By Ralph E. Hughes and Laurel Davis Scott
San Diego Chapter, American Red Cross
In a recent article in The Journal of San Diego History, Nicholas C. Polos theorizes that California’s pioneer women brought an important humanizing element to the hordes of adventurers who migrated to California after 1849.1 In the years between 1849 and 1900, according to his hypothesis, women sought to fashion a social consciousness and establish a foundation for California society based upon something other than legalized lawlessness. The ideals of these pioneer women manifested themselves in San Diego in 1898 when women founded the local Red Cross society. Its founding sisters dominated the society into World War I, when businessmen took over the organization, a development mirrored in the national Red Cross.2
From its beginning, San Diego’s Red Cross has contained, on its own scale, the socializing forces, conflicts and themes found in national and international Red Cross organizations. A key socializing force represented by the Red Cross is the idea that the community as a whole bears a responsibility to act in an organized manner to assist victims of wars and national disasters. San Diego’s Red Cross was born largely as a result of assistance efforts during the Spanish American War, and, even in its earliest stages, the organization helped to resettle refugees from natural disasters, such as the San Francisco earthquake and from wars such as the revolutions in Mexico. San Diego’s Red Cross also presented a microcosm of a continuing conflict inherent in human services work: the conflict between the idealist’s inattention to business details in pursuit of an end to suffering, and the business requirement that human services work be run in an orderly and accountable fashion. This conflict may be seen in the national organization’s early questioning of founder Clara Barton’s accountings and is reflected locally by the fact that, once America entered World War I, San Diego’s established business leaders assumed control of the organization that its women, as social leaders, had nurtured for nineteen years.
An important national development in the late 1890s, while Californians were working to establish their own social order, was America’s growing concern regarding Cubans revolting against Spanish rule. This development arose simultaneously with Clara Barton’s efforts to convince Congress to adopt a federal charter for her Red Cross organization.
On February 6, 1898, President William McKinley sent Miss Barton, founder of the American Red Cross, to Cuba to distribute supplies to Cuban reconcentrados held in camps by the government of Spain.3 The supplies were collected by the President’s Committee For Cuban Relief in response to the misfortune of the Cubans which was well-publicized in the United States. According to Miss Barton, the relief effort was to be conducted ” unobtrusively,” but it soon grew to great proportions, assisted, no doubt, by the destruction of the battleship Maine in Havana harbor on February 5, 1898, and America’s subsequent entry into war against Spain.4
One result of this nationwide relief effort was the founding of a Red Cross chapter in San Diego.5 The organizational meeting of San Diego’s Red Cross society was held on May 26, 1898 in the parlor of the Y.M.C.A.6 and its first major project, which received commendation from the state society,7 was to send lemons and dried fruits to Cuba.8
Professor T.N. Miller, principal of the San Diego Commercial High School,9 called the organizational meeting and was elected temporary president.10 Soon thereafter, the organization’s eighteen paid members elected Mrs. George H. Ballou president. Mrs. Ballou, who became the local equivalent of Clara Barton by retaining her presidency until 1917, was active in several other organizations, including the women’s suffrage movement.11 She came to San Diego from New York, and her husband operated G.H. Ballou Co., a tea and coffee importing business.12
The “society”, as it was then called, began holding its meetings in the U.S. Grant Hotel, in “rooms donated by Mr. Grant.”13 Full of vigor and enthusiasm, and proudly “floating” a Red Cross flag donated by Ulysses S. Grant’s granddaughter, Nellie Grant, the members decided to meet once a week and to keep the rooms open for work daily from 2:00 to 5:00 p.m.14 They then embarked on a series of “entertainments” designed to raise money for their cause. These included a county-wide lecture series on the Red Cross by C.T. Petty and his partner J.A. Beadle, a concert in La Jolla by Scott Palmer, and a proposal by a soap manufacturer named Crane to use the Red Cross symbol on his soap.15 These efforts were not particularly successful (the lecturers gave only 10 percent of their receipts to the society)16 and when the members received a request for funds from the state organization, they simply filed it, replying that, “owing to lack of funds not able to comply.”17
Soon thereafter, on October 20, 1898, the group decided to close the rooms in the Grant Hotel “as there was no more active work on hand.”18 Apparently, the group then moved to some rooms on Fourth Street.19 This was the third meeting place in the five-month history of the organization, and began a pattern of headquarter shifts which continued until 1952, when the present site at 3650 Fifth Avenue was purchased, and permanent headquarters were established.
