By Alexander D. Bevil
On the ten-year anniversary of Armistice Day, November 11, 1928, on a cold, wind-swept mesa a mile southeast of the Linda Vista Junction railroad station, Anita May Baldwin (1876-1939) laid a wreath of remembrance at the foot of a recently installed 12-foot-tall granite monument. Standing next to her at attention was retired Army Major General Frederick S. Strong. On the stone, a plaque commemorated the men of the United States Army’s 40th Infantry Division known as the “Sunshine Division.” It was composed of National Guard units from California and other Western states that had trained under General Strong’s command at Camp Stephen W. Kearny before shipping off to fight in France during World War I. The plaque also honored one of the Division’s heroic companies that sustained heavy losses as part of the famous “Lost Battalion.”1
While history has recognized the service and dedication to duty of General Strong and the men under his command, particularly those of the Lost Battalion, Anita Baldwin’s contributions have been largely unrecorded. The daughter of multi-millionaire Los Angeles County land baron Elias “Lucky” Baldwin, Anita raised $51,859 dollars for the 40th Division while it trained at Camp Kearny. An avowed horse-lover and special representative of the American Red Star Animal Relief Program, Baldwin funneled most of that money into veterinary equipment, supplies, and training for the officers and men assigned to the camp’s remount station. Without it, they would have had great difficulty in overseeing the health and welfare of thousands of the horses and mules that played a critical role in the Division’s training and eventual success during the war.
World War I was the first large-scale mechanized war. Both the Allied and Central Powers utilized railroads, trucks, and automobiles to transport men, weapons, ammunition, and supplies to the front. These, in turn, carried thousands of wounded soldiers back to aid stations and hospitals, particularly along the Western Front which extended along a meandering 440-mile long series of fortified trenches extending from the English Channel through Belgium, Luxembourg, and northwestern France, to Switzerland.2
By 1916, however, the opposing armies were faced with a logistical dilemma. How could they transport the equivalent of two 50-wagon supply trains carrying the 1,000 tons of supplies needed to sustain an average army division of about 12,000 men for one day between the forward supply depots and the front trenches?
Likewise, how could they transport wounded men back to first aid stations and field hospitals? The armies had been using existing and new standard-gauge railroad lines, highways and dirt roads to transport and maintain large stockpiles of ammunition, food, and supplies. Heavily laden trucks, however, had gouged deep ruts into poorly maintained dirt roads due to their narrow, solid-rubber tires. After a heavy rainfall, the roads became nearly impassible mud quagmires where many trucks, sunk down to their axles, were often obliterated by devastatingly accurate enemy artillery fire.3
The solution: draft animals. Just as armies had done one hundred years earlier during the Napoleonic Wars—and over practically the same ground—the opposing forces appropriated horses, mules, donkeys, and oxen to haul wheeled artillery pieces and ammunition caissons, supply wagons, field kitchens, and ambulances. They even utilized medium-to-large sized dogs to carry ammunition, food, and medical supply paniers, as well as to pull small supply carts and oneman ambulances.4 Although less efficient than motor transport (it took more wagons to carry fodder for the horses than food and ammunition for the men), these animals afforded better traction through deep mud and shell craters under all but the worst conditions. One British sanitary officer stated, “a truck could not get into and take cover in a ditch if need be, nor could it travel slowly enough (3 mph) to keep pace with a marching column of men.” In addition, armies continued to utilize horses for reconnaissance and as dragoons or dismounted combat troops, although cavalry units no longer engaged in suicidal frontal charges against concentrated machine gun and artillery fire.5
Due to their closeness to the front, mounts and draft animals were subject to the same dangers as the soldiers who rode or drove them. Animals were substantial targets out in the open. Their size and inability to take cover quickly often shortened their battlefield usefulness to a few days or hours. Indeed, casualty rates among military horses and mules were greater than among their riders or handlers. In addition to being killed or maimed by artillery, machine gun and small arms fire, war animals were subjected to poison gas attacks, infection, diseases, broken bones, malnutrition, and exhaustion.6 Over the course of the war, from August 1914 to November 1918, over 8 million animals died, only 500,000 fewer than their human counterparts.7
Sick or seriously injured war animals were treated and removed from combat zones as soon as possible. The British and Commonwealth armies, for example, in cooperation with the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, had established a chain of medical management similar to that recommended by the International Red Cross for wounded soldiers. First, officers of the Royal Veterinary Corps serving with a mounted unit or infantry brigade would try to stabilize the animal’s condition. They would then send the animal back under its own power or in a specially made horse ambulance to a mobile veterinary first aid/dressing station. From here, they transferred the animal to a larger field hospital. Located no more than four miles behind the front lines, and eight miles apart, the field station consisted of a cluster of surgical buildings with operating rooms containing 1917 veterinary surgical equipment. Outside were corrals, forage barns, and quarters and kitchen facilities for the staff of qualified veterinary doctors and trained helpers. Further down the chain, veterinary medical teams treated sick or wounded animals at larger Evacuation or Stationary Veterinary Hospitals, with facilities for as many as 2,000 animals. Under this system, the British were able to save and return about 80 percent of their wounded animals back to their units.8
Historians have argued that Germany’s inability to replace its draft animals to haul supplies and ammunition contributed to its eventual defeat. Great Britain and France, on the other hand, which had practically exhausted their supply of native horses early in the war, had nearly unlimited sources of animals from their overseas colonies and allied nations. Among the latter was the United States which reportedly had a reserve of about 22 million horses in 1914. Through a veiled Neutrality Act, U.S. ranchers and farmers sold and shipped over 1.5 million horses and mules to both Great Britain and France from 1914 to 1916.
