Balboa Park History January – June 1915

Note: Because of the large size of the section for 1915, it has been subdivided into two parts.

January to June, 1915 ~ July to December, 1915

San Diego Panama-California Exposition – 1915 — San Diego All the Year — 1915, publicity brochure.

Official Guide Book of the Panama-California Exposition — 1915.

” San Diego Exposition,” by Mark Watson, San Diego, California, 1917, Supplement to the 1915 Book Semi-Tropic California, F. Weber Benton, President Wilson Invitation Edition, 1915.

“San Diego Exposition,” by A. W. Winship, Journal of Education, January 28, 1915.

“A Matter of Millions,” by Rufus Steele, Sunset, January, 1915.

“San Diego’s Panama-California Exposition,” Pan-American Union Bulletin, February, 1915, 40:170-81.

“Sidelights on the Great Exposition at San Diego,” Santa Fe Magazine, February, 1915, Vol. 9, No. 3:47-49.

“The Panama-California Exposition, San Diego, California,” by C. Matlack Price, Architectural Record, March, 1915, 229-251.

“Development of Spanish-Colonial Architecture,” by Frank P. Allen, Jr., Fine Arts Journal, March, 1915, 116-126.

“Sidelights on the Panama-California Exposition,” Santa Fe Magazine, March, 1915, Vol. 9, No. 4:25-27.

“The Panama-California Exposition, San Diego, California,” by W. B. Faville, The American Architect, March 17, 1915.

“The Panama-California Exposition,” Engineering News, April, 1915, Vol. 73, No. 17:801-802.

“New Notes from the Beautiful Fair at San Diego,” Santa Fe Magazine, April, 1915, Vol. 9, No. 5:35-40.

“Exposition Gardens,” by Arthur Z. Bradley, Sunset, April, 1915, Vol. 34, No. 4:665-679.

“New Notes from San Diego,” Santa Fe Magazine, May, 1915, Vol. 9, No. 6:39-42.

“The Fair at San Diego,” by Bensel Smythe, Review of Reviews, May, 1915, Vol. 51:587-590.

“The Cabrillo Bridge at the San Diego Exposition,” Engineering News, , Vol. 73, No. 19:926-928.

Illustrations, The Architect, June, 1915.

“Fine Arts at the San Diego Exposition,” by Mark S. Waston, Art and Progress, , Vol. 6: 446-455.

“The San Diego and San Francisco Expositions,” by Christian Brinton, The International Studio, June, 1915, Vol. 55, No. 220.

“San Diego’s Dream City,” by Joe N. Chappie, editor, National Magazine, Boston, Mass., June, 1915, 403-408.

“The Panama-California Exposition,” by Frank P. Allen, Jr., Pacific Coast Architect, June, 1915, Vol. 9, No. 6:218-237.

“Colored Glazed Tile at the Exposition,” Pacific Coast Architect, June, 1915, Vol. 9, No. 6:220, 237.

“Camera Work at the Panama-California Exposition,” by Harold A. Taylor, Photo-Era, June, 1915, Vol. 34, No. 6:267-270.

“Flashes from San Diego,” Santa Fe Magazine, June, 1915, Vol. 9, No. 7:33-40.

“Of Spanish and Mexican Themes,” review by Bertram G. Goodhue, Architectural Record, July, 1915, Vol. 38:187-189.

“The Lath House,” California Garden, July, 1915.

“The Panama-California Exposition,” by Mark S. Watson, California’s Magazine, July, 1915, Vol. 1, No. 1 (tab only, article not found).

“California’s County Fair,” by Geddes Smith, Independent Magazine, July 26, 1915, 119-121.

“San Diego Exposition Jottings,” Santa Fe Magazine, July, 1915, Vol. 9, No. 8:35-39.

“At the Panama-California Exposition at San Diego,” Scientific American, July 10, 1915, 40.

“The Panama-California Exposition and the Changing Peoples of the Great Southwest,” by William Templeton Johnson, Survey, July 3, 1915, Vol. 34:303-307.

“The Pulse of the Pacific: Financial Sunshine on Both Expositions,” Sunset, August, 1915, Vol. 35, No. 2:249-250.

“Old Spanish Missions at the San Diego Exposition,” Fine Arts Journal, August, 1915, 377-381.

“The Battle for Gate Receipts,” by Walter V. Woehlke, Technical World, August, 1915, Vol. 23:712-718.

‘By Motor to the Fair,” by Emily Post, Colliers, September 18, 1915, Vol. 54, No. 12.

“The Brazilian Exhibit at the Panama-California Exposition,” Pan-American Bulletin, September, 1915, Vol. 41:327-337.

“San Diego Notes,” Santa Fe Magazine, September, 1915, Vol. 9, No. 10:39-42.

“The California Expositions,” by William MacDonald, The Nation, October 21, 1915, Vol. 101, No. 2625: 490-492.

“Ancient America at the Panama-California Exposition,” by Edgar L. Hewett, Art and Archaeology, November, 1915, Vol. 2, No. 3:64-104.

Editorial Comment, National Architect, November, 1915, Vol. 6 No. 5:177.

“A Triumph of the Spanish-Colonial Style,” by Clarence Stein, National Architect, November, 1915, Vol. 6, No. 5:203-205.

“Jottings from San Diego,” Santa Fe Magazine, October, 1915, Vol. 9, No. 11:39-41.

“Panama-California Exposition at San Diego,” by Lewis H. Falk, Overland Monthly, November, 1915, Vol. 66, No. 3:451-455.

Official Guide and Descriptive Book, Panama-California International Exposition, 1916, 14-31.

“Architecture of the Exposition,” by Edgar L. Hewett and William Templeton Johnson, Papers of the School of American Archaeology, 1916, No. 32.

“The Indians of the Painted Desert,” by Felix J. Koch, Overland Monthly, January, 1916, Vol. 67, No. 1:70-74.

Impressions of the Art at the Panama-Pacific Exposition, by Christian Brinton, John Lane Co., New York, 1916, excerpts, 36, 39, 40.

Readers’ Guide to Periodical Literature

San Diego, California



Panama canal and the ports of the Pacific; San Diego, Los Angeles and San Francisco, A. J. Quigley. Il., Eng M 48:643-50 F ’15.

Plymouth of the Pacific Coast. L. Hunzicker. Il., Overland n s 72:381-6 N ’18

Panama-California exposition


Ancient America at the Panama-California exposition. E. L. Hewett. il., Art and Archaeology 2:65-102 N

’15; Same cond. Bul Pan Am Union 41:530-43 O ’15.

Anthropological exhibits at the San Diego exposition. il., Bul Pan Am Union 41:704-11 N ‘l5.

At the fair. H. Monroe. Poetry 7:35-40 O ’15.

At the Panama-California exposition at San Diego. il., Sci Am113:40 Jl 10 ’15.

Battle for the gate receipts. W. V. Woehlke, il., Tech World 23:712-18 Ag ’15.

Brazilian exhibit at the Panama-California exposition. il., Bul Pan Am Union 41:327-37 S ’15

California expositions. W: MacDonald. Nation 101:492 O 21 ’15.

California’s county fair. G. Smith. il., Ind 83:119-21 Jl 26 ’15.

Camera-work at the Panama-California exposition. H. A. Taylor. il., Photo Era 34:267-70 Je ’15.

Development of architecture in California. C. Beckwith. il., Art World 3:478-82 Mr. ’18.

Exposition gardens. A. Z. Bradley, il Sunset 34:665-79 Ap ’15.

Fair at San Diego. B. Smythe. il R of Rs 51:587-90 My ’15.

Nueva Espana by the Silver Gate. W. V. Woehlke. il. Sunset 33:1119-32 D ’14.

Panama-California exposition at San Diego. L. H. Falk. il Overland n s 66:451-5 N ’15.

Panama-California exposition, San Diego. C: M. Price. il Arch Rec 37:229-51 Mr ’15.

Roseate beginning of nineteen fifteen. il Sunset 34:231-4 F ’15.

San Diego and San Francisco expositions. C. Brinton. il Int Studio 55:sup105-10 Je ’15.

San Diego and the changing peoples of the great Southwest. W: T. Johnson. il Survey 34:303-7 Jl 3 ’15.

San Diego’s evolutionary exposition. J. C. Murphy. Colliers 54:20-2 D 5 ’14.

San Diego’s Panama-California exposition. il Bul Pan Am Union 40:170-81 F ’15.

Spectator at the San Diego fair. Outlook 109:942-5 Ap 21 ’15

San Diego


Balboa, dream place of the Southwest. K. E. Oliver. il Overland n s 78:9-18 Ag ’21.

Twelve months in San Diego. Playground. 20:618 F ’27.

San Diego Public Library


RCC 917.94 Benton, F. Weber. Semi-tropic California, the garden of the world, including a concise history of Panama and the Panama Canal, Second Edition, Los Angeles, Benton Publishing Co., 1915, 91 p., illus., pp. 74-91.

RCC 708 Brinton, Christian, Impressions of the art at the Panama-Pacific exposition, 1916, pp. 31-40.

XX 708 Same

RCCS 355 Army and navy review, 1915; being a review of the activities of the officers and enlisted men stationed in San Diego during the exposition, illus., Army and navy review, c. 1915, Arthur Aronson, managing editor (Panama-California edition).

RCC 759.08 A catalog of paintings, San Diego Gallery of Fine Arts, 1915, unpaged, illus.

RCC 606 Elks Benevolent and Protective Order of., National Elks horn, souvenir edition: devoted to the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, San Francisco; Panama-California Exposition, San Diego; Elks Grand Lodge Convention, Los Angeles, 1915, Saint Louis, Mo., Vaughan, 1915, 1 vol. (Vol. 17, No. 4, June, 1915).

RCC 606.01 Foreglance at Panama-California Exposition, San Diego, 1915, Unique international year round, January 1 – December 31, San Diego, n.d., 1 vol., illus., maps.

RCC 606.01 Ground Breaking, Panama-California exposition, July 19-20-21, 1911; official program (San Diego, Calif., Frye & Smith, printers), c. 19ll, illus. with advertising matter.

RCC 606.01 Hewett, Edgar Lee, Architecture of the Exposition by Edgar L. Hewett and William Templeton Johnson, n. p., 1916, 8 p., illus. (Papers of the School of American Archaeology, No. 32).

RCC 606.01 Official guide book of the Panama-California exposition; giving in details exhibits and concessions, with floor plans of the buildings and exterior views, illus., San Diego, 1915 (Committee of 100 reprint, 1975).

RCCS 606.01 Official guide and descriptive book of the Panama-California international exposition; giving in detail location and description of buildings, exhibits and concessions, flowers and shrubbery; edited by Esther Hansen, illus., San Diego, National Views Company, 1916.

RCCS 606.01 Report, April 30, 1916, Los Angeles. W. J. Palethorpe, 1916, 24 p., Financial report.

RCC 606.01 Panama-California exposition, 1915, San Diego 1915 Panama-California exposition souvenir book, 1 vol, col., illus.

RCC 606.01 San Diego Panama-California Exposition, 1915, San Diego all the year, 1915, San Diego, c. 1915, 1 vol., illus.

RCCS 606.01 Swedish day; souvenir album and program, San Diego, Calif., June 24-25, 1916, unpaged, illus., ports.

RCC 917.9498 Why not San Diego County, California?, compiled by the secretary of the Panama-California International Exposition, San Francisco, Calif., Sunset Publishing House (1914?, 48 p., illus., ports.

RCC 606.01 Anderson, Joanne S., comp., Panama-California International Exposition: papers, ledgers, accounts, San Diego Board of Park Commissioners papers (San Diego Public Library, 1972), 1 vol. , typescript.

RCC 606.01 Davidson, G. Aubrey, Official opening address of G. A. Davidson, President Panama-California exposition, no imprint, 11 p.

RCC 606.01 Hewett, Edgar Lee, Ancient America at the Panama-California Exposition, Baltimore, Md., Archaeological Institute of America, 1915, 104 p., illus. (extract from November, 1915 issue of Art and Archaeology).

RCC 606.01 Hewett, Edgar Lee, Ancient American at the Panama-California Exposition, 1915, 8 p., illus., Reprinted from The Theosophical Path, February, 1915).

RCC 606.01 Hrdlicka, Ales, A descriptive catalog of the section of physical anthropology, Panama-California Exposition, 1915, San Diego, National New Co., 1915, 14 p.

RCC 606 International harvester companies, Panama Canal, Panama-Pacific international and Panama-California expositions, Chicago, the Author, c. 1915, 62 p., illus.

RCCS 606.01 James, G. W., Exposition memories: Panama-California Exposition, San Diego, 1916; introduced by C. R. Franklin; a chapter by B. T. Tyler and the prose and poetic writings of San Diego writers read at the exposition, illus., ports., Pasadena, Cal. Radiant Life Press, 1917.

RCCS 606.01 Makers of San Diego Panama-California Exposition, 1915, illus., ports., n.d., no publisher.

RCC 917.2 Mende, Adolph J., comp., Digest of the Republic of Mexico, San Diego, 1912, loose-leaf.

RCCS 708 The Netherlands (Holland) art exhibition, with an introduction by J. Nilsen Laurvik, Circuit exhibition, 1916-1917, San Francisco, Presswork, by the Independent Pressroom, c. 1916.

RCCS 606.01 Neuhaus, Eugen, San Diego Garden Fair; personal impressions of the architecture, sculpture, horticulture, color scheme and other aesthetic aspects of the Panama-California international exposition, illus., San Francisco, Paul Elder & Co., c. 1916.

RCC 606.01 Official banquet, Café Cristobal, January 1, 1915, San Diego, Calif.

RCC 606.01 Official views, San Diego, 1915, unpaged, views (part. Color), 9″ x 13″.

RCC 606.01 Panama-California International Exposition, San Diego, 1916; official publication; 47 photographs (Brooklyn, N. Y., Albertype Co.), 1916, 10″ x 13″.

Same, 22 hand-colored photographs.

RCC 606.01 San Diego (County) Board of Supervisors, Panama-California Exposition, entire year, 1915, San Diego, 1915?, 1 folder, illus.

RCC 917.9498 San Diego (County) Board of Supervisors, San Diego, Calif., San Diego, Frye & Smith, printers (1912?), 1 vol., illus.

RCCS 606.01 Winslow, Carleton Monroe, The architecture of the Panama-California Exposition, 1909-1915, San Diego, 1976, 112 p., illus., Thesis, MA, University of San Diego.

RCC 606.01 Brown, Elton Thomas. The 1916 exposition in black and white, being a series of pencil drawings of the Panama-California International Exposition, 1916, Coronado, Calif., The Coronado Strand, 1916, 24 p., illus.

RCC 917.9498 Eno, Iml. L., San Diego, the Naples of America and U.S. Naval Training Station, Balboa Park, San Diego, Calif., Brooklyn, N.Y., Albertype Co., n.d., un. p., illus.

RCC 917.9498 Eno, Iml. L., Souvenir album of San Diego, California and vicinity, San Diego, I. L. Eno, n.d., un. p., illus.

RCC 606.01 The exposition beautiful; over one hundred views of the Panama-California Exposition and San Diego, the Exposition City, San Diego Pictorial Publishing Co., 1915, unpaged, illus.

RCC 606.01 San Diego, 1915, Panama-California exposition souvenir book, 1 vol., col., illus.



(San Diego Union, April 4, 1965, 3:2-5. The Lethal Hook-and-Ladder, by Jerry MacMullen.)

(San Diego Union, August 20, 1989, G-10. San Diego Showed Itself Off to The World at Exposition I, by Arthur Ribbel.)

January, 1915, Santa Fe Magazine, Vol. 9. No. 2. San Diego Exposition Opens in Blaze of Glory; Early Indications Are That the Big Fair Will Be a Tremendous Success — To Be Open Every Day Throughout the Year.

While thousands of visitors from all parts of the East and West thronged the grounds, the Panama-California Exposition at San Diego was formally opened to the world at midnight, on December 31, when President Wilson, in Washington, pressed the electric button to signal the dedication of the first all-year exposition in history.

The whole Southwest turned out in force to take part in the opening celebration. From Oregon came Governor Oswald West; from Utah came Governor Spry with a delegation of state and city officials; from all parts of the West and from the Southwest in particular thousands made their way to San Diego.

One of the largest delegations came from Imperial Valley, which sent five hundred automobiles, carrying more than two thousand people.

Bringing with him a number of state officers from Sacramento, Governor Hiram Johnson represented California at the opening. William G. McAdoo, secretary of the United States treasury and son-in-law of President Wilson, was the chief executive’s personal selection to represent him at the celebration.

There were present also representatives of foreign powers, among them Count Del Valle de Salazar, who was appointed by King Alfonso XIII of Spain to act as his majesty’s personal representative, and the Japanese consuls from various coast cities.