During its first six months the members of the group concentrated on several small projects.20 Besides sending lemons and dried fruits to Cuba, they also pledged $50 to support a convalescent hospital to be established at the Presidio, paid for medicine for an ill man named Aubrey Petter and organized a project which eventually sent 1,400 books to the Red Cross American Library for Manila in the Philippines.21
In spite of the group’s original enthusiasm, its activities declined and the board met infrequently in 1899 and 1900. During this eighteen-month period, the society devoted most of its efforts to supporting the American military families, sending $10 a month to San Francisco for sick soldiers, helping a soldier’s ill wife travel to Kansas City and helping a disabled soldier travel to Los Angeles.22
After the first burst of enthusiasm, the founders’ energy ran out and, from 1900 to 1906, the group apparently did little active work. The minutes of the organization do not reflect that any meetings were held. On the national level, however, the Red Cross was very active. The Spanish-American War increased American recognition of the Red Cross, and that “splendid little war,” as John Hay penned to Theodore Roosevelt, “begun with highest motives carried on with magnificent intelligence and spirit, favored by the Fortune which loves the brave”23 exemplified to the nation what the National Red Cross and its subdivisions could accomplish during a state of war. Perhaps Mr. Hay’s statement could be applied as well to the Red Cross as to the war itself as, in 1900, Congress voted to charter the American National Red Cross.The San Diego organization did not awaken from its six-year dormancy until jolted by the San Francisco earthquake in April, 1906. Having been so rudely awakened, the organization could not act until it had taken stock of itself and, in doing so, found that its small membership had been severely depleted. The minutes reflect that a meeting was held at the Chamber of Commerce on April 24, 1906 and that,
President Ballou called the meeting to order and requested the roll to be called to ascertain how many members were in the city. It was found that the larger part had either left the city or entered the ‘Silent Land.’24
Without conducting further business, the surviving members adjourned and began working at a room “that had been secured at the corner of Fifth and B to receive and pack goods for sufferers.”25 Mayor Schon had appointed a San Diego relief committee and had named the head of the Red Cross, Mrs. Ballou, to be in charge of collecting and distributing supplies, especially clothing.26
Mayor Schon’s relief committee, under the guidance of Julius Wangenheim (who later became a member of the Red Cross finance committee)27 ultimately collected $27,168, of which $24,000 was sent to San Francisco, with the remainder spent on refugees in San Diego.28 The Red Cross committee, with the assistance of San Diego’s newspapers, which carried regular and detailed stories of supply collections and shipments, sent to San Francisco a total of 157 cartons of clothing specifically marked for the sex and age of the intended recipient, sixty sacks of shoes, two tents, matting, beds, cots, carpets, a stove and a sewing machine.29 One article reported that one of the volunteer ladies at Red Cross headquarters had received a phone call from her husband who said that, as there was nothing in the house to eat, he was leaving for San Francisco thinking she might send him something there!30
It was the order of the day that quality was valued as highly as quantity and “In every case have the [Red Cross] ladies jealously guarded the name and fame of San Diego, by discarding the soiled or very worn articles.”31 The owner of the Sixth Street dyer and cleaner, Mr. J. Naumann, cleaned countless articles, thus saving them from the scrap pile.32 The nit-picking paid high dividends in the form of several letters from individuals and organizations applauding the good condition of the garments as well as the thoughtful and systematic way they were packed. Mrs. A.W. Corey, a member of the United Spanish War Veterans Emergency and Sanitary Commission, which helped disburse relief to people in San Francisco, wrote to Mrs. George W. Marston of San Diego, whose husband was one of San Diego Red Cross’ first life members, “I hope it may be a satisfaction to every San Diego woman who had given a helping hand in this work to know she has a reason to be proud of the way it was done, as well as the motive which prompted it.”33
Letters of thankfulness for San Diego’s generosity were many, and more than a few were published in the San Diego Union.34” One particular case of dire need and effusive gratitude for relief received was that of Mrs. Elizabeth Kaufman’s Rescue Home for troubled girls. The home and its contents were destroyed by the fire following the earthquake, and the matron and her fifty-seven “inmates,” as well as several small children and infants, had to find shelter in a tent city in a San Francisco park. Dr. Emma T. Read, director of the San Diego Red Cross, brought the needs of the home to the attention of the Red Cross which immediately sent them money and a large box of clothes.
