amounted to $35,000, and the pay of the 117 civilians at the hospital came to $145,000.

The “Ship’s Service Department” of the hospital operates two canteens, a soda fountain and restaurant, a laundry, cleaning and pressing agency, pool room and a gasoline filling station. There is also an athletic unit consisting of a combined tennis and basketball court, a handball court and a clubhouse. Baseball and basketball teams, made up of the hospital corpsmen and others on duty there, are regularly entered in the 11th naval district athletic tournaments.

A large force of doctors and intern operated at the hospital, under the direction of Captain Raymond Speak, medical corps. The hospital is on the approved list of the American College of Surgeons and the professional work, both medical and surgical, ranks well with that of any civilian hospital. As all of the medical profession are there on full time with no outside interests, they can devote their entire efforts to the study, care and treatment of their individual cases.

January 1, 1929, San Diego Union, 9:4-5. Daily recitals on organ are year-round feature, by Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart.

January 1, 1929, San Diego Union, 11:4-7. Art of Indian basket making slowly passing.

January 1, 1929, San Diego Union, 11:8. Olla indicates Indians knew higher arts.

January 1, 1929, San Diego Union, 17:1-3. Indian Village is best equipped Boy Scout headquarters in world.

The now famous Pueblo Indian Village was built by the Santa Fe Railway Company for the 1915 exposition at a cost of $225,000 and was presented to the city in 1916, the city council and the board of park commissioners, in turn, making it available to the Boy Scouts of Southern California.

January 1, 1929, San Diego Union, 20:2-6. Art Gallery displays classic paintings.

January 1, 1929, San Diego Union, 20:7-8. Music plays big part in cultural life of San Diego residents, by Gertrude Gilbert, president Amphion Club.

(End of Annual Edition)

January 4, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:3, 3:5-6. Daniel Cleveland, noted San Diego pioneer for 60 years, succumbs at home in city.

January 6, 1929, San Diego Union, Classified, 6:4-5. All parts of world represented among 21,230 entries in Visitors’ Record kept at San Diego Zoo.

January 8, 1929, San Diego Union, 8:6-8. O’Rourke Zoological Institute; San Diego’s unique school for nature study (illus.).

January 13, 1929, San Diego Union, Development, 5:4. Photograph of Frank P. Allen, Jr., San Diego architect, who has won distinction for his designs for such notable structures as Hamilton’s, Inc., May Anderson’s Packard Agency, and New French Laundry.

January 20, 1929, San Diego Union, II, 1:6. Pershing Drive widening will start tomorrow; extra crews will be put on to push work to completion as early as possible; appropriation of $5,000 was made by the council last Monday at the request of Councilman Frank Seifert; highway will be given an additional width of 15 feet and several curves will be straightened out.

January 20, 1929, San Diego Union, World-Wide Features, 1:3-7. William Templeton Johnson, San Diegan, helps build modern castles in Old Spain; Palace of Arts Building, United States Government Building, another building (illus.); photographs of interior of Palace of Queen Victoria Eugenia and Plaza de Espana building at Iberian-American Exposition in Seville.

January 21, 1929, San Diego Union, 8:2-3. San Diego City Boy Scout troop plans to clean and improve grounds at Indian Village.

The entire north end of the scout reservation has been assigned to troops to date, and it is expected that before the close of the month the entire village grounds will be parceled out to troops to take care of.

Troops are urged to use the village for their troop meetings as it affords an excellent site for outdoor troop meetings where scouts may cook their supper and then take part in their regular meeting and program around the campfire.

January 22, 1929, Letter, Fred W. Links, Department of Finance, Sacramento, to George W. Marston (George W. Marston Papers, Collection 219, Box 2, File 33, San Diego History Center).

I have been informed by the State Controller that under the ruling of the Attorney General he will be unable to continue the approval of any claims against the appropriation made by the Legislature for the support of the California Building at Balboa Park.

January 22, 1929, San Diego Union, 6:3. Local National Guard will hold competitive drill in Plaza de Panama, Balboa Park, today.

February 1, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:6. Plan to give High School students more latitude in use of Stadium; tentative understanding at conference; Park Commission and educational authorities meet.

February 3, 1929, San Diego Union, II, 3:4-7. New Russ High School annex recalls original unit (illus.).

February 5, 1929, San Diego Union, 6:1. Council places Zoo amendment on April ballot; voters to register wishes on apportioning share of park taxes to Gardens.

Request of the San Diego Zoological Society that a proposed amendment to the city charter, setting aside a certain area in Balboa Park to be used as a zoological garden, be placed on the ballot at the April election was granted yesterday by the city council. A resolution also was adopted placing on the ballot whether 8 cents out of the annual appropriation for Balboa Park shall be used for maintenance of the zoological gardens.

Both of these amendments were voted upon favorably at the city election two years ago, but due to an error in advertising the election was declared illegal.

The first amendment merely preserves to the San Diego Zoological Society the right to maintain its gardens in Balboa Park without fear of ejection at the caprice of any administration. The second amendment assures it a fixed amount which may be depended upon to aid in maintenance.

Adoption of the first resolution, asking for the vote of the people on the question of giving the society a certain area in the park was bitterly opposed by P. F. O’Rourke of the O’Rourke Zoological Institute, who insisted there is no legal method by which any private corporation could be given territory in Balboa Park. He said the park belongs to the people, and that he will fight the proposed amendment to the last ditch.

O’Rourke also declared than an appropriation could not properly be made for maintenance of the zoological gardens while operated by a private corporation, which he insisted the zoological society is,, and if an appropriation were made for the zoo it should be provided for in the budget.


February 5, 1929, San Diego Union, 15:1. Zoo’s directors named; $30,000 increase shown

Directors were elected last night at the 12th annual meeting of the Zoological Society of San Diego.

Alda Ferris was elected to the Board to replace D. D. Wray, who declined re-election on account of other activities. Dr. Harry M. Wegeforth, A. T. Mercier, Gordon Gray and F. C. Spalding were re-elected. The directors will meet, probably today, to elect officers.

Twelve members of the society attended the meeting while 232 others were represented by their proxies. Reports submitted at the meeting showed the zoo inventory increased $30,000 during the last year and current indebtedness was slashed $2,000.

After the business section, motion pictures taken in the Zoological Gardens and on Guadalupe Island were shown.

February 9, 1929, San Diego Union, 6:5-6. Thousands visited Boy Scout exposition and honor court at Indian Village last night.

February 10, 1929, San Diego Union, II, 6:8. Frank W. Seifert to seek return to place on City Council; record in office cited as reason for his re-election for four years; has led the promotion of the lakes in Balboa Park and the widening of Pershing Drive; has fought every effort to remove the Zoological Gardens from Balboa Park..

February 10, 1929, San Diego Union, 12:1. Zoological Society explains amendments it seeks for Zoo; One fixes present site; Other determines money to be appropriated by City.

Two of the amendments to the charter of San Diego which will appear upon the ballot at the primary election of April 2, are those offered by the Zoological Society at the election of April 6, 1927, and which received a favorable vote. Due to an error in advertising the amendments, they could not legally be ratified by the state legislature when they were presented to that body. Because of this condition, the Zoological Society Board of Directors decided that these two amendments again should be submitted to the people. This act of the directors was ratified at the annual meeting of the members held in the Research Building on February 5.

The society has issued this statement:

“Neither of these amendments changes the present relations existing between the Board of Park Commissioners and the Zoological Society. The first establishes by vote of the people the present site, which was set aside exclusively for zoological purposes by the Board of Park Commissioners and, at the request of that Board, was confirmed by resolution of the City Council. It prevents any use of this territory for purposes inimical to the development and maintenance of a zoological exhibit. The second will establish by vote of the people the proportion of tax money now with the consent of the Board of Park Commissioners being set aside each year for the use of the Zoological Garden by the City Council. To make these two measures a part of the city charter will take the support of the Zoological Garden out of politics, but will not remove one square inch of Balboa Park nor one cent of tax money from the control of the Board of Park Commissioners, for everything that is done in the Zoological Garden has to be subject to the approval of the Board of Park Commissioners, and every cent of city tax money has to be spent through the Park Commission, as provided by law.

“Every structure that is built in the Zoological Garden has to receive the approval of the Planning Commission before it is begun, for everything which is built in Balboa Park becomes by law the property of the Park Department of the City of San Diego. Therefore, the thousands of dollars that are spent every year by the Zoological Society in improving the grounds, building of grottoes, and planting of trees are in reality donated by the Zoological Society to the citizens of San Diego.

“The actual maintenance of the Zoological Gardens is necessarily much greater than that of any of the other organizations operating under the Park Department, for the feeding and caring for 2,000 living creatures necessarily entails the expenditure of an enormous amount of money. At the present time, the amount appropriated out of city tax money for the operating of the Zoological Garden amounts to less than one-third of its actual operating cost. During the year of 1927, the actual operating cost of the Zoological Garden was $74,969.18 (?), and an additional amount of $86,286.70 (?) was raised and expended by the Zoological Society in improvements and in collection and purchase of animals; during the same period the appropriation from the City of San Diego was $23,600.00 (?).

“During the year 1926, due to the unfortunate conditions over which no one had any control, the proportion of money used for operating the zoo obtained from the City of San Diego was necessarily smaller.

“A careful financial budget is prepared by the Society each year, for it is necessary that an organization having so much important business at stake as is involved in the maintenance of a large zoological exhibit cannot leave the amount of its income to chance. A certain amount, that is in some degree commensurate with the cost of maintenance must e firmly established, beyond the influence of any uncertain elements. The Zoological Gardens of San Diego is also a growing concern and must know that its future income will show a certain amount of increase. It is for these two reasons that the Zoological Society wishes to establish an income which will gradually grow with the growth of the community, instead of depending upon a request each year for a certain estimated amount. After a certain period the money received thus from taxation will grow, as in the case of the New York Zoological Park, until it becomes possible to open the gate at least for several days a week without charge to the public. At present there are only two days a week upon which a gate charge is made in the Bronx zoo, but the income from the City of New York has grown over a period of 25 years from a few thousands to $890,000.

“The history of zoological exhibits has proved that only those which are operated under the jurisdiction of a zoological society are truly successful. Those operated under City Park Commissions, or directly under City Commissioners, are of uncertain growth. These officers are not vitally interested, from a scientific standpoint, in the maintenance of a zoological exhibit; consequently the zoological exhibits progress depends upon the indifference or enthusiasm of a constantly changing group. If a favorably inclined administration is in power, the zoo grows rapidly for a year or two, while a change in the administration may result in a period of stagnation or actual deterioration.

“To the tourist, upon whom this community depends for a great deal of its support and growth, a great variety in the way of entertainment or interest must be offered to keep them in the community for any length of time. There is nothing that goes farther in filling this need here in San Diego than the exhibits maintained by these various organizations operating in Balboa Park. It is in recognition of the vast amount of pleasure and value derived by the community from these sources that the Board of Park Commissioners has been willing to set aside certain funds to held in the support of the societies. In return each of them raises and expends vast sums of money for improvements and exhibits which become a perpetual part of the park, and thus of the city’s actual assets. Each year the value of improvements made by the Zoological Society is included in the assets of the Park Department as shown in its annual report, while upon the books of the Zoological Society, as shown in the auditor’s statement, these appear as assets of the Zoological Society contingent upon its remaining it the present location.”

February 12, 1929, San Diego Union, 2:5. School Board accepts Lease on park Stadium for a yearly payments of $2,400.

