By PATRICIA SCHAELCHLIN
Freelance author and local historian
She was small for her nine years of age, her cheeks were pale, her clothes neat. She was frightened. Sitting on the edge of the bed, the little girl felt the cough coming and wondered if she, too, would have the disease. She had seen her mother gasp for breath, then lie exhausted across the bed. Today, they had taken her mother away and brought her to this place called “Rest Haven.” Carefully, the little girl looked up at the lady standing in the doorway. It would be ” Ma” Mead, she knew, the kids had said that she would come. ” Ma” came over to her and sitting down on the bed, put both of her arms around the thin shoulders. “It will be all right,” she said. “Everything will be all right.”
It was 1922 and the little girl’s mother had been one of the 274 identified tuberculosis 1 cases who had come that year to San Diego. The city had always capitalized on its “salubrious” climate, and advertised widely that the temperate climate was a “mecca for the aged and for those persons who require equable conditions for their physical welfare.” Francis H. Mead, MD, in 19132 had written that “Sunshine is so perpetual [in San Diego] that the treatment for surgical tuberculosis which has so successfully been carried out at Leysin in the Valasian Alps, could easily be followed here.” People had responded to the advertising, coming from all parts of the country. Many were ill and they would become a problem for the city. Some would have tuberculosis and at the beginning of the century, they would be more of a problem. To answer this, a small group of people with experience of the disease and some with a sense of humanity—and others with a simple dedication against tuberculosis would join together “to combat and eradicate the Great White Plague.”
The disease is called “tuberculosis,” “consumption,” and earlier “pthisis.” It is caused by the germ “tubercle bacilus,”3 identified by Robert Koch, a German doctor and reported to the Physiological Society of Berlin in 1882.4 Infection by the disease produces lumps in the normally soft spongy lungs, which feel like the tubers or tubercles on the roots of tuberous begonias, potato or peanut plants. The name was created for this reason.
Through clinics, first established in 1887, the medical profession began to identify the disease (and to realize its scope) in its early stage, allowing more patients to recover by convalescence. The x-ray,5 discovered and developed by German physicist, Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen in 1895, became and remains the best tool for determining the extent of the disease.
Preventoriums (hospitals whose function was to provide bed rest and balanced diets for patients in a reduced state of health, thus susceptible to disease) were established throughout the country. Between May 1908 and May 1910, hospitals and sanitariums increased from 184 to 393.6 During this period and until 1919 in the registration area, mortality dropped from 188 to 125 per 100,000. Clearly, it was felt, the decline could be attributed to the convalescent care. Because of this, San Diego’s Free Clinic was established in 1909 and an open air camp called Rest Haven in 1913.( Rest Haven began as the San Diego Society for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis in 1909.)Similar camps were also established throughout California and many developed into extensive facilities. The San Diego camp, however, never progressed beyond a beginning stage. Financial difficulties, neighborhood objections, county establishments which competed—all merged to keep Rest Haven from expanding as other facilities had. It eventually closed in September of 1919.
Several stated opinions, one by a Miss Ida M. Theile RN 7 with the State Bureau of Tuberculosis Association, as well as those of local medical personnel and city officials, led to the reopening of Rest Haven as a preventorium for children. This reflected a change of direction for the organization. Through its early years, it had been concerned with providing convalescent care for adult tuberculars, educating and legislating, and establishing the organization both physically and financially. During World War I it administered to men in service with tuberculosis, but soon changed its patient source to children. It was here, they decreed, that measures would be taken to finally eradicate tuberculosis.
With great enthusiasm and much community support, Rest Haven opened its doors again in the Fall of 1920.8 A standard format was adopted 9 for admittance: children of the ages three to twelve years who were in an anaemic condition and those who had had contact with tuberculosis would be considered. No active cases would be admitted and the charges would be $45.00 per month where pay could be obtained. The facility had been cleaned, refitted and the equipment renovated. A staff was hired and a new era began.
Rest Haven, however, was to encounter new problems. About five months after the opening, Daniel Cleveland,10 one of Rest Haven’s founders, seriously questioned whether it was wise to continue the facility. Rest Haven had been encouraged to open its preventorium, he said by the education and health departments of the city as well as by related organizations, the Red Cross, private fraternal and charitable organizations and the State Tuberculosis Association. All of these had also indicated that financial support and patient load would be supplied by them. Cleveland reported that:
– although there were some 500 San Diego children who could qualify for admission, in fact no more than 20 children at a time (and most often less) were admitted;
– patients were not being sent to Rest Haven and conversely, parents were resisting having their children admitted;
– most patients were of foreign parentage;
– few patients came from outside the city;
– no financial support had been received;
– the expenses exceeded the organization’s ability to maintain Rest Haven as a preventorium.