Horses and mules were transported from the U.S. aboard trans-Atlantic freighters. It is estimated that 50 ships left every month. Animals that survived the trip were immediately incorporated into existing cavalry, artillery, transport or hospital units as much needed replacements. Many perished from disease or injury at sea, however, and thousands died in holding pens even before boarding the ships.9 This cost the U.S. government both millions of dollars and badly needed war animals. In 1916, United States Secretary of War Newton Baker wrote to Dr. William O. Stillman, president of the American Humane Association, imploring the organization to intervene to save and care for the millions of vitally important horses and mules. He requested help not only for animals awaiting shipment to fight overseas, but also for those serving in the U.S. forces.10
The result was the American Red Star Animal Relief Program.11 Organizers working from their new headquarters in Albany, New York, created an ad campaign to garner funds and attract volunteers. A recruitment poster depicted Italian painter Fortunino Matania’s moving illustration of a British artilleryman consoling a dying horse after taking off its bridle harness. The poster’s title, “Help the Horse to Save the Soldier,” became a rallying cry across the country.12 Through this and other successful fund-raising campaigns, the Red Star assisted in recruiting and training experienced veterinary surgeons, stable hands, and blacksmiths into the Army Veterinary Corps. Its volunteers also distributed literature and gave first aid instructions to soldiers handling animals in battlefield conditions. Equally important, the organization played a critical role in obtaining funds to purchase and donate much-needed medical supplies to the Veterinary Corps.13
One year after the Red Star’s creation, on April 6, 1917, the U.S. declared war on Imperial Germany and its allies. Arguably unprepared for war, the U.S. Army faced a logistical nightmare: how to acquire, process, train, distribute, and care for an estimated 750,000 horses and mules for its existing and newly formed cavalry, artillery, and transportation units prior to and during their deployment overseas.1
To facilitate its selection and distribution of horses and mules, the U.S. Army’s Quartermaster Corps relied on its Remount Service. Prior to the latter’s 1908 formation, the Quartermaster Corps had acquired privately owned ranch or farmbred animals under contract from regional purchasing depots. Under the new system, the Remount Service purchased less expensive younger horses or mules directly from breeders and trained them at Army remount stations.15 In addition to three permanent remount depots in Virginia, Montana, and Oklahoma, the Quartermaster Corps established 33 additional auxiliary remount depot stations associated with the Army’s new mobilization and training centers, one of which was at San Diego’s Camp Kearny.16
Established on July 18, 1917, Camp Kearny was an 8,000-acre war suburb of nearly 1,200 tents and structures on the Linda Vista mesa west of Miramar Ranch. Under the
command of Major General Frederick S. Strong, it mobilized, incorporated, and trained over 65,000 federalized National Guard troops from California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico into the Army’s 40th “Sunshine” Infantry Division. While at Camp Kearny, troops learned to function as a cohesive unit under simulated wartime conditions prior to their deployment to France.17 Like most contemporary U.S. Army divisions, the 40th contained motorized units that included artillery prime movers, trucks, and ambulances. However, its cavalry, artillery, machine gun, ammunition, supply, and field hospital companies relied heavily on horses and mules as mounts, draft wagon or pack animals.18
Three mobile Quartermaster Corps captains were in charge of purchasing and shipping new horses and mules from Los Angeles, Bakersfield, and Imperial Valley farms and ranches, but they also acquired some animals from as far away as the Pacific Northwest. At the camp’s new remount station, they were inspected, processed, and distributed out into the Division’s various headquarters, cavalry, artillery, transport, and ambulance units.19
Horses and mules were contained in what was officially designated as “Auxiliary Remount Depot Station No. 330.”20 Situated along a 400-foot high escarpment overlooking Rose Canyon and surrounded by natural grass-covered land suitable for ranging livestock, the remount station was located about a mile northwest of the camp’s main cantonment. A short bridge and telegraph line were its only links to the main camp.21 The complex contained separate administrative, housing and support buildings, including a fire station. A narrow canyon separated this from the animal storage area. The equivalent of a present-day stockyard, its main feature was a series of eight wood-fenced corrals. Built to standard Army regulations, each of the 150,000 sq. ft. corrals could hold and process 500 animals. Nearby were hay sheds, breeding barns, a quarantine inspection station, and isolation paddocks. There were also blacksmith shops and a large concrete storage tank that provided water to several long horse troughs.22
An approximately mile-long railroad spur extended east from the Santa Fe Railroad’s mainline at the newly built Linda Vista Station junction to a long wooden platform that facilitated the unloading of at least fourteen animal stock cars at a time into the remount station’s largest temporary holding corral.23 On the morning of September 15, 1917, nine days after the remount station’s completion, five stock car loads of 56 horses and 47 mules arrived in San Diego by rail. The following morning, five additional car loads arrived, with another six arriving that night.24 All during the unloading, the remount station’s staff culled out and sent any sick or injured animals to one of the station’s four isolation corrals where they could be treated. Once recuperated, they rejoined the healthy animal population before being disbursed throughout the division.
The Army was keen to protect its investment, with the result that an armed cavalry detail provided security. At its peak, Camp Kearny’s remount station held approximately 4,614 animals. Given an estimated average value of between $140 and $215 a head for horses and mules, respectively, this represented a combined value of over $1,637,970.25
Captain John R. Valentine was the supervising commander of the remount station. A well-known East Coast horse expert, he reportedly had high praise for the new stock. He described the mules as “young, strong and of good size” and said that they had “shipped well” with no obvious injuries. He also noted that there were no unbroken “outlaws” in the bunch. As more and more animals came in from open ranges, however, experienced “bronco busters” would be required to “teach them their lessons.”26 Capt. Valentine and his staff of two officers, fifty enlisted men, and assorted civilian employees were responsible for the animals’ grooming and feeding. They also operated a horse-handling school where dozens of Army officers, sergeants, and enlisted men learned to safely handle the animals as farriers, packers and teamsters. Additionally, the acting chief veterinary officer, Lieutenant P. O. Cooper, and seven assistant Army veterinarians were responsible for the animals’ health and well-being.27
The American Red Star Animal Relief Program’s National Headquarters took an immediate interest in Camp Kearny’s remount station. Around October 3, 1917, President Stillman sent a telegraph to Anita Baldwin, the founder and chair of the Red Star’s Los Angeles County chapter. He personally requested that Baldwin act as his special investigative agent, visit Camp Kearny, and report back about the remount station’s current condition.
A 41-year-old divorcee, Baldwin was the wealthy daughter of the late nineteenth-century California mining investor, land baron, and entrepreneur Elias J. “Lucky” Baldwin. In addition to inheriting $100,000, she acquired her father’s love for raising prize livestock at his 3,500-acre Santa Anita Ranch. Located 13 miles northeast of downtown Los Angeles, near Arcadia, the Santa Anita Ranch included the Baldwin Race Track, a stable of champion race horses, and kennels holding pedigree show dogs.28 As Special Agent and later Southern California Field Director of the Red Star program, she was responsible for helping create and guide the Los Angeles and San Diego chapters to raise some $51,859, half of which she donated herself.29 She also played a key local role in the nascent American Red Star Animal Relief Program’s national organizational framework.30
Baldwin, accompanied by her ranch veterinarian Dr. Theodore J. Stover and her two young children, arrived via automobile in San Diego on the morning of October 6, 1917. She and Dr. Stover immediately proceeded to conduct an on-site inspection of the remount station with the Army’s full cooperation.31
A well-known philanthropist, Baldwin channeled her love of horses, dogs, and country into the recently formed American Red Star Animal Relief Program. After arguing her case for a local Red Star chapter in the rapidly mobilizing Southern California area, Baldwin was gratified when the national headquarters approved her application on May 1, 1917. She provided free office space for the chapter’s headquarters in a downtown Los Angeles office building that she owned. As the Los Angeles County chapter’s respective president and vice president, Baldwin and Dr. Stover immediately set about recruiting a staff of mounted veterinarians and 25 animal attendants. They also procured a motor truck, horse ambulance, tents, and other essential items.32