February 12, 1929, 6:5. City takes over California Tower; Council orders payment for upkeep when State cuts off further cash; appropriation of $2,100 made to pay the salaries of a curator, custodian and janitor.

February 12, 1929, San Diego Union, 6:5. Zoo Institute won’t be ousted; O’Rourke site eliminated from area to be given Zoological Society.

Insuring the O’Rourke Zoological Institute against possibility of being ousted from that portion of the grounds in Balboa Park within the area that has been claimed by the San Diego Zoological Society, the City Council yesterday ordered a change made in the resolution defining the territory ceded to the Society.

Councilman Louis C. Maire moved that the two acres occupied by the O’Rourke Institute be eliminated from the area which it is proposed to give the Park Commission the power to allocate to the Zoological Society, and on which the people will vote next April. The motion carried.

February 13, 1929, San Diego Union, 7:1. Oppose Pershing Drive work fund; Mayor tells Councilmen city finances unable to stand strain of $3,000.

February 13, 1929, San Diego Union, 10:1-2. San Diego honors memory of Lincoln at Organ Pavilion.

February 16, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:7, 2:5-6. Council repeals ballot issue on giving Zoo full charge of area; rules Park Board must retain jurisdiction over all parts of tract; also kills Natural History Museum site vote.

Jurisdiction over every part of Balboa Park must remain with the Park Commission, according to a decision made by the City Council yesterday when it repealed a resolution adopted last week, placing on the ballot for the spring election the proposition of giving the San Diego Zoological Society complete control over the area occupied by it.

The proposition was opposed by Colonel E. N. Jones, president of the Park Commission, on the ground that to give the Zoological Society absolute control over the grounds occupied by it, would establish a poor precedent, and hamper the Commission in its functions. He said the city government had come to a bad pass if the mayor could not appoint proper men on the Commission who could be depended upon to serve in the best interests of the city.

George W. Marston, of the Commission, pointed out that the Zoological Gardens are in Balboa Park under the sanction of the Park Commission, as all other organizations are under a certain kind of control of the city government. The administration has the power to oust all organizations from the park, he said, but does not exercise that power in an arbitrary way.

Mr. Marston complimented the Zoological Society for the work that it has done in establishing the gardens, but said that to grant its petition for control of the area by definite allocation would alienate the land to a private corporation. The proposed amendment to the city charter, he said, would take away the power of the city.

The point made in the resolution by the Zoological Society, said Mr. Marston, is that no highways are to be built through the Zoological Gardens. The Nolen plan, he asserted, provides for a road running through the Gardens from east to west other than Laurel Street. Another east and west road, Mr. Marston declared, is necessary to open up the most picturesque portion of the park.

In support of his appeal for control over the area occupied by the Zoological Gardens, Dr. Harry Wegeforth said that an agreement regarding construction of the road had not been kept by the Park Commission. Under the agreement, he said, a road was to have been built to run up to the Scripps research building, and which would not interfere with the seal ponds. The stakes had been set for the road, he said, but nothing further had been done.

It the Park Commission was willing to live up to that agreement, made two years ago, Dr. Wegeforth said he would be willing to withdraw his proposition of amending the city charter authorizing the Commission to set aside a certain area and giving the Zoological Society control over it. Dr. Wegeforth said the Zoological Society had spent more than $1,000,000 building up the zoo and he did not think it fair to withhold any measure which would make that investment certain for years to come.

Colonel Jones said the Commission is willing to stand by the agreement of two years ago, base on the Nolen plan, which provides for a road through the Zoological Gardens. He insisted that control over the Gardens area should not be turned over to any corporation, even if $10,000,000 had been spent on improvements.

Dr. Wegeforth said that one of his reasons for requiring the Park Commission to set aside a certain territory for the gardens was to prevent interference from future city administrations.

Mr. Marston offered personally to reimburse the Zoological Society for any damages that may result from constructing a road down the canyon in which the seal ponds have been constructed, and on which Dr. Wegeforth declared about $7,500 had been spent. He said he would abide by the decision of the Council as to the amount of the damages.

He asserted that the Zoological Society had hampered the Commission in harmonious development of the park and that the research building was constructed against the protests of the Commission. Dr. Wegeforth insisted that the research building was built with the consent of the Commission. He declared that the Society was not asking for the Zoological Gardens to be taken completely out of control of the Park Commission, and that his only desire was to remove it from arbitrary changes that might come with changes of administration. He said it was not a question of whether a road should be built though the gardens, but who should decide, the Park Commission or the Zoological Society.

Refusal of the Council to ask the electors to direct the Park Commission, through amendment to the charter, to set aside the Zoological Gardens, placing it under control of the Zoological Society, leaves the two acres occupied by the O’Rourke Zoological Institute within the zoo grounds.

Seeking action of the Council in deciding the ownership of the Nevada Building, now occupied by the O’Rourke Zoological Institute, Dr. Wegeforth called attention to an extract from the minutes of the Park Commission, October 6, 1928, showing that the Nevada Building was purchased for the Zoological Gardens and, under the direction of the Park Commission, was moved from its original site into the zoo grounds. He also directed attention of the Council to the fact that on May 28, 1928, the City Council directed the City Attorney to take the necessary stops to oust the O’Rourke Institute from the Nevada Building. This order, he declared, had never been carried out and was still in force.

The Council also repealed a resolution placing on the March 19 ballot the proposition authorizing the Park Commission to set aside a certain site for construction of a $500,000 building by the San Diego Natural History Society.

It was explained by Colonel Jones that the Park Commission is always willing to cooperate with the Natural History Society and will set aside a site for the proposed new museum without submitting the matter to a vote of the people.

It was pointed out by Councilman Seifert that a point of law was involved in the proposition, the same as in the matter of allocating certain land to the use of the Zoological Society, and that if the appeal of the Zoological Society could not be entertained, the request of the museum organization should not be granted.

February 17, 1929, San Diego Union, 6:2-3. Story behind purchase of Presidio Park told; City not ready to take over property when first offered by four wealthy men so George W. Marston shouldered responsibility for several years.

February 17, 1929, San Diego Union, 9:3-9. Advertisement for Patrick Francis O’Rourke for mayor stating his position of Balboa Park . . . in favor of equal distribution of funds for park purposes giving all sections of the city the same treatment as is given Balboa Park.

February 17, 1929, San Diego Union, Development, 1:8. Early funds for widening Pershing link are promised; Mayor Clark lauds recent development work on cut-off and says money to complete project due in July.

From 18th Street to the top of the heaviest grade, a distance of about three-quarters of a mile, the road has been widened to 52 feet, including shoulders on either side and the sharp curves have been reduced. The half-mile stretch from that point to Redwood Street has not been given much attention, but from Redwood north it is being widened.

Widening of the road was made possible about one month ago by appropriation of $5,000 by council after repeated efforts to get the adoption of a resolution offered by Councilman Frank W. Seifert providing an additional $3,000 for completion of the work, had been held up pending improvements of the city’s finances.

February 19, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:2. Park will lose $750,000 plant for new Museum; another site to be sought because Council refuses to grant ballot request.

Balboa Park is to lose the museum conducted there for many years by the San Diego Society of Natural History and the $750,000 building which the society had planned to erect within the park and donate to the city, will be constructed in some other part of the city.

This announcement was made yesterday by Joseph W. Sefton, president of the society, following the refusal of the city council to place on 5 the April 2 ballot the proposition of amending the city charter to give the park board power to allocate a piece of ground within the park on which the society might places its proposed new museum building.

The city council acted on the protest of the park commission, represented by Colonel E. N. Jones, president of the commission, who said the proposed amendment was so similar to that presented by the San Diego Zoological society, asking the commission be authorized to set aside the area occupied by it for zoological gardens, that he would suggest the request be denied.

In asking that the council reconsider its action of a week ago in refusing to place the proposition on the ballot, Mr. Sefton said that it was not the desire of the society to have control over the property, which would be deeded over to the city, further than to be sole occupants of it with the assurance that it would not be disturbed in its activities by future city administrations.

In face of the protest made by the park commission, he said he would not urge adoption of a resolution placing the proposition on the ballot, but the action, he said, would mean a great loss to the city.

Mr. Sefton said the contributions to the building fund, which already had reached about $200,000, had been made with the understanding that the society that the society was to be forever in control of its activities and that it was to be beyond political control. If this assurance cannot be given, said Mr. Sefton, the society will abandon its plans for erecting its new museum building in Balboa Park.

Further than this, Mr. Sefton said, it will delay the plans of the society for four or five years. He said that one of the purposes of the new building would be to place the museum on which the society had spent more than $250,000 in a fireproof structure and one adequate in space to permit of growth.

Mayor Harry C. Clark suggested that just such a contingency as that with which the society is confronted would be remedied in the new charter. He recommended that all the organizations in Balboa Park join in plans contemplating a complete remodeling of the area now occupied by the various buildings. None of the buildings is suitable to the purposes to which it is devoted, he said, and modern structures must soon take the place of those temporary buildings. The new plans, he said, should provide for growth and expansion.

These emergencies would be met, Clark said, in the new charter.

February 21, 1929, San Diego Union, 15:3. Pacific Beach wants Natural History Museum; North Shore Federation hears proposal to use 80 acres of land for site.


March 3, 1929, San Diego Union, 12:5. John Nolen due tomorrow; to advise plans for development of new Presidio Park.

March 7, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:8. Four hurt as six gymnasium girders crashed to ground yesterday; walls bend as 40 tons hit them; roar heard all over high school campus as big roof trusses give way; fail to fix blame; only one of the men was badly injured; Carl Jarboe, brother of the contractor erecting the gym, was foreman on the job; Harry Young injured the most seriously; 133-foot Senior High Gym truss was the largest span of its kind in San Diego construction; L. D. Martin, inspector on the job for the School Board, declared that “defective designing” was the cause; Frank P. Allen, architect, and Oscar Knecht, city building inspector, said crash was due to “lack of sufficient bracing” to hold the beams in place before being made permanent.

March 8, 1929, San Diego Union, 2:5. Oscar Knecht, city building inspector, blames girder crash on steel span’s swaying; inspector says fabric of new high school gymnasium was not securely anchored; arches with a span of 180 feet, such as those in the high school gym, are almost as flexible as a fishing rod until the longitudinal trusses stiffen them said Frank P. Allen; Allen is satisfied his design was not faulty; Knecht concurred with this opinion.

March 8, 1929, San Diego Union, 10:4. John Nolen says proper spending needed for city at meeting of the planning, park, harbor and tree planting commissioners yesterday; Lindbergh flying field ideally located; tidelands location of Civic Center praised.

March 10, 1929, San Diego Union, 8:1. Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. favors three parks in San Diego area; advises County to act quickly; finishes survey of sites.

San Diego County should lose no time in acquiring sites for state beach parks, is the opinion of Frederick Law Olmsted, landscape architect and director of the state park survey authorized under the recent $6,000,000 bond issue. In company with Henry O’Melveney, chairman of the commission, Olmsted completed a survey last week of available sites in the county. He has recommended acquisition of a park site in the “southwest boundary” section; another on one of the estuaries in the northern part of the county and a desert-mountain park in the Borrego-valley section of the county.

The findings of the commission will not be made available until July, it was indicated by O’Melveney, but members of the board have gone on record as declaring that the southern portion of the state will receive first consideration. . . . It is advisable to secure beach areas before the ocean frontage is “fenced off” by subdivision development, it is pointed out.


