Balboa Park History 1932

January 1, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 2:1-4. Nine-hole municipal golf course opened; grass layout completed in Balboa Park; well constructed links and low green fees attract hundreds to play weekly; 18-hole under construction.

January 1, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 4:1. New Natural History Museum Building started; fireproof structure will house exhibits, display halls, research laboratories, lecture room to be included in project, by Clinton G. Abbott, Director.

The start, within the last few weeks, of a modern fireproof building to house the valuable collection of the San Diego Natural History Museum is the most important event in the 58 years’ history of the San Diego Society of Natural History, oldest scientific organization in southern California.

Since 1920 the Natural History Museum has occupied one of the former exposition buildings and, therefore, has been constantly facing a fire hazard.

During these years the collections have been rapidly growing in importance and value, and the need for their permanent protection is more urgent thane ever.

Erection of the new building has been made possible through the generosity of a large number of contributors, and especially of Miss Ellen B. Scripps of La Jolla, who, for many years, has been an interested patron of the museum’s work.

The area on the northeast corner of Park Boulevard and the Prado in Balboa Park, which was formerly occupied by the Civic Auditorium, has been assigned by the Board of Park Commissioners as the position of the new museum.

The building will be in the Spanish type of architecture, conforming with other buildings in the famous park group. William Templeton Johnson of San Diego is the architect.

The part of the building which is underway at present is the first unit of what it is hoped will be a large and comprehensive museum group. The first structure will consist of the southern frontage, 220 feet long and 60 feet deep, from which a wing will extend in a northerly direction for 100 feet.

The structure will be three stories high and is designed to contain exhibition halls on all three floors, also junior activities, lecture hall, research laboratories, offices and workrooms.

January 1, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 4:1. Natural History Museum assists various schools; provides city and county children with materials for study in class room, by Clinton G. Abbott, Director.

Both the city and county schools have a supervisor of nature study, each of whom is also a member of the Natural History Museum staff.

Not only do these supervisors give personal instruction in nature study in the schools, but, in addition, over 20,000 natural history specimens, made available through the Natural History Museum, have been prepared for deposit in the schools as study material.

Besides these facilities for class-room instruction in nature study, the Natural History Museum itself is a much used laboratory, constantly visited by school classes for special work or general instruction.

Here are exhibits prepared with particular reference to the local field, displaying the mammals, birds, birds’ nests and eggs, butterflies, shells, minerals, reptiles, plants of San Diego County.

Finally, but not least important, are the junior activities carried on in a wing of the museum devoted to that purpose.

Here, under a competent nature instructor, children’s groups of all ages meet to pursue the natural history interests which are innate in practically every normal child.

Here youngsters’ clubs, devoted to butterflies and moths, taxidermy, minerals and kindred subjects, have their headquarters.

January 1, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 4:2-3. San Diego rich in bird life; many species found.

Members of the staff of the San Diego Natural History Museum, for the last nine years, have made a “Christmas bird census,” and in that time have reported more kinds of birds than any competitor on five occasions.

January 1, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 4:2-3. Nature walks conducted as winter feature here.

Every Saturday from October to May inclusive, the Museum of Natural History scheduled either a nature walk on foot in regions easily accessible, or an excursion in special parlor carriages to the more remote parts of San Diego County.

January 1, 1932, San Diego Union, I, 5:1. Progress of man depicted in unique museum in Balboa Park.

January 1, 1932, San Diego Union, 6:2-3. Girl Scouts carry out fine character-building program; San Diego County headquarters at entrance to Pepper Grove; Girl Scouts have occupied the buildings for eight years through the courtesy of the Park Board; headquarters has been remodeled, redecorated and refurnished; long hall widened into a reception room; living, dining, powder, hospital and handicraft rooms; about 500 Girl Scouts, 100 Brownies and 40 leaders enjoying main building.

In this ideal home atmosphere, these girls are preparing to be the homemakers of the future. Here they are passing their tests for merit badges in such subjects as homemaking, hostess, needlewoman, home and child nurse and economist.

January 1, 1932, San Diego Union, III, 8:1-2. Recreational Center in park attracts visitors, by Forrest Warren.

At 7th Avenue and Date Street in Balboa Park is one of the finest recreational centers extant — where visitors and home folks indulge in numerous outdoor sports 365 days in the year.

One of the latest acquisitions is the game called shuffleboard and seldom a day passes that the lanes are not taxed to their capacity.

The sum of $1 per year at the Balboa Club entitles members of privileges of shuffleboard, horseshoe, cards, chess, checkers and other games.

January 1, 1932, San Diego Union, I, 8:1-2. Rare masterpieces house in park unit; reader is taken on tabloid tour of institution; verbal journey through fine building shows many acquisitions made, by Reginald Poland (illus.).

. . . here {John Doe and his friend Tom Smith of San Francisco] are standing in the Plaza de Panama, with the great El Cid equestrian statue recently given to San Diego by the Fine Arts Society.

“Is this the gallery?” says the San Franciscan as he turns about.

“Yes. It is called in the Plateresque style because the carving looks like jewelry done by silversmiths in the 17th century.

The two friends have gone inside now, and are looking about the impressive rotunda with its carved stonework and coffered ceiling.

The San Franciscan can’t help saying, “That’s a beautiful stairway; its blue tile handrail certainly gives it snap. And the architect knew what he was doing when he set that big window on the landing up there. Those eucalyptus trees swaying back and forth, framed by the window, make a marvelous living picture.

Our enthusiastic fellow San Diegan heads him into the long gallery at the right of the entrance.

“Let’s start over here with this glass exhibition. It’s all lent by local owners — some collection, isn’t it? If we ever imagined at first we couldn’t get enough for a show we changed our mind quickly enough! We took only the best; that is, the most beautiful.”

The next room is all Spanish. The gallery director was saying that he visited Ramon de Zubiarrure in Spain a year ago. Here’s one of his pictures, “The Basque Fishermen.” The artist had modern paintings in his home, but his furniture was fine old Spanish work. We’ve tried the same combination in this room. See how primitive, masculine and colorful Spanish things look. That’s Spain.”

“Yes, that’s the way it looked to me when I was there. There isn’t as much bright color as I’d expected, but the people have positive feelings all right.”

“I see you have eastern things as well as western. Are most of these from China? Thanks to you people, I won’t have to go to China with things as they are now to see its art.”

“Yes, some are Chinese. There are Buddhas lent by the Erskine Campbells and come from China, Japan, Burma, Cambodia and Siam. This superb bronze Burmese Buddha, the Campbells gave to the gallery. One of the finest groups in our Oriental art is that of the Korean-glazed pottery. Dr. Horace N. Allen of Ohio brought it over. You see he was a medical missionary, and he helped them so much by introducing modern surgery into Korea that the people couldn’t do enough for him.”

“Across the rotunda there is a special group of Fries’ paintings. Charles Fries is the dean of San Diego painters, of course. When in that next room beyond, you’d vow you are in the old country, way to Friesland, Holland. The people there make all their own furniture in red lacquer, peppered with flowers and the like.

“That little corner room is saved for the children. Just now it is arranged for the holidays. “The Nativity” is illustrated by a group of figurines in bright colors and gold, carved at Oberammergau, where they have the Passion Play.

“Maybe you saw this very Nativity group. It was exhibited at the time you said you were there.

“I wish we had time to see the collection of progressive pictures lent by the two Chula Vista painters, Margot and Marius Rocle. And near it are the paintings by Foujita. He’s the “cats,” as it were. Excuse it please, but he’s the Jap who loves to do cats. You’ll see a self-portrait with his two pet cats.”

“Now, let’s go upstairs to see the Guild show.”

“What’s the Guild show?”

“The Guild is composed of the artists of the Fine Arts Society. The annual of their art work is just about ending now. For the first time this year a number of prizes were given and by different kinds of juries. The choices were quite varied.”

“I heard that San Diego owns some fine Old Masters —- heard it in London. What’s the idea of getting so famous? Are you trying to back San Francisco off the map?”

“They do know about us abroad. For our inaugural show here, less than six years ago, we imported things even from London, Paris and Stockholm. And we were able to keep some of the things. Here they are — mostly Old Masters, in this room.”

“Say, that’s some Gobelin tapestry.”

“Yes, that’s as fine as they come. And here is the marvelous ‘Holy Family’ by Rubens, which the Harry Timkens gave us less than a year ago. People who have been all over the world tell us they have never seen a more attractive Rubens.”

And “San Francisco” chimes in with, “I agree.”

“The Harry Timkens gave us this attractively-ugly “Soothsayer” by the old Spaniard Ribera and this ‘Repentant Magdalen’ by Murillo. I suppose it is the most popular picture in the gallery.

“We’re collecting a splendid Spanish department. We, ourselves, recently bought that “Young Soldier” picture, which some even say is by Velazquez himself. And the Erskine Campbells gave us a delightful modern Spanish picture, ‘The Almond Tree and the White Street.’ It’s of a little town in Galicia, Spain.”

“Oh, I went into Spain through that same northwest section. The peasant costumes and customs are not spoiled yet. I wonder what the Republic will do to them. They stood out for the monarchy, you know.”

“Well, we must tear ourselves away. Man cannot live by art alone. If you think these things are fine now on an empty stomach, they ought to look wonderful to you after you have had your lunch.”

January 1, 1932, San Diego Union, I, 8:5. Rapid progress made in adding to collections; superb canvases of old masters donated to enhance permanent exhibit’s value, by Reginald Poland.

The Fine Arts Society’s year started off with a bang, January 17, the Henry H. Timkens of Canton, Ohio, announced their gift to San Diego’s permanent art collections of their Old Master paintings. One of them, “The Holy Family” by Rubens, takes rank as one of his most representative and attractive works and so important that it is San Diego’s finest single work of art. The donors were particularly interested because Mr. Timken is a brother of Mrs. Appleton S. Bridges, who, with her late husband, gave us the Fine Arts Gallery. This picture is a spiritual “Holy Family,” the while presenting a group of portraits suggestive of the artist himself, of his family and second painting teacher. The other gifts are: “The Repentant Magdalen,” a reasonably colorful Murillo and a most dramatically realistic “Sibyl,” by another Spaniard, Ribera.

Other additions to the Spanish department on which we are concentrating, kept up the momentum of these great gifts. Mr. and Mrs. Erskine Campbell bought a simultaneous canvas, “The Almond Tree and the Street of White” by Jose Frau, from the exposition of contemporary Spanish art imported for exhibition throughout the United States. This picture is truly Spanish, progressive and a joy to the eye.

The society bought a painting, “Countrywomen of Galicia” by Carlos Maside, a famous illustration in Spain’s radical publication, “Nueva Espana.” Mrs. Henry A. Everett has just given “The Golden Wedding.” This canvas is the masterpiece of Valentin de Zubiaurre, whose “Grandparents” is also so popular in our collection.

We are acquiring American art, no less than Spanish art; here, too, we have been most fortunate. California art is really progressive and can give us satisfaction. General and Mrs. M. O. Terry gave the “$500 Purchase Prize,” which secured for use “Young Maize,” personifying growing corn, by Donal Hord, our rapidly rising San Diegan. Mrs. Ivor N. Lawson made possible “Little Navajo” by Ruth Peabody of Laguna Beach, as a watercolor purchase prize.

It is fortunate that paintings by our San Diegans, Elizabeth Sherman and Anni Baldaugh, have become ours permanently through the generosity of Mrs. Ella Bishop and Mrs. H. T. Horton.

Mrs. Robert Smart’s gift of a fresh, green landscape by Theodore Robinson, pioneer impressionist, and “The Cod” by our beloved Emil Carlsen are most telling American acquisitions.

We hope that these American and Spanish offerings may prove an appetizer for the enjoyment of others from any lands. For we have an art banquet spread out for you at the Art Gallery. As you see what has come to us within the last 12 months, your realization will exceed your expectations.

January 1, 1932, San Diego Union, I, 8:3-4. Fine Specimens of Art shown at exhibitions.

We have been able to squeeze into our appropriations another annual exhibition by the artist members of the Fine Arts Society of San Diego. It comprises some 225 paintings, sculptures, graphic arts and handicraft. One of the most interesting aspects of the show are the four kinds of prizes that were given.

The jury of selection for the entire show gave nine awards, four of them money prizes; the entire Guild membership voted on the Appleton S. Bridges Memorial Award. A laymen’s jury of over 40 non-artist persons gave two more awards. The public as a whole was invited to make its own choice. The comparison of tastes in art and the increased popular interest in this collection were what made such awards worthwhile.

In the Southern California Art Annual we gave $775 in prizes, including two purchase prizes. Thus we are the richer in our permanent collection by outstanding art; the winners themselves were helped in various ways.

We have had many other temporary exhibitions of which we can include only these here: European “Old Masters”; Contemporary Spanish paintings and sketches, which we imported from Spain; Contemporary Creative California Architecture; Whistler Lithographs; the Fifty Prints of the Year; Pictures by the Japanese Foujita; and a colorful Dutch Period room installed by Peter Smoor.

In addition t the lectures, which are ordinarily given free to the public every Sunday, the Fine Arts Society offered its members a series by great authorities.

The social committee arranged beautiful functions. The Art Guild has ordinarily held a meeting each month. Anyone has been able to come to the Art Gallery in special classes and at nominal fees.

(Names of individual exhibiting artists and lecturers are also included in the article.)

January 1, 1932, San Diego Union, I, 8:5. Society believes in cooperation.

The Fine Arts Society believes in working with other organizations as far as possible. Sometimes San Diego might have gone farther if certain of the groups had worked for instead of against still other groups.

Within the year, the Art Gallery has concerned itself with such institutions as the Inter-racial council (exhibiting the all-Negro art exhibition from the Harmon Foundation); the County Federation of Women’s Clubs; the Junior League; the Indian Arts League (which arranged a most important Indian art show during the season); the Chamber of Commerce, the Wednesday Club; the P. T. A.; the University Women’s Club; the Associated Arts; the San Diego Academy of Fine Arts; of course the State College and the public schools of San Diego City and County, as well as certain private schools; the Camera Enthusiasts; the San Diego Stamp Club; certain local theaters; the public library; the American Legion; the Visual Education Department.

January 1, 1932, San Diego Union, III, 10:1-4. Zoological Garden is popular; new additions to fine exhibits create interest; institution has outstanding collection of anthropoid apes in entire world, by Belle Benchley, Manager.