Baldwin took a leadership role in soliciting funding for the local chapter’s veterinary staff and equipment. On two Sundays, June 3 and August 5, 1917, she held eight-hour open-house receptions at her ranch in Arcadia to promote the Red Star’s work. For twenty-five cents, visitors, guided by Red Star volunteers, could walk through the ranch’s magnificently landscaped grounds, with its tropical gardens populated with 500 peacocks. Those interested in animal husbandry could tour the cow barns, pig pens, and dog kennels; they could also view the horse stables of “Rey el Santa Anita,” the four-time winner of the American Derby, and other champions.33 Baldwin also sponsored complimentary luncheons at a downtown Los Angeles hotel to discuss organizing an annual relief event to raise more funds to support the Red Star.34
Along with several other early twentieth-century female philanthropists (like Great Britain’s Nina Douglas-Hamilton, the Duchess of Hamilton, and the U.S.’s Caroline Earle White), Baldwin used her wealth and social rank to advocate animal welfare, which provided her with a leadership role in an otherwise male-dominated society.35 As chair of the Red Star’s special investigative agency, Baldwin was able to speak one-on-one with authority to U.S. Army officers, as well as their boss, Secretary of War Baker.36
Baldwin was also highly patriotic. One month after the federal government ordered California’s National Guard to mobilize, she offered her Arcadia ranch as a temporary camp. This included the Baldwin Race Track and her spacious ranch house, which she recommended be converted into a military hospital.37 On March 27, 1917, the California National Guard’s 7th Infantry Regiment—consisting of cavalry, artillery, and field hospital units from Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties—agreed to set up a temporary bivouac at the 183- acre race track. A year later, as the regiment reached its full complement of 1,860 men, it relocated to San Diego where it was federalized and incorporated into the new 40th Division forming at Camp Kearny as the 160th U.S. Army Infantry Regiment.38 Once the Regiment vacated, the U.S. Army replaced it with the Camp Arcadia Army Balloon School/Ross Field.39
Baldwin also contributed to the war effort by responding to a nationwide request by Secretary of War Baker to produce a particular breed of American war dog to accompany American troops in France. Originated by an English dog breeder, it was a mix of Airedale Terrier and Old English Sheep Dog that British troops at the Western Front praised for its faithfulness, intelligence, tenacity, and courage under fire. Baldwin successfully bred and donated five Airedale/Sheep Dog-mixes to the U.S. Army. On February 1, 1918, two dogs—Thor and Mars— arrived at the 144th Field Artillery’s headquarters at Camp Kearny. After a few weeks training with their handlers, the dogs were “ready to attack an enemy soldier on sight.”40 Six German Shepherd police dogs, graduates of Pasadena’s Army and Police Dog Training Center, joined Baldwin’s war dogs. A gift from Pasadena resident Freeman Ford (and worth $6,000), the German Shepherds were noted for their intelligence, strength, fearlessness and eagerness to please their handlers.41
Camp Kearny’s war dogs received practical training as guards, scouts, messengers, and Red Cross rescue dogs along the camp’s simulated trench network before accompanying the 40th Division as part of General John J. Pershing’s American Expeditionary Force (AEF). Carrying first aid kits and water flasks strapped to their necks or in panniers, Red Cross rescue dogs were trained to bravely venture out into No Man’s Land seeking out wounded or dying men. Upon finding one, they stayed and notified nearby stretcher bearers via a prearranged cry to their locations. Larger breeds were also used to draw individual two-wheeled Red Cross ambulances carrying seriously wounded men back to first aid stations or field hospitals. To the mortally wounded soldier, the dogs simply afforded comfort and companionship during their final moments. Often subject to the same hellish enemy fire and explosions as front-line troops, a war dog’s life expectancy at the front might be measured in less than four days.42
Other war animals donated to Camp Kearny included a flock of young carrier pigeons. Because no federal special appropriation had been set aside for their acquisition, Colonel Thornwell Mullally, commander of the 40th Division’s 144th Field Artillery, had purchased all but two of the pigeons with his own money. Col. Mullally also paid for the construction of the birds’ coop. Like the horses, mules and dogs, the carrier or “homing” pigeons were tactically and strategically important to the camp’s trainees. Flying at 24 mph or faster, the birds were often more reliable in relaying messages under combat conditions than radio or telegraph communication devices.43 Along with the war dogs, Camp Kearny’s carrier pigeons were the first used by the U.S. Army Signal Corps in a cantonment west of the Mississippi. Another alleged first was the Associated Press reporters’ use of carrier pigeons to send dispatches back to camp headquarters while accompanying mobile units on field maneuvers throughout San Diego’s mountainous backcountry.44 While in France, the AEF utilized as many as 600 carrier pigeons. One of these, Cher Ami, purportedly saved the lives of several former 40th Division men at the Western Front during the “Siege of the ‘Lost Battalion.’”45
The care and welfare of Camp Kearny’s carrier pigeons, along with the other war animals, was of primary importance to Baldwin and Dr. Stover during their October 6, 1917, inspection tour of the remount station. The veterinary units did not have enough surgical dressings, instruments or medical supplies. Baldwin assured the remount station’s commanding officer that the Red Star, which had already donated over $1,800 in veterinary supplies to other Army bases, would provide those items, as well as much-needed horse blankets, halters, and shelter tents. Before she left Camp Kearny, Baldwin donated several cases of medicines that she had purchased with her own money.
Dr. Stover, meanwhile, remained to give a series of lectures at the remount station on animal first aid and improving sanitation and handling conditions. Over the course of the remount station’s short existence, other animal health experts also gave lectures and showed films on animal first aid during actual wartime conditions at the remount station.46
On October 10, 1917, Baldwin returned to San Diego to attend a meeting with local businessmen and Army officials about the Red Star program. She explained that the group had no intention of “intruding” on the remount station’s operations but sought only to assist it by providing supplies, veterinary training, and volunteers. She outlined ways in which a local office could attract members and funding to obtain those goals.47 A local Red Star fundraising event had been held five months earlier, but it did not have a backer with her passion or drive.48 Baldwin, meanwhile, was a seasoned fundraiser. In addition to holding fundraising events at her ranch, she organized pedigree dog shows among other activities.49 Her efforts, and those of other women, resulted in $50,000 for the Los Angeles Red Star’s new downtown branch office.50
On March 25, 1918, the officers and men of the 160th Infantry Regiment invited Baldwin to Camp Kearny as their guest of honor at a military review. She stood next to Brigadier General Herman Hall, Commanding Officer of the Regiment’s 80th Infantry Brigade, dressed in a new Red Star uniform of her own design. The all-tan-colored uniform consisted of a wool blouse over a long skirt covering breeches or “knickerbockers.” Completing the ensemble was a military-cut woolen great coat, an officer’s visor cap, and tan leather riding boots. Distinguishing features included bronze buttons, embossed with red stars, and a white brassard on the left arm with the Red Star insignia. Baldwin also proudly wore two sets of silver colonel’s eagles on her shoulder straps and collar tabs that the regiment had given her as a token of their appreciation for her generosity, which included her donation of a fine horse to Colonel Charles M. Hutchins, the regiment’s commander.51
Local San Diego businessman and dog breeder William Clayton was sufficiently impressed by Baldwin to offer her the use of an office in the Spreckels Building. President of the newly formed San Diego Kennel Club, Clayton assured her that the club would take an active role in obtaining, training, and donating war dogs to the Army. In fact, the San Diego Kennel Club was one of the first dog clubs on the West Coast to do so. With Baldwin’s assistance and guidance, the club also organized San Diego’s first nationally sanctioned dog show in February 1918, known as the “Red Star Show.” To boost attendance, military personnel were encouraged to enter their own pets or mascots.52 As a result of this and subsequent local dog shows, many wealthy businessmen including Ulysses S. Grant, Jr., and O.J. Stough, joined San Diego’s new Red Star chapter.53 Their memberships, combined with attendance sales and donations, helped underwrite the purchase and delivery of bandages, medicines, and training manuals.
In July 1918, Baldwin—now Red Star’s Southern California Field Director— participated in the dedication of Camp Kearny’s new Red Star emergency veterinary station. The station included offices, storerooms, and an automobile for use by the Veterinary Corps’ Emergency Response Team. Veterinarian Major Coleman Nockolds and his staff of 25 mounted Red Star volunteer assistants wore white armbands with red stars to denote their non-combat status.