March 10, 1929, San Diego Union, II, 1:6. San Diego Electric Railway Company donated herd of deer to Zoo; abandons Mission Cliff Gardens but keeps animals in San Diego; eleven Panama and Virginia deer in group; took two weeks of effort to capture adult buck in pen; silver pheasants also moved; public again asked not to feed grasses to the deer, which they do whenever a keeper is not present; tree deer and two antelope have been sick more than two weeks from the poison thus engendered in their systems.

March 15, 1929, San Diego Union, 3:3. Balboa Park considered for honor place on world list; San Diego park presented to jury as example of landscape art.

March 17, 1929, San Diego Union, 12:1. Varied exhibits of San Diego Academy of Fine Arts draw interest in Art Gallery; lifelike quality of motion in Allan Clark sculptures bring much comment; drawings by Mr. Bohene, paintings by Henri De Kruif, caricatures by Hallathamar intrigue, by Ralph Morris, Assistant Director, Fine Arts Gallery.

March 17, 1929, San Diego Union, Society-Club, 12:4-7. Richard Requa’s book of Spanish views out.

March 17, 1929, San Diego Union, Development, 4:2-5. Southern California Architecture, by Richard S. Requa.

March 20, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:1-2. Mayor Clark re-elected; Ira S. Irey, Maire lead in primary Council race; pipe line and reservoir lack several hundred votes of necessary two-thirds; special Counsel item rejected; Jack Millian made treasurer again, with big figure in election; Woolman heads School Board; Charter amendment No. 1 increasing bonding margin for water development carried by a big majority; sale of pueblo lands reserved until 1940 by a two to one majority.

March 24, 1929, San Diego Union, 6:3-4. Pleads for support of Zoo as major San Diego attraction.

Editor: W. J. Black, passenger chief for the Santa Fe railroad, says in an interview in The San Diego Union of March 19, 1929, “Create attractions. You can’t have too many attractions for the tourist and his family.

What better attraction can you have for an entire family, than the zoological garden? There is no other city in California that has a zoological garden or even a comprehensive zoological exhibit, and this is the only attraction that San Diego has that no other place in the southwest can equal. The advice of Mr. Black could with much profit to the community have gone still farther and said, “Create attractions. But keep and support those you have.”

The register of visitors to the zoological gardens is a direct indication of the pleasure that tourists find in the zoo. It is not largely supported at the gate by the citizens of San Diego, or they are not the people which constitute the greatest proportion of its visitors. Out of 28 names on the last six pages of the register, 18 were from San Diego; verification revealed that three of these were visiting at the addresses they gave in San Diego. We believe that the zoo is not supported at the gate by the people of San Diego because it is always here and they feel that they can see it whenever they choose, but it is and should be supported by them in the form of taxation.

Two cents on every $100 assessed valuation is levied for the zoological garden, and comes out of the fund provided for parks, for it is truly a park function and that is the proper place for its support to be provided. This two cents is now being received, but that s not the minimum fixed by the charter. Make it such by voting for the amendment which provides that not less than two cents our of the 16 cents provided for park purposes shall be used for the support of the zoo.

In return, you receive from the zoological society the development along park lines of 160 acres of Balboa Park that would otherwise be barren as the tract directly across from the zoological garden. You receive in the form of buildings and a zoological exhibit an attraction which it costs three times the amount of tax money received to maintain. You have an educational feature which no other city of southern California has, and your children are brought with their teachers into the garden every school day for visual instruction which no other children of California obtain. It is true that many of the schools of neighboring counties send classes of older children many miles to our zoo, but one of the San Diego children is denied this privilege.

You have maintained for yourself an advertising feature that spreads the name of San Diego all over the civilized world, for there is nothing that receives as much unpaid publicity as the zoo; it is pictured in magazines, Sunday supplements and news reels all over the world. It is written up in every sort of publication that it known and all of it draws attention to the community which contains such an institution. If draws hundreds of visitors to this city and keeps most of them days and even weeks.

Keep the “biggest zoo in the west” in San Diego.

Give it your support by establishing beyond the reach of politicians, the nucleus of a fund for its support. The zoological society raises nearly $100,000 each year for its development. Show that you are alive to its importance.

Vote YES on Proposition No. 3 on April 2.

Create attractions for the tourist.

But support those that you already have. Other cities are interested in securing such an attraction as our zoo. Keep it in San Diego.


March 24, 1929, San Diego Union, Development, 6:2-5. Southern California Architecture, by Richard S. Requa.

March 24, 1929, San Diego Union, II, 1:6. John Nolen opposes proposed new Torrey Pines highway.

March 31, 1929, San Diego Union, II, 1:4. Directors of the Chamber of Commerce have indorsed proposition no. 3 on the ballot of Tuesday’s election so as to allocate 2 cents instead of one cent, as at present, from the 16-cent levy for parks, to the zoological exhibit.; item has appeared on the ballot twice both and each time has carried, however, each time the action has been nullified through some technicality.

March 31, 1929, San Diego Union, II, 1:5-6. Coming two months good ones for collection snakes for San Diego Zoo, by “The Snake Man.”

Every snake destroys a large number of rats, mice, gophers, squirrels and rabbits which would otherwise live to ruin crops or multiply in number until they were themselves exterminated by some expensive process.

March 31, 1929, San Diego Union, Development, 6:2-7. Southern California Architecture, by Richard S. Requa (illus.).



April ?, 1929. Spreckels companies discontinues paying for Dr. Stewart’s organ concerts.


April 2, 1929, ELECTION

Proposition 3: Tax of not less than ten cents or more than sixteen cents of each $100 valuation

or property for improvement and maintenance of parks, plazas and squares, two cents of each

$100 to be used for Zoological exhibits.

YES 12,601 NO 10,837

April 3, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:1-2. Urey, Alexander, Maire win in Council fight; Freeholder Ticket to draft a new charter in; Bruschi and Seifert to leave City Hall as result of final election in which light vote is cast; Civil Service appropriation defeated; Zoo measure favored; Mrs. Hale and Claude Woolman lead for School Board.

April 5, 1929, San Diego Union, 7:1. Dr. Edgar L. Hewett resigns office at San Diego Museum; archaeologist is succeeded by Lyman Bryson; Hewett takes title of director emeritus; resignation from San Diego post made necessary by the growth of scientific work under his direction in New Mexico; Lyman Bryson, the new director, is lecturer in anthropology at the State Teachers’ College, extension lecturer for the University of California, and contributor to magazines.

The San Diego Museum is visited by more than 250,000 persons annually and its main building, the California Tower, is, perhaps, the best known structure in the city.

April 14, 1929, San Diego Union, Development, 8:2-4. California-Type Architecture, by Richard S. Requa.

April 21, 1929, San Diego Union, 7:4-6. John Lawrence urges site for Civic Center building in Balboa Park.

April 21, 1929, San Diego Union, Development, 7:2-4. California Architecture, by Richard S. Requa.

April 27, 1929, San Diego Union, 5:4 and April 28, 1929, 19:1. San Diego Floral Association will present its 22nd annual spring showing of roses in building on southwest corner of main plaza in Balboa Park this afternoon and tomorrow.

April 28, 1929, San Diego Union, Development, 1:1. Lion Company $500,000 store designed by William Templeton Johnson.

April 28, 1929, San Diego Union, Development, 5:2-5. California Architecture, by Richard S. Requa.

April 29, 1929, San Diego Union, 8:1. Enthusiasts say rose exhibits beat Pasadena’s; 22nd annual display attracts lovers of blooms from far away; held in the large building on the southwest corner of Plaza de Panama.

April 30, 1929, San Diego Union, 3:4. School Board asks agreement by contractor; shifts placing of responsibility for collapse of six steel trusses on the new high school gymnasium upon arbitrators.

April 30, 1929, San Diego Union, 5:2-4. Two women join in horseshoe meet in Balboa Park (illus.).



May 1, 1929, San Diego Union, 3:3. Cooking class arranged for tonight at American Legion Hall in Balboa Park.

May 4, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:1. Bank of Italy purchased John D. Spreckels Building.

May 5, 1929, San Diego Union, 2:2-4. Miss Maxine Edmonds, Queen of May, at program arranged by Fine Arts Society in the Court of Honor, Balboa Park Thursday; Savoy Players presented “Pyramus and Thisbie” from Shakespeare’s “Midsummer Nights’ Dream” (illus.).

May 5, 1929, San Diego Union, 14:2-3. Zoo trades small animals and birds for two African leopards and one female Indian leopard of “Big Otto’s Famous Cats”; huge spotted leopards worth $300 or $400 apiece; arrived in San Diego from Redondo Beach this week; cats sold as part of “Big Otto’s” estate; new owner made trade for birds and monkeys; cages will be completed with the next few months; four new grottoes will be built between the present leopard and peccary pens; because of their ability to climb and jump, leopards cannot be kept in open grottoes; series of cages will hold black leopards, the Indian and African leopards, and the puma, the American form of the same animal.

May 5, 1929, San Diego Union, Development, 1:3-7. “Bungalow” on top Bank of Italy Building, part of office of architecture firm of Requa and Jackson; sketch by Samuel W. Hamill.

May 6, 1929, San Diego Union, 5:1. Colorful scene enacted in May Festival; thousand honor students representing 30 schools participate in program in shade of tall trees of Montezuma Gardens, Saturday afternoon; Dorothy Simms of Normal Heights School, crowned May Queen, by Marjorie M. Mohler.

May 7, 1929, San Diego Union, 5:2. Failing to receive an answer to the letter sent last week to the Jarboe Construction Company relative to the latter’s unwillingness to submit all matters concerning the collapse of the trusses in the Senior High School Gymnasium to a Board of Arbitration, the Board of Education last night authorized a recommendation by Walter R. Hepner, Superintendent of Schools, to order the Construction Company to proceed with the building of the gymnasium according to the contract.

May 12, 1929, San Diego Union, Development 1:1. City Planning Body will urge 80-foot artery on 28th Street; proposal calls for paving of thoroughfare entire distance; would create fast route from Adams Avenue.

Twenty-eight street, said Robert M. Gregory, superintendent of streets, is the only street that offers a continuous stretch of highway from the bay almost to the northern county line with a break except for a small canyon, diverting it to the east side of Balboa Park for about two blocks beginning at Laurel Street.

The project is understood to have the approval of the Park Commission. The road faces Balboa Park on the east side about one and one-half miles, and provision probably will be made, according to the city operating department, by which the paving of part of the street facing the park may be done at the expense of the Park Board. The condition is the same as that which prevails on the west side of the park from Date Street north.

May 12, 1929, San Diego Union, Development, 3:2-4. California Architecture, by Richard S. Requa.

May 12, 1929, San Diego Union, City-County Section, 10:1. Sumatran tiger and Binturongs arrive safely; little howling gibbons are dubbed “two black crows”; one group filled.

The shipment of animals, which arrived on the S. S. Siantar, of the Java Pacific Dutch Lines, added another interesting group of animals to the collection already on exhibit at the San Diego Zoo and has completed one or two groups which have been on exhibit for the last two years. This collection was brought in by Henry T. Steats, who took some animals and birds over to exchange for them in January.

The tiger group has been completed by a handsome adult Sumatran, and now consists of a pair each of Sumatran and Bengal tigers. Wild Java dogs, gibbons, a pair of binturongs, birds of various kinds, among them several species of birds of paradise, eagles, owls, kites, a hornbill and a pair of cassowary make up the greater part of the shipment

Most of them have been put on exhibition since their arrival, but a few will have to remain in seclusion a little longer — many of these specimens have never been on exhibit before in the San Diego collection, so they will prove of unusual interest locally.