Fireworks and illuminations accompanied the opening of the gates when the public was first admitted to the grounds of the completed exposition. For three hours, the visitors walked about the grounds and wondered at the new city of Old Spain which San Diego has built on the mesa above the Harbor of the Sun.

At 11:30 the formal ceremony of opening the gates of the exposition to the world began with a speech by Lyman J. Gage of San Diego, former secretary of the United States treasury.

Promptly a midnight the exercises ended and the flash of an electric spark carried over the wire from President Wilson in Washington, D.C., announced to the world the formal opening of the exposition, which will remain open until another New Year’s eve rolls around.

Setting a new precedent in exposition history, the San Diego exposition opened with every building completed. On December 1, Director of Works Allen presented the finished structures to the exposition directors.

There was another precedent set which was not visible, but which was just as important. The San Diego exposition opened without a cent of debt and the visitor at the grounds during 1916 will not see the collectors waiting at the gates for a percentage of the receipts, an unpleasant feature of expositions held in the past.

The opening date was devoted to military and naval parades. The great naval parade will be held in March, when President Wilson arrives with the battleship fleet, reaching San Diego as the first port of call north of the canal.

January, 1915, Sunset Magazine, Vol. 34, No. 1, 81-85. A Matter of Millions: How the Experts Are Hearing in Advance the Click of the Exposition Gates, by Rufus Steele.

Expositions, unlike individuals, may count their chickens before they are hatched. In fact, they have to do so. Otherwise, some of the chicks might find themselves unprovided for; which would be a catastrophe.

Thus, we knew in advance just how many admissions there will be during the two-hundred and eighty-eight days of the big show at the Golden Gate. There’ll be fourteen million.

This does not mean that fourteen million people will attend. Only three million men, women and children will lockstep through the gates. But a million from far and a million from farther will go through three times, while a million from near will keep on repeating until there are eight tallies scored for every one of its members.

That million from near includes the people of the “metropolitan area” — those living on San Francisco bay. The experience of Paris, of Chicago, of St. Louis — of all the cities where great expositions have been held during the past quarter of a century — shows that his contiguous population may absolutely be relied upon to drop into the ticker chopper’s box eight times as many tickets as there are people. Of course, some of them may enter the gates only once; but just as surely others will pay their way through no less than fifteen times. A few will never go inside the fence; a few will not be content until they have done so one hundred times. The figure eight as a multiplier is stable. It has stood the test of every unfavorable condition.

And here the conditions are all favorable. Here the weather invites. Here the people naturally love a show. In Chicago the fair was thirteen miles from the center of the city; in St. Louis it was six miles; here the Tower of Jewels is but two miles from the middle point of Market Street and not three miles from the Ferry.

The million from far includes 750,000 persons living in California outside the metropolitan area, and 250,000 living outside California but west of the Rocky mountains.

The million from farther means from the Middle West, from the Lake states, from New England, from the Atlantic and from the sunny South — from the United States east of the Rocky mountains. It is the million from farther that causes one to wonder.

One wonders because the million from farther is expected to travel an average distance of twenty-three hundred miles. This in full remembrance of the fact that at Chicago, at Buffalo, at Jamestown, seventy percent of the total attendance came from territory within a radius of two hundred and fifty miles. The million from farther will travel a total of two billion three hundred miles. Only by doing so can it reach the turnstiles in front of the Tower of Jewels. The goal is the sufficient reward. It satisfies the million.

When the exposition was still a theory many persons throughout the country complained that the site was remote. When the exposition has become a reality it was the complainers who were to be pitied as remote. Pity took the form of helping them overcome the fault. More has been done to smooth the way for the million from farther than ever was done before to ease the road for a multitude bound on a long journey.

The chief undertaking of those in charge was to lay the wraith of distance. In this century, distance is the sorriest sort of a ghost. Maybe it never was anything but a jack-o’-lantern that set up its pretensions over impassable marshes and bogs. Even in Argonaut days it was the desert and the Indians, not the miles, that made the journey from Chicago to San Francisco bay seem so full of distance. Miles that had actually the single dimension of length were lent breadth and thickness by thirst and fear.

“How far is it from Chicago to the Coast?” recently I asked gray-bearded, gray-ringleted Ezra Meeker.

“Twenty-three hundred miles,” he answered.

“How long were use in making the trip?

“I did it in five busy months,” he said with more than a touch of pride.

I asked Jimmie Howard about the mileage and he gave me the same answer of twenty-three hundred.

“And it took you how long?”

“It kept me humping thirty days.”

I looked up my friend “Tickets” Watson and he corroborated the others in the matter of miles. “What do you do it in?” I asked.

“Sixty-two,” he replied.

“Months or minutes?”

“Sixty-two hours — two and a half days.”

And there you have it: San Francisco is five months from Chicago if you ask a man who make the trip in the ‘50’s for gold and who has re-made it recently for fund; it is thirty days if you ask a man who scorns any motor but his bicycle and his legs; it is sixty-two hours if you ask the conductor of a crack train who makes the round trip every week and who loiters a day at each end of the run.

Those in charge of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition undertook to impress the country with the view of “Tickets” Watson, and they believe that, excepting Ezra Meeker and Jimmie Howard, there is hardly anybody in the country who now regards the journey from Lake Michigan to the Pacific Ocean as anything but a blessed opportunity to sprawl on plush cushions and recuperate after the strain of getting away from home. Confidently the exposition relies on the long haul for a third of its crowd.

A rate was the club with which the distance ghost was laid. How could anybody cling to the notion that California was remote while being dinned with the news that the traveler could take any route he chose out of Chicago and return by any other route at a round-trip cost of $62.50? Why, the regular one-way fare was $50.75! More than that, a regular ticket had to be used between the two cities in seven days, while the special ticket allowed three months for the round trip with stopovers as desired. If one chose to come to California from Chicago via New Orleans, Houston and El Paso and return by Salt Lake, Denver and Omaha, for instance, he would be traveling at less than half a cent a mile. Over the most direct routes the ticket figured under two cents. Unlimited stopovers and variable routes made it the most liberal ticket ever offered.

If the public realizes that this is the biggest bargain ever, so do the railroads. The roads had not expected to provide their chief exhibit in this way. How they were persuaded to do it is a little story in itself. The Transcontinental Passenger Association, which arranges the rates west of Chicago, had agreed to meet in San Francisco to fix up the exposition ticket. The association members had agreed among themselves that $72.50 would be about right. Suddenly they decided to hold that meeting in Chicago. They had learned that Mortensen and the other exposition people were going to turn their howitzers on that seventy-two fifty proposal. Mortensen is a man who fifteen years ago worked on the Great Northern. In the same hour that his locomotive bumped the private car of James J. Hill he changed from firemen to fired.

. . . . section missing . . . . .

Among the million from farther are many of the delegates to the three hundred conventions to be held at San Francisco and which will be overlapping each other throughout the entire exposition period. Quite outside this million are the attendance items of fifty thousand persons from Mexico and Central America, ten thousand from Australia, Hawaii and the Orient, and five thousand from Alaska.

The railroads asked the Expositions to do everything in their power to lessen the congesting of the crowds during the months of June, July, August and September. The Expositions responded, first of all, with a flood of reading matter intended to educate the country to the fact that the finest months climatically are not those of the summer period but the months preceding and succeeding it. Many of the big program events were scheduled to take the pressure away from the summer months. At the Panama-Pacific, for instance, where each California county has its own day, these days were placed in February, March, April and May. The big Pacific Coast days were arranged to fall in October and November.

Advance figuring has gone unhesitatingly into the details. “The biggest attendance at the Panama-Pacific on any single day will reach 250,000,” said Mr. Mortensen. “”When the exhibitor demands to know at what hours of the day he may expect the most visitors we are able to answer him — the answer being based upon the experience of five or six expositions — as follows: Forty-two percent of the daily attendance will enter the gates between 8 a.m. and noon; thirty-five percent between noon and 6 p.m.; twenty-three percent between 6 and 8:30 p.m. That night crowd will come in to view the illumination and to take in the shows of the Zone, as the exhibit palaces will not be open in the evening.”

The Panama-Pacific International Exposition stands today as the most complete exposition in history; the Panama-California is assuredly beautiful and absolutely unique, yet there is no doubt that the crowds coming from afar also regard the Expositions as added attractions. The majority of the carefully-estimated thousands are coming primarily to see California and the Pacific Coast. The answers to Mortensen’s letters, like the statements to hundreds of passenger agents prove the truth of this. People went to Chicago, to Buffalo and to St. Louis to see the fairs. They are coming into the West new to see the country and the fairs.

California perpetually is exposition land. The residents of the remotest corner of the United States know this. It has been the subject of more gratuitous literature than any other single fact in memory. Down in the heart of every American is the longing, if not the determination, to visit California. Easterners mean to go to California before they die just as they mean to go to Heaven afterward. Sometimes they get a bit confused; they get to thinking that the two things mean the same thing.

California will be filled from end to end with people realizing the big dream of a lifetime. The exposition at San Francisco will be regarded as the northern door, the exposition at San Diego as the southern door; nearly everybody who sees one exposition will see the other, if for no other reason than the “seeing” extends unbrokenly up and down the Coast between the two. It is expected that almost as many people as see the Expositions will at last stand face to face with Yosemite valley, the Big Trees, the Grand Canyon and Yellowstone, the Columbia and Mr. Rainier.

The country is tremendously interested in the Panama Canal. A perfect flood of letters to the two expositions establishes this fact. Thousands of persons in many parts of the United States have written directly to the traffic departments of the big shows to know the cost and arrangements for going or returning via the Canal. It was possible to inform these correspondents that six or eight ships with a carrying capacity of three thousand will make the trip from New York to San Francisco in eighteen days; that the lowest first cabin passage will cost $125, while one my book third cabin for $60. The Finland and the Kroonland, the two largest steamers on the run are each of 22,000 tons. Additional steamers being immediately available, there is no doubt that transportation facilities via the Canal will not at any time be outstripped by the demand.

Visitors who want a taste of the salt sea but who do not care for the long voyage by Panama may take shorter trips upon the Pacific. The Great Northern and the Northern Pacific, two huge steamers owned jointly by the railroads whose names they bear, have been built to lay between Astoria and San Francisco. The northern lines are selling tickets from Chicago to Astoria and thence to San Francisco by these steamers, the traveler making the journey in the same length of time and for the same fare as though he came all the way by rail. The single railroad running between Los Angles and San Diego will have its burdens lightened by an extensive sea service operating between the two cities.

Transporting the exhibits across the county and across the world was a big job and an exacting one. The exhibits weighed seventy thousand tons and packed nicely into four thousand five hundred cars. The packages ranged from single pieces that would barely squeeze into a car to bits so small that they had to be sent by registered mail to prevent their becoming lost.

The first big concession on the part of the railroads was when they agreed to carry all exhibits home free of charge.

Freight shipments to the Panama-Pacific Exposition originating anywhere on earth, immediately became the concern of Traffic Manager Mortensen. As an example of his resourcefulness may be mentioned a little matter of long-tailed horses and long-maned sheep in Persia. The representative of Persia announced that his government cheerfully presented the horses and the sheep — all the Exposition need to was to fetch them from trackless upper Persia. Mortensen was busy for several weeks. Finally he succeeded in arranging for responsible parties to drive the horses across the mountains and to bring out the sheep on the backs of camels to a ship at Trebizond. This exhibit reached its allotted space inside the big fence in perfect condition.

There was some question as to the handling of a large shipment of ostriches. Herders were on hand to drive the flock from the cars to the grounds, but a man who knew remarked that the birds could outrun anything else on legs and were likely to stampede. The problem was solved with closed moving vans which backed up to the doors of the cars. There was a warm little row with certain railroads over the right rates on sea cows and alligators from Florida, but the exhibit got through in time for the opening. It is said that the cows were not rated as live stock, after all. Some of the roads sent Mortensen facetious answers when he asked them to quote him a rate on a few carloads of cats. A road that took him seriously and make a satisfactory rate learned that the traffic man had captured a New York cat show and would transport it bodily across the continent.

The traffic worries did not end with getting the throngs to San Francisco; they must be moved comfortably to the exposition grounds. The city spent three million dollars to supplement the normal street railway facilities. The street cars, the auto buses and the direct Key Route ferryboats can land thirty thousand passengers an hour at the grounds. In fact, the street car terminals are equipped for the handling of fifty thousand an hour. Should the arrangements prove inadequate, the service will be increased by flat cars fitted with benches and run from the Ferry around the waterfront belt lien and through the Fort Mason tunnel into the grounds. The local transportation service is expected to prove more satisfactory than at any previous exposition.

Perhaps the most extraordinary circumstance connected with the two expositions is that a world war was not able to disjoint of seriously to affect them. They were nearing completion when the war began. It is difficult to say in what way they would have been finer had there been no war. At no time had the San Francisco Traffic Manager figured the attendance from the European countries at more than fifty thousand. The war in Europe will undoubtedly sent to California several times fifty thousand Americans who in a time of peace would have gone abroad. Neither world war not the strange and unforeseen conditions that the calamity projected upon the United States could forestall the two expositions from achieving their full accomplishment. Each had undertaken to develop into the greatest of its kinds. Apparently each has succeeded.

January 1, 1915 . . . Official Address of G. A. Davidson, President Panama-California Exposition

Many of us, who five years ago stood on the sunbaked mesa in the park, arid then and unattractive, and watched our esteemed friend, the Honorable John Barrett, representing the President of the United States, turn the first spadeful of earth, saw in that practical act the promise of a day when our fondest dreams would come true. That day has now dawned. The Exposition is completed and the finished product is even more beautiful than our dreams.

In throwing open our gates, which is equivalent to announcing that San Diego has become the host of the nation and of the world, the officers and directors of the Panama-California Exposition and the people of this community extend a hearty welcome not only to the people of the states which make up this Union, but to the people of the entire world. And it is to the thousands who will come to San Diego from all parts of the world that the exposition will look for support in this great undertaking. For the kind interest already displayed by different sections of the country and a debt of thanks is due, and this debt we hope to pay by a liberal hospitality in dealing with the vast armies of visitors who will come to our gates.

Our thanks also are due to the officials and commissioners of the various groups of California counties and the several Western states for the beautiful buildings that have been erected on these grounds and for the splendid exhibits that have been arranged. These buildings and these exhibits will go far in making the Exposition representative in its scope and will bring to the minds of visitors from the East the varied opportunities and possibilities of the vast empire that lies west of the Missouri river.

The presence of so many distinguished persons on this occasion, the personal representative of the President of the United States, the personal representative of the King of Spain, the several Senators, the Governors of many states or their personal representatives, and the Mayors of many Western cities, indicate the wide interest manifested in this Exposition, which expresses the ideals of modern America and the great West. To these distinguished guests and the thousands of persons they represent, we extend a most cordial welcome. At the same time expressing our sincere thanks for the aid given us by the sovereign states of Washington, Utah, New Mexico, Montana, Nevada and Kansas, whose buildings and exhibits go far toward making the Exposition complete.

On this auspicious day, which sees the fulfillment of many high hopes, we must be excused if we felicitate ourselves on what has been wrought in what was, less than a decade ago, one of the less important cities in the United. States. No more fitting occasion than this could be found to congratulate the city itself and the band of loyal San Diegans through whose unselfish and untiring efforts the Exposition has become a splendid reality. It is not necessary to mention these individuals by name. The list would be too long, for practically every citizens has felt a personal interest in the success of the undertaking, and men and women from all walks of life have not hesitated to give of their time and money in the supreme effort San Diego has made to fulfill a tremendous responsibility.

The work is finished. Far-seeing men planned a big project; other far-seeing men with wide experience have executed those plans, changing, elaborating and meeting obstinate conditions that could not have been contemplated in the original designs. In the meantime, the people of this community stood by with rare patience, encouraging by their moral and financial support the builders of the Panama-California Exposition. And to this municipality, the average men and women of San Diego, who, after all, are the real builders of the Exposition, too much praise cannot be given, and to them the officials of the Exposition extend their deepest thanks. The absence of adverse criticism has made the task a pleasure, so much so that what might have been a irksome duty became a happy obligation. And it might be safe to say that the men who built this Exposition, from the highest official to the humblest workman, took joy in the work.

And what does it all mean? What does it mean to San Diego city and county? What does it mean to Southern California? What does it mean to the entire Southwest? It means that a vast new era has dawned upon this privileged land, this vast territory lying west of the Rockies and south of the Canadian Line, for the purpose of this Exposition was not selfish in that it desired only the development of San Diego. Indeed, the purpose was bigger and finer, being nothing less than the helping of all California, all the southwest, and indeed all of the west to realize itself. It was meant to call the attention of the world to the possibility of millions of acres of land that have been peculiarly blessed by nature and that have awaited through the centuries the touch that will transform them into the paradises of the Western hemisphere.