Thanks to Baldwin and the local Red Star chapter, the station had two, new, well-equipped Red Star-donated horse ambulances.54 Pulled by four mules, the horse ambulances were built specifically for Army veterinary teams to transport sick or disabled horses or mules from a battlefield to rear aid stations or hospitals. A four-wheeled horse stall with a rear ramp and an arched canvas roof with rolldown canvas siding, a horse ambulance contained drugs, medicines, bandages, blankets, and other paraphernalia to stabilize and comfort a stricken animal so that it could be transported back to a veterinary aid station.55 Because of standardization, the Red Star ambulances were notably cheaper to produce than earlier versions.56 Camp Kearny’s horse ambulances saw their first action on June 8, 1918, when one driven by the Veterinary Corps’ Emergency Response Team traveled 32 miles on the road toward Lake Cuyamaca to retrieve a lame mule belonging to the 115th Engineers’ supply train.57
Camp Kearny’s new emergency and existing veterinary quarantine stations acted as stop-gap measures until the Veterinary Corps erected a larger base hospital. On July 9, 1918, Baldwin, Major Nockolds, and General Strong inspected and agreed on a proposed site at the remount station.58 Baldwin had personally travelled to Washington, D.C. to meet with War Secretary Baker to assure him that the Red Star’s National Headquarters would fund the hospital’s construction and operation.59 For reasons beyond Baldwin’s control, the hospital was never constructed.60
After World War I ended with the signing of an Armistice on November 11, 1918, the U.S. Army began decommissioning and dismantling its western training centers, including their remount stations. First, however, the Army disposed of thousands of surplus horses and mules through hundreds of animal auctions held between January and March 1919. One of the earliest was held on January 10, 1919, at the Camp Kearny remount station. Auctioneers sold off as many as 900 horses, 15 colts, and 600 mules to hundreds of local and out-of-town bidders. City Councilmen Walter Moore’s and Will Palmer’s successful bid of $590 resulted in four former army mules for San Diego’s Street Department. After the City Veterinarian gave them a clean bill of health, they were christened “Pershing,” “Foch,” “Strong,” and “Fay.”61
By the end of August 1919, the remount station still held some 500 mules that were transferred to the U.S. Army garrison in the Philippines. Mule handlers or muleteers were supposed to load them onto stock cars for a short train ride down to San Diego’s municipal pier, where they were loaded onto a commercial freighter, the SS Dix. 62 A railroad workers’ strike, however, meant that the animals could not be sent by rail.63 Undaunted, the remount station’s new commander, Colonel David L. Roscoe, ordered 100 muleteers, each in charge of five mules, to drive the herd along the railway tracks and down to the pier in the early hours of the morning. A local newspaper reporter colorfully described some of the more recalcitrant mules as “wilder than cuckoo bird[s] at twilight.” They reached the pier six hours later. While the dirty and tired men were treated to a late lunch break on board the SS Dix, stevedores hoisted the mules onto the ship’s hold, which reportedly took eight hours to accomplish. The following day, the SS Dix left port for Manila.64
The Army decommissioned and closed Camp Kearny on October 31, 1920, despite local lobbying for it becoming a permanent facility.65 Over the next two years, the Army held a series of auctions to solicit salvage contractors to dismantle the former camp’s buildings for their lumber, electrical, and gas fixtures. Auctions held at the remount station disposed of thousands of dollars’ worth of surplus leather harnesses, tack, wagons, and other horse-drawn vehicles, including a remaining horse ambulance. After making a winning bid, the W. D. Hall & Company of El Cajon began dismantling the remount station’s buildings and corrals in early March 1921. Lee Meachum, the company’s secretary, announced that his company would sell the salvaged lumber in all parts of the county but particularly for use in El Cajon for chicken houses.66 By 1942 there was hardly any trace of the remount station or the headquarters complex across the canyon with the exception of several abandoned dirt roads leading to the outlines of several building foundations and tent pads.67
During their short operations, Army remount stations like Camp Kearny’s held, processed, acclimated, cared for, and distributed hundreds of thousands of animals among hundreds of training units throughout the United States prior to their deployment to the Western Front. Although over 42,000 of the estimated 750,000 Army horses and mules died during the conflict, many others survived. According to the president of the American Humane Society, 80 percent of all wounded animals subject to Red Star veterinary first aid, evacuation, and treatment at field stations or rear hospitals had been successfully returned to the Front.68
Baldwin continued her humanitarian and philanthropic work as president and vice-president of the Los Angeles Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.69 On October 27, 1920, the American Humane Association’s National Board of Directors honored her for “making [the Los Angeles chapter] the foremost anticruelty society on the Pacific Coast” by electing her as its honorary vicepresident.70
She also received numerous accolades for her services during the war. In 1921, French President Millerand, King Albert of Belgium, and Great Britain’s King George V officially honored Baldwin for her Red Star work.71 Major Strong wrote that her work with the Red Star at Camp Kearny was just as important “for the benefit of animals used in military service that the Red Cross is doing for the [military] personnel.”72 Secretary of War Baker sent her a personal letter thanking her for “securing [the] humane treatment of horses and other animals at Camp Kearny and for furnishing her own veterinarian for work on army animals at the [Baldwin racetrack] camp.”73
Perhaps the most heartfelt displays of gratitude came from her “godchildren.” In June 1918, just two months before their deployment, the men of the 160th Infantry Regiment selected her to be the regiment’s “godmother” in thanks for her many gifts. When they returned to the U.S., “Colonel” Baldwin welcomed them home with a barbecue under the shade of oak trees at her ranch. The unit demobilized shortly afterwards.74
In 1928, on the tenth anniversary of Armistice Day, Baldwin and retired General Strong returned to the site of Camp Kearny’s former headquarters compound. Standing in its place was a 12-foot-tall, triangular-shaped granite boulder sitting on a 24-foot-square raised concrete and cobblestone base. Attached was a large bronze plaque dedicated to the men of the 40th Division. A smaller plaque honored Captain Nelson M. Holderman and the men under his command who were part of the “Lost Battalion.”75 The memorial existed for over a decade before it was removed by the Navy during the conversion of the former Camp Kearny tent and parade ground area into Naval Auxiliary Air Station Camp Kearny.76
In 1942, three years after Baldwin’s death at age 63, San Diego’s American Red Star Animal Relief program office reorganized after the U.S. entered World War II.77 The Red Star continues to serve as an integral component of the American Humane Association’s animal rescue team which has responded to virtually every major disaster relief effort including earthquakes, hurricanes, and local wildfires and floods.78
Today, a sprawling industrial park covers the area where Camp Kearny’s remount station’s buildings and corrals once stood. The railroad wye and approximately a mile of double-track siding still exist, however, between Consolidated Way and Miramar Road.79 In keeping with the two-year commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the United States’ involvement in the Great War, a local grass-roots movement is attempting to locate and reassemble the two bronze memorial plaques dedicated to the men of the 40th Division.80 Perhaps an additional bronze plaque would be appropriate to commemorate the patriotic work of Anita May Baldwin, who, along with members of San Diego’s local chapter of the American Red Star Animal Relief Program, helped horses in order to save American soldiers’ lives.
1. The plaques and memorial were removed some time prior to the 1940 establishment of Naval
Auxiliary Air Station Miramar.
2. Mark Whitmore, “Transport and Supply during the First World War,” Imperial War Museums,
July 4, 2017); BBC, “Animated Map: The Western Front, 1914-1918,” in History, http://www.bbc.
co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/launch_ani_western_front.shtml (accessed July 16, 2017).
3. Whitmore, “Transport and Supply during the First World War.”
4. Ibid.; Matthew Shaw, “Animals and War,” The British Library: World War One, January 24,
2014, https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/animals-and-war (accessed July 5, 2017);
Leah Tams, “How Did Animals (Even Slugs) Serve in World War I?” Stories from the National
Museum of American History, http://americanhistory.si.edu/blog/how-did-animals-even-slugsserve-world-war-i
(accessed, June 8, 2017); “Transportation Contests Held at Camp Kearny,”
The San Diego Union, March 17, 1918, 6.
5. “Present War Teaches Big Sanitary Lessons,” The San Jose Mercury Herald, February 28, 1915, 21.
6. Tams, “How Did Animals…Serve;” American Humane Association, “Origin of American
Humane Association’s Animal Rescue Program,” Celebrating a Century of Compassion: 100 Years
of Animal Rescue,” 2, http://kindness100.org/pdfs/100-years-of-animal-rescue.pdf (accessed
June 7, 2017); “Millions of Horses Are Used by Armies,” The New York Times, March 17, 1918,
68; “Dogs and Horses often War Heroes,” The New York Times, October 21, 1917, 5; “American
Red Star Animal Relief to Be Beneficiary of Show,” The San Diego Union, August 5, 1918,
28; Richard van Emden, Tommy’s Ark: Soldiers and Their Animals in the Great War (London:
Bloomsbury, 2010), 179; Louis A. Dimarco, War Horse: a History of the Military Horse and Rider
(Yardley: Westholme Publishing, 2008), 310, 346.
7. American Humane Association, “Origin of American Humane Association’s Animal Rescue
Program,” 2; Alan Taylor, “World War I in Photos: Animals in War,” The Atlantic, April 27, 2014,
(accessed July 4, 2017); Encyclopedia Britannica, “Killed, Wounded and Missing,” World War
I, 1914-1918, https://www.britannica.com/event/World-War-I/Killed-wounded-and-missing
(accessed, July 7, 2017).
8. “Millions of Horses Are Used by Armies,” 68; Emily Upton, “The Horses of World War I,” Today
I Found Out, March 7, 2014, http://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/2014/03/horses-worldwar/
(accessed June 8, 2017); van Emden, Tommy’s Ark, 117, 178.