Among the birds which deserve special attention are the birds of paradise. They are rather dirty from their long trip in the small cages, but they are preening their feathers and cleaning up at such a great rate that they will soon deserve their reputation for being the most beautiful of all birds. In this group are included one pair of the greater bird of paradise and one pair of the magnificent. The cassowaries will be welcome by all who knew and loved old “Casey,” who roamed at will in the garden for more than three years.

The new ones are young birds and will not be turned out at present, for they are not accustomed to people. In the pen above the alligator pond, where they will be placed, they will complete the large bird group, and be a connecting link between the ostrich and the emu in one canyon and the storks and cranes in the other.

The zoo is particularly happy about this pair, because they are the first ones to be received with perfect bills.

One glance will convince you that the plans and specifications for the first hornbill must have been drawn up by a practical joker.

The binturong, which is on exhibit in the McRae cages at the brow of the hill, below the turtle pens, is a carnivorous animal which belongs to the civet family. It is nocturnal and arboreal in its habits. It also has a prehensile tail which it uses to great advantage.

So far as the children of San Diego are concerned, the prize for greatest popularity will be awarded to the little, black, howling gibbons.

They are the rarest tribe of gibbons, found only in Cochin China, and it has been considered well night impossible to keep them alive in captivity.

The “Two Black Crows” will have to stay in one of the monkey cages until the new orang and chimp cages, which have been donated by the Standard Iron Company, are completed. The they will be moved next door to the other gibbons, where they will become the second unit in a row of these exhibits.

May 12, 1929, San Diego Union, World-Wide Features: “Realm of Music and Art.”

This month’s number of Art and Archaeology, published in Washington, contains an article by Mrs. Maurice Braun upon the development of the Art Gallery of San Diego.

May 19, 1929, San Diego Union, Development, 1:8. Frank P. Allen, architect, designed new structure for Whitney and Company to occupy site of old Colonial Theater, between C and B Streets from 4th to 5th Avenue; 4th Street front will be mostly of glass; window and door margins will be of black tile.

May 26, 1929, San Diego Union, City-County Section, 1:1. City to honor all war dead Thursday; veterans’ parade to move along Broadway and into Balboa Park under flags; memorial service at Organ Pavilion.

May 26, 1929, San Diego Union, City-County Section, 1:2. Flag Day to be observed at Balboa park June 14.

May 26, 1929, San Diego Union, Development, 4:2-4. Frank P. Allen’s sketch of the store building Whitney and Company will erect on the site of the old Colonial Theater building.

May 30, 1929, San Diego Union, 7:1. “Agnus Dei” from “The Hound of Heaven,” a musical setting by Dr. Stewart for the poem by Francis Thompson to be performed in program of the San Diego Oratorio Society, Nino Marcelli, conducting in park Sunday; also on program, “The Legend of Yosemite” and “The Flag of the Brave”; Mayor Harry C. Clark will preside and will offer an address in honor of Dr. Stewart.

May 31, 1929, San Diego Union, 5:6. Hundreds accord war dead honor at service at Organ Pavilion yesterday; Rev. Lawrence Wilson urged that sacrifices of veterans be not forgotten.

“The value of memory today is that it causes us to stop and ponder. We are pledging our lives today that we do care.”

At noon the entire audience stood at attention while the flag was raised from half to full staff and guns boomed salutes in the harbor.



June 2, 1929, San Diego Union, 5:3. Huge tortoises at San Diego Zoo unchanged in character since earth’s early days.

June 2, 1929, San Diego Union, 10:8. F. E. Walker named regular snake collector; bring sin 150 reptiles despite cold weather in April.

June 3, 1929, San Diego Union, 2:2-6. San Diego honors Dr. Stewart on his birthday; crowd gathers at Organ Pavilion to hear composer’s works ably given, by Wallace Moody.

June 8, 1929, San Diego Union, 10:1. San Diego Museum may buy Babylon relics; documents dating back to 2250 B. C. offered for sale at $2,800; funds are sought by Director Bryson.

June 8, 1929, San Diego Union, 10:2. Culver Auxiliary, United Spanish War Veterans, to dedicate a palm tree; ceremony will be carried out tomorrow afternoon at the right of the street leading to the Organ Pavilion.

June 9, 1929, San Diego Union, City-County Section, 1:1. Flag Day Service will be held a flagpole on Marston Point next Friday.

June 11, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:3. Deficit compels San Diego Railway Company to close Mission Cliff Gardens; 41-acre beauty spot to be sold because of lack of patronage; closed last Sunday night; Company has been standing a loss of from $10,000 to $12,000 a year in maintaining the gardens; John D. Spreckels started the gardens 25 years ago; Superintendent John Davidson spent two or three days a week looking after the plantings; collection of birds in the bird cage; deer that were in the Gardens were transferred to the San Diego Zoo several months ago; no admission was charged to the Gardens, all that the Street Car Company required was that visitors patronize the street cars; ostrich farm maintained separately from the Gardens by H. J. Pitts; Superintendent Davidson will be pensioned off if the property is sold.

Mr. Spreckels had planned to install the big Balboa Park organ in Mission Cliff Gardens, according to S. E. Mason, general manager of the San Diego Electric Railway Company, but his plans were changed by the exposition, and the organ was built in Balboa Park.


June 18, 1929, San Diego Union, 7:1. Banner raising, colorful parade feature services; birthday of Old Glory fittingly commemorated at Marston Point exercises; Flag Day exercises conducted by Masonic bodies; parade moved up Broadway at 4:30 p.m.; R. O. T. C. band a company; Knights Templars; Shriners, Sciots; Masons; Bonham Boys’ Band; Maj. Gen, J. H. Pendleton, U. S. M. C., retired, hosted flag; pledge of allegiance; address by Maj. Gen. John A. Lejeune, U. S. M. C.

June 18, 1929, San Diego Union, 7:6. Throng attends Elks’ Flag Day service at Organ Pavilion; John D. Osborn recounts history of Star Spangled Banner; Carl H. Heilbron, past exalted ruler of the San Diego lodge of the Elks, was the speaker of the day; Dr. Stewart and San Diego High School Band played selections; Leona F. Shaw, soprano, sang.

June 18, 1929, San Diego Union, 14:1. Plan sewage purification plant in Balboa Park; may start work soon if Council can find $250,000; backers point out that big saving of irrigation water would be effected; Curtiss Engineering Company of San Bernardino offered to prepare plans and specifications and superintend construction for 7 percent of the construction cost; cost of operating the proposed plan would be approximately $10,000 a year; saving from water now served to the park would be from $45,000 to $65,000 every year; Mayor Clark said financing the proposition this year would be a hopeless task.

June 18, 1929, San Diego Union, 14:1. Consider plans for park links; City Council referred to City Attorney and Park Commission yesterday application of Recreational Development Company, represented by Paul Healy, for two leases on two pieces of land in Balboa Park.

June 19, 1929, San Diego Union, 6:5. READERS’ VIEWPOINT: Praises Citizens’ Plan To Improve Park Area

Editor: At last a group of prominent citizens, headed by Paul and Martin J. Healy, have outlined a wonderful plan to improve the east side of Balboa Park by removing the present unsightly brush and building golf courses, playgrounds, swimming pools and baseball fields to make that part of beautiful Balboa Park more beautiful at no expense to the taxpayers.

Not alone will their plans advertise this wonderful city as the playground of the world but it will be the means of creating wholesome and healthful recreation for thousands of officers and enlisted men of the army, navy and marine corps based at San Diego, many of whom, like the writer, will make this their permanent home.

It is gratifying to know that the plans have met with such popular approval and it is hoped that no difficulties will arise to discourage this grateful work. When completed San Diego can rightfully aim to be the playground of the world.

M E Throneson.

June 19, 1929, San Diego Union, 7:3. Governor Young signs bill setting aside park of shore and body of water at Mission Bay for park.

June 20, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:8, 2:5-6. American Legion forces mobilize in emergency test; 241 register for duty in Balboa Park.

June 21, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:1, 11:1-4. State Supreme Court grants San Diego full river rights; clears way for future city water.

June 23, 1929, San Diego Union, 6:2-3. Young South American condor is added to San Diego Zoo collection; arrived at San Pedro in the shipment from Hagenbeck brothers last Sunday night on the Yale; first shipment of animals from Europe direct to a California point; collection consisted of birds and monkeys; condor specimen in the eager cage at the San Diego Zoo is a young male bird; wing spread estimated at 10 feet.

The Zoological Society has great hopes of sometime acquiring a specimen of the California condor, which is so nearly extinct that it is protected by stringent laws.

June 23, 1929, San Diego Union, 8:6-7. Zoo is recipient of heavy steel cages donated by Standard Iron Company to house primates; Orangutans “Maggie and Jiggs” invite public to visit them in the first of the cages to be completed; “Bondo” and “Dinah,” the popular chimpanzees, will occupy the second cage; Henry Newmeyer, keeper of primates, will be in charge of reception Sunday morning.


June 23, 1929, San Diego Union, 15:6. Pueblo Indian vases in United States display at Seville Exposition.

June 23, 1929, San Diego Union, City-County Section. Joint commencement exercises for two senior and three junior high schools at Organ Pavilion.

June 23, 1929, San Diego Union, World-Wide Features, 1:8. Donal Hord, young sculptor, back home from Mexico studies; says San Diego’s Mayan exhibits surpass any found on trip; went south on a scholarship from the Santa Barbara School of Fine Arts

June 24, 1929, San Diego Union, 5:4-5. New Historical Society offers memberships.

June 25, 1929, San Diego Union, 26:1-4. Identity of donors of fine collection of paintings at Fine Arts Gallery revealed as Mr. and Mrs. Bridges.

June 27, 1929, San Diego Union, 5:5. Clubs support move to widen Pershing Drive; paving east side of 6th Street included in budget plea for $100,000 allowance.

The appeal is made by Charles A. Small, manger of Bishop & Co., who abut five years ago was chairman of the Pershing Drive committee that raised approximately $16,000 for paving the highway through the park., city council at the time adding a small amount. A 20-foot strip of paving was laid down with the cooperation of the operating department which donated labor and equipment.

The cost of widening Pershing Drive to 40 feet and straightening out the dangerous curves has been estimated at about $70,000 and paving of 6th Street on the west side of the park at about $33,000.

At a cost of about $3,000 a small amount of work was done on Pershing Drive earlier this year.

June 30, 1929, San Diego Union, Development, 3:1-4. “Art Moderne” for downtown area; architect Herbert J. Morris’ sketch of Fourth Street facade of building for Grand Rapids Home Furnishing Company (illus.).


July 1, 1929, San Diego Union, II, 6:5. Special courses to open Mondays at playgrounds; variety of subjects to be taught during vacation by competent instructors.

Among the courses scheduled are: Drama, art, toy making, folk dancing, games, plays, kindergarten, story telling, marionettes, handcraft, dancing, boat building and shop work, tumbling, woman’s gym and piano.

July 1, 1929, San Diego Union, II, 8:2-3. San Diego Zoo displays young condor with amputated wing; bird is one of few surviving survivors of hunters.

Even now, as witnessed by the wounded bird on exhibit, the hunter does at intervals kill or injure one of the two dozen birds which remain of the most spectacular bird which has ever inhabited the western world.

July 7, 1929, San Diego Union, 8:2-3. San Diego Zoo displays young condor with amputated wing; bird is one of few remaining survivors of hunters.

July 7, 1929, San Diego Union, 15:2-3. Baby black panthers at San Diego Zoo decide to make friend out of man, but mother still holds old hatred.