The San Diego Zoological Garden is considered one of the finest in America. It has the highest flying cage in the world and provides cageless type quarters for lions, tigers and other wild beasts.

Attractive and useful compounds for elephants and camels, a series of lakes and dams for wading birds, a splendid reptile house, and a large tank for seals and sea lions are a few of the many features of this excellent institution.

It became famous first as the zoo built entirely out of doors, then as the zoo with the barless grottos.

The next step in its development made it known as the zoo of the happy families, but now it might well be called “The Zoo of the Anthropoid Apes,” as it now contains the outstanding collection of these animals in the world.

For years now it has tried with little or no success to keep the many forms of anthropoids one exhibit, because, of all living creatures, they are the most manlike; thus the most interesting to man; then because of all living creatures the least was known about these apes, study of them being almost impossible by the very manlike intelligence they display in avoiding human beings.

But recently chimpanzees, orangutans and gibbons are being exhibited with fair success and, in some of the older zoos, chimpanzees and orangs have been born and raised successfully in captivity. There remains, however, some of the gibbon family and the one genera of the gorilla which have not been successfully exhibited even up to the present date.

There are now in our collection in San Diego two of the rarest of all such apes: one in the gibbon family and one in the gorilla.

This rare gibbon is the Siamang, or pouched gibbon, a tiny pair of which we received in San Diego in 1929, just babies clinging to each other like veritable babes in the woods.

These animals are difficult to transport, have a reputation for being gloomy and morose, of sulking and pouting and refusing to become interested in anything in captivity.

While this may be true of single specimens, the pair in the San Diego Zoo do anything but verify this accusation. Not only are they happy with each other, but they live amicably with a White-handed gibbon and a Mueller’s gibbon.

They have never had a cold or a sick day in the two and a half years they have spent in our outdoor cage.

Their characteristic cry is never heard when they are alone, but when instigated by the Mueller’s gibbons or a class of children, they extend their under-skin pouch to the size of an indoor baseball and their high shrill cry with its booming accompaniment, which seems to come from the air in the pouch, can be heard as far as the downtown district of the city.

Gorillas have never been especially sought by the San Diego Zoo because never before has anything but single specimens of baby gorillas been offered. When Mr. and Mrs. Martin Johnson, well known explorers, brought in a pair, every effort was made to raise the money to buy them. These are mountain gorillas, most likely to live in a climate such as ours. As there are two of them their chances of living and maturing are greatly enhanced. This naturally makes them doubly valuable for scientific study and a hundred times more interesting as a zoological exhibit.

They are always wrestling, boxing, chasing each other around the stump, beating their chests or swinging from the ropes in the top of the cage, as one would expect gorillas to do in the jungle.

All the other anthropoids have taken a back seat with the public. Maggie and Jiggs, the orangutans, are scarcely noticed since the coming of the mountaineers.

The chimpanzees have given up trying to attract the crowd, either by their antics or spiteful reprisals, and have retired in dignity to ignore the gorillas and the general public until the first burst of popularity is over.

The gorillas pay as little attention to their neighbors, with the exception of Timmy, a young chimpanzee, as they do the crowds of people who are constantly in front of their cage, watching them.

They go about their own business, gaining steadily in health and weight and seeming to accept happily and intelligently the fact that they have been transferred into a new world where everything is being done for their comfort and happiness, where danger and hunger and cold rains and fogs are no longer to be endured; where their old enemies the spotted leopard and the armed man can no longer molest them.

The echo of the old feeling of fear and hatred is clearly apparent. Whenever they hear a truck or bus go by, they stop whatever they are doing and, if possible, retire quickly to their houses as though that sound stirred up in their memories reflections of that first unpleasant journey and those days of terror through the wilds of Africa on their way to their new home.

January 1, 1932, San Diego Union, III, 11:1-3. O’Rourke Zoological Institute gives children free instruction in study of nature.

The O’Rourke Zoological Institute of San Diego in Balboa Park was founded by Mr. and Mrs. P. F. O’Rourke. It is an educational institution wholly supported by its founders and friends without asking or receiving financial aid from the taxpayers.

It is incorporated under the laws of California and the incorporators state that “The purpose of this institution shall be the inculcation into the children of San Diego a love of nature and a desire to acquire knowledge of the fauna and flora both indigenous and exotic.”

In 1921 Dr. W. H. Raymenton, director of the institute, outlined a plan for the study of nature lore which received the indorsement of the leading educators of the country.

The work of the O’Rourke Institute is thought to be unique in confining its activities to popularizing the study of natural history and brining children and their parents into familiar association with nature. All instruction is free.

A special feature is that nature stories are told in the home by members of the staff.

Lectures are given to groups of children from the public schools in coordination with their nature work in the school room.

In summer vacation a free graded course in nature study for children of all ages is conducted.

Troop 41 Boy Scouts is sponsored by the Institute under Scoutmaster Edward G. Dickinson.

The research department is equipped with over $20,000 worth of instruments of precision. Several leading educational institutions and specialists have consulted this department.

The children’s art class is conducted by a member of the Institute staff. Pupils and parents are enthusiastic over the results.

A kindergarten department for children from four to six years old is under the direction of Miss Genevieve Crabb. The children are delighted with their play in nature work.

Many letters of appreciation come to Mr. and Mrs. O’Rourke for what the Institute has done for their children.

An open forum for adults for the discussion of biological subjects is held the first and third Wednesday of each month.

Curriculum: Geology, Arthur E. Skeats; mineralogy, Herbert Lang; botany and ornithology, Betty Tuttle; general nature study, Genevieve Crabb; nature lore stories, Jeannette van den Akker; nature leaflets, preparatory, Edna Moore; entertainer, Captain Hugh Voorhies; Boy Scouts Scoutmaster, Edward G. Dickinson; biology Open Forum, kindergarten, Genevieve Crabb.

January 1, 1932, San Diego Union, III, 12:1. Fine programs offered on outdoor organ, by Royal A. Brown.

January 1, 1932, San Diego Union, I, 14:1-4. Rare beauty enshrined in 1400-acre area; tract is noted for diversity of its attractions; recreational features combine with cultural units to increase life’s joys here.

San Diego’s park system comprises an area of approximately 2800 acres in 28 parcels of land.

Other buildings of the group are in use by the Academy of Fine Arts; Visual Education Department of the City Schools; art classes at the former New Mexico Building; San Diego Floral Association; Central Reference Library of the City School Department; Girls Scouts near the Pepper Grove and Boy Scouts at the Indian Village.

Roque, horseshoe, tennis, croquet and shuffleboard courts are provided, the most popular being the 12 shuffleboard courts. Two bowling greens have just been completed.

January 5, 1932, San Diego Union, 6:3. Grand Army of the Republic Veterans will gather at park Thursday.

January 8, 1932, San Diego Union, 6:1-2. Grand Army of the Republic Veterans rally round the flag once more; nearly 100 boys of 1861 gather at Organ Pavilion (illus.)

January 9, 1932, San Diego Union, 3:3. Park head warns old Exposition buildings unsafe; says catastrophe to be expected unless measures for repair taken soon.

A catastrophe may be expected soon unless comprehensive steps are taken toward repair of old exposition buildings in Balboa Park, John G. Morley, Park Superintendent, warns in the Park Department’s annual report to the mayor filed yesterday.

Nine years ago repairs on the buildings were effected at a cost of $120,000, Morley said, and it was figured the repairs would save the buildings for 10 years. A survey made two years ago estimated the repair cost at $48,000. Recent inspections have shown foundations of most of the arcades to be in poor shape and plaster is falling from walls and ceilings of the buildings.

The buildings are part of a group built for the 1915-16 exposition here. The architecture typifies the best work of the late Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, who was an authority on Spanish Colonial architecture and the park group enjoys world-wide fame.

Continuing the report Morley suggests park development to serve fast-growing districts, suggesting 10- to 20-acre parks. East San Diego, Logan Heights and Ocean Beach are mentioned as needing park developments. He adds that Collier park at Ocean Beach, Mountain View park at Boundary and Ocean View avenues and Park de la Cruz in East San Diego would be susceptible to this district development.

Use of unemployed men sent out by the county welfare commission made possible a general park cleanup that otherwise would have been impossible with funds allowed, the report states.

Removal of the entire grassed area of the downtown plaza, installation of a sprinkling system, new topsoil and a reseeding of the lawn is advised. A total of 60,072 trees, plants, shrubs and miscellaneous plants were set out during the year. A check of the California Building showed that 27,000 persons climbed the stairs to the tower which offers a marvelous view of the city.

January 14, 1932, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

Present: Commissioners Crandall, Fox and Warburton.

Letter was received from Zoological Society of San Diego asking for additional land for zoological purposes.

The plan contemplates the assignment by the Park Commission of the land now occupied by the Model Farm and buildings; construction of a new entrance gate near the old fire station and erection of a small entrance building.

The society advocates construction of a new road from 6th and Nutmeg Streets, passing in front of the Zoological Hospital to Alameda Drive and a road from Cabrillo Canyon along the northern boundary of the Zoo Gardens to Alameda Drive. For this latter project, the society tenders offer of such land at the north line of the Zoo as may be required.

After discussion of the matter with Dr. Harry N. Wegeforth, president of the Zoological Society, upon motion of Mr. Fox, seconded and carried, the chairman appointed Mr. R. N. Gregory, City Manager, Mr. George W. Marston, Park Commissioners Fox and Warburton and Mr. Morley, park superintendent, a committee to study the plan with Dr. Wegeforth.

Mr. Morley reported that the new Golf Course had been cleared off sufficiently to begin construction of the course.




February 11, 1932, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

Mr. P. F. O’Rourke protested granting further ground to Zoological Society; demanded that all

moneys taken in at the zoo gate be deposited with the City within 24 hours.

February 11, 1932, 8:3, San Diego Union, 8:3 and February 12, 1932, 10:1. Dr. Richard D. Hollington, Garrett Biblical Institution of Northwestern University will give talk on “New World Architecture” at Fine Arts Gallery tomorrow night.

February 13, 1932, San Diego Union, 6:4. Wednesday Club hears Zoo head in clever talk.

Members of the Wednesday Club listened to a comprehensive talk by Mrs. Belle Benchley, executive secretary of the San Diego Zoo, on the extent and resources of that interesting asset to our civic life.

Speaking from the authority of her six years’ association in this work, she held her audience fascinated attention and left them with a desire to make a visit either some day at 1 o’clock when the elephants bathe or any time to join the crowd at the large aviary where the greatest general interest centers.

Mrs. Benchley told interesting stories about the various animals, explained phases of the management of the zoo, making clear the business of collection and maintenance; the research were a practical contribution to the world at large is made and a zoological hospital with a chance to study as well as cure animals is carried on, the contact with the children and the collection of animals. The state has recognized this valuable work to the extent that they have donated a man on full time to conduct the study of chicken diseases, the speaker said.

Nature lovers and an occasional scientist results from the opportunity for observation and study afforded the school children in their monthly trips by the bus load from the city and county schools, Mrs. Benchley explained. Five adults enter the zoo, however, to every child and their are three paid admissions to every one free.

The 48 employees are kept busy caring for the vast collection of animals, of which Mrs. Benchley admitted a real fondness for the snakes. She explained that in the family group of hoofed animals, five is the ideal number, the deer group eventually turns into a harem, but in the primates, the children say with the parents until grown. She explained the care used in feeding to furnish a diet like that of the animal’s native habitat.

Of all the large collection, Mrs. Benchley declared that the gorillas recently captured and delivered by the Martin Johnsons are the most interesting. They will probably be the last ever brought out of Africa and are declared by scientists to be about one-third grown or seven years old. At maturity they will acquire a weight of 800 pounds. They are sky, intelligent, incurious and shrewd, fond of each other, even tempered, gentle and good sports.

February 14, 1932, San Diego Union, 6:3-4. Miss Fidella Woodcock, botanist at Natural History Museum, explains varieties of acacias in walk from Date Street to Laurel Street.

February 14, 1932, San Diego Union, Classified, 5:1-2. Collection of turtles at San Diego Zoo holds interest for students of biology and food connoisseurs.

February 17, 1932, San Diego Union, 9:1-2. Lewis Wayne Walker praises Wegeforth’s work in creating San Diego Zoo.

February 21, 1932, San Diego Union, 8:3. Public invited to George Washington Day ceremonies at Organ Pavilion this afternoon; Dr. Frank Linder, pastor of First Methodist Episcopal Church, is speaker.

February 24, 1932, San Diego Union, 8:2. Letter from Julius Wangenheim, president Fine Arts Society, commending San Diego Union’s editorial stand; points out benefits in provision of space for local work.

February 24, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 2:2. North Park businessmen in vicinity of project favor $120,000 park playground in northeast corner of Balboa Park; hear city officials; $65,000 available from recent park bond issue.

February 24, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 2:5. Town sees day P. O’Rourke has nothing to say; declines to testify that Dr. Wegeforth threatened to “knock his block off.”

Because Patrick F. O’Rourke declined to testify as complaining witness his simple assault charge against Dr. Harry Wegeforth was dismissed when the case was called for trial before Judge Philip Smith yesterday afternoon.

February 10, during a meeting of the Park Commission, O’Rourke had alleged that the physician “threatened to knock his block off.” The asserted threat was said to have followed an exchange of warm words between Dr. Wegeforth and O’Rourke. Immediately O’Rourke swore out a complaint.

When the case was called yesterday for trial, Dr. Wegeforth, accompanied by his attorney, Wayne Compton, appeared and said he was ready for trial. But O’Rourke was not to be found. Victor Winnek of the district attorney’s office said O’Rourke had not contacted his office and he knew nothing of the facts in the case.

Judge Smith then issued a subpoena for O’Rourke, who was found a few moments later in the Cuyamaca Club and brought into court by an officer. Upon arriving at the court, O’Rourke held an hurried and whispered conference with the judge. A moment later Judge Smith announced dismissal of the case, explaining O’Rourke had declined to testify.

The county was also out more then $17 for the trail which never took place. The $17 was paid jurors for mileage.



March 3, 1932, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

Present: Commissioners Crandall, Fox and Warburton.

The Committee on Extension of Zoological Gardens submitted Map No. 4799-L, furnished by the

City Engineers’ Office, showing changes in existing lines; motion to accept changes carried.