The Panama-California exposition was conceived as a fitting method of celebrating the opening of the Panama Canal, an undertaking which has astonished the world, an achievement which has been the dream of adventurers, travelers, pioneers and scientists for nearly four hundred years. This gigantic task has been accomplished, a waterway has been carved through the backbone of the hemisphere and the far points of the earth have been brought closer together because the continent has been separated and the earth’s two vast oceans made one. The heritage of the ages has fallen to this favored coast and the dwellers on the Pacific slope suddenly find themselves the custodians of commercial possibilities never dreamed of by any people.

In order fully to grasp these opportunities the San Diego exposition was conceived and carried to completion. It was deemed wise to call the attention of the entire United States in a striking manner to the tremendous latent possibilities in the millions of acres of undeveloped territory which is rightly called the back country of the Pacific slope. Today that country is barely tapped and a careful analysis of government figures show that there is approximately 44,000,000 acres of arable land in the southwest that can be converted into rich farm lands. Some 8,000,000 acres are under partial cultivation, the revenue from which in farm products alone is $143,000,000 a year. With the cultivation of the present undeveloped land this revenue can be increased from farm products alone to the astonishing figure of $743,000,000 yearly. This has been the inspiration of the makers of this Exposition, the building of an empire where millions of human beings can be prosperous and happy in the new era which is dawning for the West.

Has any city ever been confronted with a more stupendous project? Has any city every more nobly responded to the task than has San Diego? Is it too much to hope that this official opening of the Exposition is but the harbinger of greater activities when this city shall become the center of vast activities, activities that mean the creating of conditions for the growth of the human family along wiser and more liberal lines? Is it too much to hope that settlers will come from all parts of the United States and Europe to make a teeming garden of the now waste places of the southwest?

The back-to-the-land movement is now more than a phrase. Experiments are being made in all parts of the country for the best means of wrestling the maximum of results from the soil with the minimum of effort. These experiments are proving of wonderful value. The science of agriculture, as taught in colleges and universities, has revolutionized the methods of developing the land. The southwest will profit by all these efforts and when men turn their eyes to the place where land is still available, they will look toward the west for agricultural comfort and fortune as the pioneers turned to California in the ‘40’s in the mad romantic quest for gold. Greater value than gold will be taken from the soil by the better trained and more systematic pioneers who will till the teeming acres of California, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, Oregon, Washington, Colorado, New Mexico and Montana.

And so a new kind of exposition has been builded. Not an exposition of results so much as an exposition of promise. We have attempted to show the visitor to this Exposition, not the products of industry but the processes by which the products are made. There is no haphazard piling up of exhibits, but you will find the fruits and flowers and vegetables of California actually growing, as on the thousands of ranches throughout the state. You will see a model orange grove with the trees full of the golden fruit. You will see tractors, plows and harvesters at work on the land. You will see cereals and grasses sown and grown in the field. You will see not only the actual work in a citrus orchard but the operations of farming on a large scale.

And these things will constitute the appeal to the man with sufficient brawn and brain who will be inspired to work the virgin miles of the land of the great Southwest. It will be these things that will cause men to invest their money in growing of grapes, of fruits, of timber forests, of nuts of all kinds, of pasture lands for the nourishment of large herds of sheep and beef, of the creating of large poultry farms and dairy projects. This is our boast, that we have arranged an exhibition of living and working enterprises which must become the inspiration of all who are tired of the futile grind of city life and who will turn to the west to work out the realization of their hopes and aspirations. From these new pioneers of the future will the great southwest be built and make of San Diego, California, and the great West, a new and better center of civilization.

Not only is the opening of the Panama Canal commemorated by the cross to this coast, which in those early days meant the coming of civilization. Although apparently slow in coming to its own, striking deep roots and rearing wide branches, with the substantial growth of a vast oak, the history of the Pacific coast is coincident, synchronous with the history of the Atlantic seaboard and, except for ineffectual raids of the Norsemen in the eleventh century, the history of development along the Pacific is earlier than that of the Atlantic.

Over 400 years ago, Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama and “stared at the Pacific.” In 1542 an expedition under Juan Cabrillo sailed north in search of new lands and eventually anchored in the Harbor of the Sun. Later came Viscaino, whose party explored the west coast before Champlain navigated the St. Lawrence, before Hudson entered what is now New York harbor, and before the Pilgrims had established their English colony at Plymouth.

But these men, although bringing with them some elements of the culture of Europe, were, for the most part, daring spirits of adventure, whose mission was not so much to build as to discover. But with one of them, with Portola, came a humble but gallant priest, and with him came the seed out of which has grown California and practically all of the Pacific coast civilization. This priest, whose labors at the time seemed so futile, has since become the most prominent figure in the history of the state.

The name of Fray Junipero Serra is one to stir men’s hearts to nobler efforts in all parts of the civilized world. He has a part in the glory of the coast and is especially cherished in San Diego where his little band began to make headway among savage conditions and where his first mission was erected.

It was here that the first mission was finished, which became the starting point for the series of missions that stretch the length of the state along El Camino Real. From that expedition the famous friar never returned, but his spirit remained and today the kind of Christianity he represented, the Christianity of labor and self-sacrifice, is symbolized in the noble group of buildings which have been erected on this site.

These buildings of this Exposition have not been thrown up with the careless unconcern that characterizes a transient pleasure resort. They are a part of the surroundings, with the aspect of permanence and far-seeing design. They might endure for a century and still appear the things of beauty which they are. Time will hallow them with its gentle touch. Here is pictured in this happy combination of splendid temples, the story of the friars, the thrilling tale of the pioneers, the orderly conquest of commerce, coupled with the hopes of an El Dorado where life can expand in this fragrant land of opportunity. It is indeed a permanent city and every building fits into the picture.

The idea of the exposition came to the people of San Diego like an inspiration, and with what seemed the power of a magic wand, not only the spirit, but the entire outward aspect of our city underwent a change. By that inspiration we have increased our population nearly threefold. We have transformed what was a town into a city. Hundreds of homes have been erected in new residential sections. The occupied area of the city has spread in all directions. Waste places have been made beautiful habitations where thousands of people live under pleasant conditions. Modern schools have grown up, as if by magic, with educational facilities that compare with the best in the world.

What was some 650 acres of arid and unsightly mesa and canyon land has been made over into one of the most beautiful parks in the country. Scores of new streets have been laid out, graded and paved. New systems of lighting and sewage have been completed. And what is of more importance than all else is the work commenced to develop our harbor and waterfront, to make of it a port which must some day be the city’s greatest single asset when the commerce of a peaceful world will come to the shores of the Pacific.

What are the lessons to be learned from an exposition of this nature? The chief lesson is in beholding what can be accomplished by any community which will work in harmony toward a common ideal. The ideal, in this case, was the creation of an exposition totally different from any hitherto held. This achievement has been brought about in the face of unbelievable difficulties. At first there was nothing more than the intention of building a fair. There was but little money in sight and it seemed impossible that the vast sum necessary for its realization could be obtained. But the splendid optimism of San Diego has triumphed and what only a few years ago seemed an impossibility is now a living reality. This is the principal lesson of the exposition, that with a good working organization anything can be accomplished. The San Diego exposition will remain a type of what can be accomplished as well as an inspiration for future endeavors.

The Exposition might also be pointed out as a pattern for the development of future Southern California counties. Here the desire for beauty and the practical working out of such a community went hand in hand, with the result that the aesthetic results obtained are practical results, results possible of repetition by any community that will set before itself an ideal and will work willingly for its realization. It is not too much to predict that Southern California communities will take this lesson to heart and build in the future with the idea of obtaining practical beauty values.

Many of the buildings of the fair will be permanent and remain an asset of great value to the future of San Diego. They will exist in the years to come not only as a memory of San Diego’s great fair but as distinct ornaments of the city. This will be especially true of the noble quadrangle of buildings of which the California state is the dominant feature. With the establishment of the museum of ethnology and archaeology San Diego has the beginning of one of the most important museums in America. Future explorations will fill these halls with rare specimens of prehistoric man, and ultimately the city by the Harbor of the Sun will become the Mecca for scientists from all parts of the world.

From day to day American archaeology and ethnology are assuming more importance in the comprehensive science of man, and the aborigines who lived millenniums ago west of the Rocky Mountains are assuming larger significance in the speculations of investigators. With the nucleus already established, said to be the best in the west, our museum must sooner or later be of national, if not of international importance.

In the collection of specimens now installed the entire history of man as far as at present learned, is displayed. The various races and tribes whose history and traditions run back before the beginning of the Christian era, are shown by actual specimens that have been exhumed after centuries from the soil of Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Central and South America.

We have sought, and, I believe, we have succeeded, through this exposition to create an effect, an atmosphere, if you please, that will come as a revelation to the visitor. He will see here the life of California epitomized. He will see home life as it is lived nowhere else under such pleasant conditions. He will see the flowers and the fruits of the west as well as a bewildering variety of unusual trees. He will glimpse in a short sojourn the result of a half century of struggle with stubborn conditions. He will realize that Californians have not been working in vain, and that they have made no exaggerated claims for the land they love. And above all he will carry back to the east the glorious message of promise that is the heritage of California and the West.

The gates of the exposition are open. San Diego invites the world to the Panama-California exposition.


Calendar of Army and Navy Events for Year 1915


  1. Opening of Exposition. Salutes from guns aboard all naval craft in the Harbor of the Sun, also from guns at Fort Rosecrans. Hundreds visit harbor to view big warships. U. S. S. San Diego and nine torpedo boat destroyers.
  2. Lieutenant Joseph Carberry, pilot, carried Lieutenant Walter Christie, as passenger, breaking American altitude record for pilot and passenger by ascending 11,690 feet. He descended at the rate of 1,000 feet a minute, the fasted voltplane every recorded in this country.
  3. U. S. S. Maryland arrives from Mare Island.
  4. Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce parade. Army, Navy and Marine Corps participate.
  5. Two new tractors arrive at North Island for use of army aviators.
  6. Battleship Oregon complement cut for canal voyage.
  7. San Francisco guests escorted through Fair by Military and Naval arms of the service.
  8. Gunboat Yorktown arrives for lengthy stay.
  9. Marines reviewed by President Davidson, H. H. Timkins, Rear Admiral Sebree and Major McKelvy.
  10. Seventy men enlisted in the Navy during the month of January in San Diego.


  1. Flotilla consisting of destroyers: Whipple, Paul Jones, Truxton, Perry and Preble are scheduled for practice in San Diego harbor.
  2. Major Fay issues final lineup for big parade, ending with celebration at the Fair.
  3. U. S. S. Colorado was selected to succeed U. S. S. San Diego as flagship of the Pacific Fleet.
  4. Marines reach port after wild voyage. Cruiser Chattanooga brings thirty-three men for flagship in San Diego.
  5. San Diego given an unusual treat when the first squadron of U.S. Cavalry passes in review before President Davidson of the Exposition.
  6. First U.S. Cavalry Band departs for Monterey Station.
  7. Sergeant P. Ocker of the First Aero Squadron ascends 10,000 feet in the air. Spectators are thrilled by sight.


  1. Rear Admiral Howard becomes a full-fledged Admiral.
  2. Lieutenant B. Q. Jones establishes American sustained flight for two passengers: 7 hours, 5 minutes.
  3. Members of Congressional party take cruise about harbor and inspect fortifications at Rosecrans.
  4. Hope is abandoned for F-4, as rescue ships fail to lift helpless craft from bottom, near Honolulu.
  5. Franklin D. Roosevelt, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, enters harbor on torpedo boat destroyer Paul Jones. He said that the full Atlantic fleet was coming to San Diego.
  6. Vice President Marshall and Franklin D. Roosevelt, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, visit the Fair escorted by Mayor O’Neall, Captain Rifenberick, aide to President Davidson, Lieutenant Commander Bartholf, aide to Vice President Marshall, Captain Lyman, President Davidson, Admiral Howard, H. O. Davis, Colonel Pendleton, Lieutenant Colonel Davis and Honorable Seth Lowe of New York.


  1. Sham battle held on the Fair Grounds by Cavalry and Marines for Lubin Movies.
  2. Aviators Lieutenant Byron Q. Jones and Lieutenant Thomas De Witt Milling leave for Mexican line.
  3. Cavalry pay tribute to Congressman Kettner. Spirited review of four troops honor Congressman on his arrival at the Cavalry Camp.
  4. Rear Admiral Pond arrives and ridicules “Mined Bay” story.
  5. Senator Week of Massachusetts inspects Marines.
  6. U.S. Cruiser New Orleans ordered to Turtle Bay for inquiry.
  7. Rear Admiral Charles F. Pond flies with Raymund Morris in hydroplane at North Island.
  8. Cavalry Review at Tractor Field, Exposition Grounds.


  1. Commander H. J. Zeigmeier relieves Lieutenant Commander Edward H. Dodd as Commander of the First Pacific Destroyer and Submarine Flotillas.
  2. Military men hold field meet at Fair.
  3. “Admiral’s Sweep” made by U. S. S. Colorado in channel off Santa Fe wharf. Captain Ashley H. Robertson turns his 13,000-ton cruiser without changing speed.
  4. S. S. Colorado brings Marines back to San Diego.
  5. Parade led by Colonel J. H. Pendleton as Grant Marshall for Ad Club of San Diego. Cavalry, Artillery and Marines participate.


  1. Marine rifle march on North Island — winning team in doubt.
  2. Fair pays tribute to Admiral Howard. “Admiral Howard Day” celebrated by all branches of service at Exposition.
  3. Lieutenant Arthur Christy executes triangular flight 3,000 feet in the air over North Island.
  4. Naval Recruiting Record smashed in San Diego.
  5. 1,400 men sail on board U. S. S. Colorado for Tobari Bay, including three companies of marines.
  6. S. S. Chattanooga ordered by radio from U. S. S. Colorado to proceed to mouth of the Yaqui River.
  7. United States assembles war supplies. Haste marks bow at Yaquis. Auto trucks ordered south.
  8. S. Marines arrive at Guaymas aboard U. S. S. Colorado.
  9. Marine landing considered unnecessary.


  1. Army Aviator Lieutenant B. Q. Jones loops the loop four times in succession.
  2. Cavalry boys guests of Viriginia Brissac and Johnny Wray at Spreckels Theater.
  3. First American Aero Squadron formed. Richmond Blues visit San Diego’s Exposition.
  4. Army fliers leave for Fort Sill, Oklahoma. Fifteen officers, ninety enlisted men.
  5. Different branches of the service escort “Teddy” to U. S. Grant Hotel.
  6. Target practice at Fort Rosecrans by 30thand 115th Companies witnessed by many San Diegans.


  1. Rear Admiral Fullam thanks San Diego for kindness to Middle by radio from battleship Missouri.
  2. Captain C. M. Condon leaves Fort Rosecrans for duty with military staff college at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.
  3. Veterans of Spanish-American War, Coast Artillery Corps, Cavalry, sailors from U. S. S. Colorado, Marines and National Guard of California, parade.
  4. Ball at Hotel del Coronado for Admiral Thomas Benton Howard.
  5. Two Companies, National Guard of California, 5thand 8th fire at Fort Rosecrans, making good scores. First Cavalry Troops, B and M, under Captain George V. H. Moseley leave for Calexico.
  6. Cruiser Raleigh arrives at San Diego on way to Mexican waters to relieve Cruiser Cleveland.
  7. Thousands of children visit U. S. S. Colorado. Fifth and Eighth Companies, Coast Artillery Reserves, return from Fort Rosecrans.
  8. Rear Admiral Cameron McRae Winslow to relieve Admiral Howard about September 1, 1915.


  1. Mexicans attack U.S. aviators, Lieutenants Morrow and Jones and troops at Brownsville, Texas.
  2. Torpedo boat destroyers, cruisers and gunboats to hold target practice from October, 1915 to, April, 1916 off San Diego.
  3. Oscar A. Brindley, military aviator school instructor at North Island, saves Tiny Broadwick and himself by exception skill during fight with the elements at the Exposition.
  4. Captain Townsend F. Dodd, U.S.A., ordered to Brownsville, Texas. He holds American record for flying with passenger. Army, Navy and Marine parade for Admission Day, Colonel Pendleton, Grand Marshall.
  5. Admiral Cameron McRae Winslow relieves Admiral T. B. Howard as commander-in-chief of the United States Pacific Fleet. Ceremonies conducted aboard U. S. S. Colorado. U. S. S. San Diego becomes flagship of Pacific Fleet.

Major General George W. Goethals, builder of the Panama Canal, visits Panama-California Exposition. Reception by President Davidson and Officers of Army, Navy and Marine Corps. General Goethals reviewed the Marines at 4:00 p.m. and at 5:00 p.m. delivered an address on the Panama Canal at the Spreckels Organ.