9. “Millions of Horses Are Used by Armies,” 68; Shaw, “Animals and War;” Upton, “The Horses of
World War I;” Taylor, “Animals in War.” Reportedly, thousands of horses and mules perished
in sinking transport ships torpedoed by German submarines. Taylor, “Animals in War.”
10. American Humane Association, “Origin of American Humane Association’s Animal Rescue
Program, 2. Created in 1877, the American Humane Society’s ongoing mission is to ensure
the welfare and prevent cruelty, abuse, neglect, and exploitation of children and animals.
American Humane, “History,” http://www.americanhumane.org/about-us/history/ (accessed
June 8, 2017).
11. The American Red Star Animal Relief Program was similar to the Swiss International Red Star,
the French Purple Cross, and the British Blue Cross and Fund for Wounded Horses at the Front.
12. Fortunino Matania, Help the Horse to Save the Soldier [poster], University of North Carolina at
Chapel Hill Library: Documenting the American South, http://docsouth.unc.edu/wwi/41932/100.
html (accessed June 8, 2017).
13. Tams, “How Did Animals…Serve;” American Humane, “History;” “American Red Star
Animal Relief to Be Beneficiary of Show,” 28; Blue Cross Fund for Wounded Horses at the Front, Our Dumb Friends’ League [war poster], ca. 1916, https://www.pinterest.com/
pin/534591418250759328/ (accessed June 8, 2017); “War Dog Show to Teach San Diegans Value
of Those Animals on Battle Fronts,” The San Diego Union, January 20, 1918, 8; “Red Cross for
Animals,” The New York Times, April 2, 1917, 13.
14. “Millions of Horses Are Used by Armies,” 68. Although the United States Army would acquire
as many as 300,259 domestic American horses and mules between January 1, 1917, and January
1, 1919, it was only able to ship about 30,329 of these to France. As a result, it would have to
acquire an additional 175,185 animals from French, British, and Spanish sources to meet
the American Expeditionary Force’s needs. Benedict Crowell, America’s Munitions, 1917-
1918 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1919), http://www.gutenberg.org/
files/48428/48428-h/48428-h.htm#Page_177 (accessed June 10, 2017).
15. Remount station-trained animals had a much longer period of usefulness than those obtained
from a purchasing depot. George M. Rommel, “The Army Remount Problem,” Reprinted from
the Twenty-seventh Annual Report of the Bureau of Animal Industry  (Washington,
D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1911), 114-116, California Digital Library. https://archive.
org/details/armyremountprobl00rommrich (accessed June 10, 2017).
16. Crowell, America’s Munitions, 1917-1918; John Martin, “Patriotism and Profit: San Diego’s
Camp Kearny,” The Journal of San Diego History 58, no. 4 (Fall 2012): 247, 251 and 263; “10,000
Horses for U.S. Soldiers at Camp Kearny,” The Bakersfield Californian, August 8, 1917, 6; “Speed
Is Keynote in Work on San Diego’s War Suburb,” The San Diego Union, August 16, 1917, 5.
17. Martin, “Patriotism and Profit,” 261-263, 268; “Speed Is Keynote,” 5; California Military History
Online, “Camp Kearny,” Historic California Posts, Camps, Stations and Airfields, http://www.
militarymuseum.org/cpKearney2.html (accessed June 10, 2017); “Condensed Histories of
the Divisions of the United States Army,” The History of the First World War, Vol. IV: Pictorial
Survey—1918 (New York: Grolier Incorporated, 1965), Appendix B, viii.
18. Major General Leonard Wood, U.S.A., “Training the Citizen Army: the American Infantry
Combat Division and Its Training for the World War,” The History of the First World War, Vol.
III: Pictorial Survey—1917-1918 (New York: Grolier Incorporated, 1965), 856, 858-861; Greg
Krenzelok, “Auxiliary Remount Depot Stations in the United States during WW1,” The Army
Veterinary Service during the Great War, WWI, http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.
html (accessed July 16, 2017); “40th Division in Training at Camp Kearny, California,” April
1918, The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs: Photography
Collection, The New York Public Library Digital Collections, http://digitalcollections.nypl.
org/items/510d47d9-beb5-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99 (accessed August 12, 2017); “Review [of]
40th Division [Artillery at] Camp Kearny, San Diego, CAL,” March 9, 1918, San Diego History
Center (hereafter SDHC), Photograph Archives, #k05; “Supply Train of the Sunshine Division
Passes in Review,” April 7, 1918, in Record Group 165: Records of the War Department General and
Special Staffs, 1860-1952, Series: American Unofficial Collection of World War I Photographs, 1917-
1918, File Unit: Military Administration-Supply Service, https://catalog.archives.gov/id/45501640
(accessed August 7, 2017).
19. “Big Breeding Camps Will Be Established,” The Bakersfield Californian, August 22, 1917, 2; “Camp
Kearny is Nearing Completion,” Riverside Daily Press, September 19, 1917, 2.
20. United States Geological Survey [USGS], Topographical Map of La Jolla, California (1930); “Animal
Hospital to Be Built Soon,” The San Diego Evening Tribune, March 17, 1918, 13.
21. Al Brown, “Permanency of Camp Kearny Is Shown in Building Plans; Climate Big Factor,”
The San Diego Union, September 19, 1917, 1; Al Brown, “Construction Scheme Laid on Lines
Indicating Change,” San Diego Weekly Union, September 20, 1917, 3; “The Remount Station
at Camp Kearny Is Ready,” The Bakersfield Morning Echo, October 4, 1917, 9. Completed on
October 4, 1917, the remount station reportedly cost the Army $100,000, the equivalent of
$1,913,710 in 2017. CoinNews.net, U.S .Inflation Calculator, http://www.usinflationcalculator
22. Camp Kearny Remount Station,” December 1917, in United States Library of Congress,
Prints & Photographs Online Catalog, photograph no. LC-DIG-ds-07820, http://www.loc.
gov/pictures/item/2007664536/ (accessed August 7, 2017); “10,000 Horses for U.S. Soldiers at
Camp Kearny,” 6; “Grand Review at Camp Kearny on 22nd February,” 4; “Noted Sportsman
Comes to Command Remount Camp Here,” The San Diego Weekly Union, September 6, 1917, 6;
“Great Activity at Camp Kearny,” The Bakersfield Morning Echo, September 23, 1917, 10; “Camp
Lewis Ideal Cantonment Site,” The Bakersfield Morning Echo, October 30, 1917, 6; “$400,000
Building Program on at Camp,” The Bakersfield Morning Echo, January 22, 1918, 7; “Erect New
Fire Station at Camp,” The Bakersfield Californian, June 1, 1918, 5; “Remount Station for Camp,”
The San Diego Weekly Union, August 9, 1918, 12.
23. “Camp Kearny Remount Station,” December 1917, U.S. Library of Congress, photograph no.
LC-DIG-ds-07820; “Spur Railroad Laid One Mile at Cantonment,” The San Diego Union, July
9, 1917, 1. Still in limited use, the historic spur rail line is located just west of USMC Miramar
Air Station’s northwestern corner boundary, between Miramar Road and Consolidated Way.
USGS, Topographical Map of La Jolla, California (1930); Topographical Maps of Del Mar, California
(1943 and 2015).
24. “Great Activity at Camp Kearny,” The Bakersfield Morning Echo, September 23, 1917, 10; “More
Horses and Mules in for Kearny’s Remount Camp,” The San Diego Union, September 17, 1917,
5; “Horses and Mules Arrive in Camp,” The San Diego Weekly Union, September 20, 1917, 3.
25. Krenzelok, “Auxiliary Remount Depot Stations in the United States during WW1.” The
inflationary equivalent for the Army’s new horses and mules would be between $2,267 and
$3,481, respectively, one hundred years later. The inflated average value for 4,614 horses and
mules would be equivalent to slightly over $31 million dollars today. CoinNews.net, US
Inflation Calculator (accessed July 17, 2017).