Two years ago a pair of very rare black panthers or leopards was brought from Sydney, Australia to be placed upon exhibit in the San Diego Zoo. Now these two are introducing to the people of San Diego their first American-born offspring. The San Diego Zoo was very fortunate in obtaining these leopards as it was only because the Taronga Park Zoo at Sydney had followed the pattern of barless grottoes for cat animals one step too far that this was possible. Leopards and panthers, the most agile and fierce of all the cats, laugh at moats and steep walls; they can spring up and over the sides of the steepest precipice with scarcely a visible foothold to catch upon in their flight. The pair of black leopards had escaped twice from the grotto in Sydney. Their owners became discouraged and sent them along with other exchanged animals.

The type of grotto adopted by the San Diego Society precludes any possibility of escape, for they are arched cages of grotto type, covered with heavy, chain-like wire. This gives much freedom and natural caves and dens are built for shelter; large logs and tree trunks are provided for their climbing, but escape is impossible.

The black leopard is almost as rare as the beautiful snow leopard; it has indeed never been proved that they are a distinct species and not a freak of nature, for they are found in every natural habitat of the spotted leopard. There are instances of black leopards being born in families where both parents are spotted. It is rare also to have both offspring even of two black parents truly black, so it was with much anxiety that the expected kittens in this family were awaited. The leopards never have become reconciled to their captivity nor to the proximity of the public, so they have been allowed perfect freedom in their cage, which is temporarily located in the monkey group. They have not been shut out of their sleeping quarters and have spent most of the daylight hours out of sight, coming out late in the afternoon to growl and hiss at the venturesome “enemy” who approaches too close.

Since the birth of her cubs on May 17 the female has been so nervous that she has even been shut away from her mate and the sleeping quarters covered with canvas that not an unwelcome sight nor sound could threaten her and cause her to abandon or kill her cubs.

All sorts of delicacies have been provided for her, such as chicken, pigeons and the best of the meat. She has guarded her young and sought to instill in them her hatred and fear of man, but the babies have settled the matter in their own way and for the last week have been spending more and more of their time out in the open part of the cage. They appear about as large as an ordinary black house cat, provided you do not look at their feet, which are huge. They are true black with the underlying marking of brown spots which characterizes both of their parents and which are only evident when they are in strong light. They are beginning to eat by themselves and make valiant attempts to conquer the huge bones tossed in to their mother. They already love to lie up in the crotches of the logs piled into their pen. They pay no attention to spectators.

Many visitors pass by this cage with hardly a glance, seeming not to realize that they are looking upon something not only rare, important and expensive, but something which is exceedingly amusing and well worth stopping to see.

July 7, 1929, San Diego Union, City-County Section, 1:7-8. North Park club advocates widening of Pershing Drive.

July 14, 1929, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: For Mr. George W. Marston.

July 14, 1929, San Diego Union, World-Wide Features, 5:4. San Diego Community Negro Singers to give today’s concert in park; program of spirituals will be offered at Organ Pavilion instead of usual recital; Mayor H. S. Clark and Dr. Austin Adams will be present and will offer short addresses.

July 14, 1929, San Diego Union, Development, 7:1. Marston orders five trees moved to Presidio Hill, by Ada Perry.

July 14, 1929, San Diego Union, Development, 7:3-4. Woman’s Auxiliary of Chamber started beautification asserts Kate O. Sessions, by Julia T. McGarvey.

Miss Kate O. Sessions came through the varied profusion of growing plants in her nursery at Pacific Beach, giving energetic orders for the tying up of a crooked rose bush, as he hurried to greet her interviewer. “You want to know about the early development of Balboa Park?”

She drew a stool confidentially close, and with a mild but direct look, from kindly blue eyes inquired: “Aren’t you going to take notes?” Assured that — since she was not pencil shy — business could go forward without preamble, she went straight to her story.

“The first planting in Balboa Park was done by the woman’s auxiliary of the chamber of commerce, along the western drive, about 1890 Eucalyptus and peppers were planted. About the next year the city gave me the use of 80 acres of ground in the northwest corner of the park, with the understanding that as rental I was to furnish trees when needed in the park and for public schools and streets. Some of the largest trees growing in the park now are the ones I planted then.

“In about 1920 George W. Marston, myself and others became interested in the development of the park, and Mrs. Mary B. Coulston of New York, who had been editor of the Garden and Forest was asked to come to San Diego and educate the people in parks and their value to a city. She came; and her able articles in local papers during the year that she was in Mr. Marston’s employ, helped a great deal in molding public sentiment.

“A park committee was formed. Among those who served were Mr. Marston, Julius Wangenheim, Ernest White and myself. A topographical map of the park was drafted by Samuel Parsons, superintendent of park work in New York City, who came out to see the park and was tremendously impressed with its possibilities. George Cook, his assistant, was placed in charge of the work when about $20,000 had been collected. Cook later became superintendent of park work in San Diego. About three years later, the park commission of three members was formed, and J. G. Morley appointed park superintendent.

“The first Arbor day celebrated in San Diego was Mary 7, 1903. We planted Monterey cypress and some pines. We had quite a big celebration and received congratulatory telegrams from President Roosevelt, the governor and others. A great part of the park is just as it always has been, covered with brush and no big trees — the canyons, especially.

“Work in the park dragged slowly along for a few years until about 1911 or 1912 when it was decided to hold the exposition. Then the city bonded itself for $1,000,000 and the citizens raised $1,000,000. Mr. Morley was put in charge of the work. Pines, eucalyptus, peppers and oaks were planted. In fact, the park was overplanted. It needs to be thinned out now in many places, but hat is an expensive proposition. The gale a few years ago did good work in that respect. It really was a blessing in disguise.

“We did not have the problem that San Francisco had with Golden Gate Park. They had to plant lupine, acacia and Monterey cypress in succession before the could anchor the sand. We had hard pan instead. But where the soil was shallow, we were able to add more soil from deeper places in the park.

“George Cook planted the first acacia trees — Acacia Baileyana — along the western drive of the park in 1903. They were 18 inches high and cost 60 cents apiece. Now they are so large and so old that they should be torn out.

“I think placing the exposition buildings in the center of the park was a mistake. Only their attractive architecture saved the situation. Buildings should always be on the edge of a park. A park is intended for people who want to get out in the open, away from civilization.

“George Marston was the first man in San Diego to plan large grounds around his home. His home adjoined the park on the northwest corner, and the more he planted, the more extensive his plans became.

“When did I come to San Diego” About 1884. I was born in San Francisco, and I was living with my people in Oakland then. I came to teach in the San Diego high school, and I was principal the second year.

“Why did I quit teaching? Well, I had a friend who kept saying ‘Do stop teaching. If you don’t stop pretty soon, you’ll be at it forever.’ And then I met an old Grand Army man and his wife. We met gathering ferns and other things like that out in quiet beauty spots. They wanted to start a nursery, and I said that was exactly what I always wanted to do. So we went into partnership, and converted an old beer garden at Fifth and B streets into a nursery.

“They were old people and conservative. I was from San Francisco, young and full of ambition. The partnership did not last very long; but we divided assets, and I had my start. I have been in business now for more than 40 years.”

July 14, 1929, San Diego Union, City-County Section, 12:4. Sciots to give band and glee club concert at Organ Pavilion Thursday night.

July 16, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:4, 2:3. All-day program will mark 160th anniversary of city.

July 17, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:3-8, 8:1-6, 9:3-6. City celebrates 160th birthday; 12,000 gather on Presidio Hill for museum dedication.

July 17, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:1, 2:4. Water bonds win by large margin; Otay pipe line item carried by five to one.

July 17, 1929, San Diego Union, 12:3-4. Elaborate dinners honor ambassador from Spain.

July 18, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:2. Charles Todd, chairman of San Francisco Board of Supervisors, says Golden Gate Park cannot compare with Balboa Park in San Diego.

July 18, 1929, San Diego Union, 11:4. Pierce G. Shaw wants statue of George W. Marston erected within Presidio grounds.

July 19, 1929, San Diego Union, 2:4-5. Sciot park concert date confused; 1200 disappointed.

July 20, 1929, San Diego Union, 6:3. Marstons deed 20-acre site of Junipero Serra Museum to city.

July 20, 1929, San Diego Union, 9:1. An open-air free concert will be given at Organ Pavilion this afternoon by Professional Musicians Guild.

July 23, 1929, San Diego Union, 6:3. Council accepts Presidio Hill from Marstons.

July 29, 1929, San Diego Union, 2:6. Second Civic Symphony concert in park yesterday, by Wallace Moody.



August 4, 1929, San Diego Union, World-Wide Features, 5:8. Hopi dancers to entertain at Organ Pavilion Friday evening under auspices of San Diego Museum and Fine Arts Society; occasion made possible as Indians are in region after participating in the pageant given at the opening of the Fray Junipero Serra Museum; small admission price charges, the proceeds to go to the Indians.

August 4, 1929, San Diego Union, City-County Section, 1:6-7, 6:6. Zoo animals, property suffer from vandalism; people destroy benches, fences; carry sticks to poke at monkeys or to strike fences to make deer and antelope run; throw clubs and rocks over fences and into cages; rare Mouflon big-horn sheep of Corsica killed by rocks and clubs.

August 5, 1929, San Diego Union, 6:3-4. Birds in changes of garb during periods of growth put other creature to shame at the San Diego Zoo.

August 6, 1929, San Diego Union, 6:6. Board of Supervisors promises no aid to Fine Arts Society; some county assistance is possible if opening found in budget; Society requested a $7,500 appropriation this year.

August 9, 1929, San Diego Union, 10:4. Hopis from Oraibi, Arizona to give program tonight at Organ Pavilion.

August 10, 1929, San Diego Union, Classified, 11:3. Indian program of dances and tribal songs before crowd of more than 1,000 at Organ Pavilion, by Wallace Moody.

August 11, 1929, San Diego Union, Development, 3:5. Fill declaring waters and tidelands of Mission Bay to be a state park becomes law on August 14.

August 11, 1929, San Diego Union, City-County Section, 1:1. Park Commissioners want civic organists exempt from Civil Service regulations.

August 11, 1929, San Diego Union, City-County Section, 1:8. Dahlia exhibit to be feature of Flower Show in building at the southwest corner of the Plaza de Panama Saturday and Sunday.

August 12, 1929, San Diego Union, 3:1. Fourth concert San Diego Symphony Orchestra yesterday, Chief Yowlache, Indian basso-cantante, sang, by Wallace Moody.

August 12, 1929, San Diego Union, 5:1-2. Thousands of new trees set out at Zoo to give landscape tropical effects; roads, walks now lined with green

August 13, 1929, San Diego Union, 6:5. Delay ordinance on city organist; measure sent to City Attorney to make applicable only to Dr. Stewart; provides for a salary of $5,000 a year; organist shall not be under jurisdiction of Civil Service Commission or the Employee’s Retirement System; City assumes jurisdiction of outdoor organ on September 1.

August 13, 1929, San Diego Union, 7:4. County refuses financial help to Fine Art Gallery.

August 15, 1929, San Diego Union, 5:4. Arizona champion to meet Art Gallery master at horseshoe championship at Balboa Park Sunday (illus.).

August 18, 1929, San Diego Union, City-County Section, Twenty-third annual flower show opens in Balboa Park.

August 19, 1929, San Diego Union, 3:4. Symphony program at park, by Wallace Moody.

August 20, 1929, San Diego Union, 5:3-4. City Council grants permit for grass golf course in park; work to be rushed by Recreational Development Company at expense of $200,000; water to be furnished free; lease to run six and one-half years.