Cleveland, as Financial Secretary, recommended closure at the end of April 1921. Four months later, on August 1211 he would again make the same observations and recommendations.
It was probably Florence H. Mead who led the opposition to closing the facility. Affiliated with the organization since its beginning, and officially from 1911, she had been closely connected with the creation of the open air camp. In 1912, she served as Financial Chairman. Although urged to become a member of the board, she was not elected a director until 1917 and was then named Chairman of Rest Haven. She actively guided the camp until her death in 1949.
“Ma” Mead, as she came to be known, had come to San Diego in 1892.12 Within three years of her arrival13—not willing to lead a social life of teas and light charity work—she concentrated on welfare work and later, on tuberculosis. Always compassionate, she had worked in the slums of New castle, Taunton and London, England.14 She bathed babies, cared for their mothers, fed children and carried their problems home with her. With her husband, who had come to San Diego because of his health problems, she conducted her lifetime concern for the welfare of children.
She had been born in England15 on July 8,1863. She married at sixteen and would never have children of her own. It would be the children of Rest Haven that she would care for as if each were her own. Eileen Jackson16 would tell of the “. . . fragile little boys and girls, who laugh and rush to Mrs. Mead, each eager to hold her hand, each anxious for one of her smiles.” It was to see the children that she made a long trip from her home at least once a week.
Her concern for the children, shared by her husband, and a desire to help them were threatened when Daniel Cleveland presented his recommendation to close the facility in 1920 and again in 1921. The main problem, then as always, was money and it was to this that “Ma” and the other board members directed their attention.
In March 1921, the first Rest Haven Ball was held at the Hotel Del Coronado. This ball was to be held annually on or near St. Patrick’s Day and it became the city’s most fashionable event. The ball was noted for its beauty and decorations and because it attracted the influentials of the city. There was strong competition in fund raising and Rest Haven featured a dinner that became its hallmark at the balls. Through her social contacts, “Ma” drew on the cultural and social world, making them as concerned as she for the destitute children of the city.
One of the most successful balls was held in 1933.17 The great rotunda at the Hotel Del Coronado was banked with gladiolus. The “Rest Haven Sunshine” beam of light shone on the dancers who performed. Eduardo Cansino danced with his fourteen year old daughter, Margarita (who would later be known as Rita Hayworth, the movie star). A second dance troop from the Ratliff Dancing Academy performed and Raphael Villagrana, a dramatic baritone, sang as did some members of the Junior League and J. Harold Peterson Jr. An earlier ball18 featured a fountain in the middle of the stage and “. . . dancing elves of springtime (who) will celebrate the arrival of the joyous season.” The guest list each year featured as patrons and patronesses the most prominent names of San Diego.
The balls continued through 1941 (and this would be the only one that “Ma” would miss for she had fallen and was hospitalized; a book containing the signatures of the guests was presented to her). On January 27, 194219 it was noted that “. . . it would be unwise to plan such an affair under existing conditions,” and the ball was not begun again after World War II had ended.
A second source of income was the Christmas Seal stamp. The organization was an active agent in this from 1909 through 1944. The Red Cross had been the lead agency in 1908 but in 1910, formed a partnership with the Tuberculosis Society which continued until 1919. The Tuberculosis Society then assumed full responsibility for the sale of the stamps.
The seals became a popular way to send Christmas cards and to help the cause. There was a fear of tuberculosis and the public was willing to contribute towards confining or perhaps curing it. The Christmas Seals are sold today by the American Lung Association, which succeeded the early tuberculosis association and the emphasis is upon all lung diseases.
Postage seals had been recognized as a fund raiser in the United States early in 1863. It came out of the Civil War conflict20 where a Civilian Sanitary Commission had been set up to improve the Union camp conditions. Fairs were held to finance the purpose and in Boston, December 1863, a “post office” was featured where, with a specially designated 10€ stamp, “. . . anyone could get a letter.”