Beginning at the intersection of the westerly curb line of Calle Cristobal with the northerly curb line of Calle Colon, said point being 560.79 feet northerly, measured along said westerly curb line of Calle Cristobal, from the northerly line of Laurel Street; thence westerly and northwesterly along the arc of a curve, concave to the northeast, the radius of which curve is 110.00 feet and lied on the northerly production of the westerly curb line of Calle Cristobal, a distance on said arc of 122.87 feet to a point of reverse curve; thence northwesterly, westerly and southwesterly along the arc of a reverse curve, concave to the southwest, the radius of which curve is 112.90 feet, a distance of said arc of 177.54 feet to a point; thence southwesterly along a line tangent to the last described curve, a distance of 104.86 feet to a point; thence westerly along a line, making an angle of 27 27’ to the right with the last described line, a distance of 219.16 feet to a point; thence southwesterly along a line, making an angle of 63 37’ 30″ to the left with the last described line, a distance of 158.53 feet to a point; thence westerly along a line, making an angle of 52 32’ to the right with the last described line, a distance of 174.76 feet to a point; thence northwesterly along a line, making an angle of 23 38’ to the right with the last described line, a distance of 227.58 feet to a point; thence southwesterly along a line, making an angle of 58 28″ to the left with the last described line, a distance of 195.58 feet to a point.

That all changes, including removal of planting and trees, be done only with the approval and under the supervision of the Superintendent of Parks.

Resolution No. 58099 of the Common Council placing all improvements included in the $300,000 bond issue under charge of the Manager of Operations was received and ordered filed.

Upon motion of Mr. Warburton, seconded and carried, the Park Superintendent, after conference with the City Manager, was authorized to create a parking area for the Zoo by widening Alameda Drive.

Upon motion of Mr. Warburton, seconded by Mr. Fox, the Board concurred in Mr. Morley’s acceptance of his appointment by the Governor as a member of the Board of Directors of the State Agricultural Society.

The secretary reported that letter had been sent to the Common Council asking for $4,500 from the Reserve Fund to the Park Department Salary Fund to cover shortage caused by transfer of daily pay to a monthly basis of pay. The chairman requested Mr. Fox to represent the Board at the Council meeting, March 7.

In a discussion of request of Voiture 732, 40 and Eight organization for a room for holding meetings, it was suggested that they examine the Yorick Theater Building and also the balcony in Building No. 10, the County Fair Building.

Upon motion of Mr. Warburton, seconded and carried, letter was ordered sent to the City Planning Commission and City Attorney recommending that where transfer of City Lands to Park Lands is made, the City reserve the right to change alignment of existing roads, relocate present roads or locate new roads; also to grant easements to public utilities

Letter of thanks for work done on anthropology hall by Park Department was received from Mr. C. G. Abbott, director of San Diego Museum, and ordered filed.

Upon motion, seconded and carried, the Pepper Grove was reserved for use of the Chamber of Commerce for breakfast to visiting editors and publishers, July 28; also short organ program preceding the breakfast was authorized.

March 4, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 4:1. William Templeton Johnson to draw plans for San Diego post office.

March 7, 1932, San Diego Union, 3:1 and March 8, 1932, 8:3-4. Burbank Week opens today at Organ Pavilion; speakers to help start program for City Beautiful planning here.

March 13, 1932, San Diego Union, 12:1. Gigantic iguanas of Galapagos in San Diego Zoo Reptile House.

March 14, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 1:1. Robert C. Bancroft tells how Date Palm went to Chicago for 1893 Fair, by Winifred Davidson.

March 17, 1932, San Diego Union, 5:1-5. John Forward, Jr. gives views on city problems.

March 20, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 8:2-3. San Diego Zoo receives two rare toads from Dutch Guiana.

March 22, 1932, San Diego Union, 3:7. Council refuses to indorse request for Exposition; agrees to await explanation from Councilman Stahel why the plans should have city backing after sharp declaration from Councilman Russo.

Failure of the city council to adopt a resolution indorsing the exposition was characterized as “unfortunate” by Rufus Choate, president of the Board of Harbor Commissioners, last night.

March 23, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:1. Forward elected mayor by 9,000 votes.

March 24, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 8:5. Easter egg hunt planned for Pepper Grove; De Witt Mitchell Post, KGB, to sponsor event Sunday.

March 27, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 1:5, 2:3-5. Garden to honor Kate O. Sessions, San Diego pioneer beautifier.

March 29, 1932, San Diego Union, 3:4-5. Council indorses Centennial Exposition; bond issue to be requested.

A resolution indorsing the proposed Centennial Exposition and pledging support to the project was adopted by the City Council yesterday.

Harbor Commissioner Rufus Choate and D. C. Collier said the planned later to ask submission of a charter amendment permitting use of the $150,000 annual harbor levy for retirement and interest on a bond issue for harbor development to facilitate the exposition plan.

The exposition would use tidelands from Broadway to the Naval Training Station, the Council was told. The bond issue projected would not be used for exposition buildings, Collier said, adding that such work would be financed otherwise.

The harbor levy expires with the year 1938 under the terms of the charter. Thus, the money would finance a bond issue of around $800,000 over the period expiring in 1938.

March 29, 1932, San Diego Union, 5:2. Colonel D. C. Collier told Hammer Club yesterday that exposition plan is meeting approval.

March 30, 1932, San Diego Union, 3:1. Plans presented for Balboa Park swimming pool at meeting of North Park businessmen.






April, 1932. San Diego’s $300,000 bond issue aids recreation expansion program. D. W. Campbell. il. Am City 46:99.

April 2, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 10:6. Play field work to begin Monday; 10-acres area in northeast section of Balboa Park to include plunge, baseball fields; 25 get jobs; financed from proceeds from $300,000 unemployment relief bond issue.

April 4, 1932, San Diego Union, 8:1. Scouts prepare for Merit Badge display in May; many troops already busy on project for 4th annual Indian Village show, May 11, 12 and 13.

Each of the 64 troops of the county is expected to display the work of one merit badge. Troops will be limited to one big exhibit, and there will be no duplication.


April 4, 1932, San Diego Union, 8:3-4. Boy Scouts open spring program with April Honor Court, Council leader Charles Rinehart attends; troop 51 of La Mesa heights awarded laurels.

April 5, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 10:3. Shuffleboard contests open at park today; record entry list 98 in city tournament on club courts at 6th Avenue and Redwood Street.

April 5, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 10:5. Show of roses will open next Saturday; 25th annual exhibition at Plaza de Panama, Balboa Park.

April 7, 1932, San Diego Union, 3:5. Upsets scored in shuffleboard tourney in park; last year’s mixed doubles champions shoved back.

April 7, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 1:1. Many entries for Saturday, Sunday, Monday garden exhibit in Balboa Park.

April 10, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 1:3. “Sons of Pacific” Exposition body to be organized; group will produce colorful pageants reenacting historic California events; Albert V. Mayrhofer has accepted presidency; similar in plan and purpose of the Order of Panama, organized prior to San Diego’s first exposition.

April 10, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 3:1. Shuffleboard deserts high seas and becomes city sport; nominal charge of $6 a year is made for roque players and $3 a year for shuffleboard players; tourists and non-members can play for about two cents a day.

April 15, 1932, San Diego Union, 5:2. Colonel D. C. Collier told Missouri State Society that exposition is prosperity vehicle.

April 15, 1932, San Diego Union, 10:2. Mayor Austin yesterday appointed James L. Bush to Park Board to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Harry Warburton, 4th district candidate for Council.

April 17, 1932, San Diego Union, 7:1. First Cavalry of Exposition days recalled; Baja California “insurrection” kept troops on edge at San Ysidro headquarters, by Wallace F. Hamilton, former Captain, U. S. Cavalry.

“Forward, guide right. Gallop” — the command to which the First United States Cavalry will thrill no more! For combat tanks can’t gallop and that’s what the famous First is using to go about in these mechanized days. Though at times they are said to buck when the terrain is rough. But the horse is out.

It was a provisional squadron of the First Cavalry that San Diego entertained within her fair borders in the years of the exposition, troops A, B, D and M. The officers and men arrived on the old army transport Bufford, having been lightered aboard at Monterey, California, regimental headquarters. Civilian pack train No. 12, reminiscent of the old Indian fighting days and the troop horses came by train.

The outfits rode to San Ysidro, then but a quaint village in the Tijuana River bottom, and made camp. Uneventful border patrol duty followed with only one break in the golden sunshine. Aviles launched his ill-fated insurrection against Cantu the night of December 8, 1914. Followed a week of menace to the tranquillity prevailing. The Cavalry bristled at the line, warning the combatants not to throw any careless lead into the American greasewood. Pop venders and hot dog stands flourished on the American side to feed the great crowds of curious motorists congregating to see a snappy war; there were colored balloons for the children. The insurrectos lined up often and willingly to be photographed by stills and movies. There was excitement but no blood. Arthur Guellow was on the city desk for The Union and Tom Armstrong drew a “war correspondent” assignment and slept in the telephone booth at the U. S. Customs House so as to be on deck when Cantu’s forces, marching over the mountains from Mexicali, took the insurrectos in the rear and ended the war, as was the case.

Before the Exposition opened, the Cavalry Squadron marched to San Diego to occupy a model camp, built on the western slope of Switzer Canyon east of the “Isthmus” gate. The gardened area in the vicinity of headquarters tent, troop streets and the mounded and tamped earth of the stables may be seen even today as one drives along Park Boulevard in the vicinity of the erstwhile Indian Village and now Boy Scout headquarters. Now mushrooms pop through the hard earth where the feet of fleet cavalry thundered and golden poppies blow where the alert sentry kept an eye peeled for the officer of the day and rehearsed his general and special orders.

Many will remember the parades, reviews and escorts of 1915. That one for Admiral Howard when the Cavalry galloped up Sixth Street from Laurel to Upas while the mounted First Cavalry band sat their quiet steeds opposite the distinguished reviewers seated in cars. G. Aubrey Davidson in a high hat stood beside the admiral. The amusing part was General George Van Horn Mosley, the captain of M troop, felt the review should be rehearsed. The cavalrymen were ordered to put on their best clothes. The rehearsal was not so hot. Horses ran away and got out of hand to break formations. Rain had fallen during the night and there was mud. The galloping horses in front plastered the succeeding ranks with slime. It was a wrathy bunch of cavalrymen that pounded past the reviewing party in the afternoon, their clothes dirty, but in as sweet an alignment as was ever maintained at a gallop and despite that the citizens of San Diego assembled in rows beneath gently swaying cocos plumosa palms fringing the lip of the park, waved umbrellas, handkerchiefs and what not, shouted lustily within inches of the flanking mounts of the column-of-platoon formation.

Theodore Roosevelt, though no longer president, was the only man for whom the Cavalry ever turned out in full dress uniform during the Exposition years. It was “blues” that day and willingly for “Teddy.” While an admiring crowd cheered, the Cavalry presented sabers as Roosevelt entered the portals of the U. S. Grant Hotel, then owned by the Grant family.

Even the great can err, as, for example, when Captain James O. Harboard, destined to win fame as one of the most distinguished generals of the American Expeditionary Forces, decided to turn his troop horses loose to grass under the supervision of a herd guard at San Ysidro. The captains of the other outfits declined to participate, army regulations, etc. allowing them much latitude in such matters. The horses stampeded, knocking down camp tents in their mad rush for freedom. Cavalry horses were scattered all over the lower bay region. L troop, over which Captain Harboard presided, was rounding up mounts for a week thereafter. Two of them were found later at the farm of an Otay rancher, pulling a plow as faithfully as they had responded to the commanding officer’s whistle.

There are many First Cavalrymen in San Diego, lured by the climate and the charm of the San Diego manner — retired soldiers who, having tasted the delights of this happy locality while in the service, returned to it to spend their declining days. They liked it then, they like it now.

April 23, 1932, San Diego Union, 10:1. City Planning Commission advises against anymore pueblo lands for parks or bird refuges; cites difficulties in getting a right-of-way through Torrey Pines Park.

April 24, 1932, San Diego Union, 10:2-3. Jaguar arrives at San Diego Zoo as gift from Nicaragua.

April 27, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:1. Citizens’ ticket wins election; Forward elected mayor.

April 27, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 1:5-6. Balboa Park band concert to open local Music Week Monday evening.

April 27, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 6:1. Balboa Park pool dedication plans discussed; North Park Club to cooperate in plan.

April 28, 1932, Minutes of the Board of Park Commissioners.

Present: Commissioners Crandall and Buck. Absent: Commissioner Fox.

The matter of remuneration of park employees for services rendered in connection with broadcasting from Spreckels Organ was held over.

The secretary presented the following report of the Building Inspector on American Legion Building:

Recommending that:

Exit be cut at east end of building; that trusses be gone over and bolts tightened; that rubbish be cleared off of stage as fire prevention; that 1-inch wire mesh be put under skylights as protection from falling glass; that plaster on ceiling of arcade be repaired.

The report was accepted and copy ordered sent to Post No. 6 of the American Legion.

The chairman stated that under the new charter the Park Commission automatically ceased to exist on May 2, and offered the following resolution, which, being duly seconded, was adopted:

“BE IT RESOLVED, by the Board of Park Commissioners of the City of San Diego, as follows:

That we, W. C. Crandall, Samuel I. Fox and James L. Buck, members of the said Board, do hereby go on record as expressing our appreciation of the assistance rendered to us by the retiring Mayor and members of the Common Council in carrying out past policies of park development; and

That, during the period of reorganization, we offer to the incoming administration such services as they may see fit to ask of us.”

The chairmen then on the Park Commission expressed appreciation of the Board of the assistance and cooperation rendered by the Superintendent of Parks and office force in carrying out park development; and thanked them and the entire working force for having made the work of the Commission a pleasant duty.

The chairman then declared the meeting adjourned, sine die.

(Signed) A. D. Hill,

Executive Secretary.

April 28, 1932, San Diego Union, 5:2-5. President Hoover wires tribute to George W. Marston at 50th anniversary luncheon in local Y. M. C. A. (illus.).


May 11, 1932, San Diego Union, 6:1. San Diego Museum fights move of Council of Veterans and Patriotic Organizations to obtain building; Marston and others join in opposition to plan; Council holds conference today.

When the City Council confers today with the Park Board and veterans’ representatives to consider a request for dedication of the California Building as a war memorial structure, opposition to the plan will be voiced by officials and others interested in the San Diego Museum, now occupying the building, it was indicated yesterday.