August 23, 1929, San Diego Union, 6:4. Delay contract on golf course.

August 25, 1929, San Diego Union, City-County Section, 1:7. P. F. O’Rourke moves to block lease of park grounds for golf; files suit to enjoin city from private grant of public land.

August 25, 1929, San Diego Union, Development, 1:8. Every industry branch to have place in great annual exhibit; Imperial Valley also to join with San Diego in efforts to make Balboa Park County Fair best of long series; latest in radio will be exhibited by San Diego Radio Dealers Association.

August 26, 1929, San Diego Union, 2:6. Sixth of Civic Orchestra summer concerts at Balboa Park, by Wallace Moody.

August 27, 1929, San Diego Union, 6:1. Healy proposes $25,000 match with O’Rourke; will put that amount into city golf course if objector will do the same.

August 28, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:3, 2:4. Recreational Development Company withdraws offer to rebuild and grass golf links in Balboa Park; will cooperate with anyone who will carry out projects.

August 29, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:6, 20:1-2. Mayor, Realtors, head of Chamber of Commerce urge Healy park plan; call obstacles unwarranted; claim fine golf links a real city need.

August 30, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:6, 2;3. Julius Wangenheim offers private funds to build golf course in Balboa Park; says public-spirited men will furnish $150,000, take payment from receipts.

August 30, 1929, San Diego Union, 9:1. Special events to be provided at fair grounds; everything free after general admission with one or two exceptions.

August 30, 1929, San Diego Union, 11:4. Joseph Roche writes city needs golf course in Balboa Park.

August 31, 1929, San Diego Union, 10:4. Martin Healy, W. Templeton Johnson and one other citizen have joined with Julius Wangenheim in pledging $35,000 each toward financing a golf course in Balboa Park.



September 1, 1929, San Diego Union, 3:2-4. Alfred Hertz guest conductor at Organ Pavilion today, by Irene M. Clark.

September 1, 1929, San Diego Union, 5:8 Den prepared for raccoons at San Diego Zoo.

September 1, 1929, San Diego Union, World-Wide Features, 4:1. Acquisitions show esteem for director; A. B. Titus, chairman Fine Arts Gallery committee, says Poland’s work recognized in gifts.

September 1, 1929, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:4-5. Radio showing to be held as feature of County Fair; many receiving sets will be shown under auspices of San Diego Trades Association.

September 2, 1929, San Diego Union, II, 1:5-6. Alfred Hertz leads San Diego Civic Symphony, by Wallace Moody.

September 4, 1929, San Diego Union, 5:5. W. Templeton Johnson tells Kiwanians of expositions staged in Barcelona and Seville, Spain at meeting yesterday.

September 4, 1929, San Diego Union, 10:2. O’Rourke scores estimate of $150,000 on grassed golf course; tells Council proposed links should not cost beyond $50,000; recently obtained an injunction halting plans for Recreational Development Company for building a course in the park; Company withdraws its offer.

La Mesa built a course for $25,000 and La Jolla one for $84,000.

September 7, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:7, 2:4. Opinion opens wide for golf links in park; City Attorney Charles C. Quitman says it is legal for local group to proceed with project.

Legality of private enterprise plans for developing an up-to-date grass golf course in Balboa Park was upheld in a opinion rendered yesterday by Charles C. Quitman, assistant city attorney. The opinion was asked by the park board several days ago and it will be in the hands of that body today. It opens the way for four or five men, who are willing to furnish funds, to proceed along lines similar to those offered in the Healy plan, under direct supervision of the park board.

Quitman has studied the problem since the withdrawal of the Healy plan a week ago, after it has been criticized as an illegal undertaking for the city. He holds that any question of illegality can be obviated through contract procedure with a group of individuals, either as a grouped body or as individuals.

“I suggested such a contract arrangement to the park board a few days ago,” Quitman said. “I find that the board can enter into a contract with a group of four of five individuals and grant those individuals the concession of the golf course. I suggested further that the park board, through its contract, may reserve the privilege of keeping up the course, doing all the work attached to development and upkeep, but not the collecting of fees. That would have to be done by the concession holders because of certain charter provisions which prevent the board from receiving funds.”

Quitman explained that a plan identical to the one which he submitted to the board was used in Los Angeles when the coliseum was built. Under the plan the concessions holders or those who finance the project, collect all revenues and withhold a certain amount each year until the capital investment, plus interest, has been paid back, when the contract becomes amortized.

September 7, 1929, San Diego Union, 5:6. Harry Fuqua, radio humorist, hurls self from Cabrillo Bridge.

September 8, 1929, San Diego Union, 17:1-2. Two double-wattled cassowaries grace circular pen at San Diego Zoo and are ready to greet visitors.

Several years ago there was in the Zoological Garden running loose and friendly with everyone, a large cassowary. He was somewhat of a pest because he was too friendly, he followed the employee around and knew his name. He feared not the visitors and entertained the children by swallowing half an orange, or a small apple, or a bun at a single gulp. He was, alas, too popular for his own good, and one day he followed some of his friends out of the grounds through a gate which they were able to open in some mysterious way. In attempting to chase him back into the grounds, he was run to the point of utter exhaustion and killed.

It is not difficult to obtain cassowaries, but it is hard to secure perfect specimens which are tame and inoffensive as was “Cassie,” the beloved pest of the garden. This spring, however, two young, double-wattled cassowaries came over in a shipment from the Sourabaya zoo in exchange for some American birds and animals. These are tame as two little chickens, they come to the fence begging for food and stick their heads out to be petted, but they are not allowed to run loose for they must be protected from the public. For this, like many of the fences, serves a double purpose to protect the public from the animal and to protect the animal from the public.

The cassowaries, like all the large wingless birds, are well armed. In the wild they are aggressive and do not hesitate to use their weapons in defense. Like the emu, the cassowary has three forward pointing toes on its foot, the center being very large, bearing a heavy nail which can tear great holes in the flesh of its adversary, who is attacked by kicking forward. It lacks entirely any backward pointing toes or spurs, and when resting sits on its haunches with its awkward feet extended before it. Their plumage, for it can hardly be called feathers, is very similar to that of their relations, the emus, but, while there is no visible wing on the emu, the cassowary has several stiff black quills which look as though they might have been filched from an African porcupine. These quills are apparently only useful in making a noise. Whether this is their purpose is difficult to say.

The present cassowaries are still immature, but they are of different sex, and it is hoped that they will be a true paid; for other zoos have been successful in raising both cassowaries and emus. The egg is similar to that of the emu, rough, large and a vivid green. The eggs are incubated and the young care for by the male parent.

There are many species of cassowary found in the groups of islands lying between Australia and the Asiatic continent. The two on exhibition at the zoo are the double-wattled cassowary from New Guinea. . . . They are in the circular pen at the foot of the hill and are always at home to anyone who cares to come with an offering of stale bread, fruit or a head of lettuce.

September 8, 1929, San Diego Union, City-County, 1:1. County Fair will open gates Tuesday; varied exhibits promise to set new high mark for attendance; elaborate entertainment programs arranged.

When crowds storm the gates at the San Diego County Fair at the opening Tuesday evening at 6 o’clock they will find one of the finest exhibitions ever presented to the people of this county. For five nights and four days the large crowds will continue to surge through the gates, viewing the interesting live stock, agricultural, industrial, horticultural and domestic science exhibits.

The San Diego County Fair this year will be virtually a number of expositions combined into one big show with on admission price. It will provide education, diversion, entertainment fun. Each afternoon and evening a varied program will be presented, making it possible for visitors to attend every day and still see something new and hear something different.

Many new attractions have been secured for the fair this year. One of the leading ones is the first annual radio exposition, sponsored by the Radio Traders’ Association of San Diego. This mammoth show not only will include presentation of the newest in radio but also will give visitors an opportunity to get a close-up of radio stars and hear them perform in the studio at the show by remote control over stations KFSD and KGB.

The feature attraction for the opening night, Tuesday, will be the spectacular pyrotechnic display. This display will depict in fire the history of San Diego from the time of Cabrillo to the start of Colonel Lindbergh on his epochal flight to Paris.

The program for Tuesday evening will include a sensational straight-jacket release by Mrs. W. King, who has been declared by many to be the successor of the late Houdini.

Free dancing, which will be a feature each evening during the fair, will start Tuesday evening at 8:30 and continue until 11 o’clock.

The County Fair this year will include the fifth district meeting of the American Kings, an organization that comprises breeders of King pigeons. The judging of the pigeons will be done Tuesday morning so that everything will be ready for the exhibition Tuesday evening.

Provision has been made to care for large crowds in the parking spaces. The parking will be without charge and will be lighted and policed.

Frequent street car service will be provided.

September 8, 1929, San Diego Union, City-County, 3:4. Extra entrance arranged for Zoo; visitors may enter back of California Tower during progress of Fair.

The San Diego County Fair, which will open in Balboa Park for four days, will close all of the roads and walks leading to the main entrance of the Zoological Garden. The general admission fee of 50 cents to the County Fair will have to be paid by anyone wishing to enter to zoo by this gate, but this 50 cents does not include the price of admission into the zoo.

The management of the zoo calls the attention of zoo visitors to the entrance which is located back of the California Tower. This entrance is just one block off Laurel Street and outside the County Fair grounds; therefore, visitors to the zoo may use this gate without paying admission into the fair.

It is impossible to reach this entrance with the bus, but a station will be established at the foot of the hill, near the pen containing the boobies and cormorants, and for the period of the fair the round trip from this point and return will be 15 cents. The buses will leave the station on the hour promptly, but will follow the usual plan of accepting passengers any place in the grounds. All of the exit gates from the zoo leading into the fair grounds will be closed from September 10 to 14 because admission to the zoo from the south gate does not include admission into the fair. Only those persons presenting proper evidence of having pad admission into the fair may enter the grounds through the exits of the zoological society.

There are, however, exits from the zoo outside the boundaries; in addition to the ones at the research building, there are two at the north end of the grounds, which are close to the street car stops. These may be used by anyone not wishing to return to the south entrance.

September 8, 1929, San Diego Union, World-Wide Features, 4:8. “Pinafore” to be given on board ship “Star of India: to raise funds for a maritime museum.

September 10, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:4, 2:3. 11th annual county fair will open tonight with fire tableaux; workmen place finishing touch on many booths; new feature this year will be Radio Exposition; Horse Show to start tomorrow; ample free space provided near entrance.

September 10, 1929, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Fair

We have a hunch that our friends from the county communities get the most fun out of the fair, but the exposition is a liberal education to the average city dweller. Along with his fun, he learns a new admiration and respect for San Diego’s productive and progressive county districts.

September 14, 1929, San Diego Union, Special Features, 11:1-2. Special Features will mark closing day of County Fair; women to complete for rolling-pin championship; men to battle for hay-pitching prize and boys and girls for bicycle awards; horse show winner list given.

September 15, 1929, San Diego Union, 15:1-2. Saturday night crowds increase Fair attendance; estimate more than 28,000 viewed exhibits in last five days.

September 11, 1929, San Diego Union, 7:2. Offer two bids on golf course; architects present widely varying figures on improving golf links; William P. Bell offers bid of $155,000 and Tommy Banks a bid of $76,080.

September 12, 1929, San Diego Union, 5:2. Julian and Escondido won blue ribbons for exhibits at County Fair yesterday (illus.).

September 13, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:8, 2:4. State ready to give $750,000 for San Diego parks; George W. Marston urges city’s purchase of Silver Strand, Hedionda, Palomar tracts at meeting of State and County Parks and Beaches Association.