Although sending supplies to the calamity-stricken city of San Francisco encompassed a major part of the relief effort given by the local Red Cross, San Diego was receiving more than a trickle of refugees from that gutted northern city. The ships and trains which carried San Diego’s charity to San Francisco returned with temporarily destitute refugees. The San Diego Citizen Relief Committee met every ship and train coming into the city, greeting the unfortunates and helping them locate family or friends or a place to stay. A barracks at Fort Rosecrans was designated the center for refugees until permanent housing and work could be found. The refugees were outfitted with clothing and in some instances given groceries at the Red Cross headquarters at the corner of Fifth and B.35 The San Diego Union published many articles containing information regarding help wanted, as well as services offered, and the San Diego Red Cross became the central clearing house for matching refugee qualifications for certain jobs with citizens’ applications for employees.36 The society also helped obtain permanent housing for refugee families as well and furnished essential furniture through the generosity of the citizens’ contributions.37
In all, during the five months following the earthquake, 130 refugees were aided with clothing, forty or more were housed at the barracks at Fort Rosecrans for one to three weeks, and eighteen families were assisted in setting up their own homes.38
Just as the San Diego Red Cross was closing up shop on the San Francisco disaster relief effort, it was informed that, during its dormant period, the original national Red Cross Charter of 1900 had been nullified and the national society had been reincorporated as the California Branch of the American National Red Cross. All local organizations automatically ceased to exist in November 1905 and were required to reorganize under government supervision in order to be authorized to continue Red Cross work.39
From this point onward, the terms “society” or “association” were omitted from the national, state and local titles because the incorporators, of whose names Clara Barton’s was first on the roster, believed the Red Cross should, like the United States Government, be an organization of all its people, not an association of some of them, or a society of a few. The San Diego Sub-Division of the American National Red Cross was reorganized August 8, 1906 and the members felt it perhaps fortunate that the subdivision did not legally exist during the time local need for refugee relief was so great “for the hands of the members would have been securely tied with redtape,” perhaps limiting the extensive local activities that were undertaken.40
The next five years were tranquil compared to the flurry of activity brought on by the San Francisco earthquake, but were far more active than the dormant years from 1900-1906. The San Diego Red Cross, along with the National Red Cross, initiated a membership drive. The national goal was 1,000,000 members by year-end and the San Diego Red Cross hoped to increase membership to 100. Existing records do not indicate whether or not the local goal was reached. Of all forty-four world-wide countries embracing the tenets of the Geneva convention and floating the Red Cross flag, the United States was near the bottom in members enrolled out of the total population.41
It is evident from the newspaper references that San Diego’s Red Cross was composed of “ladies.” Indeed, from 1906 to 1915, the governing board of San Diego’s chapter was composed almost entirely of women. For example, in August, 1906, all members of the Board of Directors, Executive Committee and Finance Committee were women, including three physicians, Dr. Maria B. Averill, Dr. Bessie Percy and Dr. Emma T. Read.42 Miss Mary Gale, secretary of the organization at that time, was active throughout its early history.
During this period, San Diegans and their Red Cross supported a number of special projects. On December 28, 1908, an epochal earthquake struck southern Italy and, with the horrors of the earthquake vividly familiar to local citizens, more than $2000 was sent to the Italian sufferers.43 The residents of Monterrey, in northern Mexico were aided by San Diego relief through its Red Cross with cash totaling $120.25 and supplies including fifteen boxes and one barrel of food, clothing and cooking utensils.44 When the Seine River in Paris flooded its banks in January 1910, the San Diego Red Cross sent $53.00 to ease the suffering.45 A year later $296.75 was raised and sent to aid famine sufferers in China.46
In the relatively peaceful time near the end of the first decade of this century, when no natural disasters or war consumed national Red Cross energies, it was decided that some activities beneficial to the people it served must be organized and implemented. In response to a nationwide appeal for suggestions that would arouse interest in, and increase the membership of the Red Cross, San Diego’s own Mrs. Sam Brust outlined her idea for a series of lectures on first aid and simple hygiene open free of charge to the public.47 Over the next year, local physicians delivered a successful program covering such topics as “Bruises, Wounds & Bleeding,” “Fractures,” “Hygiene of the Sick Room,” “Tuberculosis,” and “Mother and Baby” to name a few. This service of educating the public on first aid and health care is still a main function of the Red Cross.