George W. Marston, pioneer San Diegan and former head of the Museum, was quoted as stating it is “unthinkable that priceless art treasures,” many of them donated to the Museum as permanent memorials, face destruction by being literally cast into the street.” He added:

“While a war memorial building in Balboa park, of course, would be decidedly worthwhile as a permanent headquarters for veterans, it is unfortunate that the sponsors of such a building in their efforts to secure the California Building apparently were inadequately acquainted or grossly misinformed about the status, contents and dedication of the Museum. Those of us who have the interests of the city at heart, and I am sure the veterans belong to this group, feel that the sponsors of the war memorial should reconsider their demands for the California Building immediately and seek another and more sustainable site.”

Miss Alice Lee, who succeeded Mr. Marston as president of the Museum, was quoted as saying: “I cannot over emphasize the urgency of the need for united action in opposing this unfortunate movement of the veterans by vigorously supporting Mr. Marston in his fight to save the Museum from oblivion.”

In its letter to the City Council, the Museum stated that the Museum attracts an average of 1,000 persons a day; that exhibits valued at $100,000 or more are gathered there and that a scientific library with more than 150,000 titles in housed in the building. The Museum added that it was granted the use of the building in 1917 by the Park Board for use as long as the building was devoted to museum purposes.

The request for dedication of the building as a war memorial came from the Council of Veteran and Patriotic Organizations. In its communication the Council pointed out that in many cities war memorial buildings have been erected at considerable expense under provisions of an act permitting a tax levy for such purposes.

The veterans stated they did not wish at this time to ask the people to bear large taxes for a memorial but felt that the California Building could easily be adapted to serve as such a memorial, with facilities for conventions and meeting places for veteran organizations. Veterans yesterday added that the building would be kept open to the public, especially the scenic tower, which now attracts many visitors.

One of the park’s temporary buildings has been used for a number of years as a quasi-memorial building, with war exhibits and veteran meeting places. It is open to the public and is visited by many persons, according to custodians.

The San Diego Museum is financed by tax levies and by subscriptions. Last year the city appropriated $11,700 for the support of building and museum.

May 11, 1932, San Diego Union, 6:3. Boy Scouts arrange nightly exhibit; public is invited to 4th annual Merit Badge Exposition emphasizing importance of vocational training at Indian Village; merit badge subjects covered include camping, first aid, forestry, signaling, stalking, carpentry, first aid to animals, craftsmanship, interpreting, life saving and safety.

May 12, 1932, San Diego Union, 5:1. Council passes Memorial issue to Park Board; action postponed on veterans’ request for transfer of Museum building.

The City Council yesterday asked for a report from the park commission on the application of the Council of Veterans and Patriotic Organizations for dedication of the California Building as a War Memorial Building.

The request came after representatives of the veterans, several from the San Diego Museum, which now occupies this building, and one member of the Park Board had spoken.

Captain W. C. Crandall, president of the Park Board, said his views were largely personal, as it was not definitely known if the old Park Board retained office and powers under the new charter. He said the museum more than any other institution in the park connects the city with the exposition of 1915-16. He expressed the view that the building was being used in conformity with a permit issued by the Park Board and felt that any move to override the Board would have to be taken with a two-thirds vote of the people.

Attorney Gilmore Tillman informed the Council that he believed the Park Board was a functioning body at present.

Mrs. Chester A. Smith told the Council that San Diego is the only city that has neglected to provide a meeting place for its war veterans under terms of an act permitting construction of memorials. She said it was not the idea to use the building exclusively for veterans but that it would be open to the public and for convention uses.

Ralph S. Roberts, member of veteran organizations and who signed the application for use of the building, said there had been no desire to oust any organization from any building. He said the veterans felt the city would be glad to turn over the building to the veterans because it was believed the structure was not being used to capacity or in a manner commensurate with its cost. He said the museum register does not confirm museum estimates that an average of 1,000 persons daily visit the structure.

Dr. H. B. Bard said he wished to remind the Council that the museum was not a private organization but belonged to the city and that it contained valuable exhibits and books which could not be replaced. These exhibits, he said, were placed in the California Building as the only fireproof structure available in the park for such purposes and added that many gifts of valuable exhibits and books have been made to the museum because it is housed in a fireproof structure.

“Thirty-five years from now the Veterans of Foreign Wars, American Legion and other veteran organizations will be represented by a few thousand aging men and women who will have no interest in any buildings except the ones which house their chimney corners,” he said.

Councilmen expressed the hope that a method could be found to accommodate both the veterans and museum and asked the Park Board to attempt to work out some such plan. The veterans’ representatives said they had no objection to having the matter referred to the Park Board, and this was done.

May 13, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:1. Lindbergh baby found murdered.

May 13, 1932, San Diego Union, 9:1. Children’s Fair opens tomorrow in Indian Arts Building.

May 15, 1932, San Diego Union. 7:2-3. Model of San Diego Mission made by boy, 14; feature of Children’s Fair in Balboa Park; public invited.

May 16, 1932, San Diego Union, 2:3. John G. Morley chosen for State Board of 1932 California State Fair.

May 21, 1932, San Diego Union, 10:2-3. Children’s Fair, showing work of 5,000, closes today.

May 22, 1932, San Diego Union, 4:2-3. Eleven big Florida rattlers “muzzle in” on San Diego Zoo.

May 23, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 1:1. Nino Marcelli plans summer symphony series.

May 31, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:4-5, 2:5-6. City bowed in reverence to war dead; parade disbanded in Plaza de Panama; address at Organ Pavilion yesterday.


June 3, 1932, San Diego Union, 7:3-4. Kitchen Chautauqua opens in American Legion auditorium, Balboa Park, June 14.

June 5, 1932, San Diego Union, 4:1. Katie, tiny chimpanzee, takes command of new mate and his cage at San Diego Zoo (illus.).

June 5, 1932, San Diego Union, 4:7. Mayor John F. Forward, Jr. and members of Council “roll the first bowls” at formal opening of San Diego Lawn Bowling Club next Saturday on site of old rose gardens at west end of Cabrillo Bridge.

June 6, 1932, San Diego Union, 8:1. Present awards at Boy Scouts’ June Court of Honor; Council officials occupy judges’ stand at Ceremony in Indian Village Camp.

Last Friday evening the Indian Village, popular scout reservation, was the scene of the June court of honor. Despite the threatening weather the court was held outdoors as usual and a large number of scouts and parents were present. A 15-minute yell period preceded the court, led by Moto Asakawa. The court was formally opened at 7 o’clock with scoutmaster John Abbott, troop 5, La Mesa, presiding.

June 6, 1932, San Diego Union, 8:1. Indian Village plunge opened.

The pool is only open to scouts who are registered and in good standing with their troops. Every troop in the county is scheduled for an afternoon each week. County troops may use the pool whenever it is convenient for them to come to the city. The pool is free to all scouts.

June 11, 1932, San Diego Union, 6:3. Voiture to open rooms at Park; ceremony to be held this evening; members redecorate new headquarters.

Voiture No. 732, 40 and Eight honorary and play degrees of the American Legion, will open its new headquarters in the County Fair building, Balboa Park, this evening. A short ceremony will be held, when the key to the building will be presented by J. G. Morley of the park board. Distinguished visitors will be introduced, to be followed by entertainment and dancing.

In the last two months members of the 40 and Eight have redecorated and painted two rooms and balcony and many relics of the world war have been installed. The Eight and 40 assisted in the work.

June 12, 1932, San Diego Union, 10:1. Masons reaffirmed allegiance to Flag at ritual in park yesterday (illus.).

June 12, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 6:1. Lawn Bowling Greens opened in Balboa Park yesterday (illus.).

June 12, 1932, San Diego Union, World-Wide Features, 7:1. Combined Junior High orchestras to give concert in Balboa Park this afternoon.

June 14, 1932, San Diego Union, 12:2-4. Photo of O’Rourke Institute, Balboa Park, where children will attend nature classes this summer.

June 19, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:4. Apes and bears at San Diego Zoo intrigue children.

June 20, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 8:1. Natural History Museum building progress rapid; structure, representing $175,000 investment, ready by October 1.

June 25, 1932, San Diego Union, II. Three hundred and fifty students received diplomas at Organ Pavilion yesterday afternoon (illus.).

June 27, 1932, San Diego Union, 3:2. Colonel D. C. Collier to run for Supervisor.



July 3, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 1:8. “Olympic” shuffleboard meet Tuesday at Balboa Park.

July 3, 1932, San Diego Union, World-Wide Features, 4:5. Gladys Hollingsworth to be soloist today, starting vacation program series at park organ.

July 4, 1932, San Diego Sun, 3:5-7. Kate O. Sessions has new love in strange desert cactus; blooms of wasteland move to town; sees San Diego as garden of the world.

July 4, 1932, San Diego Union, 6:1. Jessop archery collection to be on display soon at San Diego Museum.

July 5, 1932, San Diego Sun, 1:7. Goeddel succeeds Esselstyn; manger’s ouster voted 4 to 3 in violent session; Russo leads attack charging official made up an unintelligible budget and failed to recognize departments as called for in Charter.

July 5, 1932, San Diego Sun, II, 1:3-5. Unemployment relief projects take form; projects for which San Diego voted $300,000 in bonds a few months ago are becoming realities; pedestrian tunnel at Park Boulevard and Upas Street, 98 percent complete; grassed golf courses in Balboa Park about 40 percent finished; an east-west road across Balboa Park is underway.

July 5, 1932, San Diego Sun, II, 1:3. Jessop heirs add to San Diego Museum; donate archery collection.

July 6, 1932, San Diego Union, 5:1. San Diego Club starts first series of matches in shuffleboard tournament at Balboa Park.

July 8, 1932, San Diego Sun, 6:4. Boy mangled by San Diego Zoo bears; climbed into bears’ pit Thursday afternoon to retrieve a pocket comb.

July 9, 1932, San Diego Union, 5:1. Bonham Brothers Boys’ Band to be feature at closing of shuffleboard tournament today.

July 10, 1932, San Diego Union, World-Wide Features, 4:8. “Hearts Desire,” built around San Diego during Mexican days, to be presented August 6 at the Stadium; more than 300 players in cast.

July 11, 1932, San Diego Union, 7:1. S. H. Kress gives Spanish altar piece of Saint John to Fine Arts Gallery; Julius Wangenheim acts for donor at presentation ceremony.

July 12, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 3:4. City Council yesterday asked Daniel L. Bissel, engineer, to assemble date for establishing a water reclamation plant in Balboa park to provide water for golf courses and other park requirements.

July 13, 1932, San Diego Union, 8:1. Thomas O’Scripps, general chairman, reports substantial contributions toward summer orchestra season in Balboa Park.

July 13, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 1:5. Lincoln Rogers, architect, files application of city manager in cause City Council dismisses Horace H. Esselystn.

July 15, 1932, San Diego Union, 6:1. First of summer symphony concerts next Tuesday dedicated to Miss Scripps.

July 17, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:5, 4:2-3. San Diego Zoo to appeal County tax assessment on grounds that the institution is not conducted for profit.

July 17, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 1:5-6, 2:5. Recreational provisions in Balboa Park prove daily that enjoyment loves company, by Myron Lustig (illus.).

July 17, 1932, San Diego Union, World Wide Features, 4:1. Symphony orchestra to open midsummer series Tuesday in Balboa Park.

July 18, 1932, San Diego Sun, 2:4. San Diego Zoo official seeks to halt County levy; letter to Supervisors asks Zoo be made tax free.

July 18, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 1:1. Sacred lotus blooms in park pond beneath Cabrillo Bridge, by Hal Johnson.

July 18, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 3:2-3. Boy Scouts’ swimming pool popular; open twice daily, forenoon and afternoon.

In answering a frequent question on why the pool is not available to all San Diego boys, scout officials say every boy from 12 to 18 years old may have all the wonderful privileges of the Indian Village by simply becoming a member of the scout troop nearest his home, or some other troop of his preference.

July 20, 1932, San Diego Union, 4:1. Park symphony enjoyed by John Citizen, by Myron Lustig.

July 24, 1932, San Diego Union, World-Wide Features, 4:1. Songs in “Hearts Desire” production reflect historical period in which play is laid.

July 27, 1932, San Diego Union, 6:2. Nino Marcelli presents delightful music in second of summer Balboa Park concerts.

July 31, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 3:4-5. Belle J. Benchley, San Diego Zoo manager, gets thrill from wild animal film.

July 31, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 4:2-3. Letter from H. K. Raymenton to his father Dr. W. H. Raymenton commenting on inadequate Natural History Museum in Paris.


August 3, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:4, 2:4-5. Ellen Browning Scripps passes away at La Jolla.

August 7, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 1:2, 12:1-2. Preliminary draft of proposed Charter for San Diego completed yesterday by Board of Freeholders after three months of labor.

August 7, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 1:5, 8:4-5. “Hearts Desire” opens at Stadium.

August 8, 1932, San Diego Union, 6:7. Park symphony orchestra to give popular program tomorrow night.

August 9, 1932, San Diego Union, 2:4. Large advance ticket sale for park concert.

August 11, 1932, San Diego Sun, 1:2-7. Fourteen candidates seek County Supervisor post from 1st District.

August 12, 1932, San Diego Union, 3:3-4. People, institutions share in $2,000,000 bequests made by Ellen Browning Scripps.

August 12, 1932, San Diego Union, 6:1. Kate O. Sessions tells history of trees at Lions’ meeting.

August 16, 1932, San Diego Sun, 1:1, 2:6-7. Balboa Park under city’s economy ax.

August 16, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:8. Council orders 20 percent cut in salaries, reductions will begin with Mayor; Police and Fire Departments included on taxpayers’ demand that this year’s rate be held at $2.15.

As a final resort to reduce the city budget to a level where it will permit a $2.15 tax rate and answering a strong demand by local business men the city council yesterday afternoon by a vote of four to three passed a resolution effecting a wage slash of 20 percent of all city employees.

The wage reduction, which will bring a $302,000 saving from the tentative budget submitted by A. V. Goeddel, city manager, also will be applied to the salaries of Mayor J. Forward, members of the council, city manager and others whose salaries legally are set up by the city charter. These latter reductions were made when the council, after passing the wage slash in clock-like precision, passed a series of resolutions requesting persons receiving law-fixed salaries to voluntarily accept a similar reduction. They all agreed to do so.

After passing the wage reduction measure, the council delved into the task of going through the budget estimates, item by item. But after setting up a special $3,000 (?) emergency fund in the budget of the water department, and then passing that motion in its entirely, adjournment was taken until 10 a.m. today.