September 14, 1929, San Diego Union, 11:1-2. Special features will mark closing day of County Fair; women to compete for rolling pin championship; men to battle for hay pitching prize and boys and girls for bicycle awards; horse show winner list given.

September 15, 1929, San Diego Union, 16:5. O’Rourke urges own golf plan; ready to show City Council how to finance project he fought in court.

September 15, 1929, San Diego Union, Development, 1:2. County parks seen as real investments; William T. Hart of Carlsbad, head of San Diego preservation group, urges necessity of matching State’s playgrounds appropriation, by Al Brown.

September 17, 1929, San Diego Union, 16:5. O’Rourke urges own golf plan; ready to show City Council how to finance project he fought in court.

September 24, 1929, San Diego Union, 9;7-8. Donald Mac Arthur argues for choice of site in Balboa Park at 6th and Date Streets for joint city-county building.

September 25, 1929, San Diego Union, 2:4. Patrick F. O’Rourke will advise the City Council as to the manner in which the city may finance the building of a green golf course in Balboa Park today.

September 26, 1929, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

The Park Superintendent reported that the New Mexico Building would need considerable repairs

this year and that he proposed to do the work with park labor, charging the Museum budget with

the cost.

The Chairman reported that the City Attorney would prepare a form of concession agreement for

the construction of golf course with private capital and test it out in the courts; he would probably get a decision in about 3 months. He preferred to do this rather than approve the Quitman opinion on the subject.

The secretary then read copy of a letter from the City Clerk to the City Attorney stating that the council had asked that a form of concession suitable to all parties be worked out with the Park Commission; report to be made to council meeting, October 7th; also to submit report on new statute providing for the issuance of bonds against expected income for such projects as golf courses.

A meeting with the City Attorney had been arranged for Friday, September 27th, to discuss a concession form.

Request of the Mayor that Pepper Grove be reserved for entertaining the Florida Motorcade, October 13th was approved.

Request of the executive committee of San Diego Symphony Orchestra Association that 10 percent fee to the park department from receipts of concert course be remitted on account of deficit was denied. The secretary to submit memorandum of cost to department as reason for action of board.

Request of Mrs. Rue for flowers for distribution during Realtors’ Convention, October 8th-12th, was referred to the Park Superintendent to do the best possible for the committee.

September 26, 1929, San Diego Union, 9:4. City draws plan to widen 6th Avenue; 80 foot arterial freeway contemplated to relieve traffic from north.

September 26, 1929, San Diego Union, 16:1. Council orders city golf links contract drawn; action to be taken on October 7 on $100,000 advance for golf course by Julius Wangenheim.

September 29, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:4. Four huge sea elephants will be brought in port today by U. S. S. Koka for San Diego Zoo; came from Guadalupe Islands.

September 29, 1929, San Diego Union, City-County Section, 1:2. Await decision of City Council on park concession; construction of grass golf course proposed if tomorrow’s court action is favorable.

September 29, 1929, San Diego Union, City County Section, 3:4-5. Nature walks resume October t under auspices of Natural History Museum.

September 30, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:3, 2:2-3. Land four giant elephant seals here for San Diego Zoo; 5,000 pounder largest specimen every captured.

September 30, 1929, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: To Solve a Puzzle

A curious impasse confronts the San Diegans who sponsored the recent summer season of outdoor concerts by the Civic orchestra. They have before them the fact of a deficit — but the real impasse is embodied less in the deficit than in the riddle of what the deficit may mean. The several thousand auditors who heard the concerts did not pay the cost of the season — yet they cannot be accused of taking charity, for they paid for their tickets. The other thousands who did not attend the concerts, or the people of the city generally, cannot be accused of accepting charity, either, for they are obviously under no obligation to pay for what they did not order.

If the city does not want a symphony orchestra, is there any point in trying to maintain such an institution? It the city does not want an orchestra, why the annual struggle to raise funds sufficient to pay for it?

There is not good and sufficient answer to either of these questions. In addition, there is no convincing evidence that either of these questions is a fair one — a question, that is, upon the answer to which the future of the orchestra ought to depend. There is room for a variety of definitions as to just what one ought to mean by “the city,” and there is also latitude for discussion of discrepancies between what the city wants and what it ought to want or what it could be educated or persuaded to want.

The Civic orchestra probably is one of those brace and stubborn enterprises that will not accept failure. There are plenty of life’s good things which do not pay for themselves at the box office. And sponsors of the orchestra are more likely to outwit the box office than to permit the box office to master them.



October 1, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:8. John P. Mills sues city for $1,250,000 damages; demands return of Cliff Park; action based on allegations of breach of contract for care of property.

October 1, 1929, San Diego Union, 13:2-3. O’Rourke explains his opposition to park golf course concession; no limit on amount golf course is going to cost except that it is going to cost less than $100,000; City reserves control over salaries to be paid and prices to be charged, but reserves no control over any other matters of expenditure; City helpless to do anything unless it reimburses the concessionaires all their expenditures plus 7 percent; concessionaires can make golf course an exclusive club.

October 3, 1929, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

Present: Commissioners Jones, Marston and Olmstead.

Chairman of “Light’s Golden Jubilee’ requested permission to use Stadium October 21st.

Approved, provided it does not interfere with High School activities.

The secretary presented draft of concession agreement for construction of golf course, prepared by City Attorney Conklin. The chairman stated that Mr. Byers, Assistant City Attorney, had answered the original complaint of Mr. P. F. O’Rourke that the board had not entered into such an agreement as the complaint recited; and that he had submitted the agreement as now drawn to be tested out in court. The case had been held over to give Mr. O’Rourke time to amend his complaint.

Letter was received from MacKenzie and Egan, Architects of San Francisco, relative to plans and specifications for municipal golf course in Balboa Park, enclosing folder giving list of courses constructed and charges for services. The letter was ordered filed, secretary to acknowledge receipt, stating that consideration will be given same when course is to be constructed.

Mr. W. A. Huggin requested free use of Stadium October 31st for Halloween Celebration. Use of stadium was denied, permission being give to hold the event along Park Avenue, between Juniper and Quince.

Mr. Olmstead brought up the matter of occupancy of part of the Zoological Gardens by O’Rourke Zoological Institute. After a discussion of the history of the case, Mr. Olmstead moved that the City Council be asked what action, if any, has been taken to carry out the intention of Resolution of the Council No. 45803, May 28th, 1928, whereby the City Attorney was instructed to have the Nevada Building vacated by its present occupants, the O’Rourke Zoological Institute. The motion was seconded by Colonel Jones; and being put by Mr. Marston, the motion prevailed.

Mr. H. C. Jackson, Wilson’s Auto Park, 4th and Ash, appeared before the meeting regarding installation of Shuffle Board in Balboa Park. If the park department cannot do the work, he will stand the expense of construction of one course. The matter was laid on the table, to be taken up in two weeks.

Mr. Morley, park superintendent, reported that when work on New Mexico Building and American Legion Building is completed, he would be ready to go ahead with construction of Comfort Station at Horseshoe Pitch. His program met with the approval of the board.

October 6, 1929, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:5-6, 2:1-2. Nate Kaufman plays fiddle for San Diego Zoo animals.

October 7, 1929, San Diego Union, 2:6. Edwin H. Lemaire played selections at park organ yesterday afternoon.

October 9, 1929, San Diego Union, II, 12:4. Zoo Institute ouster up again; Park Commission asks City Council for report on 1928 action.

Reviving the dispute which has existed for several years regarding the right of the O’Rourke Zoological Institute to occupy the Nevada Building within the grounds of the San Diego Zoological Society in Balboa Park, the Park Commission yesterday asked the City Council for a report on the demand of the Council on May 28, 1928, that the O’Rourke Institute be ousted from possession of the Nevada Building.

A resolution was adopted by the Council in May of last year directing James E. O’Keefe, then city attorney, to take the necessary steps to force the O’Rourke Institute to vacate the building. There is nothing in the city attorney’s office to show that any action was taken to carry out the instructions of the Council, and the O’Rourke Institute has continued to occupy the Nevada Building.

The resolution was a result of a complaint by Harry Wegeforth, president of the San Diego Zoological Society, that the O’Rourke Zoological Institute was occupying the building without authority.

It was contended by P. F. O’Rourke, representing the Institute, that permission to use the Nevada Building was granted by the Park Board, and that at an expense of $50,000, Mrs. O’Rourke had moved the building from its former location among the exposition buildings and had remodeled the building to suit the purposes of the Institute.

October 15, 1929, San Diego Union, 8:1. Council to act of park golf lease Monday; Colonel Jones recommended operation of links in Balboa Park; concession for course will be granted to Julius Wangenheim and his associates if Council approves; Concessionaires will expend not less than $100,000 in laying out and equipping the course; water will be furnished free to concessionaires; Assistant City Attorney C. L. Byers makes distinction between “lease” and “concession.{

October 15, 1929, San Diego Union, City-County, 1:2. Asks information on O’Rourke row; Park Board “wants to know” what became of ouster; notation reads “forget it.”

The request of the Park Commission for information on action taken by the City Attorney in response to instructions to oust the O’Rourke Zoological Institute from the Nevada Building was referred back to the City Council yesterday by the City Attorney.

Two years ago, James E. O’Keefe, then City Attorney, was directed by Council to take the necessary steps to force the O’Rourke Institute to vacate the Nevada Building. An investigation was made by one of the Deputy City Attorneys and a report was submitted to Council.

The final notation on the records in the City Attorney’s office is “forget it,” as having come from the City Council.

October 19, 1929, San Diego Union, 10:4. City Council and Board of Supervisors favor Nolen plan for Mission Valley highway; Mission road cut to 26-foot width temporarily to reduce cost of project.

October 20, 1929, San Diego Union, 16:1. New Fox Theater will open at 7th and B Streets nights of November 6; designed by William Templeton Johnson; style of French Renaissance of Francis I period; decorative details copied from places of the Loire.

October 20, 1929, San Diego Union, Development, 2:2-3. List of architects of San Diego County as of August 15, 1929.

October 20, 1929, San Diego Union, 3:2-5. Drawing of school for South Bay School District designed by John S. Siebert and Irving J. Gill.

October 22, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:2, 2:3. San Diegans join nation in honoring Thomas Edison; $50,000 worth of electrical equipment used at Stadium in Golden Jubilee for noted inventor; 20,000 persons saw “Pageant of Light” demonstration.

October 22, 1929, San Diego Union, 8:2. Group to furnish money, City will furnish water for grass golf course; contract between Board and Julius Wangenheim is authorized.

October 26, 1929, San Diego Union, 9:1. La Jollans ask replacement of Park Board head; file petition asking that community resident be given post held by Colonel E. N. Jones.

October 26, 1929, San Diego Union, 9:1. Park golf course plans advance step; method of building course tentatively agreed upon; private funds raised; upon completion the Park Board will maintain the course and collect 20 percent of the gross receipts; the other 80 percent of the receipts will reimburse the financiers of the project; as soon as they have collected the amount they have subscribed with 7 percent interest, the citizens will turn the course over to the Park Board, which then will collect all receipts for itself.

October 27, 1929, San Diego Union, Development, 1:1, 2:3-4. Fox Theater her exceeded only by one leased by the same producers in San Francisco.

October 27, 1929, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:3, 10:7. Mayor H. C. Clark favorable to La Jolla bid for park power; indicates consideration of Crandall for Jones’ post if change decided upon.

October 27, 1929, San Diego Union, 7:1. Agua Hedionda site designed by nature as park; beach and lagoon provide ideal facilities for outdoor recreation.