26. Krenzelok, “Auxiliary Remount Depot Stations in the United States during WW1;” “Northern
Half of Camp to Be Hurried Through,” The San Diego Weekly Union, September 20, 1917, 6;
“Horse Buyers Will Be Situated at Palo Alto Soon,” The Bakersfield Californian, March 7, 1918,
II-1; “American Red Star Animal Relief [Horse Ambulance at Camp Kearny],” ca. 1918, SDHC,
Photograph Archives, #4547-4. A wealthy amateur polo player and huntsman, Captain
Valentine had owned and operated two successful cattle and horse-breeding farms at Bryn
Mawr, Pennsylvania, and Baltimore, Maryland, before receiving his commission in 1917.
“Noted Sportsman Comes to Command Remount Station Here,” 6; “Millionaire Horse Breeder
Gives up Interests for U.S.,” The Los Angeles Evening Herald, October 4, 1917, II-1.
27. “Horses and Mules Arrive in Camp,” 3; “Grand Review at Camp Kearny on 22nd February,”
The Bakersfield Morning Echo, February 14, 1918, 4; “Train Steeds for War Work,” The Los Angeles
Evening Herald, September 10, 1918, 9; “1000 Head Now in Remount Station,” The San Diego
Evening Tribune, September 18, 1917, 7; “Patience and Gentleness with Animals Rule at Camp’s
Big Remount Station; Get Results,” The San Diego Weekly Union, September 27, 1917, 2; “Horse
Shoer and Stable Sergeants Schooled at [Camp] Lewis, The Bakersfield Morning Echo, January
4, 1918, 10; “George Burton Here on Short Furlough,” The Bakersfield Morning Echo, April 1,
1918, 3; “Expert Teamsters and Packers Turned out by Training School of Remount Station at
Camp,” The San Diego Union, June 4, 1918, 6.
28. “Anita Baldwin, Colorful Figure in History of California, Dies,” The Madera Tribune, October 25,
1939, 1; “Anita Baldwin,” December 24, 1929, U.S. Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs
Online Catalog, Photograph no. LC-DIG-ggbain-26036, http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/
ggb2006001450/ (accessed August 7, 2017). Reportedly the wealthiest landowner in Southern
California, “Lucky” Baldwin parlayed his initial fortune in silver and gold mines into land,
and once owned more than 40,000 acres in Los Angeles County alone. After acquiring the
former Mexican California-era Rancho Santa Anita, he transformed it into a highly lucrative
venture as a breeding center for thoroughbred race studs, with a race track on which they compete.
Alvaro Parra, “Elias ‘Lucky’ Baldwin: Land Baron of Southern California,” September
5, 2013, KCET: Departures, “Leimbert Park,” https://www.kcet.org/shows/departures/eliaslucky-baldwin-land-baron-of-southern-california
(accessed July 23, 2017). Adjusted for inflation,
Baldwin’s inheritance would have been over $2,613,299. Morgan Friedman, The Inflation
Calculator, https://westegg.com/inflation/infl.cgi (accessed July 12, 2017).
29.“Red Star Disbands,” II-1. This would add up to around $51,960 today. CoinNews.net, U.S.
Inflation Calculator, http://www.usinflationcalculator.com/ (accessed July 23, 2017).
30. “Anita Baldwin Is Appointed So. Cal. Field Director,” 2; “100,000 Rookies May Encamp at
Arcadia,” The Los Angeles Evening Herald, May 7, 1918, 5.
31. “Trip of Inspection,” The Los Angeles Times, October 5, 1917, I-5; “Mrs. Baldwin to Visit Camp
Kearny,” The San Diego Evening Tribune, October 4, 1917, 7; “Conditions Good at Camp Kearny,
Says Mrs. Baldwin,” The San Diego Weekly Union, October 7, 1917, 6; “Will Take Steps for Animal
Aid Work Here Today,” The San Diego Union, October 10, 1917, 5.
32. “Mrs. Baldwin Will Form Humane Corps,” The Los Angeles Evening Herald, May 1, 1917, 9; “L.A.
Quarters of Animal Aid Corps Open,” The Los Angeles Evening Herald, May 7, 1917, 12.
33. “Unique Reception at Santa Anita Rancho,” The Los Angeles Times, May 27, 1917, II-8; “Anita
Baldwin to Open Ranch for Annual Benefit,” The Los Angeles Evening Herald, July 19, 1917, 11.
Baldwin repeated this fundraiser three times.
34. “Anita Baldwin to Give ‘Star Luncheon’,” The Los Angeles Evening Herald, December 4, 1917, 22.
35. “Nina Douglas-Hamilton, Duchess of Hamilton,” in Revolvy, https://topics.revolvy.com/topic/
August 6, 2017); “First Animal Shelter in U.S. Due to Caroline Earle White,” America Comes
(accessed August 6, 2017).
36. Alma Whitaker, “Women’s Work, Women’s Clubs,” The Los Angeles Times, January 24, 1918,
II-3; Gregg Tripoli, “A Brief History of Local Female Philanthropists,” in Women’s Fund of
Central New York, http://www.womensfundofcny.org/history-women-philanthropy/briefhistory-local-female-philanthropists
(accessed July 21, 2017); Molly McClain, Ellen Browning
Scripps: New Money and American Philanthropy, 1836-1932 (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska
Press, 2017), xii and xx.
37. “Mrs. Anita Baldwin Offers Her Home for U.S. Hospital,” The Los Angeles Evening Herald, April
4, 1917, II-1.
38. “Militia May Mobilize at Arcadia,” The Los Angeles Evening Herald, March 26, 1917, 1; “L. A. Militia
Responds to Call to Mobilize,” The Los Angeles Evening Herald, March 26, 1917, 1; “Santa Ana Is
Banner Company at Enlisting,” The Los Angeles Evening Herald, March 27, 1917, 3; Ruth Sterry,
“So. Cal. Heroes Eager to Go to War,” The Los Angeles Evening Herald, May 17, 1917, 1; California
Military History Online, “40th Division Order of Battle, 1917,” http://www.militarymuseum.
org/40thORBAT17.html (accessed July 12, 2017) and “National Guard of California Order of
Battle, 1914,” http://www.militarymuseum.org/NGCORBAT.html (accessed August 1, 2017).
39. “Ship Material for Balloon School Here,” The Los Angeles Evening Herald, March 13, 1918, 6; Justin
Rughe, “Camp Arcadia (Ross Field), California Military History Online: Historic California Posts,
Camps, Stations and Airfields, http://www.militarymuseum.org/CpArcadia.html (accessed
August 2, 2017); Richard DesChenes, The Army Balloon School [at] Ross Field, Arcadia,
California, http://www.militarymuseum.org/BalloonSch.html (accessed August 2, 2017).
40. “Plan for Dog Training School Pleases Pasadena,” The Los Angeles Evening Herald, April 24,
1916, 5; “America’s First War Dogs Make Their Bow,” The Los Angeles Times, November 3, 1917,
II-1; “War Dogs May Go to Camp Kearny,” The Los Angeles Evening Herald, January 24, 1918,
13;” “First War Dogs Are Sent to Camp Kearny,” Los Angeles Times, February 1, 1918, II-5; “War
Dogs Bred by Mrs. Baldwin Beat Famed German Dogs,” The Los Angeles Evening Herald, April
4, 1918, 9; “War Dogs Featured at the ‘All Alive’ Show,” The San Jose Mercury Herald, September
16, 1917, 10; Dog Breed Info Center, “Airedale Terrier: Information and Pictures,” https://www.
dogbreedinfo.com/airedale.htm; “Old English Sheepdog: Information and Pictures,” https://
www.dogbreedinfo.com/oldenglishsheepdog.htm; BBC News, “Dogs of War: How Man’s Best
Friend Joined Him at the Front” (August 7, 2014), http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-scotlandtayside-central-28681128
(all accessed July 9-10, 2017).