It is expected that after today’s session, the budget will be returned to Manager Goeddel for revision and, after he returns it Thursday with the wage and other corrections, it probably will pass.

The four voting for the wage reduction were Mayor Forward and Councilman Dan Rossi, Charles Anderson and Al Bennett. Voting “no” were Councilman J.J. Russo, J.B. Blakiston and LeRoy Goodbody. Bennett introduced the measure, which will affect, among others, members of the police and fire departments.

Introduction of the wage-reducing measure was made by Bennett as soon as the council convened for its afternoon session, but it was not passed until there had been several ____ tilts between those opposing and favoring the resolution. During the mornings session of the council, which proved a stormy affair, as soon as the budget subject was brought in the open and before a throng which filled the council chamber to overflowing, a delegation of businessmen appeared and demanded the budget be lowered, even it if meant a drastic wage cut, to permit a $2.15 tax rate.

The 20 percent wage cut, according to Goeddel, will made a saving of $302,000 net to the city. Figured on the basis of last year’s wage scale, the saving would have been $478,000; Goeddel, however, said that in his tentative budget he already has affected a wage saving totaling $131,000 (?). Thus, this figure, coupled with the salary reduction, means the city’s tax bill for this year is reduced $488,000, as compared with last year’s, Goeddel pointed out.

In offering his motion to cut wages, Bennett said that if this did not reduce the budget enough to effect a $2.15 tax rate the balance should be taken from the various city departments.

. . .

Having disposed of the manner in which the budget was to be reduced, the council then turned to the various items in the budget with the view of reducing some of them if possible The only item considered yesterday was one for the water department, headed by H. N. Savage, hydraulic engineer.

. . .

Lane D. Webber, an officer of the First National Bank and spokesman for the businessmen, suggested that as a means of reducing the budget no second police court be established at this time and that in all probability it would become necessary to resort to reducing salaries of all city employees. As an alternative, if such becomes necessary, he suggested curtailing the activities or even closing some city departments, including the library, playgrounds, museums in the park, and others.

. . .

“The only way we can reduce salaries is to reduce the wage scale,” Goodbody put in. “The city manager can’t go ahead and do something in opposition to a city ordinance and the wage scale is set by ordinance.”

. . .

As the council adjourned yesterday, it seemed that with the salary cut having been taken care of most of the needed reduction, the way had been cleared for passage of a budget which will permit a much lower tax rate than the present tentative one of $2.59 (?), as called for in Goeddel’s original estimate.

August 17, 1932, San Diego Sun, 1:6, 7:1. Council waits for protests in park cuts.

August 17, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:8. Council slashes park items out of City’s budget; library, other departments also cut; total saving is increased to $482,186; Funds for Natural History, Serra, San Diego Museum, Fine Arts Gallery, Zoo and California Tower are eliminated.

Striking hard at many of the city’s cultural institutions in Balboa Park, the city council, in a move to reduce materially the city budget, yesterday withdrew its financial support from the Organ Pavilion, California Building, Zoological Garden, Fine Arts Gallery, Natural History Museum, San Diego Museum and Serra Museum

Besides voting not further to support these institutions, which for years have attracted thousands of visitors to San Diego, the council slashed operating estimates of many other city departments, including the library. When the day’s session ended, tabulations showed that yesterday alone the budget was cut $94,186.

Monday the council voted a 20 percent wage reduction for all city employees, which meant a saving of $302,000. This, when coupled yesterday’s reduction and previous savings made by A. V. Goeddel, city manager brings the total budget reduction to date to $482,186. To effect a $2.15 tax rate, the council must continue making reductions until the total slash is $807,000 (?). This it is expected to do by taking the required amount from various city departments which have not been considered so far in going through the budget item by item.

In withdrawing its support from park institutions, the council’s action means these places, long dear to many San Diegans, will be closed unless a plan can be devised whereby they will be supported by private subscriptions. The councilmen expressed themselves as personally opposed to the closing of park buildings, but maintained they had no alternative if the budget is to be lowered to a point permitting a $2.15 tax rate.

In each instance where the council withdrew financial support from institutions in Balboa Park it voted to maintain watchmen, both day and night, and to continue paying insurance on valuable articles now on display. No watchman was voted for Serra Museum.

Though the council denied an item of $_____ as the salary for Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart, city organist of many years, it did vote the salary for an organ caretaker-watchman and another expenditure of $____ for an organ tuner, the money in the latter item to be spent “when needed.”

Action in denying aid to the park institutions came as soon as the council started considering budget estimates of the park department.

“I move that funds asked for the operation of the organ pavilion in Balboa Park be stricken,” said Councilman J. J. Russo.

“I hate to see it, but I am afraid we shall have to do away with the organist,” answered Mayor Forward.

“The same also will have to apply to many of the other park places, which in the past we have kept open for the public.”

There was some minor discussion concerning the organ, the need of a watchman and the need for keeping the instrument in tune although it would not be used. At last the measure passed.

Then, in quick order, the council went through the other items concerning the park institutions, and one by one ordered them stricken out of the budget.

Here are the individual figures on what the city will save by closing the park attractions:

Organ Pavilion $4,523.00

California Building 8,717.00

Zoological Gardens 9,605.00

San Diego Museum 2,645.00

Fine Arts Gallery 6,270.00

Serra Museum 2,725.00

Natural History Museum 802.50

Minor maintenance 410.00

It was also voted to reduce by $188 the fund for maintaining the shoreline in La Jolla Torrey Pines Park.

Elimination of these items from the city budget also means that 26 persons will be thrown out of employment unless City Manager Goeddel can find use for their services elsewhere within the city government.

While considering the park department items of the budget, the council also took up the manner in which the municipal golf course is operated. Practically every councilman expressed himself as believing the cost is too high. Acting on this item was deferred at the request of Councilman Goodbody, who said he would make a personal investigation and report back to the council. The estimate for operating the golf course, was given as $16,750. Before leaving the park items it was voted to eliminate the annual salary of $800, paid to a tennis professional at Golden Hill playgrounds. It is not believed this action will mean closing the tennis courts.

When the council returned from its noon recess members were in the mood for additional reductions and started off the afternoon by practically eliminating what has been known as the street and trees division. This item was estimated at $11,278.50, but when the council finished its reductions the item stood at $2,500. Only a skeleton organization was left and the $2,500 will be used as needed by the city manager. Since there are no plans to plant additional trees this year, Councilman Russo wanted the entire item removed, but he was voted down.

Another saving of $981 (?) was made when telephone, telegraph was ordered reduced 20 percent after set ups for some of the institutions, already denied financial help, were voted out. Another park item to get the ax was one for insurance costing $2,285. This was reduced to $500 by doing away with compensation insurance, which would have been necessary if the park pavilion and other buildings were kept open. A matter of $400 for fuel for the park buildings also was eliminated.

The only increase yesterday was $900 for building repairs and other incidentals.

The next question discussed was that of food for the animals in the zoo,

“I’m not in favor of feeding dumb animals in the zoo when there are people going hungry,” shouted Russo. “Maybe we had better kill the animals and feed them to the hungry people, or kill the hungry people and feed them to the animals.”

With Russo answering a loud “no,” the original estimate of $10,720 was sliced to $5,000.

“Well we had to do something about those animals,” said the mayor after the action had been taken. “We could not let them loose on the streets.”

In finishing their pruning of estimates for the park division, council members saved $100 from an item listed for nursery stock and seeds.

Estimates for the cemetery division, listed at $22952.50, were accepted after $500 had been cut for the advertising fund and $408 eliminated for insurance, making another saving of $908.

Library instructed to cut 20 percent to effect a saving of approximately $12,000.

No reductions were made for the health department and planning commission.

Goeddel says day laborers will not receive a double cut.

Civil Service Commission instructed to make the minimum in all wage brackets lower by 20 percent than at present

The first thing to be considered at the next session will be the department of public works.

August 17, 1932, San Diego Union, 2:5. “Symphony night” program honors John D. Spreckels.

August 17, 1932, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Think It Over.

August 17, 1932, San Diego Union, 5:1. Floral Association to hold annual bloom exhibit Saturday, Sunday in Balboa Park.

August 20, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 1:1. Vivian Conway, president University Women’s Club, fears civic loss through economy at park expense.

August 21, 1932, San Diego Union, 4:1. State Federation to picnic today in Pepper Grove.

August 21, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 1:8, 11:8. Flower Show attracts throngs at Balboa Park.

August 21, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 11:1. President Wegeforth criticizes action in elimination of finances for Zoo; care of animals problem even if funds withheld.

Dr. Harry N. Wegeforth, president of the Zoological Society, made strenuous objection to action of the city council in eliminating the municipal appropriation toward upkeep of the San Diego Zoo.

The Zoo is faced with closing if the appropriation is withheld, he said, yet closing the zoo would not solve the problem. The animals still would have to be cared for since they could not immediately be sold and all of them hardly could be shipped for temporary care at other zoos.

The Zoo is one of the city’s greatest advertising assets, Dr. Wegeforth asserts, and he adds that it would not be good business to force it to close. His statement is as follows:

“Action of the city council Tuesday in cutting off support of all institutions in Balboa Park has, so far as the Zoological Garden, come down to the question whether the people of San Diego wish to keep their famous zoo or have it destroyed by political maneuvers. From the number of telephone and personal calls asking what it will mean to the zoo, the management cannot feel that the people approve of the latter course. In the first place, the people have expressed on their separate occasions their intention of supporting the zoo and taking it out of politics by a special tax appropriation. It was only on being assured that the general provision in the charter for all the institutions active in the park included the Zoo that they were willing to vote for the last charter as presented. And it clearly was not the purpose of the charter committee to cut off these institutions entirely from public support.

“The Zoo in unlike other institutions of scientific and educational nature and the closing of the zoo does not even decrease the actual expense of operation, for with all of the others, no matter how deplorable such action would be from the standpoint of community service and public interest, they could be closed and the work stopped. It could at best be only a small part of the activity at the Zoo that could be stopped. The greatest expense at the Zoo is that of caring for the animals. Even if they were all offered for sale, consummation could not be completed for a period of two years or more, and then only at great sacrifice of actual value, for all the zoos are curtailing their work and buying only the rarest specimens at great bargains.

“Some of the animals might be sent east to some of the large zoos to be cared for and exhibited until such time as the Zoo again could be in a position to care for them. This would be a great risk, especially at this time of year, as housing and weather conditions are so different and many of the eastern zoos each year lose their choicest specimens through colds and pneumonia. There is no western zoo equipped to handle them as shown by the death by pneumonia last year of the great orang at San Francisco. Yet this is one of the alternatives the Zoo is facing if this action passes in the final adoption of the budget.

“The research laboratory, being supported largely by the county and state, can be kept open for the work of the poultry interests and cattlemen, but the educational program will be omitted entirely. This work of bringing children from all of the public schools to the Zoo was made possible by the donation of buses for the work by Miss Anne Zimmerman, who could not bear to know that many poor children of San Diego did not have carfare to come to the Zoo, either alone or with their classes. The buses made it possible for all, not only the children from the schools, but from the children’s home, neighborhood house and all of the public institutions for unfortunate children.

“This cutting off of the tax appropriation also means that between 10,000 and 15,000 young trees, planted in the Zoo in the last five years, are jeopardized. Most of the older one of drought-resisting varieties probably will stand the lack of care, but the younger ones, and all of the rarer ones recently planted, many of them the gift of the Los Angeles Department of Parks, will go. But his, like the closing of class work, is not an irreparable loss, although it is to be lamented.

“Possibly one of the outstanding facts that the city council did not take into consideration is the fact that this drastic action means laying off 15 employees, or nearly half of the people employed at the Zoo. Some of them may not be able to carry on, or even get employment, but the majority, [who] have received little more than sufficient to live upon, will, if employment does not offer, soon be forced to appeal for public support to live, and most of them have dependents.

“The register shows that more than 200,000 persons visit the Zoological Garden of San Diego, more than half of whom pay admission, leaving at the Zoo alone $25,000, every cent of which is spent here in the community for to this many ______________ operating costs of the Zoo. In addition to this, many of these people, who come only to see Balboa Park, spend money at hotels and eating places. Constantly we have people stop and ask questions about the Zoo who tell use they would go straight from Agua Caliente to Los Angeles except that they stopped to see the Zoo. The visitors’ register is filled with names of persons from all over the world, and while everyone does not register, a fair percentage do of those who visit the Zoo. Page after page will show that more than 80 percent are out of town people. There are more out of town cars parked in front of the zoo than any other place of amusement in San Diego county. Actual counts made through both summer and winter months have proven this many times.

“In advertising the community to the world, in entertaining out of town visitors, and in supplying interest, pleasure and culture to our own citizens, the greatest single factor is Balboa Park and the institutions it contains. Every convention programs two things, a visit to the Zoo and to Agua Caliente. Some of our citizens have found out when away what the Zoo means to the community. Spectacular instances of this fact are the reputation Mr. Abbott found it enjoyed in London, and the surprise of former Mayor Austin when he heard it praised extravagantly at a dinner in Cincinnati.”

August 21, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 11;4-5. Letters from readers regarding park cuts.

August 21, 1932, San Diego Union, World-Wide Features, 7:1-8. Death brings Ellen Scripps closer to San Diego, by Myron Lustig.

August 22, 1932, San Diego Union, 2:1. State Societies renew old days at Pepper Grove picnic.

August 22, 1932, San Diego Union, 7:1. Scouts prepare for Jamboree in Indian Village September 23; three-ring circus idea to be used in program showing Boy’s own projects.

The jamboree’s purpose is to exemplify through demonstration some of the activities in which the Boy Scouts are engaged and to portray the value of the scout program as a citizenship training, character building activity.

August 22, 1932, San Diego Union, 7:1. Boy Scouts to take life-saving test tomorrow and those who are successful will receive certificates as Red Cross life guards.

August 22, 1932, San Diego Union, 7:3. Marcelli to mingle old masters with popular music; announces varied program for concluding park symphony concert next Tuesday evening in Balboa Park.

Financial success of the season largely hinges upon having a large ticket sale for this concert.

August 22, 1932, San Diego Union, 7:4-5. Letter from James T. Porter, chairman San Diego Art Guild, objecting to park cuts.

August 23, 1932, San Diego Sun, II, 1:3-4. Tim, San Diego Zoo’s 200 pound bear, is killed after escape from grotto.