October 31, 1929, San Diego Union, 11:1. Chrysanthemums display to be open Saturday and Sunday in Floral Building, Balboa Par


November 1, 1929, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1. Julius Wangenheim, Matt F. Heller, Arthur H. Marston and Martin J. Healy withdrew offer to finance new golf links; promoters of project say too many obstacles in the form of City red tape.

November 3, 1929, San Diego Union, 14:3-4. Carol Ring, keeper of birds, San Diego Zoo, tells of various types of parrots; says San Diego is best place for raising.

November 3, 1929, San Diego Union, City County Section, 2:1. Borrego valley’s beauty praised for state park.

November 5, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:1-2. W. C. Crandall, resident of La Jolla, appointed to Park Commission yesterday to fill vacancy created by the expiration of the term of Colonel E. N. Jones.

November 8, 1929, San Diego Union, 5:4. Lester J. Olmstead elected president of Park Commission yesterday; George W. Marston will remain secretary of Board.

November 10, 1929, San Diego Union, 10:1. Marston swells fund raised to restore Mission San Diego; gives $1,000 for purpose to Native Sons.

November 10, 1929, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:7-8. Railway section hand swells snake collection at Zoo; annual snake contest has month to go; new ones wanted.

November 10, 1929, San Diego Union, Classified, 4:7. Memorial service for Harold Angier, past commandant of American Legion, in American Legion Building today.

November 17, 1929, San Diego Union, 14:1. City Historical Society reviews work for year; George W. Marston, founder-president, speaks; group to seek 1,000 membership.

November 19, 1929, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: At the Russ

Since the closing of the Spreckels Theater and the transfer of such attractions as the Amphion and the philharmonic programs to the Russ Auditorium, hundreds of San Diegans have begun to suspect that the big school auditorium is not, after all, such a bad substitute for the downtown theater.

November 21, 1929, San Diego Union, II, 1:1. Churches to join at Thanksgiving organ service; broadcasting of program to be one of features in annual observance.

November 22, 1929, San Diego Union, 9:1. Annual report of Park Commission filed yesterday with City Council; J. G. Morley said department during last fiscal year received a total net fund of $143,180 as compared with $143,526 for the six months previous; this, he declared, cut down improvements; golf receipts yielded a net income of only $1,157; tennis courts operated at $268 loss due to competition of free courts; Stadium lost $1,439; $4,747 spent for improvements of Pershing Drive; Balboa Park refreshment stand yielded profits of $2,198; $18,578 given to Zoological Gardens; $10,736 to Fine Arts Gallery; $1,946 to Natural History Museum.

November 23, 1929, San Diego Union, 11:1. Zurburan’s “St. Jerome” added to permanent collection in Fine Arts Gallery, Balboa Park (illus.).

November 24, 1929, San Diego Union, City-County Section, 1:1. City Manager Lockwood considers Mission Bay state’s largest salt lake.

November 24, 1929, San Diego Union, City-County Section, 5:5. Living heroes of 1865 to be honored at Organ Pavilion today.

November 29, 1929, San Diego Union, 12:3-6. Thanksgiving Day service in Balboa Park yesterday joined by all denominations.


December 1, 1929, San Diego Union, 12:4. New high school gymnasium will be formally opened by students December 15.

December 1,1929, San Diego Union, 1:2, 3:6-7. Requa and Jackson announce plans for 21 new homes costing up to $75,000 (illus.).

December 2,1929, San Diego Union, 10:2-3. Thomas Edison, in letter of Dr. Raymenton, praises work of O’Rourke Institute.

December 3, 1929, San Diego Union, 5:3. New high school gym closed to outside dancers; bids opened last night for installation of bleachers.

December 6, 1929, San Diego Union, 8:8. Frank W. Seifert, former Councilman, offers new plans for golf course and water plant; an 18-hole golf course in Balboa Park combined with a water reclamation plant in Switzer Canyon would save water for city; appeared before Park Board yesterday; sewage treatment plant and a reservoir near Pershing Drive; syndicate to build; would take 10 to 15 years to amortize costs.

December 7, 1929, Letter, C. L. Byers, Assistant City Attorney, to A. S. Hill, Executive Secretary, Board of Park Commissioners (C. Box 1. Board of Park Commissioners Correspondence, File: Fine Arts Society, 1922-1930, San Diego Public Library).

In answer to your inquiry as to whether or not claims of the nature submitted, whereby expenses of lectures given in the interests of art to the members of the Fine Arts Society are proper charges against City Funds provided for the maintenance of the park, I have to say that it is my opinion that there is no provision made under the charter or under the Budget Ordinance which would authorize the Board of Park Commissioners in paying claims for the benefit of members of the Fine Arts Society. Board of Park Commissioners are authorized to incur liabilities for the maintenance of the park and its different departments, and the Budget Ordinance provides funds for the payment of the same; but it is my judgment that charges of the nature above mentioned do not come within the provisions applicable to the maintenance of the park.

December 8, 1929, San Diego Union, II, 1:3-5, 6:4. Park polar bears to “receive” today.

December 8, 1929, San Diego Union, Development, 1:1. Council will hear park irrigation plan; Seifert to present project tomorrow.

December 10, 1929, San Diego Union, 11:5 Council refers Balboa project to Park Board.

December 14, 1929, San Diego Union, 14:5. Special program opened new gym at high school last night.

December 15, 1929, San Diego Union, 8:6-7. Zoological Institute courses interest hundreds of children.

December 15, 1929, San Diego Union, World-Wide, 4:1. Reginald Poland details Yule rites, beauty assets of park; pleads to safe Torrey Pines.

December 15, 1929, II, 8:6-7. Zoological Institute courses interest hundreds of children.

A program of nature study second to few in the country and with interest continually increasing among children of the community is being developed in San Diego at the O’Rourke Zoological Institute in Balboa Park, unique among institutions of its kind in the work, according to Dr. W. Raymenton, director and child educator.

Attendance figures for eight weeks in the summer of 1929, as compared with figures for a corresponding period in 1928, show a growth of from slightly under 800 to more than 2,600; while in the fall period during school session the increase has been as great in proportion, Dr. Raymenton declared.

Much of the program is carried out in nature study groups arranged in private homes, to which are invited children of the neighborhood. This serves as an elementary interest factor, spurring the child on to further study, much of which is conducted in field work under the tutelage of Frank F. Gander, head institute instructor, and in advanced study classes for research purposes in the Institute’s class rooms.

No subjects foreign to the child’s environment are considered at first, but the attempt is made to awaken interest in the nature that surrounds him. Studies of familiar birds, their calls, habits, idiosyncrasies; this if followed by mounting and classifying specimens. In a short time, Dr. Raymenton declared, the child develops a knowledge of nature surprising in its extent and accuracy.

(A letter from James F. G. Hunter of San Diego thanking the O’Rourke Zoological Institute for tutoring his son follows.)

December 15, 1929, San Diego Union, World-Wide, 4:5-6. Matters Musical, by Wallace Moody

Organ pavilion will be dark this Christmas night; festivities discontinued.

December 17, 1929, San Diego Union, 3:1. Board of Education attended opening of high school gym last night.

December 20, 1929, San Diego Union, 1:8. City Charter loses by more than 5,500 votes.

December 20, 1929, Mr. Frank Seifert proposed installing a sewage disposal plant for reclamation of water in Balboa Park.

December 22,1929, San Diego Union, World-Wide, 4:4. Christmas concert billed at organ Christmas day beginning at 2:20; Royal B. Brown at keys; Edna M. Sylvester, soprano

December 22, 1929, San Diego Union, World-Wide Features, 9:1. Christman concert billed at organ; Royal A. Brown at keys.

December 24, 1929, San Diego Union, 10:4. City Council agreed yesterday that Park Department will not be permitted to transfer $700 from salary funds to purchase chairs and supplies for Fine Arts Gallery; Council members held putting wages in pockets of workingmen was more important than furniture.

December 29, 1929, San Diego Union, II, 8:5-8. O’Rourke Zoological Institute offers varied program for next month; children and adults provided with chance to learn free about wild life (photo of the O’Rourke Zoological Institute building)..

Proof that instruction in nature lore is offered in varied and interesting ways at the O’Rourke Zoological Institute is to be found in the schedule for the month of January which has just appeared on the bulletin board. The first event of the month is the meeting of the O’Rourke Garden Club Saturday morning, January 4, at ten o’clock. The club meets to study plants and to learn how to grow them. It is open to all boys and girls of the city. Saturday afternoon instructor Gander will visit the Blue Bird troop of Girl Scouts to instruct them in the ways of bees and birds and butterflies.

Monday, January 6, and on each subsequent Monday throughout the month, a class in nature lore for children of grammar school age is held at the Institute from 3:30 to 4:30 p.m.. On the morning of Wednesday, January 8, at 9:30 a one-hour class in nature lore for adults will be offered. This will be the first session of the class and it will be followed by meetings every Wednesday morning until the summer vacation period. This class is primarily for mothers of students at the Institute and Girl Scout leaders, but all adults who are interested in nature are invited to attend. Wednesday afternoon at 3:30 the Junior Audubon Club holds its meetings at the Institute. This is a club of junior and high school students who meet to study birds.

Thursday, January 9, at 7:30 p.m. a free motion picture and illustration lecture on birds of prey of San Diego County will be given at the Institute. This is the second of a series of lectures on the wild life of this region. Instruction in nature lore will be given to the children of Beach school in Coronado. On the night of the 10th and Investiture ceremony will be staged by the Boy Scout Troop 41, which is sponsored by the Institute. Parents of the boys are especially invited to attend this meeting.

The highlight event of the month will be the entertainment to be given at the Institute by Captain Hugh Voorhies on Saturday, January 11, at 2 p.m. Since moving to San Diego a few months ago, Captain Voorhies has become well-known as a lecturer on the outdoors and as an imitator of outdoor sounds. He is also famed for his performance on the banjo, fiddle and flute. For this last instrument he has composed several beautiful pieces derived from the songs of birds. An admission charge of 25 cents will be made for this performance, which is the only event of the month that is not entirely free Following Captain Voorhies’ exhibition, a motion picture of birds will be shown.

The rest of the schedule includes a talk on nature lore by instructor Gander for the children of Nazareth House in Mission Valley on Thursday morning, January 16, a hike with the Boy Scouts on Saturday, January 18, and a trip to the beach to gather sea shells and to study birds and other wild life of the beaches on the 25th. On the 28th, instructor Gander will make a talk on birds before the San Diego Women’s Club.

Through the work of Carroll De Wilton Scott in the public schools a large number of children have been awakened to an interest in nature, but unfortunately many of these children live too far from the Institute to attend the classes there. To meet the needs of these children, nature study clubs have been organized and meetings are held in several public schools, just after school is dismissed in the afternoon. The work of these clubs is supplementary to the regular nature study taught in the classroom and is for those who have a special interest in the subject.

Dr. W. H. Raymenton, director of the Institute, has organized and directs the work of the Children’s Home Science Circle. Members of the Institute and volunteer tellers of nature stories visit homes and the very young children and the parents benefit from these visits.

All this class and home instruction is a gift to the children of San Diego by the O’Rourke Zoological Institute.

The San Diego Aquarium Association meets at the Institute the first and third Monday of each month and anyone interested in the propagation and care of the inhabitants of the aquarium are cordially invited to be present at these meetings.

December 29, 1929, San Diego Union, World-Wide, 4:1. Prominent visitors express views of gallery exhibits, by Reginald Poland.

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