  1. Ex-President William Howard Taft visits Exposition. Escorted from train to Exposition by one of the largest Military and Naval parades of the year. Reviewed troops from steps of Sacramento Building.
  2. Lieutenant Walter Taliaferro establishes a new American sustained flight record, remains aloft 9 hours and 48 minutes.
  3. “Marine Day” at the Exposition. Dancing in the evening at Organ Pavilion. Music by Marine and Coast Artillery Bands.

Los Angeles Times, January 1, 1915, 1:1-6, 9:1-4. Gates of Magic City of White Thrown Open to The World; A Million Shouts Break Against Fair and Stately Buildings in a Paean of Wonder and Delight; Press of a button in Washington by President Wilson draws the bolts from the doors through which the throngs are pouring in ecstasies of the occasion and the New Year — twelve months of jubilee begun, by John Lloyd.

Los Angeles Times, January 1, 1915, 1:3. Women Guests Are Honored; Dinners and Entertainments Galore Prepared.

Los Angeles Times, January 1, 1915, 2:1-2. Big Fair of Southland Mecca for The West; Host of Celebrities Royally Entertained by the Exposition Officials; Launching of Great Educational Display is Witnessed by Governors, Washington Guests, and Representatives of the Army and Navy, Who Join in Congratulating the Promoters on Magnificent Enterprise, by Harry C. Carr.

Los Angeles Times, January 1, 1915, 2:5-6, 4:5-6. Amazing Beauty of Exposition; Spanish Architecture Rivals that of Old Masters; Evolution of Industry is Vividly Portrayed; Picture Worthy of the Gods Presented to Visitor, by John Lloyd.

Los Angeles Times, January 1, 1915, 2:5-6. The Exposition Program.

Los Angeles Times, January 1, 1915, 9:2-3. Thousands on the Way to San Diego Opening.

Los Angeles Times, January 1, 1915, 9:4-7. Streets of San Diego Blocked by Revelers, by John Lloyd.

San Diego Evening Tribune, January 1, 1915. Magnificent Organ Presented to City; Great instrument and pavilion turned over to representatives of people by John D. Spreckels preceding formal opening of Exposition; donor given ovation.

San Diego Evening Tribune, January 1, 1915. Lyman J. Gage Presides Over Big Ceremony, by George H. White.

San Diego Evening Tribune, January 1, 1915. Amusements at Exposition Unusual; List of attractions on the Isthmus of high order — nearly all open.

San Diego Evening Tribune, January 1, 1915, 1. Thousands Cheer When Fair and 1915 Greet; Official count of admissions in progress today; Indescribable din ushers Exposition in; Formal ceremony terminates tremendous work started five years ago; Governor congratulates city; by Bertram Holmes.

San Diego Sun, January 1, 1915, 1:1-2. Estimate 50,000 Attendance at Opening; Gates Are Busy Again.

San Diego Sun, January 1, 1915, 1. Sidelights of the Fair Festivities.

San Diego Sun, January 1, 1915, 1:1-2. Jam At Exit Gates Points Way For One Improvement; management did not provide enough exit gates resulting in a terrific crush when crowd started home last night..

San Diego Sun, January 1, 1915. 1:3. President Sends His Greetings.

San Diego Sun, January 1, 1915, 2. Typical Sunny Weather Adds to Festivities.

San Diego Sun, January 1, 1915, 2:1-2. Speakers Tell of Triumph; Formal program at Exposition opening is heard by thousand there.

San Diego Sun, January 1, 1915, 2:2-3. Brilliant Luncheon Is Given For Mrs. M’Adoo.

San Diego Sun, January 1, 1915, 2:4. Dedication of Organ Is Impressive; Throng sees ceremony and hears fine music at the Pavilion.

San Diego Sun, January 1, 1915. When We Talk About the Big Night Hereafter, We’ll Mean Last Night.

San Diego Sun, January 1, 1915. Fair Publicity Spread Over Whole Continent By The Sun.

San Diego Sun, January 1, 1915. Banquet Is Enjoyed By The Guests; Newspaper men honored at affair given by local Exposition heads.

San Diego Sun, January 1, 1915. Crime is Absent As Expo Opens; Wonderful record made as thousands here; not single robbery.

San Diego Sun, January 1, 1915, II, 7:1-2. “Back-to-the-Land” is Theme in the Address of President Davidson; Exposition head makes eloquent talk at opening festivities; tells of the lesson of the San Diego Fair and thanks those who made it possible; Extends welcome to thousands.

San Diego Sun, January 1, 1915, 7:4. “It was worth waiting a lifetime for,” said Colonel Collier today, as he crawled out of his pajamas and got into his frock coat. “It was worth all we gave for it — worth every sacrifice and hour of labor. It was a glimpse of Paradise on earth — as I saw it. It was the beginning of the San Diego that is to bee — the San Diego of a million people — the San Diego of international fame and importance — the San Diego of our dreams.”

San Diego Sun, January 1, 1915. Chicago World’s Fair Pass Paid First Admission.

San Diego Sun, January 1, 1915, 7:3. Distinguished Guests Are Greatly Impressed.

San Diego Sun, January 1, 1915, 7:4-5. Exposition City Rose From Barren Sight in Great 1400-Acre Park; builders who declared at start that it would be the most beautiful Exposition the world had ever seen, had in mind the natural advantages; how the grounds are laid out.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, 2:1. Weather Man Good to San Diego on Greatest Day in History; San Diego Electric Railway handles Exposition crowd; Comfort, Main Issue; All-night schedule established; equipment provided; changes announced.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, 2. Local Commerce Increased by Canal; Harbor Master Foster Makes Annual Report to City Council.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, 2:3.

Exposition Officials: In the hour of the Exposition’s triumph, it is fitting to mention briefly the names of those who started the great enterprise and took the preliminary steps, so fraught with uncertainty and striving, that marked its earlier years. Some of these are no longer connected with the Exposition officially, but all have supported it with heart and purse from the beginning until today. On September 4, 1909, at a meeting of the Panama-California Exposition Company, the following men were chosen directors:

Simon Levi, U. S. Grant, Jr., A. G. Spalding, L. S. McLure, Ralph Granger, Fred Jewell, John H. Gay, William Clayton, John D. Spreckels, C. L. Williams, Arthur H. Marston, Julius Wangenheim, Lyman J. Gage, J. W. Sefton, Jr., L. A. Blochman, D. F. Garrettson, F. W. Jackson, C. E, Grosbeck and George Burnham. These were the men who started the Exposition on its way.

On September 10 of the same year, the directors met and elected the following officers: President U. S. Grant, Jr., first vice president; John D. Spreckels; second vice president, A. G. Spalding; third vice president, L. S. McLure; fourth vice president, G. Aubrey Davidson; temporary secretary, F. G. Spaulding; and director-general, D. C. Collier. Later L. G. Monroe was chosen secretary. On January 10, 1910, at the first annual meeting, these officers were reelected and F. W. Jackson was made treasurer.

To fill vacancies caused by resignations, the following men who are not now on the board of directors were chosen during the four years of the Exposition’s history: January 10, 1910, L. R. Armstrong, W. R. Rogers; March 27, 1911, E. W. McKenzie, John F. Forward, Jr.; January 10, 1912, H. L. Miller; January 10, 1913, John E. Beal.

After taking the presidency on November 23, 1911, upon the resignation of U. S. Grant, Jr., D. C. Collier resigned on January 10, 1914; and G. Aubrey Davidson was selected to succeed him. The other officers elected with President Davidson and who are in office now that the Exposition is open are: First vice-president, John D. Spreckels; second vice-president, F. J. Belcher, Jr.; third vice president, H. H. Jones; fourth vice-president, George Burnham; secretary, H. J. Penfold; treasurer, F. W. Jackson.

The present directors of the Exposition are as follows:

  1. C. Allen, Lucius R. Barrow, F. J. Belcher, Jr., L. A. Blochman, George Burnham, William Clayton, D. C. Collier, G. Aubrey Davidson, C. W. Fox, D. F. Garrettson, Percy Goodwin, F. W. Jackson, H. H. Jones, M. F. Heller, W. F. Ludington, Arthur H. Marston, J. W. Sefton, Jr., W. A. Sloane, John D. Spreckels; C. L. Williams and Julius Wangenheim.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, 2:4. Sailors Will Be Hosts At Ball Tomorrow; Uncle Sam’s Bluejackets Promise Good Time For Everybody.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, 2:5-6. Twenty-eight Thousand Navy Men of Atlantic and Pacific Fleets Coming to San Diego for Fair.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, II, 2:5-6. Exposition crowd smashes all records; 60,000 swarm through gates before midnight.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, 2:5-6. “A Great Day, January 1, 1915,” paid ad by Bob Blankenship.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, 3:1. Visiting Notables Charmed With Beauties of Southland; Utah Delegation Arrives for Exposition; President’s Representative, King’s Envoy and Governors Praise San Diego.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, II, 3:4-5. M’Adoo Party Arrives On Time To Officiate at Fair Opening.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, II, 4:1.

Editorial: The Exposition Auspiciously Opened . . . The New Year’s gift to San Diego is the triumph of the most ambitious enterprise ever undertaken by any city of Southern California. With the advent of 1915 the great Panama-California Exposition became an accomplished fact, under auspices that proclaim it an affair of the nation as well as the state. The President of the United States, personally represented here by a member of his cabinet, gave at Washington the signal for the formal opening. The Governor of California, the executives of other commonwealths, and distinguished citizens of foreign countries, took part in the ceremonies, and thousands of residents of San Diego and other cities acclaimed the successful beginning of an unique celebration of the completion of the waterway that connects the Atlantic and Pacific oceans and revolutionizes the commerce of the world to the advantage of mankind. Never before was an exposition more auspiciously launched.

Four years ago, when assurance was given that the dream of centuries was to become true — that the Isthmus of Panama would be pierced by a waterway that would be completed in 1915 — the very proper suggestion was made by a public-spirited resident of San Diego that this city, as the nearest port to the new avenue of commerce, and the one that would chiefly profit from it, should celebrate that world event by a great Exposition. The plan found favor at once. It has been forwarded by the tireless labor of San Diego’s citizens in all walks of life, by liberal subscriptions from the people of this and other communities, and by substantial pecuniary aid voted by the residents of this city. At the outset it was agreed that there should be no attempt to hold what is usually termed a “World’s Fair.” It was realized that if the San Diego celebration of the canal opening was to be made an unqualified success, there must be a radical departure from the “World’s Fair” idea. The latter has been so often borrowed from the Centennial Exposition at Philadelphia in 1876 that the very terms had become hackneyed. In a work, the original “World’s Fair” idea had been overworked and people were tired of it. Hence, San Diego’s decision to arrange a display that should be totally different from any previous ones and as attractive as it was different.

The Exposition that is open today is the result of strict adherence to that plan. While no effort has been spare to show materially the development, resources and prospects of the great Southwest, there has been intelligent endeavor to paint the picture with harmonious coloring. The artistic treasures of even the desert have been reproduced, and the wealth of nature’s gifts in his unrivaled climate have been lavishly displayed. Nor have the material adjuncts that will appeal most strongly to the homeseeker been omitted. The California and the great Southwest of this generation are portrayed at this Exposition as never before. And the visitor, coming, perhaps, from outside this state, will hardly know which to admire most — the evidences of potential wealth for all who will seek it, or the beautiful environment in which they are displayed at Balboa Park.

But it is not the design here to enter into a description of the Panama-California Exposition. It is described in detail very graphically elsewhere in these columns this morning. It is the purpose rather to congratulate San Diego upon the triumphant success of the great endeavor on which the people of this city have devoted time and money during the past four years. And it may not be amiss to suggest to them that their success is the more notable because it has been achieved in the face of obstacles that would have deterred a less resolute community from going forward with its plan. Thanks too are due to the outside communities that have contributed so materially toward making the Exposition the attraction that it is. San Diego owes much to them, and although the debt may not now be paid, it will certainly not be forgotten.

And to all who have labored to make the Panama-California Exposition a success — San Diego’s people and those of other communities — The Union extends felicitations on the splendid results, and hearty New Year’s greetings.

San Diego Union, January 1, Special Section, II, 2:1-4. Exposition Beautiful Opens Gates to World, by D. C. Collier. . . . Pluck and perseverance have triumphed. The Panama-California Exposition in San Diego is a reality — a grand and glorious reality. Our dream of five years ago has come true, and the time is here for congratulations. Let us congratulate ourselves at the eve of pregnant years to come.

San Diego now presents to the world such an Exposition as never before was built. The claim of those who originated it, that it would be unique and that it would have a charm and present an atmosphere never before attained by any exposition has been fully carried out. Such an Exposition has been built in San Diego that no thought of comparisons can come into the minds of its visitors; no thought of anything except how beautiful and delightful it is.

From the very moment of its conception there has been no doubt in the minds of those most intimately concerned with its progress regarding the success of this Exposition. It was founded on a rock. It was an Exposition with a clearly defined purposes; that purpose being to demonstrate to the world the great possibilities in the development of the Pacific states, the great region lying between the Rockies and the ocean to the west, and to show that San Diego, because of her geographic situation, her climate, her harbor, her soil, and her people, was destined to play a most important part in that development.

States Respond Bravely

The states lying west of the Rockies, the peoples of the various countries that will have closer social and commercial relations with these states because of the opening of the Panama canal, and manufacturers an dealers in such wares and commodities as will find a market in these states were all asked to participate in San Diego’s Exposition and there response has been generous and hearty. Exhibits have not been made at San Diego by governments, purposeless exhibits like those seen at other expositions, where the holding of lavish entertainments was the sole object, but the state of California has provided for this Exposition, the most beautiful and substantial exposition building ever built on any exposition grounds, and the counties of California has provided other buildings and exhibits of the products of the soil of California presented in a way that has never before been attempted. The states of Washington, Montana, Utah, Nevada and New Mexico all have built elaborate exhibit palaces and placed in them exhibits of their products, their commerce and their social life.

The San Diego Exposition has collected and presents an exhibit of the early life of the two Americas, the like of which has never before been seen in the world. It is an exhibit worth going half way round the world to see.

Amusement features have been secured for the San Diego Exposition more elaborate and more interesting than every seen at any of the expositions of the past.

Above and beyond all is the horticultural display presented by the Exposition itself, nothing more nor less than a perfect demonstration of what California is and what California can do. Its architecture, its setting, and its adornment will entrance the visitors to this Exposition, will grip them in their first vision of it, and hold them enthralled forever. They will never forget it; never will the picture be effaced from their minds; and when they must go away from San Diego, they will take away with them a longing for all the things that the San Diego Exposition means to him who would really live, that sometime will bring them back to San Diego, just to live.

World Invited to See

And so the really big thing is that San Diego has builded this Exposition. There is the wonder of it, and there is the thing that will bring back to San Diego payment many times over for all of the money and the energy, the trails and the tribulations that have been expended upon it. First, the visitor will marvel at its beauty and its magnificence; its quality and its real worth, and then will come the thought that a little city, way off in one corner, has done this, and the visitor will ask himself: What sort of people are those of San Diego who can conceive of such a thing and build it?

But because the Exposition is builded, we of San Diego must not sit back in calm content and say, “There it is, come and see it.” We have yet a great work to do, all through the year 1915. We have invited the world to come and see what we have done; now we must see that those who come are properly and well entertained. It is not enough to point the way to the Exposition gates, when the visitor comes to San Diego. San Diego, herself, is on display. In many and various ways, and in fitting and appropriate ways, San Diego must say to all the visitors in 1915, “You are welcome here, we are glad to have you come” — and prove it.

Looking on while San Diego has been building her Exposition, the people of the world have said, What a splendid spirit of cooperation and steadfastness the San Diego spirit is! Soon these people will be among us, and it is for us to show them that this spirit has not been broken with the completing of the Exposition, but that it has been strengthened and that it embraces also hospitality and the open heart.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, II, 3:1-7. Director-General H. O. Davis writes article about the Panama-California Exposition as the first purely constructive Exposition.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 3:2. Inspired Pen Has Revitalized Old Spanish Story.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 3:7. Most Perfect Rose to Be Chosen at Potpourri Gardens. . . . Just each of the marine camp on the lower plateau is the potpourri rose garden, of which Mrs. Jessie C. Knox is in charge. Mrs. Knox is attempting to show what can be done in the development of an entirely new industry in California, supplying this country with a potpourri which at present is made largely in Europe.

A contest, which Mrs. Knox intends to hold during the year, to determine which is the most perfect rose, promises to do a great deal for rose culture in the United States. Other contests she is conducting include on in ceramics for the jars to contain the potpourri. There are numerous entries from different parts of the country.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 3:8. History of Exposition. . . . The birthday of the San Diego Exposition can be considered as September 9, 1909, when, at a meeting of the Chamber of Commerce, G. Aubrey Davidson proposed that the first port of call should hold the official celebration of the opening of the greatest waterway in history. The suggestion was taken up immediately, and so rapidly did the plans get underway that, in July of the following year, the groundbreaking ceremony was held.