August 23, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:5, 3:3-4. City Council sets city tax rate at $2.35; partial restoration possible to parks; final action scheduled for today.

August 23, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:6, 2:4. Adventure leads to death as crowd looks on; Tim, a 200-pound bear, clears wall of grotto and explores San Diego Zoo; slain to prevent any harm (illus.).

August 24, 1932, San Diego Union, 2:6. Concert brings park series to brilliant close.

August 25, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:8, 2:3. Supervisors cut allowances for Natural History Society, Zoological Society.

August 25, 1932, San Diego Union, 7:6-8. Letters regarding park cuts.

August 26, 1932, San Diego Union, 8:4-5. Letter from Belle J. Benchley citing new facts against curbing funds for San Diego Zoo.

August 26, 1932, San Diego Union, 10:3. Organ concerts to be curtailed, but not dropped; will be heard three days weekly; other institutions stay open, says City Manager Goeddel.

Following a conference with park officials, A. V. Goeddel city manager, announced yesterday that only the daily free organ recitals in Balboa Park will be affected materially by the council’s recent slashing of budget estimates for the city’s cultural institutions. In the future, Goeddel said, the organ recitals will be head only three days weekly instead of daily. So evenly has Goeddel distributed funds for the park institutions that all now can remain open for the entire year.

In some instances the park attractions have been reduced, it was said. Workers in some of the institutions have been reduced to half time and a few dropped from the payroll. One saving of $2,000 was made for the Zoological Society when the council agreed to cancel the city’s share of taxes due by this organization. The county, it is understood, will remit $4,000 in taxes, or a total saving of $6,000 in taxes alone.

The California Building, San Diego Museum and Fine Arts Gallery also will remain open under the new arrangement of financing, it was agreed between Goeddel, John G. Morley, park director, and Arthur R. Hill, executive secretary, though there may be a curtailment of hours in which they will be open to the public. Provision also will be made for keeping open the Serra Museum at Old Town, Goeddel said.

The next session of the council is scheduled for 10 a.m. tomorrow when it will hear the first reading of the new appropriation ordinance. It is expected to be passed then by a four to three vote and a similar vote when it comes up for final reading Monday morning.

August 27, 1932, San Diego Union, 10:3. Outlook for San Diego Zoo is dark as City Council cuts allowance; secretary says food costs $1,000 a month; allotments from city $3,304 for year.

August 28, 1932, Los Angeles Times, IV, 10:1-2. San Diego Zoo inmates to be sold for taxes; collector will conduct auction to avoid having to pay $6,354 bill himself.

San Diego, August 27. County Tax Collector James H. Johnson today served notice of seizure of the San Diego Zoo and set Tuesday as the date for sale by auction of all birds, animals and reptiles at the institution. The sale was ordered by Johnson in default of $6,354 in delinquent taxes, the Tax Collector revealed.

Johnson this year, for the first time in the zoo’s history, assessed the inmates as personal property. The County Board of Supervisors voted to donate the county’s share of the tax bill, but complete payment was later blocked by refusal of the City Council to appropriate the balance.

“I don’t know what we can do,” Mrs. Belle Benchley, manger of the zoo, said today. “Mr. Johnson says he has to have the money, but we haven’t got it. That’s all there is to it.”

Johnson explained his actions by stating that “political enemies” might be plotting to make him personally pay the zoo tax in the event it is not collected.

“I’m going to conduct the auction myself,” Johnson stated. “I’ll sell ‘em right in the cages until I have enough money to pay the tax bill. I’ll let the buyer worry about coming and taking his purchase away with him.”

Johnson, when asked it he will postpone the sale until the tax money can be raised, stated that he will do that only in the event that the District Attorney will give him a letter exonerating him from personal liability in the event payment is defaulted.

August 28, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:6, 14:2-4. City tax rate raised after story session; play slash reduced by 6 to 1 votes; levy $2.49.

August 29, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:5. EDITORIAL: The Primary . . . The Sun has endorsed U. S. Grant for County Supervisor in the First District.

August 29, 1932, San Diego Union, 7:1. Horticulture Called Chief Charm of Park

Editor: I concede that the organ, the art gallery, the museum and the birds of the zoo are valuable assets for our park — first for our citizens and secondly for visitors.

All these features are obtainable in many other cities of the United States and they are not the real feature of our park. The trees and shrubbery in general, its central location in the city, and out mild climate to be enjoyed every day of the year make the park that our citizens and our visitors enjoy and appreciate the most. It is an asset that other cities do not duplicate, though many have very beautiful parks.

The development of the park horticulturally is the real necessity. It is possible to produce what cannot be duplicated in the United States or in Great Britain and Europe. Our park could be a school in horticulture. Many of the workmen should be young men interested and ambitious in horticulture. There is one such now on the force.

Kew gardens and many of the European and English parks have such opportunities for working students. Our university courses in horticulture give a very limited time for practical work. The best trained men horticulturally are those who have had practical working experience and, in general, our best gardeners are those who have been trained abroad.

Our park should have a large allowance for its development horticulturally and if necessary to economize do so on those features that are not so individually a San Diego product.

There have been very few donations for its horticultural development. There should be many more and it is to be hoped that the necessity for such endowments will be realized by our citizens and every taxpayer. I think there was $20,000 for a lion’s cage and den and $10,000 for a bear’s cage and den.

Think of the perpetual floral beauty such sums would have created. The small bear that was able to climb out for this freedom this past week was shot.


Grand Avenue, Pacific Beach.

August 29, 1932, San Diego Union, 8:5. Plunge schedule will be changed.

Swimming and life saving activities in the Indian Village plunge continue to interest San Diego Boy Scouts keenly. The local chapter of the American Red Cross has aided greatly in making the programs successful.

August 29, 1932, San Diego Union, 8:6. Court of Honor set for Friday; all troops who are to receive awards will be reviewed before the judges’ stand; American Automobile Club of Southern California will present “anti-puncture” award to troop gathering the largest number of “puncture pests.”

August 30, 1932, Los Angeles Times. San Diego city budget adopted after threat.

San Diego, August 29. The threat of a bankrupt city and charges of malfeasance in office were held responsible today for the final passage and adoption of a budget calling for a tax rate of $2.49 after the City Council bolted its final budget session.

For nearly thirty minutes the possibility of a failure to pass the annual appropriation and tax-rate ordinance loomed as Councilmen bitterly reviewed their dissatisfaction with each other and the “comprise” city budget.

The resulting deadlock was broken by the dramatic declaration of assistant City Attorney Daniel that “if by an overt act the Council let the last day for adopting these measures go by, it will amount to malfeasance in officer and ground for prompt court action for removal from office.”

The deadlock resulted when Councilman Anderson, angered by an announcement from Councilmen Russo and Blakiston that they would not vote for the measure, declared he was “just about in the frame of mind to let the appropriation ordinance go and not have any taxes.” The Council decided on a recess and went into corners in an effort to settle the matter.

When they reconvened, Daniel made his announcement.

A vote was forced and the appropriation measure passed. The tax rate ordinance received the single negative vote of Mayor Forward.

August 30, 1932, Los Angles Times. Battle looms on Zoo auction; San Diego City Council acts to block sale; assessor to face police if he carries out threat; action on unpaid tax still remains in doubt.

San Diego, August 29. Policemen and a barrage or court writs were ordered to the rescue of the animals of the San Diego Zoo by the City Council late today.

Alarmed over the announcement of County Assessor James H. Johnson that he will sell the animals tomorrow unless the zoo officials pay a personal property tax bill on them, the Councilmen took vigorous action.

At the suggestion of Councilmen Anderson and Russo, the Council voted to instruct City Manager Goeddel to have policemen on guard at the zoo tomorrow to “toss” Johnson out of the zoo if he attempts the sale.

The City Attorney also was instructed “to take whatever action is necessary” to prevent Johnson from molesting the animals. Goeddel recommended to the Council earlier in the day that they appropriate from the reserve fund the $2,000 necessary to pay the city’s share of the tax bill. Deputy City Attorney Daniel, however, warned the Council it would be inadvisable to “recognize Johnson’s very doubtful right to tax the animals,” on the theory that the zoo inmates might belong to the city and, as a result, be untaxable.

Councilmen Anderson was the first to suggest the presence of policemen at the zoo tomorrow as a protection against Johnson’s threat personally to conduct an auction sale of the animals.

Johnson, meanwhile, refused to make any further statement regarding the situation which came to the attention of startled San Diegans Saturday when the Tax Assessor posted a notice of the sale by auction of the zoo animals as forfeit for an unpaid tax bill of $6,435 [sic]

Johnson declared he was forced into the sale because “political enemies” might try to make him personally responsible for the bill if it were not collected.

August 30, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:4-5, 2:3-4. If assessor James Hervey Johnson thinks he is going to sell the zoo animals at auction this afternoon, he is due for the surprise of his life.

August 31, 1932, Los Angeles Times. San Diego Zoo auction failed to find buyer; assessor, unable to sell either animals or property, gives them to State for tax.

San Diego, August 30. The world-famous San Diego Zoo was sold subject to redemption to the State for $6,354 in delinquent taxes by Tax Assessor James H. Johnson, at public auction, this afternoon. Johnson declared the zoo State property after he had pleaded vainly for half an hour in an effort to get someone in a crowd of 200 curious persons to purchase the $200,000 institution for the amount of the tax bill.

Contrary to preliminary fireworks, the auction sale was carried out without interruption on the part of city police ordered to the scene by the City Council yesterday to “toss” Johnson from the zoo grounds should he attempt to hold the sale.

Police, instead, were under orders to allow Johnson to proceed but to stop any probably buyer from taking his purchase from the grounds. Johnson, in company with two deputy sheriffs, arrived at the zoo at 2 o’clock and set up a small table in front of the administration building.

Taking a small gavel from his pocket, he pounded the table and started a preliminary “sales talk.”

“This is the world-famous zoo,” Johnson told the gathering. “It contains some of the finest animal specimens in the world. You can’t make any mistake if you buy one of these fine animals this afternoon.”

The crowd maintained a perfect silence.

“Anyone want an animal?” Johnson urged. No one offered to buy any of the zoo’s items.

“All right,” Johnson announced, “if no one wants an animal than I now offer this stock and all its stock and equipment for sale for the amount of $6,354.52 plus a $2 seizure fee and a 75-cent mileage fee for my car.”

Unimpressed by the bargain, the crowd still remained silent. “Don’t you want this fine zoo?” Johnson asked, pointing his finger at a man nearby.

“No, sir,” the man answered. “I just stopped by to see that all the noise was about. I don’t think I need a zoo.”

Johnson then delivered a short political address which, likewise, failed to dispose of the zoo property.

At the end of a half-hour of vain endeavor, he struck a final blow with his gavel and announced the zoo State property and redeemable for the amount of taxes.

It is considered probable by city officials that the tax bill will soon be met by the City Council which so fare has failed to appropriate the city’s share of the tax. The County Board of Supervisors voted $4,000 toward the sum last week, leaving the remainder of the obligation up to the city.

Meanwhile, the City Attorney’s office is endeavoring to obtain a ruling on the matter, announcing its dissatisfaction with Johnson’s classification of the zoo inmates as personal property.

Johnson declared the zoo up for auction last Saturday, stating that he was forced to collect the tax immediately rather than run the risk of having personally to assume responsibility for the amount of the bill.

Webb declared that the State would gain final title after five years and only then if the zoo tax was still unpaid. The tax claim of the State is considered merely a lien on the property, Webb said.

Meanwhile, the city has three possible channels of action to follow in its efforts to bring formal title back to the incorporated institution. It can vote its share of the tax bill; it can claim the auction illegal because it was held on an election day, a legal holiday; or it can claim the animals at the zoo are exempt from personal property taxation. The City Attorney’s office declared itself busy today uncovering the best line of action.

August 31, 1932, San Diego Sun, 1:7-8, 3:2-4. Vote results.

August 31, 1932, San Diego Sun, 1:1, 3:1-2. Assessor sells San Diego Zoo to State.

August 31, 1932, San Diego Sun, 6:3. Letter from L. A. Thompson regarding Balboa Park.

We dare not bear the responsibility of retrograding. San Diego’s Balboa Park is a part of the very life of the county and should be aided.

August 31, 1932, San Diego Sun, II, 1:3. Dr. Stewart terminates organ solos; victim of budget.

August 31, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. Grant in 1st District and Aul in 3rd District top Supervisor list.

Grant 2,012

Hastings 1,737

E C Ryan 1,086

D C Collier 571

C D Church 442

August 31, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:6, 5:1. City fails to forbid San Diego Zoo tax sale; County Assessor declares property sold to State under penalty process for delinquent return.

August 31, 1932, San Diego Union, 3:3-4. Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart, city organist for 17 years, will play his last official recital in Balboa Park today, by Myron Lustig.


September 1, 1932, Los Angeles Times, 10:5-6. San Diego to continue operation of city Zoo.

San Diego, August 31. The status of the San Diego Zoo will remain entirely unaffected by its new position as a theoretical State property, it was declared today by Attorney General U. S. Webb in advice received here from San Francisco. His statement that the zoo will continue operation under the same management and the State could not gain legal title until five years had passed, came as cheering news to many San Diegans who, since Tax Assessor James H. Johnson’s action of yesterday ‘giving the zoo to the State” had expressed concern over the institution’s fate.

District Attorney Whalen declared the sale of the zoo to the State was illegal, because Johnson waited to long.

Johnson declared the zoo State property after he made an unsuccessful attempt to auction the $2,000,000 institution off to any bargain-hunting passer-by who had the $6,358.52 necessary to pay the personal property tax levied for the first time this year.

September 1, 1932, Los Angeles Times, 10:3-4. Organist closes long career; Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart plans farewell concert at San Diego; after more than seventeen years ending work of seven decades.

San Diego, August 31. Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart, who for the past seventeen and one-half years has presided almost daily at the great outdoor organ in Balboa Park, terminated a musical career of seven decades when he played a farewell program at the park organ and quietly entrained for San Francisco where, with his daughter, he plans to spend the last days of his life.

Dr. Stewart, whose ability at the organ has gained him the rating of a master, and who has been decorated by the church for his contributions to sacred music, was forced to abandon his recitals after the city, as an economy move, limited the organ budget to the bare necessities of upkeep and tuning.

Dr. Stewart came to San Diego as official organist during the Panama-California Exposition in 1915 and has remained since that time. His compositions encompass almost every department of music. A collection of his published works fills sixteen volumes at the local library. He was decorated commander of the Order of the Holy Sepulcher by Pope Pius XI in 19__ in recognition of his sacred compositions.