41.Camp Kearny’s war dogs were said to be the first dogs associated with an army cantonment
west of the Mississippi. Harry A. Williams, “War Dogs and Pigeons to Aid Kearny Fighters,”
Los Angeles Times, January 25, 1918, II-8; Chaz, “War-Dogs of First World War (WWI, First Great
European War) 1914-1918,” Owlcation, https://owlcation.com/humanities/War-Dogs-of-WWIFirst-Great-European-War-World-War-One-1914-1918
(accessed July 9, 2017); Dog Breed Info
Center, “German Shepherd Dogs: Information and Pictures,” https://www.dogbreedinfo.com/
germanshepherd.htm (accessed July 10, 2017); Dan Sebby, “California’s Own: the History of
California’s 40th Infantry Division in California, http://www.militarymuseum.org/division.
html (accessed, July 16, 2017). Mr. Ford’s six German Shepherds were a gift worth an impressive
$114,822 today. CoinNews.net, US Inflation Calculator (accessed August 7, 2017).
42. Shaw, “Animals and War”; Tams, “How Did Animals…Serve;” Taylor, “Animals in War;” BBC
News, “Dogs of War”; Chaz, “War-Dogs of First World War”; “Dogs and Horses often War
Heroes,” 5; “Friend of Man Is at the Front,” Washington Post, February 18, 1917, 6; “Thousands
Saved by Trained Dogs,” The San Diego Union, January 23, 1918, 3.
43. Williams, “War Dogs and Pigeons to Aid Kearny Fighters,” II-8; “Thousands Saved by Trained
Dogs,” 3. Two young Venice, California brothers, Byron and Robert Vandegript, donated
two additional carrier pigeons to the 40th Division. “Venice Boys Present Homing Pigeons to
Section at Camp,” The San Diego Union, August 4, 1918, 6.
44. Shaw, “Animals and War;” “Trained Carrier Pigeons Prove Practical, Tests Show,” The San
Diego Union, June 2, 1918, 10; “Ammunition Train Starts off on Its Hike into Mountains: Will
Work on Field Problems,” The San Diego Union, June 4, 1918, 6; “Artillery in Field Maintains
Communication with Camp for Ten Days by Carrier Pigeon,” The San Diego Union, July 1, 1918, 6.
45. The Smithsonian, “Cher Ami—World War I Carrier Pigeon,” History and Culture, https://www.
si.edu/Encyclopedia_SI/nmah/cherami.htm (accessed July 17, 2017); United States Army War
College, Historical Section, “The Operation of the So-Called ‘Lost Battalion,’ October 2nd to
October 8th, 1918,” in U.S. National Archives, Record Group 165: Records of the War Department
General and Special Staffs, 1960-1952, Series: Historical Files, 1918-1948 (August 1928), 1, https://
catalog.archives.gov/id/301662 (accessed July 18, 2017).
46. “Mrs. Baldwin to Visit Camp Kearny,” 7; “Trip of Inspection,” I-5; “L.A. Quarters of Animal
Aid Corps Open,” 12; “Conditions Good at Camp Kearny,” 6; “Red Star Relief Association
Takes Care of Service Animals,” 6; “Emergency Station Completed,” The San Diego Union,
July 2, 1918, 6; “Red Star Animal Relief Work Told in Lecture at Kearny,” The San Diego Union,
March 17, 1918, 6; “Animal Relief Worker to Lecture at Camp,” The San Diego Union, July 9,
1918, 6; “American Red Star-Animal Relief,” ca. 1918, SDHC, Photograph Archives, #4547. The
Red Star’s $1,800 donation to Camp Kearny would equal nearly $34,500 today. CoinNews.net,
US Inflation Calculator (accessed August 7, 2017).
47. “Will Take Steps for Animal Aid Work Here Today,” 5; “Conditions Good at Camp Kearny,” 6;
“Red Star Branch for San Diego Plan Proposed,” The San Diego Union, October 6, 1917, 1; “Great
Dog Show Will Be Held Here,” The San Diego Evening Tribune, October 10, 1917, 2.
48. “Appeals for Animals,” The San Diego Evening Tribune, May 4, 1917, 6.
49. “Mrs. Baldwin Will Form Humane Corps,” 9; “Will Take Steps for Animal Aid Work Here Today,”
5; “America’s First War Dogs Make Their Bow,” II-1; “Great Dog Show Will Be Held Here,” 2;
“Anita Baldwin to Give ‘Star’ Luncheon,” The Los Angeles Evening Herald, December 4, 1917, 22.
50. “L.A. Quarters of Animal Aid Corps Open,” 12. The Los Angeles Red Star office’s seed money
would equal approximately $955,170 in today’s money. CoinNews.net, US Inflation Calculator
(accessed August 7, 2017).
51. “Mrs. Baldwin Guest of Honor at Review,” The San Diego Union, March 26, 1918, 6; “Military,
Army, Woman Officers at Review at Camp Kearny (c. 1918), SDHC, Photograph Archives,
#8179-6; “WWI Camp Kearny, c. 1918, SDHC, Photograph Archives, #OP12244-1; “War Dept.
Approves Mrs. Baldwin’s Uniform,” The Los Angeles Evening Herald, October 9, 1918, 11. Seven
month later, the U.S. Army officially approved Mrs. Baldwin’s uniform as the model for all Red
Star volunteers. The war would be over, however, before the order could be fully implemented.
52. Richard C. Halsted of the American Kennel Club, a Pasadena resident, was the show’s master
of ceremonies. “First Dog Show to Be Held Here Soon,” The San Diego Union, January 1, 1918,
7; “Thousands Saved by Trained Dogs,” 3; “Great Dog Show Will Be Held Here,” 2 and “High
Bred Dogs Will Be Benched at Kennel Show,” The San Diego Union, January 16, 1918, 9; “First
Dog Show to Be Held Here Soon,” 7; “High Bred Dogs Will Be Benched at Kennel Show,”
9; “War Dogs Featured at the ‘All alive’ Show,” 10; “Red Star Relief Association Takes Care
of Service Animals,” 6; “Emergency Station Completed,” 6; Sebby, “California’s Own.” An
archival photograph taken between 1917 and 1920 shows Mrs. Baldwin in a light-colored Red
Star field uniform, photographed with two U.S. Marines standing/kneeling next to a horse
and what appear to be two Airedale pups. It is quite possible that the photograph was taken
in San Diego, where the Marines had established themselves since 1914. “Anita Baldwin,” ca.
1917-1920, in U.S. Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Online Catalog, photograph no.
LC-DIG-ggbain-26205, http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/ggb2006001619/ (accessed August 7,
2017); J.C. Leyendecker, “Marines in Dress Uniform” (1917), in Pinterest, https://www.pinterest.
com/pin/377035800038866215/ (accessed August 7, 2017); Mark J. Denger, “A Brief History of
the U.S. Marine Corps in San Diego, in California Military History Online, Historic California
Posts, http://californiamilitaryhistory.org/SDMarines.html#3 (accessed August 7, 2017).
53. “American Red Star Animal Relief to Be Beneficiary of Show,” 28. According to the latter, Red
Star memberships were at the $1 annual, $25 associate, $50 sustaining, or $100 life membership
levels. In today’s economy, they would cost around $20, $480, $960, or $1,915, respectively.
CoinNews.net, US Inflation Calculator (accessed August 7, 2017).
54. Wood, “Training the Citizen Army,” 856; “Emergency Station Completed,” 6; “Anita Baldwin
Is Appointed So. Cal. Field Director,” The Los Angeles Evening Herald, May 11, 1918, 2; “Head of
Red Star to Attend Opening,” The San Diego Union, July 11, 1918, 6; “Red Star Station at Camp
Kearny Opened,” Los Angeles Evening Herald, July 15, 1918, 13.