The first official spadeful of earth was turned four and one-half years before the dawn of 1915. Construction work, however, did not begin on a considerable scale for more than a year afterward ,when the Administration building was erected, and gradually the arms of the engineers began reaching down what is now known as El Prado. The difficulties with which the builders of the Exposition had to cope are too well known to need reviewing for the people of Southern California.

Several months after the Exposition was chartered, and actually underway, San Francisco decided in favor of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition and went to Washington in search of government recognition. Immediately there was a disagreement between the two California cities. New Orleans sought to take advantage of that Western division by stepping in and rallying about itself the support of the North and East, in order that New Orleans might have the 1915 world’s fair. In order to keep the great event on the Pacific coast, San Diego withdrew voluntarily and gave cordial support to San Francisco. The result was the starting of a world’s fair at San Francisco, based on ideas which had prevailed to a greater or lesser degree at world’s fairs of the past.

Expositions Differ

It remained for San Diego to originate something and, although the two cities are 500 miles apart, it was recognized as certain that two events of identical type could not draw as well as two of different types. Hence, San Diego set about to create something new and something different. The result of that determination is seen and heard and actually felt throughout the grounds of Balboa park. The architecture, of course, is entirely different. The gardening treatment is quite as different from fairs of the past. In all likelihood there never will be again any finer, handsomer architecture than is visible in San Diego.

The scope of the Exposition is different. The form of its exhibits and concessions is different; even the series of special events are different from special events at previous fairs. The effort has been to show the Eastern tourist that the American West has such an infinite variety that two great expositions can be held at the same time without clashing with each other, and without duplication of each other’s efforts.

At the outset, of course, it was expected that there would be extensive foreign participation. Colonel D. C. Collier, the first president of the Exposition, and perhaps the one man in San Diego without whom the Exposition could never have been held, devoted his entire time to the cause of getting state participation, and later, foreign participation. His travels through Central and South America are recalled, as well as those in Europe. For a time his labors seemed to be attended by considerable success, but eventually it became obvious that the foreign participation of San Diego would be the participation of foreign industrial leaders, rather than of governments. The largest of these exhibits was the Japanese, which, in fact, is looked upon today as the most important industrial exhibit Japan has ever made.

Placing of Buildings

In the latter half of 1914 people began to see that the lack of extensive government participation was not an unmixed evil, for San Diego had learned not to expect it. If there had been any such expectation, there would have been disappointment, for the war had changed everything. The foreign industrial exhibits persist without any disturbance.

With the decision to build the Exposition in the 1400-acre Balboa park came on the discussion as to exactly where the buildings would stand and what should be the treatment of the grounds. The landscape architecture firm of Olmstead [sic] Bros. made a considerable start. Bertram Goodhue, the architect of the west group of buildings, comprising the California and Fine Arts buildings, made his plans for the entire colony. And then came Frank P. Allen, Jr., director of works, and changed the Exposition in many important details.

Probably there is none of the many unique features of the Exposition more unique than the success in opening it not only on time, as announced five years ago, but also opening it free of debt — a feat which is almost without parallel in exposition history, and in itself a rare tribute to the financing and managing ability of the people of San Diego and those whom they selected to build and operate the Exposition.

Representative Exhibits

In the same way, under great discouragement due in great part to the war, and the fears the was inspired in the minds of industrial leaders, the Exposition went ahead and secured probably as fine an array of American exhibits as have been gathered together — not the largest array, to be sure, but quite as representative as could be found. The competitive ideas in the exhibits were abandoned years ago in San Diego, and, instead of competition, the exhibitors were furnished with real service. The entire field of industry was gone over carefully by experts, leaders in that industry selected, and then these leaders were given the opportunity to get an exhibit. The individual exhibitor recognized in this policy the genuine service to himself, because he would be able to show his manufactures without having the visitor distracted and wearied by a similar display made by several other industrial leaders in the realm of business. The attention of the visitors is kept keen and the benefit to the exhibitor is consequently at a maximum.

Working with a limited amount of money, and with the firm intention to open free from debt, the Exposition’s outlay in every department was not nearly as great as it might have been. More money could have been used to good advantage, but the limited money on hand was made, simply because it was limited, to do twice as much work as it would ordinarily have done. The operating force has been kept at a minimum, and salaries generally have been at a minimum. Many of the officials who have done most gallant work have done so without any reward or hope of reward, but purely out of zeal to do their best for San Diego and the American West. That is another impressive feature of the Exposition — the devotion to a cause bigger than was the cause of any previous world’s fair.

City to Benefit

San Diego as the first port of call should benefit materially from the Panama canal. That was one idea in many the Exposition had, and from the celebration itself San Diego should benefit materially, but that is not the prime purpose. The bigger, broader and better purpose is to assist materially in the development of the whole West — San Diego’s back country, if that expression may be used. The benefit to San Diego is indirect. The benefit to the Western states is certain, for the great aim has been to show the tourist from other parts of the country and from other parts of the world, what there is in the new country on each slope of the Rockies, that holds definite opportunity for the settler. That settler may be a farmer, or a merchant, or a manufacturer, or an artisan. Whatever he may be, he can find in the Western empire work for him to do, if he has the heart and the brains and the hand to do it.

The great effort is, perhaps, to build up the agriculture in the West; to cultivate the 44,000,000 acres of undeveloped land, potentially just as good as that now being developed and cultivated, just as the present 8,000,000 acres are being cultivated, to turn the desert into a garden and mere resources into revenue producing investment. In seeking to help itself, San Diego seeks to help the West more.

This today is generally realized, and the support which the exhibiting states are giving San Diego establishes another record in exposition history. It is an Exposition of a new type, and the best type the world has ever seen. And this has been done by the smallest city which ever held a Fair of such dimensions — a city which started the building with only 35,000 inhabitants — a city which was told the plan was hopeless and could not be carried out, a city of boundless energy and boundless future.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 4:1-3. Architectural Gems of Old Spain Revived. . . . Probably no single feature of California, outside the majestic natural wonders of the state, has attracted more interest than the old Spanish missions, which extend from San Diego de Alcala to San Francisco de Solano. Probably no other spirit of architecture is so completely in harmony with the California landscape. Certainly none is associated more definitely with the rare old Spanish traditions which still live in California’s life of the present day, and yet there has been a singular neglect of the Spanish-Colonial type of building in the construction of new buildings along the coast. This circumstance was fully realized by the management of the San Diego Exposition five years ago, when plans were being made for the buildings which should stand on top of the lofty mesa which looks down over the sea and back over the canyons to the mountains.

The Exposition might have gone ahead and erected buildings of Greek or Roman type, or other conventional types which have appeared at all world’s fairs of the past. Beyond a doubt the results would have been beautiful for all buildings are beautiful when they are set in the gorgeous landscape which is possible in California as a whole, and in Southern California in particular. Beautiful the result might have been, but nothing would have been created. Consequently, the Exposition adopted a different plan, and now offers to the world something which is not only wondrously beautiful, but also is creative in that it has brought about a genuine renaissance of the glories of Spanish art and architecture, and something which is productive of a very great appeal to the romantic tendencies which linger in the most prosaic.

Plunge Into Past

The impression of the architects who have seen the Exposition in the city at the far southwest, is that there has been revived an art which should have been revived decades ago, but which now re-created, is destined to take on new life and strength and to last for many years to come.

The visitor comes up to the edge of Balboa Park from the wharves or railway station, passing en route buildings typical of a twentieth-century city, the rattle of street cars and the hum of modern industry fills the way. He bursts through a grove of palms and finds himself at the end of the quarter-mile Puente de Cabrillo. He crosses this impressive viaduct and comes to the great stone gateway, not spick and span as though it had been built especially for this occasion, but softened by the sandblast and chipped here and there to bring about the appearance of antiquity; it is just such a gate as might have stood at the portal of a city in old Spain of two or three or four centuries ago.

He passes through the gateway and immediately the hum and bustle of the twentieth century die away. At one side is an impressive cathedral, copied in many essential details from the magnificent cathedral at Oaxaca, Mexico. At the other side is a plain old mission of the California type, and right away is noticed one of the extraordinary features of this Spanish-Colonial architecture, for the ornate cathedral faces squarely into the somber old mission and yet there is no clashing and no discord. This probably is not true of any other school of architecture. Down El Prado the visitor walks between rows of black acacias, set in verdant lawns, on each side beyond the lawns is a thick hedge of poinsettia, its crimson flashing brilliantly against the green of the coprosma and the other shrubs. Just beyond this hedge rises the long Spanish arches which line the arcade, stretching from La Puerta del Oeste clear along El Prado.

Here is another old mission of the California type, and over across the canyon a mission of the older New Mexico type, quite as much Indian as Spanish. Down this way is a building of the pure municipal type seen today in all Spanish-American cities. Here is a rustic residence, and there an urban palace. A great building with colored cornice introduces its interesting Moorish feature. Another building at the end of the Isthmus introduces the Moorish arabesque and minaret and other features which have been adopted in some measure by Spanish-America itself.

Variety at Every Turn

Everything is Spanish-Colonial, and yet there is variety sufficient to lend fresh charm to the view. There are openings in the long arcades which lead into quiet patios whose calm is broken only by the plashing of a fountain of Pan. There are rose-covered gateways leading into pergolas which dot the broad lawns adjoining the buildings and stretching back to the brink of the canyons. There are curious exedras in the botanical gardens, there are stone balconies looking over the gulches which have been planted with a might variety of semi-tropical plants. These canyons furnish a most important feature of the general landscape. One reason for the extraordinary results which San Diego has brought about with a limited amount of money is that Balboa Park, as it was when the Exposition started, supplied a site which is quite incomparable in exposition work. The great mesa occupying the center of the 1,400 acre park is cut by deep ravines whose contour furnishes admirable opportunity for the development of most appealing treatments. The canyons, to be sure, like the mesa, a matter of four years ago, were of hard-baked adobe in which grew nothing except cactus and sage and chaparral. By the liberal use of dynamite, by plowing and harrowing and incessant watering, these canyons have been made to bloom into a succession of great gardens which probably have no peer anywhere in the country.

The height of the bridge has been accented by the use of Italian and Monterey cypress. Beyond the zone where these trees are used is a wealth of eucalyptus and acacia. Some of the trees are the varieties which bear the brilliant crimson and golden blooms. The end of the canyon has been devoted entirely to a variety of palms, also there are palms used extensively elsewhere in the canyon treatment. The brilliant cannas and the soft gray of the acacia baileyana and some of the rarer grasses have been used to add further color

Rare Flowers Soften Lines

Not only was San Diego endowed at the outset with this admirable site for the Exposition, which could not have been bought for millions, but also it was endowed with the quite invaluable gift of climate, a climate which is the same the year around, it knows no frost, nor torrid heat, and it allows the most amazing riot of hundreds of varieties of trees and shrubs and clambering vines and small blooming plants. Over all the arcades sweeps this display of vines, with the purple bougainvillea used dominantly along El Prado, with roses used in this patio, clematis in that, and jasmine and honeysuckle elsewhere. The effect of this floral display is of great importance. Probably no other single feature at the Exposition is of more importance. It must be remembered that the majority of visitors to San Diego in 1915 will be Northerners and Easterners who have no conception of the glories of Southern California’s climate and the amazing heights of beauty to which the California flora mount.

There is another point which impresses mightily the architect and engineer who likes to see full value received. There has been little of previous world’s fairs more genuinely depressing than the sight on the day after the fair closed, when the tearing down of the buildings began. The structures at San Diego have been built to stay — that is, those structures which are entitled to permanency. The smaller structures along the Isthmus, being erected purely for amusement, will be torn down immediately, but all the other buildings will stand for many years to come. The great west quadrangle, for example, dominated by the California State building, is built entirely of steel and concrete and will be used in years to come to house the museum exhibits which have been donated to the Exposition with the definite understanding that they would remain as long as the building itself stands.

Building Reverts to City

The wealth of rare flowers in the Botanical building is assembled for permanent use, as that building, too, is of steel and concrete. The administration building, the fire station, the hospital, and the other service buildings are for permanent park uses. The great music pavilion, which stands at the lower end of the Plaza de Panama, is of the same steel and concrete construction, and becomes the property of the city immediately after the Exposition is terminated. All of the other buildings are of staff and plaster, but these perishable materials are placed on a firm backing of metal lath. Furthermore, the entire absence of frost and sudden changes of temperature and gales and drenching rains from this particular section of the San Diego valley makes certain a much greater degree of permanency than would be possible anywhere else. The life of these buildings is figured at from twenty to thirty years with proper treatment of the staff each year. The great Puente de Cabrillo, which cost approximately $150,000, is also, of course, of permanent construction, and is of genuine interest from a purely engineering standpoint as the first example of reinforced concrete construction of the cantilever unit type on so large a scale.

The supplementary features which have been introduced by the Exposition management to carry out the Spanish ideas are in a rare spirit of harmony. For example, not only are the buildings purely Spanish, but the guards and attendants at the Exposition throughout 1915 are attired as conquistadors and caballeros, the bandsmen are dressed in Spanish uniform, the dancing girls who appear in the Plaza de Panama and at different points along El Prado are Spanish dancing girls, in the bright costumes of old Spain, presenting the dances of the Spanish capital of four centuries ago. Some of the fiestas, which will rank as special events, are the fiestas of the Spanish-American countries. Thus in the field of special events are the religious ceremonies of the Aztecs and Toltecs, and the other ancient red races. These displays then figure as more than special events because they are inseparably associated with the architecture itself. Very little is left to the imagination of the visitor save the feat of transporting himself backward three or four centuries and recalling that this magic city on the mesa is the city that was dreamed of by Cabrillo four centuries ago and by the succession of conquistadors and padres who followed after. It is an Exposition beautiful in appearance and in spirit alike.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 4:2-3. Tourists protected by uniform scale.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 4:6-7. Counties and Western States Housed in Noble Structures. . . . With the main exhibits of the Exposition designed to show to the visitor the opportunities of the American West, the leading states of the West have erected imposing buildings to carry on the lessons taught in its general features. It is their task to show what each state has to offer. Most of the buildings are located on the lower plateau and are almost the first to strike the eye of the visitor, whether he comes from El Puente Cabrillo or along El Paseo to the south gate. Two of the states have placed their exhibits elsewhere — Nevada, whose exhibit is placed in the heart of the outdoor display along the Alameda, and California, whose imposing $250,000 building stands close to the west approach, its great tower and dome dominating the architectural scheme of the whole grounds and visible for many miles.

The California building, however, is not devoted to a display of the state’s resources, as this has been left to the buildings erected by the individual groups of counties, of which there are five.

The Sacramento Valley and the mountain counties display their varied resources in a building at the north end of the Plaza de Panama. The building is one of the finest on the grounds, palatial in character. Along the front is a line of imposing pillars, back of which is a deep alcove, which forms an entrance to the building itself. Within the great hall, the woodwork of which is entirely of burned pine, are gathered the wonderful resources of the valley and mountain districts of the north part of the state. There are some unusual features, such as the jars which apparently support the weight of the central exhibit. Around the walls and in the alcoves are broad benches and a thick growth of permanent plants.

Counties Represented in Fine Buildings

The middle portion of the state is represented by the San Joaquin Valley Association, whose building in the east side of the lower end of the plaza is probably the best on the grounds of the municipal type, familiar in Spanish America. Here has been devised an extraordinary mural decoration scheme. The workers, men and girls from the valley, having arranged unique designs in grains and grasses to cover the panels and ceiling of the building. Colored photographs set forth the various industries of the San Joaquin Valley.

The third large group of counties, comprising the southern section of the state, have erected an imposing building near the south gate, and back of that building they have laid out one of the most important displays on the grounds. The building itself opens into the formal garden through which one walks to get to the citrus orchard on the other side of the Calle Colon. Here in this orchard are the many varieties of citrus fruit: the orange, lemon, grapefruit, kumquat, tangerine, and a row of astonishing trees, in the trunks of which have been grafted numerous varieties of citrus fruits. These varieties are seen growing well under conditions which are almost incomprehensible to the visitor from northern climes.

Across the Alameda from the citrus orchard is the model intensive farm, which demonstrates what can be done in a small tract of five acres or even less, and how a man can make a good living for himself and family, and save money besides. In the center of the model farm are shown many of the fruits of California, including the peach, apricot, fig, olive, apple, cherry, alligator pear and a few walnut trees. Here, too, is shown the full-bearing vineyard.

Smaller Groups Participate

Two smaller groups of counties are also represented, Kern and Tulare, whose graceful building lies across the Esplanade from the San Joaquin Valley building, close by the entrance to La Via de Los Estados and Alameda and Santa Clara, whose building is directly across the highway leading down into the state plateau. Here, too, are shown the resources which these sections offer the man who wishes to live in California. The visitor will realize after a tour of the buildings, the extraordinary resources of the Golden State, whose industries are almost as numerous as the industries of the entire United States.