September 1, 1932, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Hervey Johnson’s Auction

THE SAN DIEGO ZOO, finest in the west, is sold to the state of California for delinquent taxes, subject to redemption. The sale was accomplished by an elected official of San Diego county, presumably acting for the benefit of the electorate which gave him office.

Now that the boasts, threats, ridicule and recriminations stimulated by the episode have somewhat decided, it might be well to inquire what benefit to the taxpayer has been wrought by this spectacular action of the taxpayer’s elected official.

Assessor Johnson invoked laws designed to permit the state and county to enforce collection of taxes. In this particular case, the device may work or it may not. Whether it works or whether it fails to work, we cannot see where a dime of profit accrues to the treasury of San Diego county or the city of San Diego. And as to the people of San Diego — the people, their tourist visitors, and the thousands of San Diego children who have been taught to regard the zoo as peculiarly there own — certainly nothing but harm results.

If the county collects taxes from the Zoological Society, it merely collects taxes from itself. If it fails to collect taxes from the society, and by invoking legal technicalities clouds the society’s title to property administered always for the public benefit, it succeeds only in complicating the zoo administration with a tangle of legalistic red tape. In neither case does the treasury profit.

The money cost of Mr. Johnson’s escapade — the cost of the time, energy and confusion expended upon this enterprise — the taxpayer must bear. The taxpayer gets no nourishment — quite the reverse. Whether it will profit Assessor James Hervey Johnson, time alone will tell.

September 1, 1932, San Diego Union, B-1:2-3, 8:5. Farewell recital brings ovation to Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart, bidding adieu at 78 to great Balboa Park Organ.

September 3, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 3:3. Daniel L. Bissel, city consulting engineer, urges irrigation-reclamation project; would save city $43,240 annually; Ed W. Beale, Health Department Chief, assets proper treatment of city sewage would make water fit for irrigation.

September 4, 1932, San Diego Union, II. 1:7. Dr. Stewart to resume park organ recitals; has agreed on a salary compromise whereby he will be paid $200 a month for three recitals a week.

September 4, 1932, San Diego Union, 7:1. EDITORIAL: Dr. Stewart.

September 9, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:4, 10:4. San Diego Zoo asks change in Charter for 2-cent tax levy; Council requested in letter to place proposed amendment on ballot November 8.

September 10, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:2. State refuses to accept San Diego Zoo inhabitants as tax forfeitures; California Board approves seizure as legal action but lacks provision for wild animal dealing.

September 10, 1932, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: “Save the Park”

“RESOLVED: That we want Balboa Park and its civic institutions maintained efficiently, adequately and liberally for all time to come.”

Such a resolution, if submitted to the people of San Diego at a legal election, would be passed by an overwhelming affirmative. That is certainly true today. We have never known of a time when it was not true. And a formal vote to that effect might have some influence in protecting the park institutions from sporadic political raids.

As long as the park institutions remain a convenient “goat” for official publicity hunters and short-sighted political “economy drives,” we are going to have politics rampant in the administration of one of the city’s outstanding assets, and we are going to have the park institutions forced into politics to fight for their lives.

At the present time, it would be a civic benefit if the zoo, the museums, the art gallery, and every related interest could form a strong political machine. The chorus of protest against rampant budget-cutting shows that the people do not want the great and many-sided asset ruined. A machine representing the park institutions would serve the obvious popular demand. But it is obvious we do not want a “Balboa Park machine: as a permanent feature of our municipal policies.

It is a civic duty, and a duty of all the people, to declare as directly and vigorously as possible that they want the park freed from politics. That declaration ought to be made and repeated until it sinks deep into the consciousness of every man who hold office, or is ever likely to hold office, in San Diego. Until this declaration is made, and made to stick, the real cost of the park will not be in taxes, but in recurrent squabbles.

September 10, 1932, San Diego Union, 5:3-4. Zoo will sell 600 specimens as forced economy ax falls.

More than 600 animals, birds and reptiles in the collections of the San Diego Zoo will be disposed of beginning November 1 in an effort to pay for the feed of the 1600 remaining species, it was announced last night by Dr. Harry Wegeforth.

Plans for maintaining the zoo on the reduced appropriation resulting from withdrawal of support of the city are well under way, said Wegeforth, president of the Zoological Society.

“We will start on our common stock when it becomes necessary to begin the disposal. Deer, seals and monkeys will go first. We are planning to release our herd of elk in the mountains if we can obtain permission of the state.”

Aviaries will be reduced and the snake house, renowned for its large collection of reptiles, will be closed because of the expense of heating, Wegeforth said.

It is hoped by zoo officials that by making the cuts in the common stock, the valuable animals of the zoo, which cannot be replaced, will be maintained at the $8,000 appropriation made by the county.

Fourteen employees of the zoo, including three “animal men,” a gardener, truckman and cleanup men and two teachers who were kept at the zoo to instruct school children, were laid off September 1, Wegeforth said.

“These layoffs will mean that the work of the zoo practically will cease,” he said. “All repairs will be stopped, and we will have barely enough men left to care for the 1500 specimens that we hope to retain.

“In other years we have brought 11,000 school children to the zoo in buses annually. They have been children who, for the most part, were unable to pay their own way. They were taken around by the two teachers and given valuable instruction on the lives of animals. That work already has been stopped entirely.

“Under the present setup we have only 12 employees left. Eight of them care for the animals. It is manifestly impossible for those eight men to tend the large number of animals that we now have. It is also manifestly impossible for use to feed the large number of animals that we have now on the present appropriation. We would need at least $12,000 more to keep the zoo intact.

“We are taking care of all the animals now, our keepers working days, nights and Sundays and taking the feed money from appropriations previously made to pay bills to local merchants. We began economizing last year by exchanging animals that were expensive to feed for birds and other specimens that cost less to maintain. Now it looks as though the 16 years’ work the Zoological Society has devoted to making San Diego’s zoo one of the largest and best in the world, will be wiped out in a few months. When the disposal plan is put into operation, it will reduce the zoo into the ranks of many other smaller ones over the country.”

September 11, 1932, San Diego Union, 3:1. County Attorney will sue San Diego Zoo if City doesn’t pay county taxes on personal property of the San Diego Zoo.

September 11, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 1:8. Russo demands Wegeforth explanation; says $1,000 a week enough to run San Diego Zoo; seeks reason for announced plan by Society head to sell 600 specimens; sets “hearing” for tomorrow.

September 13, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:7, 1:2-3. Council votes block special Zoo tax; four members refuse order for election to authorize two-cent assessment.

Although the city council yesterday refused to call a special election November __ to vote on a two-cent tax levy for the zoo, members individually announced that the zoo’s usefulness is not destroyed and would see that appropriations adequate to maintain a satisfactory exhibit are provided.

In line with these announcements, the council directed that an audit be made of the zoo’s books to determine its requirements, than an inventory of its animals be made and a budget setup for its needs be prepared. Work on these orders to start this morning.

Dr. Harry Wegeforth, head of the zoological society, said it was his belief that the zoo animals and properties belong to the city of San Diego and that the society is merely acting as an administrative trustee. He said if it is necessary to go through an legal process to further secure the city’s title to the zoo he felt the society was more than willing to assist.

Wegeforth urged the council to submit the two-cent special tax levy at the November 8 general election. The council was told that it would cost $700 for printing ballots and the like even if the county clerk mailed sample ballots along with the general election literature. In addition, Clerk Wright said it probably would be necessary to pay the election officers $1 a day each, which would bring the cost of the special election to about $2,000.

Wegeforth held that the zoo’s security could better be served by the special tax levy than by any other means, stating that the institution has world-wide fame and attracts the best efforts of eminent scientists and explorers, who have brought specimens to the zoo, would be much exercised if these animals had to be sold, Wegeforth said.

He presented a financial statement indicating that the zoo would have to practice the most rigid economies and curtail educational and other services under the $10,400 the council has allowed. He hat first estimated the council allowance at $8,300, but Manager Goeddel said the higher figure was correct. The city, Wegeforth said, has in the past paid only a fraction of the zoo’s actual operation cost, the remainder being defrayed by membership dues in the zoological society and admission charges. He estimated that last year more than $60,000 was spent to run the zoo while the city at that time allowed $26,000. The present allowance from city and county, together with other income, will give the zoo about $43,000 on which to operate, Wegeforth said.

Fourteen employees were laid off September 1 for economy reasons, the zoo head added.

Councilman Russo said he saw no reason why the zoo shouldn’t take a budget cut the same as other city departments had to, while Councilman Goodbody said the cut from $26,000 last year to $10,000 this year seemed out of proportion to other slashes made.

There was some discussion on the will of the people in regard to the two-cent special tax. Wegeforth held that the people by past voting had favored the idea. Russo and Councilman Bennett argued that the people in voting the new charter which eliminated the levy, might have changed their minds. Wegeforth said the best way to determine this would be to hold an election.

The zoo can operate on $1,000 a week, Wegeforth said, which would mean that another $7,000 would be needed to run this year.

Councilman Russo objected to calling the election for the two-cent levy on the grounds that it would create the impression that the zoo could not get money from the council. At this juncture, P. F. O’Rourke, local attorney, asked that Manager Goeddel take over the zoo, challenging the right of the city to allow the zoological society to act as trustees. Gilmore Tillman, deputy city attorney, upheld the society’s right to so operate if the council desired.

Wayne Compton, another local attorney, urged the council to submit the special tax proposition to a vote to determined the will of the people.

Councilman Bennett said he would like an audit of the zoo expenses and income to determine how much it needed to operate and how much is available. Councilman Rossi amended the motion to include a check on the animals, holding that too many of one kind of animal might be superfluous.

Councilman Anderson suggested that any legal steps necessary to clear the zoo be taken and Dr. Wegeforth agreed. Bennett’s motion then was unanimously adopted.

Referring to a signed statement that the Zoological society owns the animals, Dr. Wegeforth said this had been looked on by society officials merely as a designation that the animals and property mentioned were in the zoo. It is on this document that Assessor James Hervey Johnson has based his case for personal property taxes on the zoo, it was said.

The assessor’s auditors came up and looked over the zoo and Mrs. Benchley, secretary, signed the list, Wegeforth said.

Councilman Goodbody moved that the special tax levy be submitted to the people to find out the desires of the citizens, he said. Councilman Blakiston seconded, on the same grounds. Bennett announced opposition, but said he was willing to make appropriations necessary to maintain a satisfactory zoo exhibit.

Rossi expressed fear that other city departments next would ask special tax levies if the zoo got one, and Russo urged that the election be postponed to the spring primary next year to save the $2,000 expense. He said the amendment, if adopted at that time, would become effective as soon as if adopted in November. He felt the council would be severely criticized if it appropriated money for the election now and promised to vote for the submission of the proposition next year. Russo said he was willing to see that the zoo got enough to operate without material curtailments.

The move for the election November 8 was voted down, Russo, Bennett and Rossi overwhelming Blakiston and Goodbody.

The zoo also came under attention of the board of supervisors yesterday. First there was a communication from H. C. Steinmetz, member of the State College faculty, protesting against reduction of budget allowances for the zoo. He said the research work had untold value to all branches of animal husbandry.

Another communication from R. A. Whitney, veterinary and former member of the zoo staff, protested against the very activities that Steinmetz lauded.

Whitney said the zoo is doing work that veterinarians should be paid to do. This is done, he charged, for a certain clientele, and is of benefit only to persons getting the service and is of a sort that could not be classified as educational or a research type.

September 16, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:7-8. $12,000 judgment upheld for Plaza tree victim.

September 18, 1932, San Diego Union, 4:5. City Charter League opposes special zoo tax levy.

September 19, 1932, San Diego Union, 8:8. Yorick Players offer “Midsummer Night’s Dream” at two outdoor performances next Friday and Saturday nights in Court of Honor, east of lily pond in Balboa Park.

September 24, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 3:7. Yorick Players in park triumph.

September 25, 1932, San Diego Union, 6:5. Auditors show San Diego Zoo costs exceed income.

September 25, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 1:2. Sciots’ concert in park today at organ to aid needy pupils.


October 2, 1932, San Diego Union, 9:3. Club will build new shuffleboard court adjoining the six courts operated by the club in Balboa Park; members will pay for the courts.

October 9, 1932, San Diego Union, 1, 2. San Diego gets $70,000 play center; plunge nears completion in big San Diego park project; other recreation facilities rapidly being installed; program under $300,000 bond issue fulfills dream.

The oft-berated depression has accomplished one new step in carrying to conclusion the intricate Nolen plan of city development that a decade of prosperous years was unable to bring about — the building of a swimming pool and recreation center at the foot of Texas Street in Balboa Park.

Construction of the $70,000 project is nearing completion.

The swimming pool, one of the largest on the Pacific coast, is expected to be finished this month. But baseball diamonds, tennis courts, roque and shuffleboard facilities and landscaping probably will not be completed until about Christmas, construction officials estimated yesterday.

City councilmen expressed the opinion that, although the pool will be completed soon, it will not be opened until spring

For years, plans for the recreation center have been under discussion. Funds, however, were not available until last year, when the city voted a $300,000 bond issue for relief of the unemployed. An appropriation of $70,000 was included for the recreation center and $100,000 to turf the municipal golf course.

The barren “hogs-back,” on which the recreation center is located, had, up to that time, remained in practically the same condition as it was when Cabrillo sailed into San Diego bay. When Balboa Park was created, the northeast section was left for “future development.”

The “hogs-back” was covered with short, ugly brush. Scores of workers were started on the job with shovels and axes and the brush was uprooted and the uneven soil leveled.

The main entrance to the recreation center will be from Texas Street, south from University Avenue. Directly across the end of Texas Street, a landscape entrance to the swimming pool will be arranged. Parking space will be provided along a short roadway, which is now being constructed.

The swimming pool, which is built of white tile, is out of doors and is enclosed by an eight-foot iron-wire fence. The pool is 131 feet long and 85 feet wide, nearly as large as the Olympic Games pool in Los Angeles. It ranges in depth from two and one-half to nine feet.

Just west of the pool, there is a large building which will house dressing rooms, a lunch stand and offices of the recreation center. It is in what is known as Spanish-type architecture, a low cement building topped with red tile decorated with colored tiles laid in the floor and walls. The floor of the building and walks around the pool are made of artificial tile blocks.