The stamp became a great success and in the Philadelphia “Great Central Fair” in 1864,21 sales raised more than a million dollars and charities began to recognize this as a way to finance their causes. In 1897, a one penny stamp was issued in New South Wales to assist a “Consumptive Home. ” Dr. S. A. Knopf, a founder of the National Tuberculosis Association, later said22 “If one were to recite the various influences and factors that have contributed most to the success of the campaign against tuberculosis in the United States, he could not help but place at the head of any such list the Tuberculosis Christmas Seal.”
But it was not until 1904 that Einor Holboll in Denmark23 at Christmas time initiated the Christmas seal that was to become so identified with the fight against tuberculosis. He was concerned about the children—and there were so many of them, he observed. A stamp was designed bearing the portrait of Denmark’s Queen Louise and more than 4,000,000 seals were sold. The intent was not to carry the mail but to educate the public and to finance the fight.
Such a stamp came to America via a letter to New Yorker Jacob A. Riis24 and in a July 1907 article in The Outlook, he wrote “Tuberculosis is just such a wrong. Nothing in the world is better proven today than that it is a preventable disease, and therefore needless.” He told his readers that it had taken six of his brothers. He asked why a Christmas seal such as Holboll’s could not be used in the United States.
Riis’ article was read by Emily P. Bissell of Wilmington, Delaware, and she began the United States campaign. By 1909, it had reached San Diego. The ” Merry Christmas” stamp became a yearly tradition.
The organization found a good market for the seals in San Diego, increasing their sales each year. It was, therefore, distressing when the State Tuberculosis Association voted to remove the local organization as its sale representative in 1945. The San Diego society, they complained, was not focusing ideologically or financially on tuberculosis but more on Rest Haven as a diversified children’s health facility, and this could not be denied.
The Rest Haven minutes reflect a continuing concern with how the Christmas seal money was spent.25 Although the tuberculosis emphasis was very much evident with the earlier operation of the Free Clinic, x-ray services to the County, and the Christmas seal drive, it was still concluded that the focus of the organization was on the well child concept and certainly, a similar belief was held by the tuberculosis community. In a Newsletter article of the California Tuberculosis Association26 the President, Sidney J. Shipman MD, relates that in the 1920-30 era, the emphasis swung to child health and specifically on nutrition and rest adding that “. . . it is likely that this program played a significant role and that it was of great educational value.” The philosophy of the well child concept was left open to subjective interpretation as to the cause of tuberculosis, how it could be avoided, and most importantly, whether Rest Haven’s operation was working from the narrow (or conversely wide) definition of what precipitates tuberculosis. It appears that Rest Haven had moved away from a specific tuberculosis emphasis for it had for some time been admitting children with heart conditions, asthmatics and some orthopedic cases. As early as 192027 concern was reflected for children suffering whooping cough, measles and other similar conditions. The criterion was set at this time that any child in a debilitated condition was subject to tuberculosis. Rest Haven extended this criterion to include disadvantaged children who were not being housed and fed properly and to those subject to abuse. They considered themselves as a “. . . health organization working for the good of the community.”28 This was challenged in 1945.
On November 21, 1945, Howard W. Bosworth MD,29 as a member of the State Board, wrote Mrs. Florence Mead: “The committee reported that you were informed that changes in the nation-wide program of the tuberculosis movement during the past fifteen years, and new approaches towards the problem, make most definite the conviction that the preventoria did not fill a place in the control work.” He went on to say that all of the preventoria had been closed and that only the San Diego facility remained and “. . . continued to feature the preventorium as the central and main feature of its program.” Bosworth agreed that Rest Haven was providing a valuable service to the community but that it could not and should not be supported by Christmas seal sales and that two separate entities should emerge from the one, with Rest Haven carrying on in its preventorium and a second organization being concerned with the problems of tuberculosis as defined by the State Board. The fact that this did occur strongly suggests that Rest Haven’s philosophy differed from the state’s.
“Ma” responded to the National Tuberculosis Association but regardless of her argument that the San Diego facility had indeed fulfilled its tuberculosis mandate, the division of the association was effected by motion on February 18,1946.30 Rest Haven would retain the facility “. . . as its property freed of any claims of every kind and nature all other sums of money and property now owned by it and whether the proceeds of seal funds or not.” 31 A sum of $25,110.27 was paid to the newly formed San Diego Tuberculosis Association, being full payment of divided assets and the division was completed. 32
A new tuberculosis association began but not without difficulty. On November 12, 1946,33 Paul C. Williamson, as Executive Director, wrote:
Mrs. Mead is methodically trying to sabotage our activities by following our publicity and making personal telephone calls to our Chairman and Representatives, however, to date she has only been able to create an interest to such a degree that we have been able to transform her maliciousness in that the individuals are more than ever interested in helping us with our program. Her latest episode, however, is of more serious nature. This last week I learned that she was all set and prepared to launch a fund raising campaign in competition to ours. She had a meeting with a newspaper reporter and photographer present and was ready to release publicity. This campaign would be for the purpose of raising funds to provide a home for persons having tuberculosis who could not gain immediate admission to Vauclain Home.