In order to raise money to continue its service and relief programs and to increase public consciousness of its work, the American Red Cross in 1908 introduced the selling of Christmas stamps to benefit anti-tuberculosis work. The Red Cross bore the cost of the project, and kept a percentage of the total for its efforts.48 Each state branch of the American National Red Cross became an authorized agent to sell Christmas Stamps (seals) for the Society for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis. The San Diego Red Cross, which had supervision over the entire Southern California region (there was no Los Angeles Red Cross at the time), raised $545.00 by selling over 54,000 stamps at 1¢ apiece. Of this total, $418.00 was donated to the building fund for a tuberculosis sanitarium on a site donated to the antituberculosis society near Barrett Dam.49 Roughly twenty-five percent of the total amount raised in 1908 was paid to the national Red Cross and in the next two stamp campaigns (1909 and 1910) the San Diego Red Cross was authorized to keep eighty percent of the amount raised for the local antituberculosis work, with twenty percent of the total sales going to national Red Cross.50 In the summer of 1911, the San Diego Society for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis became the local agent for the sale of Christmas Stamps51 and finally, in 1918, the American National Red Cross turned over the entire project and all its financial benefits to the National Tuberculosis Association (now the Lung Association).52
In 1910, the drums of war were sounding in America’s neighbor to the south as revolutionaries toppled the thirty-year dictatorship of Porfírio Diaz. Led at the time by Francisco Madero, the goals of the revolution were to obtain governmental rights to expropriate natural resources, restoring rights, if any, to foreigners only through concessions granted by Mexico, to divorce church from state and to establish a democratic society. In 1911 a faction of the revolutionary movement, headed by Ricardo Flores Magon, invaded the Baja California peninsula for “Herra y libertad“53 thus expanding the war to the California/Mexico border. This required that the San Diego Red Cross chapter participate directly in service on the field of battle. Although the American National Red Cross has served on many battlefields, it is rare for a local chapter to participate on its own, and it is conceivable that the San Diego Red Cross may be the only chapter to have done so.
In March of 1911, fighting between Mexican federal troops and insurrectos in the Tecate Valley forced hundreds of Mexican refugees across the international boundary. Upon request of U.S. Army Captain Evans to Mrs. Ballou, the Red Cross outfitted a team of two nurses with medical supplies, tents, blankets, and clothes to go to Tecate and minister to the refugees, who were mostly women and children.54 The newspaper articles refer to the refugees as Valley farmers who fled their homes during the fighting but Red Cross records indicate that the refugees were soldaderas (wives and girlfriends with their children) who marched with the Mexican soldiers cooking for the men and nursing them in times of need, The refugee camp existed only a few days, as order was restored by the arrival in Tecate of 100 federal troops with fresh provisions.55 The speedy, efficient relief provided by the San Diego Red Cross prompted a letter of thanks from Brigadier General Tasker H. Bliss, commanding officer of the troops stationed near the border, as well as a letter of commendation from Ernest Bicknell, National Director of the Red Cross.56
Six weeks later, the San Diego Red Cross was notified of the imminence of another battle in Mexico, this time in Tijuana. The Red Cross responded to the call and aided the wounded on the American side of the border. The renewed fighting caused Mexican refugees to cross over the border once again and the San Diego Red Cross reopened a refugee camp in Campo,57 making a special appeal through the newpapers for donations of money and supplies.
Again in June of the same year, the San Diego Red Cross was notified by Captain Frank A. Wilcox of the 30th regiment that more fighting had broken out between Captain John Mosby’s insurrectos and the federal troops in Tijuana.58 Two physicians and a nurse immediately asked for a Red Cross flag and were driven to Tijuana by a Red Cross volunteer. Two more Red Cross vehicles set out soon thereafter carrying several doctors, nurses and Red Cross officers and volunteers. Upon arrival at the front, the Red Cross volunteers worked with the Army surgeons to care for the wounded. A volunteer search party went the three miles to the rebel camp seeking dead and wounded, and brought two men back to receive medical attention.59
During the two months that the Mexican revolution was fought on San Diego’s doorstep, the San Diego Red Cross gave relief to 106 refugees in Tecate and Campo, 138 refugees in Tijuana and assisted 11 wounded persons during the Battle of Tijuana; the total amount of money expended by the San Diego Red Cross for relief during this period was $1,196.17, of which $1,000 was allotted to the Mexican Relief Fund by the American National Red Cross.60
As events in revolution-torn Mexico continued to unfold, the Huerta Government which came to power in 1913, became more and more hostile to the United States and her citizens living in Mexico. The peace negotiations between President Woodrow Wilson’s special agent John Lind and President Victoriano Huerta having failed in August of 1913, Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan telegraphed the San Diego Red Cross, asking it to assume responsibility for caring for American refugees fleeing Mexico — to arrange to transport them to family or friends at the expense of the United States government.61
The first ship bringing refugees to San Diego in September 1913 was the transport Buffalo. The San Diego Red Cross greeted the refugees, housed and fed the needy, and transported seventy-five of them to various points in the United States.62 Although most of the American refugees who landed in San Diego during the three years of refugee relief were penniless, many had left prosperous livelihoods in Mexico as farmers, businessmen, miners and ranchers. All were able to use Red Cross assistance to establish new lives in America. In the years 1913-1916, assistance was given to more than 1,000 American refugees from Mexico by the San Diego Red Cross.