55. “Red Star Animal Relief [Horse Ambulance at Camp Kearny],” (ca. 1918), SDHC, Photograph
Archives, #4547, #4547-1, #4547-4, #4547-5, and #4547-6; National Museum of Health and
Medicine, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, D.C., “Photograph of World War
One Veterinary Corps Ambulance,” in Greg Krenzelok, The Army Veterinary Service during
the Great War, WWI, http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~gregkrenzelok/
veterinary%20corp%20in%20ww1/veterinary%20corp%20in%20ww1.html (accessed July
56. The San Francisco Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals had donated the Army’s first
vehicle at the Presidio on April 8, 1918, which cost the organization $5,000.“Horse Ambulance
Put in Service,” The San Diego Evening Tribune, April 8, 1918, 2; “Horse Ambulance in Service
at Presidio,” The San Jose Mercury Herald, April 10, 1918, 16; and “Horse Ambulance Used
First Time,” The San Diego Union, April 15, 1918, 6. The new ambulance would have cost the
equivalent of over $95,650, today. CoinNews.net, US Inflation Calculator (accessed July 16, 2017);
Wood, “Training the Citizen Army,” 860; “Heavy Machine Guns Shown in Action,” The San
Diego Evening Tribune, June 15, 1918, 9; John Willis Ring, “Humanitarian Makes Plea for Dumb
Animals; Thousands Die,” The San Diego Union, October 26, 1919, 12.
57. “Dentist Leaves for New Place,” The San Diego Evening Tribune, June 8, 1918, 9.
58. “Animal Relief Worker to Lecture at Camp,” 6; “Animal Hospital to Be Built Soon,” The San
Diego Evening Tribune, March 17, 1918, 13.
59. During the new emergency veterinary care station’s dedication, Baldwin told reporters that
Secretary Baker had agreed to offer the War Department’s full cooperation with the project.
“Red Star Relief Association Takes Care of Service Animals,” 6; “Emergency Station Completed,”
60. “Baker Writes on Red Star’s Work,” The Los Angeles Evening Herald, June 11, 1918, 10. Three
major reasons prevented Camp Kearny’s veterinary hospital from ever being built. First,
Secretary Baker was slow to accept the Red Star organization’s help, which in turn delayed
its initial funding. Second, the Army Quartermaster Corps had balked at the high payroll
needed to equip and staff the hospital with competent veterinarian doctors and surgeons.
Third, the war ended.
61. On average, Moore’s and Palmer’s successful bids resulted in roughly $147.50 each, which was
slightly lower than what the Army Quartermaster captains had paid for them in 1917. “Remount
Depot to Auction Animals,” The San Diego Union, January 5, 1919, 6; “Street Department Buys
Four Mules,” The San Diego Union, January 11, 1919, 4. The City would have had to pay nearly
$9,575 for those mules today. CoinNews.net, US Inflation Calculator.
62. “Thousands of Missouri Mules Will Embark on Sea Voyage,” The San Diego Union, August 12,
1919, 1. Incongruously, the newspaper article’s writer wildly over-estimated the number of
mules that the SS Dix could fit in its hold.
63. “Wild Mules Unable to Travel Because of Strike,” The San Diego Union, August 27, 1919, 1.
64. “Five Hundred Army Mules and Horses Loaded on Transport for Philippines,” The San Diego
Union, August 28, 1919, 7; “Col. Roscoe Services Set,” The San Diego Union, February 23, 1971, B-5.
65. Martin, “Patriotism and Profit,” 268; California Military History Online, “Camp Kearny.”
66. “US Government to Sell Property,” The San Diego Evening Tribune, February 16, 1922, 21; Winfield
Barkeley, “El Cajon, ‘Valley of Opportunity,’ Prospering All along the Line, Says Bankers and
Ranch Owners,” The San Diego Union, March 2, 1921, 7.
67. USGS, Topographical Maps of La Jolla, California (1930) and Topographical Maps of Del Mar, California
68. Ring, “Humanitarian Makes Plea for Dumb Animals,” 12; “Millions of Horses Are Used by
69. “Red Star Disbands,” II-1; “Mrs. Baldwin Heads Humane Society,” The Los Angeles Evening
Herald, May 6, 1919, 10.
70. “Humane Society Honors Mrs. Baldwin,” The Los Angeles Evening Herald, October 27, 1920, A-3.
71. “Royalty to Honor Mrs. Anita Baldwin,” The Los Angeles Evening Herald, June 22, 1921, A-11.
72. “Anita Baldwin Is Appointed So. Cal. Field Director,” 2.
73. “Mrs. Baldwin Gets Thanks of Baker,” The Los Angeles Evening Herald, May 31, 1918, 13.
74. “Red Star Station at Camp Kearny Opened,” 13; “160th Elects Anita Baldwin Colonel,” The
Los Angeles Evening Herald, March 9, 1918, 16. The men of the 160th Infantry Regiment were
demobilized at Camp Kearny on May 7, 1919. California Military History Online, “Lineages
and Honors of the California National Guard: the 160th Infantry Regiment (Seventh California),”
http://www.militarymuseum.org/LH160thInf.html (accessed July 23, 2017).
75. “Monument to Memory of Veterans, Memorial Park to Be Dedicated to Members of the Sunshine
Division,” The Los Angeles Times, October 26, 1928, A-10; “Pay Honor to Strong at Dinner,” The
San Diego Union, November 11, 1928, 1; “Will Dedicate Granite Boulder Today at Camp,” The San
Diego Union, November 11, 1928, 1; “Monument to the ‘Lost Battalion,’” The Placerville Mountain
Democrat, December 28, 1928, 7; “‘Lost Battalion’ Remembered,” The Los Angeles Evening Herald,
January 2, 1929, 10; UCLA, Library, Special Collections, Charles E. Young Research Library, The
Los Angeles Times Photographic Archives, “Anita Baldwin and General F. S. Strong at World
War I Monument, Camp Kearny, San Diego, 1928,” in CALISPHERE University of California,
https://calisphere.org/item/ark:/21198/zz002db9qr/ (accessed July 22, 2017).
76. One reason why the monument may have been removed was that trainee pilots trying to lift
their lumbering thirty-three ton four-engine PB4Y Liberators off the airfield’s 6,000-foot-long
by 200-foot-wide southeast to northwest runway would have been unnerved to see a twelvefoot-tall
upright granite boulder slightly more than a football field’s length in front of them.
Martin, “Patriotism and Profit,” 269; California Military History Online, “Camp Kearny;” M.L.
Shettle, Jr., “Naval Air Station, Miramar” and “Marine Corps Air Depot, Miramar,” in Historic
California Posts, Camps, Stations and Airfields, http://www.militarymuseum.org/MCASMiramar.
html (accessed July 22, 2017); USGS, Topographical Maps of La Jolla, California (1943, 1953 and
1967) and Topographical Maps of Del Mar, California (1953 and 1967); “War Memorial, Miramar
(1938), in SDHC, Photograph Archives, #83_14541-557; “PB4Y-1 Liberator and PB4Y-2 Privateer,”
SAS Index, http://www.sas1946.com/main/index.php?topic=35233.0.
77. “Anita Baldwin, Colorful Figure in History of California, Dies,”1; “Anita Baldwin Dies,” The
Helena Daily Independent, October 27, 1939, 7; “Social Figure Dies,” The Reno Nevada State Journal,
October 28, 1939, 3.
78. American Humane, “History.”
79. “Marine Corps Air Station, Miramar,” California Military History Online: Historic California
Posts, Camps, Stations and Airfields; USGS, Topographical Maps of La Jolla, California (2015) and
Topographical Maps of Del Mar, California (2015); Google Earth, “Consolidated Way, San Diego,
CA;” MCAS Miramar Public Affairs, http://www.militarymuseum.org/MCASMiramar.html
(accessed August 5, 2017); Mario Icari, Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southwest
Public Affairs Office, “MCAS Miramar Ceremony Marks Official Opening of MV-22 Osprey
Hangars,” America’s Navy, http://www.navy.mil/submit/display.asp?story_id=76642 (accessed
August 4, 2017).
80. Rick Johnson to Stephen Youel, July 18, 2008, letter regarding disposition of 40th Division
Monument with an e-mail attachment from Stephen Youel to Alexander D. Bevil, July 24-25, 2017.