“Ma” Mead began a series of advertisements in the newspapers, costing about $30.00 per day as reported by Williamson. He added in his letter:
She (Mrs. Mead) has employed a sharpy, a professional fund raiser and publicity man who of course would reap a harvest from her fund raising campaign. I am sure she is not interested in raising funds for a tuberculosis home, but is primarily interesting (sic) in confusing the public right at the time of our Christmas Seal Drive.
The problem of conflict created frustration for Williamson: “The old lady keeps me on my toes and I have said that I can tell when she is sick because things are so quiet in the community.”
The period of 1920-42 represented the greatest period of growth and prestige for Rest Haven. Change was in the air, however, as the organization entered its fourth decade. Previously, its events had been publicized and the most powerful of San Diego’s social element were active members. In reviewing the list of board members, Eileen Jackson, Society Editor for the San Diego Union,34confirmed that the real society leaders of the time, and those who were the decision makers of the city, were active board members and participants of Rest Haven. But even this power structure could not keep the future from happening; it did, however, delay it.
Probably four things led to a 1952 second change of direction for Rest Haven. The first was World War II which changed San Diego from its socially oriented way of life to a city concerned with military invasion and then to a growing metropolis concerned with the dynamics of growth. The way of life of the 1920-41 years was gone and there was no attempt by Rest Haven to re-establish a financial base through social events. It became more reliant upon its endowments and Community Chest allotments and real estate investments.
A second cause was the 1945-46 split with the California Tuberculosis Association, a devastating blow both financially and psychologically.
A third cause was “Ma” Mead’s death in November 1949. Rest Haven was left without the anchor that had seen it through its beginning and growth. She refused to see the decline but those who followed her leadership were more realistic.
A fourth influence on the future of Rest Haven was the changing economic atmosphere of San Diego. With a generally improved standard of living after World War II, children were less vulnerable to disease. The concept of convalescent care had been superseded by medicine and federal monies were allocated directly to parents for home care. The lack of patient load was to continue through the 1940s. On October 10, 194935 it was suggested that a letter of appeal be sent to the County Medical Association “… for more help in getting more children …” Ralph Phillips, in speaking of this time while the Board kept searching for services that Rest Haven could perform, said there was “more staff than children.”36
The memory of “Ma” Mead and respect for her wishes, the loss of a tradition and a responsibility to those who had endowed the organization led the Board to explore all possibilities of maintaining the facility. The admittance requirements were changed37 when children under four years of age were accepted. They considered a merger with the Children’s Society.38 Bonds were cashed for operating expenses.39 In August 1950,40 there was an average of thirteen children for that year. At the last meeting of the year, 41 the President would close the meeting with “. . . the wish that the New Year would bring inspiration to the Board for a correct decision regarding the future of Rest Haven.” In January 195142 when Rest Haven was removed as a member of the Community Chest, it emphasized the seriousness of the situation.
San Diego was concerned over the proposed closing and organizations came forward with a “Save Rest Haven” campaign. Within months, the Sciots (a branch of the Masons) volunteered to sponsor a fund raising event.43 Reluctantly, the Board declined for they realized that Rest Haven would need a yearly subsidy and the Sciots could not assume this commitment. There were individual pledges 44of fuel oil, foodstuffs, a case of eggs weekly and even one cent a gallon on all gasoline sold at Walter Church’s gas station.
Offers came to Rest Haven to share management with physicians or that the Society For Crippled Children would jointly operate it, or to be rented as a Day Care facility. But nothing worked. It seemed as was earlier commented45 that “. . . if the need existed, Rest Haven would be filled to capacity and funds for its operation would be forthcoming.”
Organizations, such as the Home For The Blind,46 the Frederika Home, 47 the Mentally Handicapped,48 contacted the Board of Directors to purchase Rest Haven, but no agreement was reached. It became critical that a decision be reached for the facility was standing vacant having officially closed in October 1951,49 with only a caretaker and a skeleton staff who were completing the inventory.