The unique location of the San Diego Red Cross vis-a-vis the Mexican Revolution naturally forced its primary energies into aiding the many victims of that human disaster. At the same time, the rest of the national chapters, particularly in the East, were turning their attention to the European crisis, as well as to natural disasters in the United States and the world. However, the local Red Cross sent almost $2,000 to aid the victims of the Ohio and Indiana floods and fire of 1913,63 and responded to national appeals for earthquake and famine relief in Japan during 1914. When the national call came in August, 1914 for funds for European war relief, the local chapter immediately sent $116.00 to Washington D.C.64
The first local appeal for European war funds appeared in the San Diego Union August 7, 1914 and from that point on, the major task of raising money for the ever-increasing need for war relief was undertaken. A gala ball was held at the Wonderland Ballroom in Ocean Beach to raise money for the American Red Cross.65 Pleas were made in newspapers reminding citizens of Europe’s generosity in contributing to Red Cross efforts when the United States was fighting Spain in 1898.66 October 4, 1914 was designated “Peace Sunday” by President Wilson, the Red Cross asking that all denominations contribute their collections that day to the American Red Cross.67
The San Diego Union undertook a money-raising campaign in November, 1914 to aid the Belgians, while the San Francisco Chamber of Commerce concurrently headed a statewide committee to outfit and send a ship with food and supplies to Belgium. The San Diego Red Cross was asked to collect supplies locally for the ship. However, the next day (November 13, 1914) a letter was received at Red Cross headquarters from the Director of the Pacific Division stating that the Red Cross principle of neutrality would be violated if it solicited donations in a partisan manner. General contributions could be designated for a specific country, but as the United States was trying to maintain strict neutrality in the affairs of Europe, the Red Cross, by its national and international charters, had to remain neutral in its aid. As a result, the supply collection for the Belgian relief ship was handed over to the San Diego Chamber of Commerce which ultimately decided that money, not supplies, would best benefit the people of Belgium.68
The ladies of the chapter continued doing war relief work during the early months of 1915. They began sending funds to all of the warring countries of Europe, and even prepared for the possibility of a naval battle among the warring nations off the coast of California.69 They also began preparing an open air camp in East San Diego (donated by the tuberculosis society) as a camp for wounded soldiers.
In 1915 the minutes maintained by the ladies since 1898 stop, and there is no further record of the chapter’s activities until March 16, 1917 when formal minutes are again recorded.
The significant development revealed in these new minutes is that the men of the city had assumed control of the organization. Although several of the earlier female members retained positions on the board, they did not constitute a majority and were not a majority on any of its committees. The break with the past was so complete that the chapter chairman, Leroy A. Wright (later to become state Senator Wright) announced on March 16, 1917, that the meeting being held was “The First Meeting of the Board of Directors of the Chapter.”70
With this, the first stage of development of San Diego’s Red Cross and the social consciousness that its ladies helped engender, was concluded. The organization of social service founded by these women became the foundation upon which the people of San Diego built and have continuously maintained the local Red Cross Chapter as a financially responsible human service organization.
1.Nicholas C. Polos, “San Diego’s Portia of the Pacific: California’s First Woman Lawyer,” The Journal of San Diego History, XXVI, (Summer, 1980), p. 185.
2.Charles Hurd, The Compact History of the American Red Cross, (New York: Hawthorn Books Inc., 1959), pp. 143-145.
3.Clara Barton, The Red Cross, (Washington, D.C., 1898) p. 519. This book is cited hereinafter as Barton, Red Cross.
4.Barton, Red Cross p. 519.
6.Volume 1, Minutes of the Meetings of the Board of Directors of the San Diego Chapter, American Red Cross May 26, 1898 through March 24, 1911, May 26, 1898. This minute book, in the possession of the San Diego Chapter of the American Red Cross and available for study, is cited hereinafter as Minutes 1. All citations to this source will state the date of the entry cited, as the pages are not numbered.