Across a path to the west of the building is cleared space where five tennis courts are to be constructed soon. Southward, about 100 yards, more cleaning and leveling is being done where indoor baseball and baseball diamonds are to be placed.

More than 60 acres of land are available for eventual development, as it is laid out on the Nolen plan. When more funds become available, a clubhouse and indoor recreation center are to be erected in the corner of the plot, nearest Texas Street.

Authority over the new facilities will be divided. The swimming pool will be under the jurisdiction of the recreation department, or city playground department, headed by W. A. Kearns. A charge, sufficient to pay upkeep expenses of the pool, will be made, but the amount has not been decided upon yet.

The other facilities will be handled by the park department, under the direction of John Morley, superintendent of parks. Plans for dedication ceremonies are being made by members of the North Park Business Association, headed by William Miller, president. A detailed program will be announced later.

Dressing room facilities for a daily crowd of 1,000 persons have been provided. A modern filtration plant, including three large filters, will circulate the 380,000 gallons of water, the capacity of the pool, in eight hours. A wading pool and sand area have been constructed beside the swimming pool, and they will be open to children free.

It is believed that the revenue from the users of the pool and golf course will create a fund large enough to retire the parts of the bond used in the construction work before they reach maturity.

October 9, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 2:3. Natural History Museum Building Officially Completed.

The new building of the Natural History Museum in Balboa Park officially is completed, A. V. Goeddel, city manager, informed the Council yesterday.

He asked the Council to authorize the filing of the certificate of completion with the county recorder, showing the date of completion as October 5.

October 18, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 10:3-4. Council votes additional $5,000 for operation of Zoo this year.

The City Council yesterday appropriated $5,000 additional for the zoo operation this year after turning down a move to give $8,546.40, an amount held by the Park Board and Zoo to be the minimum with which the Zoo could function properly.

This brings the total city appropriation for the Zoo this year to $15,432, compared with $26,800 last year.

Suggestion that a move be placed on foot to cut down the zoo “to a size commensurate with the size of the city” was made by most of the Councilmen.

  1. C. Crandall, of the Park Board, told the Council that to cut down zoo animals at present probably would mean destroying the animals as there is virtually no market for them at this time of the year.

Councilman Russo moved for the $5,000 additional to come from the unappropriated balance fund which now totals $98,000. Goodbody amended the motion to make the appropriation $8,546.40 and the mayor seconded the motion. On the vote the mayor, Goodbody and Blakiston voted for the appropriation with the others opposed. Russo’s motion for $5,000 was then voted on, with Mayor Forward, Blakiston, Russo and Goodbody voting for it.

“I believe the Park Board should be informed what we are likely to do next year with the zoo,” said Councilman Goodbody after the vote was taken.

“If they don’t know what to expect then they have to have houses fall on them to take a hint,” observed the mayor.

October 19, 1932, San Diego Union, 5:1. Museum of Natural History moving dinosaur exhibit to new building (illus.).

October 23, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 1, 2. San Diegans close great year on varied recreation program.

Construction of a new recreation center in the northeast corner of Balboa Park was probably the outstanding project completed by the San Diegans in the year just closed. Upon the recommendation of the Chamber of Commerce hospitality and tourist recreational bureau the City Council approved the project outlined and in furtherance of a plan to relieve unemployment appropriated $300,000 for the following projects, all of which are nearing completion:

Outdoor swimming pool, tennis courts, shuffleboard courts, horseshoe pitching lanes, baseball diamonds, both regulation and indoor, wading pool and children’s play area, basketball and volleyball courts.

Completion of the championship length, all-grass 18-hole golf course was another project sponsored by the San Diegans and approved by the City Council as an unemployment relief measure


Among other activities of the San Diegans were:

Rehabilitation of the Wilde fountain in the plaza.

Construction of two fine lawn bowling greens at the west end of Cabrillo Bridge.

October 24, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:5. City Hall has $98,000 surplus that nobody knew was there; less than $20,000 now remains in unemployment fund.

October 27, 1932, San Diego Union, 3:2. Woman plunges to death from Cabrillo Bridge.


November 8, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:1-2. G. O. P. leaders concede Franklin D. Roosevelt victory in California presidential contest.

November 9, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:1-2. Franklin D. Roosevelt wins presidency by landslide.

November 12, 1932, San Diego Union, 1:2-3. Thousands witness march and spectacle at Stadium in Armistice Day observance.

November 12, 1932, San Diego Union, 8:1. Belle Benchley, San Diego Zoo director, tells Altrusa Club of work.

November 15, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 1:1. Martin Johnson, in letter to Belle Benchley, director, says San Diego Zoo is most humane.

November 20, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 1:1, 2:2. San Diego High School graduation of June, 1882 to be staged at auditorium; 50 years’ history to be depicted.

November 23, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 3:1. Annual Thanksgiving Day service will be conducted at Organ Pavilion, Balboa Park.

November 24, 1932, San Diego Union, II, 1:1. San Diego High School celebrates 50th anniversary.

November 25, 1932, San Diego Union, 6:1. Navajos show crafts in New Mexico Building today under auspices of San Diego Museum and Fine Arts Gallery.

November 29, 1932, San Diego Union, 4:7. N. Muller, Supervisor, wins in fight to pave Sixth Avenue adjoining Balboa Park.


December 1, 1932, San Diego Union. B. W. Sinclair, resident, praises park development; urges naming promotional manager.

In a letter to Goeddel, Sinclair said the appointment of W. A. Kearns as head of the advisory committee to recommend coordinated recreational activities was a fortunate selection.

December 14, 1932, San Diego Union, 3:5-6. Old Yuletide Pageant committee gives way for annual production at Organ Pavilion.

This year Mrs. Gazlay, Mrs. Henking and Miss Gilbert are voluntarily passing on the responsibility of this interesting work to a new committee, consisting of Mr. an Mrs. B. A. Buker and Mr. and Mrs. Sydney Frantz, who will carry on the tradition of the Christmas pageant in the same spirit of unselfish devotion which has characterized the efforts of the last 17 years.

December 17, 1932, San Diego Union, 7:1. City firms help equip park area.

Assistance of a number of San Diego individuals and firms in completing the recreational area in the northeast part of Balboa Park has been acknowledged by City Manager Goeddel in letters of appreciation.

These letters were sent to the San Diego Consolidated Gas & Electric Company, which donated conduit, electric cable, gas mains and technical advice; Southern California Telephone Company, which gave conduit and cable for the telephone system; G. G. Carroll, who donated use of a tractor; Daley Corporation, for use of a steam shovel and compressor; Joseph Jessop Jewelry Company, which donated an electric clock and Linda and Little, who gave a fountain for the children’s wading pool. These donations saved the city hundreds of dollars which the municipality was able thus to divert to payrolls for unemployed relief, Goeddel said. He commended Engineer Hans W. Jorgensen for calling the matter to his attention.

December 19, 1932, San Diego Union, 10:4. Morley honored by park leaders.

John G. Morley, director of parks, recently was elected to the board of directors of the American Institute of Park Executives for a three-year term.

Morley is one of the “old timers” of the institution, having served as vice president of the organization in 1909 and 1910. He is well known nationally for his fine achievements in the development and management of Balboa Park.

The esteem in which he is held by associates in the institute was expressed in the latest issue of the group’s magazine, “Parks and Recreation,” when it printed the following: “Institute members delight I honoring Mr. Morley at every available opportunity.”

December 25, 1932, San Diego Union, 15:1. Many features on program for Swimming Pool dedication.

When the new outdoor municipal swimming pool is dedicated a week from today, San Diegans will be introduced to one of the most modern natatoriums of its kind in southern California.

Dedication ceremonies will be conducted by the North Park business club, with John Miljan, motion picture actor, master of ceremonies. From Hollywood he will bring a number of film players, who will assist in the interesting program.

The program will include a bathing beauty contest, in which San Diego girls will participate. Four prizes will be give to winners of the contest. Other events will be a diving contest between expert divers, tennis exhibitions, volleyball games, swimming races, a nightgown race, underwater swimming contests, relay races, a tadpole scramble and many other features.

It is expected that the dedication ceremony will attract many out-of-city visitors. Judges of the bathing contest will be Miljan, David Millan, president of the San Diego Chamber of Commerce, and Joseph J. Russ, city councilman.

The dedicatory program has been planned by the business men’s club, of which William Miller is president. W. D. Browne is chairman of the entertainment committee. The Chamber of Commerce and the City Council are cooperating with the North Park business club to make the event one of the winter season.

The new swimming pool was designed as a recreation place for swimmers and students and to accommodate official swimming contests. Thus, its depth at the shallow end is only two feet, five inches.

The bottom slopes to a depth of nine feet. The length of the pool is 131 feet, give inches. It is 65 feet nine inches wide. Walks around the pool have non-skid surfaces. Curbing is of a material that will not get slippery, according to information from the city engineer’s office.

The pool holds 365,000 gallons of fresh water. After the water is filtered, it is heated to 80 degrees and then chlorinated and returned to the pool. The water enters the north end of the pool and is circulated through the pool and is drawn off at the south of the pool and at the bottom of the deep part. This insures a perfect circulation of all water in the pool and no dead water spaces.

The water that enters the scum gutter goes to the sewer and is wasted. Along the sides of the pool vacuum cleaner outlets are located so that an underwater vacuum cleaner can be used to clean the sides and floor of the pool.

A complete laundry for washing and drying towels, suits and coat bags is installed on the roof of the building. The bath house is a complete unit, combing service with beauty. The building is 151 feet by 36. The north end has public comfort stations and an electric transformer and switch board room. The south end of the building has the boiler and filter room in the basement and the laundry on top.

December 28, 1932, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1. Spreckels has film recalling Exposition days.

The glories of San Diego’s great exposition, the pride of the southland in 1915-1916, are shown in motion pictures taken at that time and to be presented on the Spreckels screen for one week starting tomorrow. Two reels will be shown this week and more will follow later.

G Aubrey Davidson, prominent San Diego citizen, was president of the exposition. He is seen many times during the reels, sometimes distinguished by the wearing of a snow white hat and sometimes a silk top hat. Other well known citizens include Mr. and Mrs. George Marston, Lyman J. Gage, George Burnham, Charles F. O’Neal, Carl Heilbron, Fire Chief Almgren, the late O. J. Stough, famous San Diego centenarian, and Ellen Beach Yaw, called “Lark Ellen” for her beautiful singing voice.

At a private screening of the reels at the Spreckels last week, Mr. and Mrs. Davidson expressed their delight at revival of the film. As the wife of the president of the exposition, Mrs. Davidson welcomed and arranged for the comfort of all prominent visitors.

“Those were two of the happiest years of my life,” said Mrs. Davidson. “The days were crammed with events and we met many delightful and distinguished persons. Not only the official reception committee but every citizen of San Diego joined in making the visitors welcome. These reels are valuable not only to the older generation who enjoyed the exposition themselves, but also their children who should be introduced to one of the greatest events which ever took place in our city.”

Among famous visitors to the exposition were the late Theodore Roosevelt and Mr. and Mrs. Charles Evans Hughes.

The progress made by San Diego is emphasized by comparison of downtown scenes shown in the reels with the present day. During parade scenes, which were taken on Preparedness Day, the old buildings which lined Broadway are shown. In others unpaved streets around lower Broadway are shown with dust ankles deep.

Features of entertainment shown include the well-remembered Tommasino and his band, who filled a long engagement at Coronado Tent City; Ellen Beach Yaw singing at the park organ; Myrtle Steadman, old-time cinema favorite, singing at the organ; the famous dancers from Seville, who entertained in the shaded walks of the gardens; dances by the Pueblo Indians who inhabited Indian Village, now used by the Boy Scouts and others.

Crowds of people in pre-war styles of dress, which now seem bunglesome and quaint, throng the streets in the film. Many babies, now grown young men and women, are shown in the famous Pied Piper parade when the kiddies were led around the buildings and through the fun zone called the Isthmus.

The reels will be shown one week on the program with “Three on a Match,” starring Joan Blondel, Bette Davis, Ann Dvorak and Warren William.

December 29, 1932, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Dr. Stewart

THE DEATH OF Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart, official city organist for San Diego for 17 years past, closes a career notable in its contribution to music. As composer and recitalist, Dr. Stewart attained high rank, but his outstanding achievement must be verified by the testimony of thousands — possibly hundreds of thousands — who have been San Diego’s guests at the Spreckels organ pavilion.

Dr. Stewart was the intermediary though whom the late John D. Spreckels and the city of San Diego gave a lavish gift, and one rare in the record of public giving in the United States.

It was due to Dr. Stewart that this gift of music was always a worthy one — worthy of the great art the musician serves an worthy of the profession Dr. Stewart had mastered. It was a principle with Dr. Stewart to give his audience, whether it numbered a score of casual visitors or a congregation of several thousand auditors, the experience of music that he himself loved and respected. He held on traffic with music “good enough” for the crowd. All his pride in the splendid outdoor organ, all his respect for his profession and all his love for his art, went into those daily programs in the park.

He had been 50 years a professional musician when he came to San Diego. In the 17 years of his service here, he played thousands of recitals. Hearers from all over the world sat before the organ pavilion — letters came in, thousands of them, in which a sunny hour at the organ pavilion, flooded by the tones of the great organ, was described as the great experience of extended travel.

Faithfully, skillfully, with endless devotion and a quiet, humor-touched enjoyment of the day’s events, Dr. Stewart served here. He served the city, and he served music, He served them well.

December 29, 1932, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1. Death silences park organ for Dr. H. J. Stewart.

December 29, 1932, San Diego Union, Classified, 1:1. Statement of Mayor John F. Forward, Jr. paying tribute to Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart.

December 30, 1932, San Diego Union, 7:1. Dr. Stewart’s own mass to be sung at rites today in St. Joseph’s Church.

December 30, 1932, San Diego Union, 7:2. Royal A. Brown becomes the city’s official park organist.

December 30, 1932, San Diego Union, 7:2. Dwight E. Sampson, budget control officer, suggested to City Manager Goeddel yesterday a program of improvement for Balboa Park when funds become available.

Dwight suggested that the program include:

Formation of a definite policy for the future of the old exposition buildings, many of which need repair badly.

Plans for ultimate surfacing of park roads to prevent excessive repair costs on the present dirt roads.

Plans be completed for the new clubhouse for the park golf courses.

A method of handling floodwaters that pour into the park from paved streets around it.

Repairs be planned for the organ pavilion to prevent erosion.

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