The Community Welfare Council, at the request of the Board, had made a study to determine the future of Rest Haven. Their conclusion50 was that Rest Haven should close and that the resources be pooled with the Society For Crippled Children in the operation of the proposed Children’s Memorial Hospital or to remain as a corporate entity as a foundation. It was difficult for the Board to reconcile its loyalty to the memory of “Ma” Mead and what Rest Haven had been to the realities of the time. On September 5, 1951, the Board unanimously voted to become a foundation.
The decision to sell at a suggested price of $225,000 had been reached by motion in April 1951.51 The facility, however, did not change ownership until 1953 to a partnership of Ray Snyder and wife and Mrs. Stella Cary. The selling price was somewhat less—$150,000. As part of the purchase agreement, Snyder et al. was to initiate a $50,000 remodeling of the hospital within a year. All of the buildings constructed by Rest Haven, except the hospital which had been built in 1937, were demolished and the original eleven acres further developed. Demolished also was the building that had served as the school for the children. In 192452 arrangements had been made by Professor Edward L. Hardy, President of the State Normal School, to provide two teachers without cost to the organization. By 192553 the school became a part of the public school system and this continued until the organization ceased operating Rest Haven. Continung today, however, is the 1937 hospital building which operates as the Villa View Community Hospital, Inc.
Through 195254 some fifteen organizations contacted the Board for help through the new foundation. It was apparent that Rest Haven could most effectively move to a new service to the community. The very difficult years of indecision were over and in January 195455 President Ralph Phillips reported that he was pleased with the healthy condition of the organization.
The function of Rest Haven would change but the unique purpose continued: the welfare of children was still the focus. The principal concern of the new foundation was to efficiently manage the endowments, gifts and real estate and to solicit new donations. Arthur C. Wells and his Finance Committee established a base of income that would continue to increase Rest Haven’s spendable income. With 195356 being the first full year of operation as a foundation, $3,117.62 was spent for 138 children. Such cases as dental, hospitalization, drugs, emergency custodial care, medical supplies, therapy, tonsillectomies and glasses were handled. This figure was enhanced by the donated medical services of doctors and dentists. Ten years later57 $16,000.16 was spent for direct assistance to 638 children, and $3,737.97 was used to purchase equipment and supplies for Children’s Dental Center, Braille Transcribers, Children’s Hospital, Project Amigos, and Paradise Valley Hospital. The allocation for 1981 was $153,235.65. Of this, $73,175.04 was for direct assistance to 1723 children and special gifts amounted to $10,945.00. Shoes, glasses, prosthesis, medical services, speech therapy and infant supplies were among the services rendered to children this year.
Rest Haven currently assists any child “who needs us,” Janet Walker, the present Executive Secretary, said recently.58 As all requests are considered on a personal rather than business level, the requirements are not stringent. Children as defined by law, eighteen or under, of parents who are unable to financially care for their health needs, that the need is immediate and not covered by other agencies—all are considered for assistance. Referrals come from public and private social agencies or from the medical and dental community. There is no advertising either for funds or patients, but both find Rest Haven.
As it enters its seventy-third year, Rest Haven Preventorium For Children can be proud of its position as a foundation that still responds to the needs of the community. It has uniquely held this concern since the inception of the organization. The cause of tuberculosis was a valid one and the organization was born at a time when its need was obvious; it naturally evolved into a child-oriented preventorium and currently as a foundation. Throughout the adversary years, it survived not by fate but because its cause was genuine and because there were people to push the cause.
Credit must be given to those people, and particularly to the Board members, who have guided its evolution; all have done so on a voluntary basis. Through the three phases of growth, i.e., before and after the specific emphasis on children and as a foundation, these members have brought their own particular expertise to Rest Haven.
The number of children who have benefited from Rest Haven cannot be statistically documented nor can we know to what extent it changed their lives. There have been thousands of them helped, by conservative number, for the organization has always emphasized temporary care. Gathered together in a collective biography, they would arrive at Rest Haven (or later to the foundation) as pale, listless children—not ill but not well. It would be a “refuge for those unfortunate children so run down physically that the dread tuberculosis threatens,” and where in the fresh air, good food and care, they became “brown, firm and plump.”