7.Minutes I, June 16, 1898.
8.Ibid., August 11, 1898 and August 18, 1898.
9.Mary J. Gale, “A Chapter That Has Served On the Field Of Battle,” The Red Cross Courier, August 15, 1928, p. 18. This article is cited hereinafter as Gale Article.
10.Minutes I, May 26, 1898.
11.Marilyn Kneeland, “The Modern Boston Tea Party, The San Diego Suffrage Campaign of 1911,” The Journal of San Diego History, XXIII (Fall 1977), p. 36.
12.Samuel T. Black, San Diego County California, (ST Clarke Publishing Co., 1913), Vol. 11, pp 65-66.
13.Minutes I, June 23, 1898.
15.Ibid., July 19, 1898, July 21, 1898, August 18, 1898.
16.Ibid., July 19, 1898.
17.Ibid., October 10, 1898.
18.Ibid., October 20, 1898.
19.Ibid., November 2, 1898.
20.Ibid., June 2, 1899.
21.Ibid., August 18, 1898, August 31, 1898, August 29, 1898, November 15, 1900.
22.Ibid., June 2, 1899.
23.Alexander De Conde, A History of American Foreign Policy, (New York, 1963) p. 350.
24.Minutes I, April 24, 1906.
25.Ibid., April, 1906.
26.Gale Article, p. 18.
27.Minutes 1, June 3, 1908.
28.San Diego Union, July 22, 1906.
29.Ibid., September 10, 1906.
30.Ibid., April 26, 1906.
31.Ibid., April 26, 1906.
32.Ibid., May 20, 1906.
33.Ibid., May 5, 1906.
34.Ibid., May 2, 1906, May 4, 1906, May 5, 1906, May 10, 1906, May 11, 1906, May 20, 1906, May 23, 1906, May 28, 1906, June 17, 1906, June 24, 1906.
35.Ibid., April 29, 1906, April 26, 1906, May 6, 1906.
36.Ibid., April 25, 1906, May 2, 1906, May 6, 1906.
37.Ibid., May 10, 1906, May 17, 1906, May 26, 1906, May 28, 1906, July 15, 1906, September 10, 1906.
38.Ibid., September 10, 1906, May 2, 1906.
39.Ibid., September 10, 1906.
40.Ibid., August 27, 1906.
41. Ibid., October 2, 1908.
42. Minutes I, August 8, 1907.
43. San Diego Union, October 26, 1909.
44. Ibid., October 26, 31, 1909.
45. Ibid., February 16, 1910.
46. Volume Il, Minutes of the Meetings of the Board of Directors of the San Diego Chapter, American Red Cross March 24, 1911 – October, 1915, October 30, 1911. This minute book, in the possession of the San Diego Chapter of the American Red Cross is available for study and is cited hereinafter as Minutes 11, followed by a reference to the date of the meeting cited.
47.San Diego Union, September 8, 1908.
48. Charles Hurd, The Compact History of the Red Cross, p. 127.
49. San Diego Union, January 23, 1909.
50. Ibid., October 23, 1909.
51. Minutes II, July 24, 1911.
52. Charles Hurd, The Compact History of the Red Cross, p. 127.
53. Richard Griswold del Castillo, ” The Discredited Revolution; The Magonista Capture of Tijuana in 1911,” The Journal of San Diego History, XXVI (Fall, 1980), p. 256.
54. Minutes I, March 24, 1911.
55. San Diego Union, March 27, 1911.
56. Newspaper article in San Diego Red Cross archives, Book “1906-1917,” pp. 148, 149, hereinafter referred to as Book 1906-1917.
57. San Diego Union, May 5, 1911.
58. Minutes II, June 30, 1911.
59. Book 1906-1917, p. 147.
60. Minutes II, October 11, 1911.
61. Ibid., August 22, 1913.
62. Ibid., September 17, 1913.
63. Ibid., October 27, 1913.
64. San Diego Union, August 15, 1914.
65. Ibid., August 29, 1914.
66. Book 1906-1917, P. 156.
67. San Diego Union, September 23, 1914.
68. Ibid., November 12 and 13, 1914.
69. Minutes II, August 17, 1914.
70. Minutes of the San Diego County Chapter of the American Red Cross, March 16, 1917.
THE PHOTOGRAPHS are from the San Diego History Center’s Title Insurance and Trust Collection. The letter reproduced on page 122 is courtesy of the San Diego Chapter, American Red Cross.