At the entrance of the lower plateau begins the succession of state buildings. The first is Kansas, whose appropriation was not sufficient to give anything like the display the Kansas commissioners indicate they would like to give at this new type Exposition. With the limited funds on hand, however, was erected a small pavilion, where the visitor can at least get an idea of some of the principal features of Kansas life.

Beyond is the Utah building, surmounted by two large cupolas in red tile and four smaller pinnacles grouped about them at the corners. Next is the structure of the state of Montana, assisted by former Senator William A. Clark, whose personal gift of $10,000 materially increased the scope of the exhibits. Directly across the way is the Washington buildings, so constructed that the rear balcony overhangs the canyada which itself leads out from the Canyon Cabrillo. Washington has laid especial stress on its forestry exhibits.

Old Mission Copies

The last of this row is the New Mexico building, a replica of the ancient mission on the Rock of Acoma. One is immediately impressed by the quaintness of the exterior, which shows the manner in which the Spanish settler utilized Indian ideas and Indian materials in building. For example, there are no rounded arches, such as came into California at a later period. The links are generally straight. The towers and walls are thicker at the bottom than at the top, this being due to difficulties in building with adobe.

The Nevada building, lying between the Standard Oil building and the Lipton tea plantation, is another imposing Spanish structure in which the rounded arch continues to play a dominant part. The original intention was to have Nevada occupy the space between the Utah and Montana buildings, but owing to the advanced state of the gardening at the time Nevada was ready to build, the state consented to place its exhibit on the Alameda.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 4:7-8. The Outdoor Organ. . . . An outdoor organ, probably the largest of its kind in existence, presented to the San Diego Exposition by John D. Spreckels, will be one of the most beautiful permanent features of the city. Situated at the lower end of the Plaza de Panama, the organ is housed in a great vaulted structure 75 feet high, from which branch curved colonnades terminating in square exedras, with a total span of something over 300 feet. The entire structure is built of steel and concrete throughout, but the effect of marble is given by the concrete pillars which form a double line along the colonnade.

The structure at the center, where the organ itself is built, is in reality nothing more than a sounding board, constructed with such close attention to acoustic properties that it is expected to throw the sound of the full tones the full length of the Plaza de Panama, which stretches a thousand feet to the north. No covered auditorium has been built. The extraordinary climate of Southern California makes it possible to have the audience seated on benches scattered about the plaza and in the cloisters and arcades of the mission buildings adjoining.

Cost of Great Organ Pavilion $100,000

A gorgeous display of semi-tropic California flora clambers over the colonnade of the organ pavilion. Past the west end of the colonnade leads La Via de los Estados, the boulevard which winds about the plateau where the different state buildings are situated. Past the east end of the colonnade leads another path, which touches the edge of the Canyon Espanol and then winds back into the Plaza de Panama, and so continues down El Prado, the main highway of the Exposition Beautiful. From the walk along the colonnade is obtained a view across the deep canyons and across the roofs of the city to the harbor, to the strand of Coronado, to Point Loma with its bristling guns of Fort Rosecrans and the domes of the Theosophical Homestead, and far beyond the great Pacific. It is a panorama which can inspire the best in music, just as it inspires the best in painting and literature.

The organ pavilion is the last of the main structures in the Exposition grounds to be completed. Its total cost will approximate $100,000, of which $33,500 is the cost of the organ itself. A considerable amount of the cost is in the art stone which makes up the front of the building. The formal dedication will come on this New Year’s morning, when a festival program of classical music will be given.

Throughout the year this organ will be used for regular and special events. It will come into its most important use probably in the late spring when the Mendelssohn Choir of Toronto is expected to visit the coast and spend a full week in San Diego. A few weeks later the famous Tabernacle Choir from the Mormon temple will visit the Exposition, and, while a number of Utah citizens are holding special ceremonies in the Utah building, on the lower plateau, the great choir and orchestra will be contributing their services in the Plaza.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 5:1-5. Barren hills and valleys blossom in raiments of eternal spring.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 5:3. Display inside botanical building.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 5:6-7. Cool rest spots provided at Fair.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 5:7. North Island Regiment of Marines stationed on Exposition grounds.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 4:7-8. Musical Features of the Fair.

Famous Choirs Coming

The tentative program for the visit of the Mendelssohn Choir includes the Chicago Symphony Orchestra to furnish the instrumental music during the tour.

Another highly important musical feature of the year will be the programs furnished by the Exposition band, which has been organize during the past summer and has been giving weekly concerts at the Exposition grounds during the period before the actual opening. This is a band of thirty pieces, under the direction of Peter J. Frank, who has had considerable experience in California music festivals. The bandsmen are attired in Spanish uniform, and not only make an exceedingly gay appearance in the bright plaza, but also furnish an interesting piece of detail in the general Spanish harmony scheme which pervades the entire Exposition.

The guards and attendants are caballeros and conquistadors, the dancing girls are Spanish dancing girls, every building is a Spanish-Colonial building, and even the gardens and patios are laid out after Spanish designs.

One more musical feature is of genuine interest. This is the incidental music which accompanies the Aztec and Toltec ceremonials which will make up quite the most interesting series of events which the Exposition has planned. For several months the ethnological libraries of the country were scoured for full information about the ancient ceremonies of the red races who existed in the western continent long before the coming of the white man. The result is a series of scenarios based on the rituals of the Aztecs, Toltecs, Mayas and Incas. It is a lamentable fact that the same people who by omnivorous reading and genuine good taste have learned to love the folklore of Greece and Rome and Assyria and Scandinavia and Germany know practically nothing of the equally rich lore of the first Americas.

Deities’ Terrifying Names

The names of Quetzalcoatl and Huitzilpochtli mean absolutely nothing. It might be mentioned that there are other gods and demi-gods of the ancient red races with names of a much more terrifying character. The names are no more terrifying than the rituals which their followers celebrated. One of the particularly interesting ceremonies which is scheduled for presentation next year — with a few revisions at the requests of the actors — is the sacrifice scene, in which the victims are fastened to the altars, past which march the priests, who, with the aid of a sharpened flint, slit open the breasts of the victims and remove their hearts. The hearts are then bounced violently on the stone pavement, and, from the elasticity which they show, the priests make auguries.

The information obtained from the scientific libraries has furnished the pageant matters of the Exposition with what they believe to be scientifically accurate data not only as regards the dramatic episodes and the costumes, but also the dance steps and the incidental music, instrumental and choral. The program includes sixty-three of these episodes, which allows for the presentation of one new one each week and a few new ones at various times in the year, in addition to various repetitions which will be necessary for the more striking episodes. This is probably the most important original work in this field which the San Diego Exposition has undertaken.

(Note: There is not record that ceremonials of the type described above were ever performed at the Panama-California Exposition.)

Hawaiian Musical Features

Even in the field of amusements, there is musical work which is entitled to consideration. More particularly important is that in the Hawaiian Village, which will be in charge, so far as music is concerned, of Ernest Kaai, who for several years has ranked as the principal musical personage in the Hawaiian Islands. Kaai is bringing with him fifty-three natives, a considerable number of whom are chosen entirely for their musical ability. Instead of presenting merely a quintet, such as has been presented at various times in this country on tour, he had chosen a large number of natives whom he has brought in, not from Honolulu nor the other coast states, but from the back country, where the pure Hawaiian still exists. Some of the oddities which he promises are the nose flute players. He, of course, makes no claim to music of a high technical character, but wishes rather to present music which is typically Hawaiian and which he considers the best in the field of genuine folk song.

There is also a large Indian village, one of the largest concessions on the Exposition grounds, and there, too, will be a good deal in the way of folk music of the Southwest Indians. It will be remembered that numerous American composers, among them Charles Cadman, have made extensive use of Indian themes for the composition of “white man’s music.” Many of these themes and others of equal interest will be heard under natural conditions, remaining “red man’s music.”

At various times in the year, of course, there will be visiting bands and orchestras, the most important of which are the Mormon Choir and the Mendelssohn Choir.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 6:1-4.

Lore of Incas and Aztecs drawn from mist of ages

California Building

Science and Education Building

Indian Arts Building]

Painted Desert

A few years after the discovery of the western continent by Columbus, there started the succession of expeditions from the old world into the new and the transplanting of European ideas and customs. The strange land whose eastern shores were washed by the Atlantic was looked on as entirely savage, and as rapidly as could be done its customs and ideas were exterminated.

In a vague way the average person knows that in Central and South America once lived the Aztecs and Incas; that the former were mighty warriors and the latter mighty builders; that among them loomed up a few dominant figures in many ways the peers of their white conquerors. But that knowledge is vague and hazy. The student knows much more. The San Diego Exposition has undertaken the task of bringing that knowledge to the layman, to enable him to learn that the ancient peoples were the peers of their contemporaries in other lands in many fields, certainly in the practical arts, and in not a few of the fine arts.

The story of that effort goes back for a long distance, almost the dawn of the Exposition planting, before construction began. Negotiations were started with the Smithsonian Institute, the School of American Archaeology, and other scientific bodies, arranging for cooperation and a distribution of expense. The first condition was that the invaluable archaeological specimens collected should remain the property of the public after the 1915 Exposition has passed on and had become a memory.

Feared Ancient Gods

And so expeditions set out, one into the deserts of the southwest, among the ancient pueblos, another to the north among the haunts of the coast Indians of centuries past, and two others into Central and South America. That which went to Guatemala brought to civilization perhaps one of the most striking groups for display.

Far back into the interior this party voyaged, away from the railroad, away from the highway, away from the footpaths, and into the depths of a tropical jungle, where the thick growth shuts out the sight of the sky and of a companion twenty feet away, where even the natives feared to go, for in the wild country still roamed, they said, the spirits of the old red warriors. Some of the more imaginative has seen the humming-bird feathers on the ankle of Huitzilopochtli, the ancient god.

More concerned with the possibilities of fever than of encountering Huitzilopochtli and the priests of Quetzalcoatl, the exploring scientists pushed their way through to the spot where once stood Quirigua. There it still stood. The palms had grown through the roofs of the temple, and the beasts and birds had made their homes in the ancient altars, but the city was there, and the great statues were there, some tilted by a collapse of the foundation, some flat on the ground and partly buried in underbrush, some still erect. The hieroglyphs could be traced easily, but the key to the language was gone.

With the best means available, the explorers had carried with them full equipment for the making of casts from the statues which were too heavy to be moved. No ordinary plaster was used, but instead the glue mold, whose impressions are so accurate that the finest hairlines of the hieroglyphs are retained, and transferred to the final cast with ease. The result in many cases better than the original, for discoloration is absent.

Most of the statues are of red sandstone, carved from a single gigantic block. The weight of the largest is about 100,000 pounds. The materials for casting merely the surface weighed 15,000 pounds, an indication of the seriousness of the undertaking.

Transportation Difficult

Eventually the casts of the necessary matter were made, while artists in the party made rough drafts of the city itself for the making of later models. These was more difficulty in getting the fruits of the trip out of Quirigua than there had been in the exploration and the gathering of the material, and more than once were their profound wishes that the Incas still lived and would exercise their lost arts of engineering to effect the arduous labors of transportation. Some day the chronicles of that expedition will be narrated in full, and much will be added to the literature of travel.

The Peru party has uncovered much more of interest. The coast party had gathered relics of the coastal tribes and assembled them for shipment to San Diego. The desert party had struck rich veins and when the assembly was completed for the exhibits it had gathered, it was found there were 5,000 specimens of ancient pottery and weaving and examples of other arts of rare ethnological value.

All of this lot of 5,000 were distinct and they comprise what is considered as the best collection of Americana in this field, not excepting the famous exhibit of the Field Museum in Chicago. In addition, there were duplicates, numbering up to several hundred, and these were classified and sold in part — for enough to cover the entire expense of the expedition. Other collections of duplicates were sent to Yale, to the Canadian museum, to the Swedish museum, and in exchange San Diego received archaeological material it could not otherwise have obtained.

The California building at the Exposition, the $250,000 structure erected by the state, to stand for all time, houses no exhibit of industrial and commercial resources as is generally the case. That so far as California is concerned is left to the buildings of the various country groups of which there are five, representing all sections. The state building is a museum, and in it are housed many of the most striking of the ancient Indian exhibits. There has been in mind the realization that just as the Panama canal, whose opening the San Diego Exposition celebrates, will open the new world to commercial development, so it must open it to scientific research. San Diego has sought in the realm of science to stimulate that development, just as in the realm of commerce it has sought to stimulate commercial development.

Serra Statue on Facade

The frontispiece of the ornate cathedral structure is of quite as much interest to the historian as the artist. At the top stands the statue of Fray Junipero Serra, to whose labors was due in great measure the real start of civilization on the coast of what is now the United States. At one side stands Cabrillo, the discoverer of 1542, beneath a bust of his patron Charles V, At the other is Philip III of Spain. Below is a bust of Portola, the first governor of Alta California, and another of Vancouver, the first English explorer of the west coast. At the extreme bottom stands de ‘Ascencion, the chronicler, and across the arch is Fray Jaume, the first white martyr. It is a pictorial history of the American west coast.

Within the great carved doors, lining the corridor, is a replica of the Farnham frieze, the separate panels portraying signal events in early American history — American in the broader sense. There are other panels of earlier days, cast from the originals which were wrought by Aztec and Inca, Maya and Toltec. The Cross of Palenque, for example, is shown and the woodcarving from Tikal, and an occasional carved tablet bearing a portrayal of religious or royal ceremony. A succession of them leads the visitor into the main rotunda, and there, looming up beneath the vaulted ceiling, are the great monuments which were recovered from the buried cities in a stately array about the room.

About the walls and in the balconies are casts from some of the famous doorways and accurate models of the ancient cities of the old America, at Uxmal and at Chichen-Itza. Deep in the surface are carved the hieroglyphs whose key is still lost, saved that by frequent appearance, the calendar system has been partially deciphered and some of the dates are discernible. The system was not the Gregorian calendar; this is certain. The months were lunar months and the weeks were of six days, but they were apparently accurate intercalary arrangements.

Much to Be Learned

Some dates in 400 and 40-year cycles, with shorter periods of five years and one year, are found to be in the neighborhood of 4,000 years, but from what date the system of calculation started is still a total mystery. Points like this and the deciphering of the hieroglyphs will furnish subjects for interesting research for many years to come. The careful outlining of racial characteristics furnished equally engrossing material for ethnological research. The men are found to have been bearded, unlike most of the North American Indians, and the prominent noses and lips and full faces contain further suggestions as to the source of the original stock.

The advanced state of the ancient arts is clearly shown. The painstaking care in the sculpturing cannot be ignored, nor can the symbolism back of the artist’s work. The average citizen will discover that the little known mythology of the ancient redman was quite as rich as that of the nations of the other world, that the gods and goddesses have many of the same human traits, that the heroes performed deeds just as thrilling, that the tribal ceremonies were just as spectacular.

Incidentally, another division of the Exposition was set to work in the principal scientific libraries in search of date abut these ceremonies, and from the months of labor devised a series of pageants duplicating the ancient rituals, some of them dating back thousands of years before the coming of the white man.

The field is still fallow for decades of study, as shown by the scanty knowledge now in the hands of scientists. One of the explorers exhibited a picture of an ancient cliff dwelling in ruins.

“That dates back several hundred years, ” was hazarded.

“Several thousand,” corrected the archaeologist. “See how the front of the cliff has crumbled and fallen. That pile of debris was once the front part of the cliff-dwelling and the approach up the side of the cliff. I am not a specialized geologist and I do not know how long it would take that great mass of stone to disintegrate and crumble into powder. If you will tell me that, then I will tell you when that dwelling ceased to be used. And that is only a start. I would not be able to tell you for how many centuries it was occupied before the final abandonment.”

Descent of Man

Adjoining the California building is the Science and Education building, the whole east wing of which is given over to the Smithsonian Institute’s display of the progress of man. From a multitude of original sources have been made busts which in regular sequence show the steady ascent of the human from the “Forerunner,” the anthropoid, the primal man, from whom the present, highly-specialized human type has gradually evolved in the passage of an unknown number of centuries. The striking part of the display is that in addition to observing the tenets of true science, it heeds the limitation of the layman, and is so arranged that it is comprehensible to the intelligent though untrained visitor. The assembly represents decades of labor by the foremost ethnologists of the world, and is given at San Diego its first adequate presentation.

Across the way is the Indian Arts building, again a working our of the idea of showing highly scientific exhibits in comprehensible form. There are models showing the life of the ancient Indians from Alaska to the Cape, in village and on plain. There are models of the villages in ruins and reconstructed. There are demonstrations of what the red men were able to do in various realms of applied arts. There are studies of Indian life. There are special exhibits showing the practicing of the many crafts, some in the form of models, some in the form of living display, with the individuals selected from the various tribes at the Painted Desert, the Santa Fe exhibit at the north end of the Isthmus.