There was appreciation for what the organization did—from the community, from individuals and from “A Mother,” who wrote to “Ma” Mead in1931:59
I cannot allow another day to pass without trying to express my gratitude to you and your co-workers for all you have done for my daughter.
The year just passed has done far more for her than to give her a restored body and a firmer grip on health. She has attained a spiritual uplift, and a sound base for character building that could not have been given to her elsewhere. I can never say or do enough to give the praise due to Rest Haven. . . . I always think of Rest Haven as “little red roofs, sheltering precious souls,” and I have never seen them without a prayer of thankfulness swelling in my heart for what has been done for me and mine. . . .
I think it will please you to hear that before she had been home twenty-four hours, she was eager to go back again the next day and take advantage of its visiting day, for she was homesick to see the children.
A more complete history (in manuscript form) of Rest Haven, as well as photographs and records pertaining to the organization, can be found within the collections of the San Diego History Center’s Research Archives.
1. San Diego Department of Health, “San Diego County Reported Tuberculosis Cases 1920-78.”
2. Francis H. Mead, M.D., “Climate and Roads in San Diego,” in San Diego County California, Vol. I, by Samuel F. Black (Chicago: The S.J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1913), p. 346.
3. William W. Stead, M.D., “Understanding Tuberculosis Today: A Handbook for Patients” (Milwaukee, Wisconsin: Central Press), p. 5.
4. Leigh Mitchell Hodges, The People Against Tuberculosis: The Story of Christmas Seals (New York: The National Tuberculosis Association, 1942), pp. 19-21.
5. Ibid., p. 21.
6. Richard Harrison Shyrock, “National Tuberculosis Association, 1904-1954.”
7. Rest Haven Preventorium For Children, P.O. Box 2407, La Mesa, CA 92041, “Miscellaneous Records.”
8. Ibid., “Minutes,” August 24, 1920.
9. Ibid., April 24, 1920.
10. Ibid., April 8, 1921.
11. Ibid., “Minutes.”
12. San Diego Department of Health, Certificate of Death, Florence E. Mead.
13. San Diego Union, “Mrs. Florence Mead Succumbs Here,” November 29, 1949.
14. Ibid., “Tete-á-Tete, by Eileen Jackson,” November 30, 1930.
15. San Diego Department of Health, Certificate of Death, Florence E. Mead.
16. San Diego Union, November 30, 1930.
17. Ibid., May 7, 1933.
18. San Diego Sun, March 19, 1932.
19. Rest Haven, “Minutes.”
20. Hodges, Christmas Seals, p.28.
24. Ibid., p. 30.
25. Rest Haven, “Minutes,” March 5,1924, February 12, 1940, March 25,1940, May 15,1944.
26. Ibid., May-June, 1940.
27. Ibid., August 24, 1920.
28. Ibid., February 16, 1933.
29. American Lung Association of San Diego and Imperial Counties, Miscellaneous Records.
30. Rest Haven, “Minutes.”
31. Eugene Glenn, “Attorney to President, California Tuberculosis and Health Association,” February 22, 1946.
32. Rest Haven, “Minutes,” May 8, 1946.
33. American Lung Association, Miscellaneous Records.
34. Mrs. Eileen Jackson, personal interview, December 10, 1981.
35. Rest Haven, “Minutes.”
36. Ralph Phillips, personal interview, November 23, 1981.
37. Rest Haven, “Minutes,” January 30, 1950.
38. Ibid., August 28, 1950.
39. Ibid., December 11, 1950.
40. Ibid., August 28, 1950.
41. Ibid., December 11, 1950.
42. San Diego Union, January 17, 1951.
43. Rest Haven, “Minutes,” February 7, 1951.
44. San Diego Union, June 6, 1951.
45. Rest Haven, “Minutes,” January 22, 1951.
46. Ibid., April 9, 1951.
47. Ibid., June4, 1951.
48. Ibid., September 5, 1951.
49. Ibid., November 13, 1951.
50. Ibid., September 5, 1951.
51. Ibid., April 9, 1951.
52. Ibid., March 5, 1924.
53. Ibid., October 7, 1925.
54. Ibid., January 26, 1953.
55. Ibid., January 25, 1954.
57. Ibid., February 24, 1964.
58. Janet Walker, personal interview, November 30, 1981.
59. Rest Haven, “Records.”
THE PHOTOGRAPHS are courtesy of Rest Haven Preventorium for Children and the San Diego History Center Research Archives.