The Silver Dons, 1833-1865

CHRONOLOGY: 1833-1865

1833   Secularization of the California Missions.

1835   San Diego is made a pueblo.

1836   Gov. Juan B. Alvarado’s California independence is brief, turmoil follows.

1837   President Andrew Jackson leaves the White House.

1837   Indians kidnap Leiva’s two daughters at Jamul.

1837   Juan Bandini leads rebellion; captures Los Angeles.

1838   Pueblo status is abolished; San Diego made subprefecture of Los Angeles.

1839   Indians plunder San Diego backcountry ranchos.

1841   John Bidwell leads first immigrant wagon train over the Sierra Nevada to San Joaquin Valley.

1841   First Catholic bishop finds fewer than 150 persons in San Diego; moves to Santa Barbara.

1842   Capt. William D. Phelps, of the Alert, spikes the guns of Ft. Guijarros.

1842   Manuel Micheltorena arrives at San Diego with his “Battalion of Cholos”; succeeds Gov. Alvarado.

1843   Gov. Micheltorena reinstates missions under the Franciscans.

1844   President James K. Polk announces his determination for U.S. possession of California.

1844   John C. Frémont’s exploratory expedition reaches Ft. Sutter.

1845   Gov. Micheltorena faces revolt of the Californios.

1845   The United States annexes the Republic of Texas.

1845   New Gov. Pio Pico orders land confiscation and sale of the California missions.

1846   Juan María Osuna and José Antonio Estudillo are last San Diego alcaldes under Mexican rule.

1846   The United States declares state of war exists with Mexico.

1846   Commodore John D. Sloat, USN, captures Monterey; Capt. John B. Montgomery captures San Francisco.

1846   Capt. Samuel F. du Pont, USN, and USS Cyane take San Diego; first American flag raised in Plaza.

1846   Mexican Gov. Pio Pico issues farewell proclamation; flees California.

1846   Mexicans besiege San Diego.

1846   Commodore Robert F. Stockton, USN, and U.S. fleet secure San Diego.

1846   Battle of San Pasqual.

1846   Indian massacre at Pauma.

1847   American flag raised at Mexico City.

1847   Signing of Cahuenga Capitulation.

1847   Mormon Battalion arrives in San Diego.

1848   James Marshall discovers gold at Coloma.

1848   Mexico signs Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

1849   Gold Rush begins; cattle prices soar; southern rancheros drive cattle to San Francisco.

1849   U.S. Boundary Commission arrives at San Diego.

1849   Pacific Mail Steamship Co. begins service to San Diego.

1849   First Constitutional Convention meets at Monterey.

1850   San Diego first county created by the Legislature.

1850   William H. Davis begins New San Diego.

1850   City of San Diego is incorporated; holds first election; Joshua Bean elected mayor.

1850   California admitted to the Union.

1851   Federal Land Commission requires all landholders to prove valid title.

1851   San Diego Herald, first newspaper, begins publication.

1851   The Garra Indian uprising begins.

1852   Maj. Gen. Joshua Bean captures Garra; execution at San Diego.

1852   Phineas Banning and D. W. Alexander begin first San Diego-to-Los Angeles stage line.

1853   First meeting, San Diego County Board of Supervisors.

1853   Lt. George Derby, USA, arrives to divert San Diego River into False Bay.

1853   Federal government authorizes Pacific Railroad Surveys; final report condemns possible San Diego routes.

1853   Whaling industry begins to grow in San Diego.

1854   San Diego & Gila, Southern Pacific and Atlantic Railroad organized.

1855   Mormons strike coal at Point Loma.

1857   Mexicans massacre Gen. A. J. Crabb’s filibusterers at Caborca.

1857   Dred Scott Decision brings the nation to the brink of Civil War.

1857   James Birch wins first transcontinental overland mail contract, San Diego to San Antonio; first mail arrives.

1857   Birch stages begin first scheduled transcontinental overland passenger service from San Diego.

1858   Butterfield Great Overland Stage Line begins regular scheduled mail and passenger service from Tipton, Mo., to San Francisco.

1859   John Brown raids Harper’s Ferry.

1860   San Diego Herald publishes its last edition.

1860   Abraham Lincoln elected president.

1861   The Civil War begins.

1861   State-wide storm brings 30-inch rain to San Diego; destroys 25% of California’s taxable property.

1861   Earthquakes and flood tides damage San Diego.

1861   All stage travel discontinued over Southern route be cause of Civil War.

1861   First Battle of Bull Run.

1861   First transcontinental telegraph reaches San Francisco.

1862   Congress passes the Pacific Railroad Bill.

1862   Two years of drought begin; cattle herds of the rancheros are decimated.

1862   Smallpox epidemic begins at San Juan Capistrano.

1863   Smallpox epidemic reaches San Diego.

1863   Locust plague destroys crops; squatter and ranchero troubles become serious.

1864   Drought reaches its worst in San Diego.

1865   Lee surrenders at Appomattox, ending the Civil War.