This exhibit, by the way, has its scientific features and has taken undisputed rank as the best display of southwestern Indian life ever attempted. The effect has been to reproduce with the adobe wall that surrounds the “desert” the life not only of the pueblos with Taos, Zuni, Hopi and Rio Grande Indians, but also of the plains with Apaches, Navajos and Supais dwelling in the cactus-strewn sands below the mesa where the old cliff dwelling lie. The Indians are not idle, but are at work, shaping their pottery and perfecting their rugs and blankets and metallic ornaments just as they and their ancestors have been doing for centuries. The red man, in fact, did most of the construction work, bringing with them from the neighborhood of the real Painted Desert of Arizona, the materials with which they duplicated real conditions with unfailing accuracy.

Scenes from Desert

In the buildings devoted to work of this character, there is, of course, an extensive art display, but, save for the Fine Arts building, the work is intended more for the giving of atmosphere than for anything else. In fact, it is a modern development of ancient subjects. In the Indian Arts building, for example, the landscapes about the south wing are made of scenes from the desert country where the exhibits housed in that wing were uncovered. There are studies of the old villages in cliffs as they must have appeared in their palmy days. There are haze-veiled vistas of spots like the Enchanted Mesa, associated with some of the most interesting myths of the southwest, of the old rock at Acoma, where the ancient mission of the Spanish friars still stands — a replica of it has been built at San Diego to house the exhibit of the state of New Mexico. There are scenes from the Painted Desert of Arizona and the Petrified Forest, of the old pueblos which _______________. Every foot of the soil is associated with the stories of the Spanish occupation from the days of Fray Marcos de Niza down through the succeeding years.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 6:5. Many Goldfish in Lakes and Ponds; Wild Ducks that Fed on High-Priced Beauties Disposed Of.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 6:6-7. Cool Rest Spots Provided at Fair; Benches Set in Shady Groves Afford Magnificent Views of City. . . . Visitors to certain world’s fairs of the past recall with anguish the crowded condition of the grounds, crowded that is with buildings, as well as with people, whereby it was impossible to find a quiet resting place when one was weary of looking, where one could go and rest for a time. In San Diego there will be no repetition of that state of affairs.

The pepper grove, stretching along the Canon Espagnol by the approach to the south gate, bordered by El Paseo and its row of giant eucalyptus is a tract of nearly fifteen acres. The approach is bordered by flowers and shrubs of many varieties, and the grove is filled with spreading pepper trees between which are thick lawns unmarked by “Keep off the grass” signs.

The pepper tree is an institution in Southern California. In the back country there are drives bordered by pepper trees. In the lawns of the residences are set a few of these trees, and it remains for the Exposition to have a perfect grove. The lawns between, in which appear occasional peppers of a smaller variety, are of familiar blue grass and clover, and also of the less familiar lippea. Also there is a touch of Scottish heather. Everywhere are found mission benches set in the lawns and along the calcadas which wind along the canyon.

The vistas seen between the trees are quite incomparable, showing stretches of the main Exposition buildings on the further plateau, and the silvery seas down past the city and the Harbor of the Sun.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, 6:7. Tons of Material Used. . . . It is not generally known that in the construction of the Exposition upward of 20,000,000 feet of lumber were used. Of the other materials which have gone to make up the Magic City, it might be mentioned that the Puente Cabrillo along required 10,000 barrels of cement, which went into the making of 270,000 cubic feet of reinforced concrete, together with 600 tons of steel, more than 16,000 tons of stone and sand. This brings the estimated weight of the bridge to approximately 18,000 tons. As is generally known, it is the largest bridge of this type ever constructed and is the model of railway structural work.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 6:6-7. Famous Bits of Spanish-Colonial Architecture strikingly reproduced. . . . Those who have traveled in Spanish-America will find at the Exposition interesting suggestions of famous Spanish-Colonial buildings, cathedrals, old and new missions, palaces, country residences and municipal buildings.

Thus the Home Economy building resembles the hacienda of the Conde d’Heras. In the Indian Arts building are many suggestions of the Sanctuario de Guadalupe at Guadalajara. In the Science and Education building there are found points resembling the cathedral at Puebla, Mexico, and in the Varied Industries Building are resemblances to the eighteenth-century monastery at Queretaro, Mexico.

The California State building, of course, bears many resemblances to the beautiful cathedral at Oaxaca, Mexico. The San Joaquin Valley building bears an extremely close resemblance to any one of half a dozen of the municipal buildings of Spanish America, although, of course, there are many original details. The building of Kern and Tulare counties combines the features of several palaces. The New Mexico building is a copy of the old mission on the rock at Acoma in New Mexico, with details introduced from the church at Cochiti.

In the “Painted Desert” these resemblances are equally marked. The larger pueblos are copies of those at Hopi and Taos, and the interior of the lower structure, where the Rio Grande tribes are quartered, is a copy of the ancient Governor’s Palace, El Palacio Real de Onate, at Santa Fe. The buildings and small structures throughout the “Painted Desert” are, of course, an exact imitation of typical scenes in the great Southwest.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 6:8. North Island Regiment of Marines Stationed on Exposition Grounds; Visitors to See Real Army Life; Band Will Give Concerts. . . . A picturesque feature of the Exposition is the marine camp on the lower plateau, where are stationed the officers and men of the Fourth Regiment, under the command of Colonel J. H. Pendleton. It is the transplanting of Camp Howard, the marine camp at North Island, to which the men will be returned at the close of Exposition year.

The purpose is not alone to add materially to the attractiveness of the Exposition, but also to show to the visitor the real life of the American “soldier and sailor too.”

Throughout the year there will be concerts by the regimental band, and drills on the parade grounds north of the camp itself.

With the display of state buildings along La Via de Los Estados, the camp will be certain to rivet attention to the lower plateau.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 6:8, 7:1-2. Model Farm contains every kind of fruit and vegetables.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 7:1-2.

Strangest Thrills and Novel Sensations Wait Where Lights Are Gay; Isthmus presents cream of world’s best amusements. . . . More than twenty years ago Chicago held the World’s Columbian Exposition, which set a new mark in exposition building — a mark which in that particular field has probably never been reached. Chicago created for the first time an amusement street of mammoth proportions. The name by which it was known, the Midway, still persists. The full name was the “Midway Pleasance,” taking in almost the full sweep of what is still called the Midway between Washington and Jackson parks.

It must be admitted that the attention paid this extraordinary amusement street was probably more, so far as mere numbers are concerned, than that paid the scientific exhibits of immeasurable value, and it came to be an understanding that expositions which followed must have something similar to this amusement feature. St. Louis, for example, has the Pike, and Seattle, the Pay Streak. San Francisco’s amusement street is the Zone, and that at San Diego is the Isthmus. Keeping to the terminology of the real Isthmus, the street to the north being called the Calle Ancon, and that to the south the Calle Colon. The short stretch leading from El Prado to the lower end of the Alameda is known as Calle Cristobal.

The Isthmus proper is 2,500 feet long, with frontage on both sides, whereby San Diego has nearly a solid mile of clean amusements. The number of buildings is sixty, this being exclusive of the checking station and the police and ambulance stations at the lower end of the Isthmus. It includes the eating houses, extravaganzas, musical attractions, and the general assortment of amusements to be expected in the concession street.

“War of the Worlds” Spectacular Exhibit

At the north end is the Painted Desert, quite the most extraordinary exhibit of Indian life ever attempted. Almost at the south end is another large enterprise, known as the War of the Worlds, which shows what an imaginative genius has thought of as the possible conditions of war in the year 2000. Possibly war with have vanished at that time, but this is not the idea of the builder of the War of the Worlds. His story has to do with the dream of power of an adventurer named Rabinoff, who marooned on an island with several companions, finds a great treasure and, overcome with the desire for possession of the whole amount, kills off his companions one by one and with the loot, which now is his sole property, builds for himself a great power. To gain his ends he combines into one alliance several nations which are not existent today, including great nations of the Orient and Africa, and brings his allied forces against New York harbor.

The designer of the extravaganza also figures there will be interplanetary communication, and so, in addition to the ships of the world nations, he introduces the aerial fleets from Mars and other planets. The principal part of the extravaganza is the naval battle in New York harbor and the aerial battle overhead. The concession is probably the most complete thing of the sort ever attempted, with such remarkable features as the control of the ships by wireless apparatus and the use of eleven miles of electric wire for control of other pieces of mechanism in the production. There are large motors and there are tiny motors which can be held in the hand.

Canal Zone Reproduced

One of the other large concessions on the Isthmus is the Panama Canal Extravaganza, of particular importance is such a celebration as this because of the great crowd of visitors who will be present in 1915. Only a limited number will have the opportunity to see the real Panama Canal. Consequently, for the benefit of those who have not seen the canal zone, there has been constructed an actual model of the great waterway. The visitors will see the canal zone as it was before the Americans, and even before the French made their effort to pierce the land and unite the seas. They will see the work which America has done, and the reproduction of the passage of ships from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and back again, cutting out on the way 10,000 miles of travel which formerly was necessary. They will see a street in old Panama, with its peculiar manner of living, with its overhanging balconies, and its sidewalk shops, where the novelties of the canal zone are sold to visitors.

A little distance down the street is the Hawaiian Village, people with a large number of natives, many of whom never left the islands. They were not gathered at Honolulu, but up in the back country, where the manners of ancient Hawaii still persist. These are poi makers and singers and ukulele players and hula dancers, and all the other characters associated with native life in the Pacific islands. Even the pineapple tops have been brought to San Diego in order that there might be accurate local color. The front of the concession is a representation of Kilauea, and all about the village are palms and reproductions of scenery in the mountains and the jungles and the coast country.

Deep Sea Aquarium

There is an Ostrich Farm, where visitors may see the manner in which the plumes of the ostrich are carefully gathered for milady’s hat.

There is an aquarium devoted to a display of deep sea life along the Southern California coast.

There is a motion picture concession — not a motion picture theater, but a studio where the films are in the making and where the average visitor can get his first sight at what is becoming one of the great world industries. And, reverting to earlier days, there is adjoining this concession another building, known as the “Stories of the Missions,” where in graphic form is told the romantic story of early California and the early days of Western development, which started with the founding of old Mission San Diego de Alcala in 1769.

There is a gem mine, where, in equally graphic form, is shown the manner in which the semi-precious stones of California are taken from the rock and cut and made ready for bracelets and necklaces and other pieces of ornament.

Then, of course, there are such concessions as the roller coaster, only in this case it is the longest roller coaster in the world, with a total length of 6,000 feet. Similarly, there is the “House of Joy” and “Climbing the Yelps” and a long array of such features which are of a purely amusement character. The extraordinary point is that many of these concessions, which started as amusements, have a genuine educational value. San Diego seeks to give the world the best in the way of amusements, just as it has given the best in the way of display and scientific contributions.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 7:1-4. Balboa Park Among Finest in County, Keeping Pace with City’s Onward March; Aided by Matchless Climate, Superintendent Morley Backed by Board, Has Accomplished Wonders; Almost Insuperable Difficulties of Soil Overcome, by J. B. Pendleton, Secretary of the Park Commission.

Balboa Park, one of the largest and most beautiful in Southern California, is in the very heart of the city, the southern boundary line being only five blocks away from the business section. It is practically twenty-two blocks square and contains 1400 acres. In the west center of the park, 600 acres have been enclosed for the Panama-California Exposition.

In view of the fact that sections bounded by Sixteenth street on the east, Park Drive on the west, and extending from the northern to the southern boundaries are available to the greatest number of people, and, as the Exposition will attract large crowds, the larger part of the improvements have been directed to sections within this boundary.

Balboa Park, containing as it does so many beautiful canyons, hills and mesas, is adaptable to the rarest landscape effects, and it is only a question of time, money and water until San Diego will have one of the most beautiful parks in the entire country.

Recent Improvements

Park Drive, on the western boundary, has been completed from Juniper to Date streets, and opened to the public; thereby giving a splendid boulevard all the way from the bay on the south of the city to University Heights on the north. On either side of the drive are wide parkings, which, when completed, will present a double row of cocos plumosa palms, surrounded by green lawns, all the way from Date to Upas streets. This drive is a great boon to all who love to drive or ride, as it gives a fine driveway uninterrupted by street car and heavy business traffic.

Beginning at the intersection of Juniper and Park Drive, extending east to West Drive, and south to the canyon in the aviary section. Here the visitor is always delighted for surrounding the aviary is one of the largest flower gardens in the park, and one is always sure to find beautiful flowers here, as the beds are planted so that, as fast as one variety stops blooming, others are ready to begin, thereby providing a continuous array of blossoms.

New Aviary Built

In this flower garden, just opposite the refreshment booth, is the new aviary, built of interlocking steel and concrete. It is of mission design, and one of the finest on the Pacific coast. It is being built by the superintendent of parks, using the regular park force.

About forty-five acres of lawn have been made since January 1, 1913, all of which are provided with automatic sprinkler systems. There has been no improvement made to the park that has added more to the beauty of the surroundings than these lawns. The people show their appreciation of them by using them, as you can always see dozens of men, women and children resting on the grass and enjoying the freedom here allowed.

The northeast section, beginning at the Upas street entrance and extending to Quince street, has undergone a complete change. At the intersection of Upas street, Park drive and West drive, the low-lying shrubbery has been thinned out, walks and winding paths have been made, and a lawn, with an automatic sprinkler system, is being put in, which will make this section one of the most attractive of the entire park. A modern comfort station is to be built in this section before the close of the year.

Barren Hills Transformed.

The section between Quince and Laurel and West drive and Cabrillo canyon has also undergone a complete transformation, having been transformed from barren hillsides and mesas to luxuriant gardens. It is at the southern end of this section that the magnificent formal rose garden is located. This is one of the most perfectly laid out rose gardens in this country, and contains 6500 rose bushes, comprising a great many of the best varieties grown in California. As roses in this garden are in bloom practically every day in the year, it is one of the most popular resorts for the visitor. A pergola, 180 feet long, is being built at the south end of the garden, which will add greatly to its attractiveness.

To the north of the rose garden the visitor at this season is charmed by seeing thousands of poinsettias in full bloom. These are planted among the shrubbery in such a manner as to give a most artistic effect.

To the east of the poinsettias and skirting the slope is a splendidly arranged palm garden, consisting of many choice varieties, thereby lending a tropical effect to the entire planting scheme. North of the palms is a triangular bed of ragged Robin roses, bordered with Shasta daisies. The remainder of the slopes are planted with many varieties of low-lying evergreen trees and flowering shrubs, which presents a most pleasing effect.

Zoological Section

In this section, the bear den has been doubled in size, palm-covered shelters have been built for the deer and buffalo, and a fine wall built around the entire enclosure. The zoo has just received nine head of California elk, and a special paddock has been constructed for them just northwest of Russ High School and south of the Exposition grounds. The zoo proper has been greatly improved by a beautiful lawn on the slope between West boulevard and the deer and buffalo paddocks.

To the south of the zoo and east of the lower drive, the visitor finds much to interest him. Winding paths skirt the hillsides, which are planted to evergreen trees, flowering shrubs and flowers. Here also is a large triangular bed of ragged Robin roses. All the walks and paths in this section are bordered with a triple row of flowers, carrying out a perfect color scheme. Here are there are comfortable benches from which one obtains the best views of the bridge, the Exposition buildings, and Cabrillo canyon. This canyon has been greatly improved and planted to trees, shrubs and vines.

Plaza Section

North of Date street and looking west on Fir is an open spot known as the Plaza. From this point an unobstructed view is had of the bay, Point Loma, and the Pacific ocean, with Coronado Islands in the background. To the east are the Exposition buildings, Golden Hill and the mountains. The Plaza is visited by more people than any other section of the park. For a long time it remained unimproved. The park board plans in the future to make this the most beautiful point in the park by improving it strictly in a formal way at a cost of between $40,000 and $50,000. Here is a place where some public-spirited citizens or visitor has an opportunity of erecting an everlasting monument to his memory, and, at the same time, giving great pleasure to the people and visitors of San Diego, by donating the necessary funds to carry out the scheme planned by the park board.

The Eighth street entrance has been improved by putting in two of the most perfect lawns to be found in this country. These lawns extend from Ninth street to the east to Seventh street on the west and form a semi-circle with a walk on the circular side, bordered with flower beds, which in turn are bordered by shrubbery.

Improvements Nearly Finished

The Tenth street knoll has been planted in trees and shrubs and flowers and walks and paths ____________ and wind in and out and through the trees and shrubs.

The road from Eleventh street in Cabrillo canyon, connecting the main drive from Twelfth street to the Exposition grounds, has been rebuilt. A parking strip on the outer edge, planted to flowering shrubs, adds greatly to the landscape effect of this section.

The improvements from the Twelfth street entrance along Midland drive to the south entrance of the Exposition are rapidly nearing completion. These consist principally of cutting down and rounding off the hill west of the main drive, building walks and planting the parking strip on either side of the drive. The High School grounds have been graded and will be seeded to grass, presenting a beautiful lawn by the first of January, 1914. The improvements in this section will be among the most noticeable of the park, inasmuch as no planting or landscape work has heretofore been undertaken in this section.

Golden Hill Section

Situated in the southeastern corner of the park is the beautiful Golden Hill section. This portion of the park is on the crest of one of the highest hills in the city. It is about 20 acres in extent and is highly improved with driveways, walks, paths, flower gardens, trees, shrubs and cacti. The driveway follows the brow of the hill, giving one of the grandest and most extensive views to be had anywhere in the city. From this point one gets a view of the canyons and hills of the east side of the park, parts of the central and western sections, the business part of San Diego, and the bay in the foreground, and Point Loma, the Pacific Ocean and the mountains in the background. It has a small aviary, swings, sand piles, tennis courts, etc. In fact, Golden Hill is a little park in itself.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 7:4-6, 8:1. Aeroplane Flights and Auto Races Scheduled; garage service installed by San Diego company to cover territory from San Diego to Kansas City.. . . . Two years ago Cal Rodgers, flying in an American machine, made the trip across the United States in forty-one days. The event was extraordinary only because it was the first aerial trip across the country. Of the hundred prominent aviators in this country, at least ninety-nine felt sure they could make the trip in less time, but not one of them undertook it after Rodgers until recently.

Late in the fall of 1914, Ralph Apperman, a young aviator whose experience had been mostly in the West, signed an agreement with the officials of the San Diego Exposition to make a flight from New York city to San Diego in seven flying days. He was told that it could not be done and was granted ten days. With this understanding he went East, taking from storage his Morane-Saulnier aeroplane, equipped with a 100 horsepower Gnomme motor, and set about making plans for the trip. Incidentally, he promised to carry a passenger most of the way. It remains to be seen whether Apperman will keep his agreement, but there is every reason to believe he can because of the records made by the same aeroplane in European tests.

Good Garages Established Along Route

The arrangement with Apperman was one of the most important made by the San Diego Exposition in the realm of motordom. Second only to that is the automobile race scheduled for March from El Paso to San Diego, the first of a series of desert classics which will probably become permanent. The route lies over the improved Southern Nations highway with allowance for three days into Phoenix and two days from Phoenix to the coast, with the night control at Yuma. In all probability, the time for the 1,100 miles, owing to the improved conditions of the roads, will be clipped to something over four days. The sands are mostly passed by corduroy and heavier grades have been almost repaved. A motorcycle trip covering the same route is also under consideration.

In addition to the regular controls, there have been established good garages all along the way, so there should be no difficulty in crossing the territory which only a half-century ago was crossed by men and women in ox carts, bound for the gold fields of California. The establishment of this garage service is in one sense of greater importance than the race itself. It is the start of arrangements for the heavy motor tours expected in 1915.

Supplementing the garage service is that which has been installed by a San Diego company known as the Transcontinental Garage Service. The work which this private company has done, cooperating with the San Diego Exposition, is of such an extensive character as to warrant particular attention. Following the receipt of information by the Exposition from various motor clubs in the East that no less than 50,000 people would make the trip by automobile in 1915, this concern set to work to carry out the elaborate plans of the Exposition.

Several cars were sent out to cover the territory from San Diego to Kansas City. They went with the idea of not along marking the highway with sign posts directing the tourist to San Diego, but also to arrange for efficient garage and hotel service all along the way. From Kansas City along the old National Trails road, the Santa Fe Trail and the trail to Sunset, this improved highway runs through the finest sections of the southwest, allowing side trips to the Grand Canyon of the Colorado, the Painted Desert and other points, and making connections with highways leading up from the Gulf of Mexico and south from the mountain country. Thus it is possible to pick up this trail from any state in the country. Each trail will be handled as a separate unit and the garages along the trail will be called “system garages.”

“Motor Money” Issued

One of the purposes of the organization is to direct the business of all transcontinental motorists to the garage system in each town at the end of the day’s automobile travel. For this purpose, besides advertising, there must be offered inducements to insure the motorist stopping at each system garage and to this end the company plans to issue motor money from its various stations which will be good for the purchase of oil and gasoline only at the approved garages. “Motor money” is disposed of at a five percent discount. Supplementing this service is the issuance of a complete guide, obtainable at Kansas City and other principal points, containing a clear and authentic description of the country and towns on each trail. A useful feature of the accompanying map is an altitude map of the particular trail for which it is issued. This service, of course, is permanent and the log books will be revised as needed.

Having made its general plans in the way and carefully carried out the log book idea by covering every mile of the route, the company, working with the Exposition, has arranged for one system garage in each city and town, the owner having signed a bond in each city and town to maintain normal prices throughout 1915. Thus the company has complete control all along the way and is also able to guarantee fair prices.

Accommodations on the Exposition grounds have been arranged for fully. There are three entrances, known as La Pueta del Oeste, La Puerta del Sur and La Puerta del Nord. Traffic through the first, or west side, will be entirely pedestrian. This is over the imposing quarter mile viaduct, El Puente Cabrillo. At the south gate, however, there is a large parking space, and at the north gate one very much larger, containing three hundred covered stalls and an outdoor parking space for 3,500 cars, which is looked upon as the maximum of daily motor visits.

Autos to Be Protected

In addition to carrying insurance against theft and injury, the Exposition concession has made some rather striking innovations. The checkers at the gate — all girls in Spanish costumes — will give to the visiting driver a card bearing his license number, retaining in post office arrangement a duplicate of that card. The visitor will be assisted by attendants in parking the car where he wishes it, and on his return will have further assistance in getting it out, fully stocked with gas and oil and given such minor repairs as may be necessary. During his absence, the parking space will be patrolled regularly.

There will be no automobiles within the grounds themselves. The only vehicle in use will be a small motor car known as an electriquette, carrying two or possibly three people at a speed limited to three and a half miles an hour for safety’s sake. The speed is controlled by the driver with such ease that the vehicle is considered entirely “fool-proof.” Either passenger can stop the car by stepping on a metal plate in the flooring. There is no chance for it to run away down hill because of the thorough brake system.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 7:7-8. Santa Fe Railroad’s Indian Pueblo Marvel of Primitive Crafts. . . . Early in the sixteenth century there was marooned on the California coast a Barbary negro named Estevan. Left to his own resources and knowing vaguely that the Spaniards has a considerable colony around on the other side of the Gulf of Mexico, he set out overland in search of friends and help.

The adventures of Estevan would fill a book, which would be vastly more interesting than fiction. The stories which he heard on the way from the Indians, who for some extraordinary reason let him pass through, although to be sure he was badly beaten and scarred in the course of his adventures, filled the mind of Estevan with a desire to learn more. He came eventually to the City of Mexico and there found a friar by the name of Frey Marcos of Niza, to whom he told something of the stories which the Indians had told him. The result was a trip back to the north and the white man’s first sight of the ancient Indian pueblo, Zuni. Estevan, who would seem to have suffered quite enough on his trip to the gulf coast, wanted to know more and went ahead to the pueblo, and there his troubles were ended.

Frey Marcos decided he has seen enough and did not go to the village himself, but, standing far off, within sight of the pueblo and the country about it, he stooped, plucked a few blades of grass, in the Spanish custom, and claimed for the king of Spain all of the land which he saw.

Expedition Came From Spain

Since that day there has been an extraordinary curiosity concerning the Pueblo Indians of the Southwest. It was only a few years later, in 1540, when there came Coronado, bringing with him the greatest expedition in the history of America. He found a great deal to interest him in the country which was to become the Southwest of the United States, and remained long enough to send out expeditions in all directions. One of these smaller parties traveled to the east, and eventually returned with news of great plains where there roamed beasts which the Spaniards had not seen before — beasts with great shaggy heads and heavy forequarters. These beasts were the American bison, and it is now accepted that this early Spanish party went as far as the buffalo plains of Kansas.

Another party reached the Painted Desert. A third, under command of Tovar, a captain under Coronado, caught the first glimpse of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado. The strangeness of the life of the Pueblo Indians, living under conditions which were entirely new to the Spanish, aroused their curiosity, and from then on there was marked interest in the adobe villages which had been discovered.

In the seventeenth century came the start of the Santa Fe trail, the great highway from Mexico City to Santa Fe, New Mexico. Accompanying it was the upbuilding of the missions. San Diego has the material reminder of them in the New Mexico building, which is a replica of the ancient mission on the Rock of Acoma.

Santa Fe Exhibit Wonderful

But the most impressive display of Southwestern Indian life is that of the Santa Fe Railroad, known as the Painted Desert. The name, or course, comes from the section of Arizona where the rock formation has the lurid colors which have given the original its name. In fact, the builders at San Diego brought from New Mexico and Arizona much of the rock and the cactus and the curious wood and the ideas with which this material is fabricated, and the Indians themselves to do the work.

The Desert is cut off by the lofty mesa running in a general north and south direction. On one side of the mesa lies the pueblo exhibit, with a towering adobe structure similar to that of Zuni, and another like that at Taos. Along the east wall is a row of smaller dwellings where live the Indians of the Rio Grande tribes, with a part of the interior modeled closely after that of El Palacio Real, the governor’s palace, which was built by Onate.

A little to the north is Hopi, the reservation adjoining the trading post into which the Indians bring their pottery and blankets and rugs and bracelets to be exchanged for food and baubles. A little distance away is the Kiva of the ancient pueblos, entirely underground, with a step-ladder leading down from a small opening, into the ceremonial chambers where the ancient rituals of the Indians were held. Across the open space is another kiva, modeled after those of more recent construction, in which the floor is only a few feet below the ground level, and the roof a few feet above. Here there are the open fireplaces and bakeries, and the supports where the hay and wood are cured. On the walls of the pueblos hang drying peppers and drying fruits and vegetables. Strewn about, out of the way, are broken-down carretas and a few pieces of harness or other equipment, which the carefree first American has dropped in the most convenient place.

Out through the sand crop great ledges of red sandstone, like that of the real Painted Desert. Here and there is a cedar tree, which apparently has been dead for centuries. Over the rock tops the Indians have hewn their steps.

Nomad Tribes Represented.

On the other side of the central mesa is an equally impressive exhibit of the life of the nomadic tribes. On the side of the mesa is a deep cave whose walls are blackened by apparent centuries of smoke, and on the ledge of which is still seen the crumbling ruin of a cliff dwelling.

In the sand below are built the hogans of the Navajos, the summer structures of light willows and the winter structures of large beams, whose interstices are filled with clay to keep the inhabitants warm. There are the huts of the Apaches and the curious dwellings of the Supais. There are the representatives of the wandering tribes, and their exhibit is quite as engrossing as that of the Pueblo Indians on the far side of the mesa.

A point of particular interest is that the great colony of Indians who are inhabiting their desert are not idle and not in white man’s clothes, but are living just as they have lived and their ancestors have lived for centuries. They are weaving rugs and blankets in the same designs that were made a thousand years ago. They are shaping pottery and coloring it by just the same methods. They are pounding out their silver and copper ornaments. They are performing their sacred ceremonials in the kivas. They are reproducing life so that the white man can understand it. In other words, within the space of a few acres is reproduced with startling accuracy the life of the various tribes throughout the whole Southwest.

Cost Had Doubled.

The Santa Fe started this imposing exhibit with an appropriation of $100,000. While no official figures have been given out, there is an impression that the actual cost is fully twice that amount. The desert has been built by the white men who spend their lives in the Southwest and who know the manners and the very thoughts of the Indians. These are men who alone could direct the labors of their Indian workmen toward the best results, and the results which have been obtained are amazing.

Many of the interesting features of the exhibit are genuine relics of the early centuries. Many, too, for obvious reasons, such as difficulties of transportation could not be brought to San Diego in their original form and have been duplicated. A log of wood straight from the lumber yards has been so treated in two or three days that it has taken on the aspect of a three or four-hundred-year-old exhibit. The hinges on the doors of the pueblos are not modern hinges, but are wooden bolts or leather thongs. The flooring is of adobe, the window sills and the doors are rough-hewn, with the adze, and weathered by cunning artifice, so that they look like antiques.

As best evidence of the fidelity of the work, it may be stated that many of the men who lived for years in the Southwest are unable to tell which of the exhibits of the Painted Desert are genuine and which are imitated.

The Painted Desert is certainly too good to go out of existence at the end of the year. The crumbling adobe and the cedar-post stockade and the mesa will last in their present form for decades and should be made to last. The Santa Fe has not announced what will be done at the close of 1915, but there is an impression that the Desert will remain along with the other permanent buildings of the Exposition.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 7:7-8. Citrus Orchard Abloom in Winter; Visitor May Pluck Blossoms if He is Not Seen First. . . . San Diego has established a great citrus orchard within the Exposition grounds, where the tourist from the frozen North at any time from January to December can sniff the exquisite fragrance of orange and lemon blossoms, or pluck from the heavy trees the grapefruit or kumquat or tangerine — if an attendant is not looking at him.

He can ramble down the Alameda and see the growing tea plantation transplanted from Ceylon, the first commercial venture of this sort, by the way, in the United States. He can wander through the exhibit buildings, along the bridge, or along La Via de Los Estados and see set before him in convincing measure the great resources of the West country.

This new type of Exposition is as valuable and educational as it is beautiful and its beauty is something which is quite unexampled in Exposition history.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 7:8. Block of Black Meerschaum . . . Many are the novelties at the Exposition, most of them to be found in the unique exhibit palaces along the Isthmus, but the states and counties have many which are unique in themselves. New Mexico, for example, has a block of black meerschaum, two feet square, recovered from the soil of the Sunshine State. There are numerous novelties and numerous gems, and, of course, the usual striking array of fruits and vegetables.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, 8:1. Easterners Who Know Europe to “Discover” Great West; War abroad will drive travelers to see beauties of our country.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, 8:4. Lights in Harmony With Entire Plan. . . . Having attained by means of buildings, gardens and attendants a rare atmosphere of Old Spain by day, the Exposition has so arranged the lighting system that the illusion would not be lost by night. Instead of outlining by lights the front of all buildings, there was devised a scheme of lighting which would give a soft glow throughout the grounds and retain the illusion of an old Spanish city. The lamps along El Prado, La Via de los Estados and the Alameda are clouded, pear-shaped gloves on stately pillars, bearing a striking resemblance to solid bronze. There are upward of 1,000 of these, 100 kilowatts each. There are also 200 (?) bracket lamps and the swinging braziers in the arcades, the latter of 100 kilowatts. To get the exact illusion desired in the arcades, the ceilings were painted a faint salmon pink, in order to give the warm intensity of the color desired. At special points there are lamp posts and brackets of unique design and along the bridge a series of two-arm standards, different from the other standards, yet in the same general harmony.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, 8:4. 2000 Pigeons Nest in Towers and Cornices of Exposition Building.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, 8:5. Shrubs and Trees Show Great Hardihood; Only a Few Fail to Thrive; Skilled gardeners working in peerless climate achieve success.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 8:1-3. Eager Thousands Swarm through Exposition Gates; Banquet Tendered Newspapermen by Exposition; Reporters and Editors Meet and Eat While Awaiting Opening Ceremonies; Press Well Represented; Speakers at informal gathering loud in praise of Magic City.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 8:4-8. Isthmus Open to Thousands Amid Blaze of Illumination; Exposition amusement street furnishes fun for enormous crowds; cafes do capacity business; Hawaiian Village especially attractive with native dances and food.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915, Special Section, 8:4-8. Exposition Bursts Into Blaze of Electricity as President Touches Button 3000 Miles Away.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915. Playgrounds Rank Third of Pacific Coast; Provision Made for Best Development of Children; Funds Apportioned Annually from Budget for Development and Maintenance, by Frank Marsh, Superintendent of Playgrounds.

San Diego Union, January 1, 1915. Parent-Teachers Movement Gains In San Diego; Five Years Effort to Establish Organization Crowned With Success.

San Diego Evening Tribune, January 2, 1915. Kansas Awaits Building at Exposition; Members of Commission Expect Difficulty Over Structure Erected and Rejected Will be Adjusted Soon.

San Diego Evening Tribune, January 2, 1915. Big Parade Winds Up Official Opening of San Diego Exposition.

San Diego Evening Tribune, January 2, 1915, Speaker Calls San Diego A World City; Hon. John Barrett in Dedicatory Address, Declares People of the Universe Talk of Exposition.

San Diego Evening Tribune, January 2, 1915. Shows Work of Children . . . in the Seven California Counties building.

San Diego Sun, January 2, 1915, 1:1-2. Nation’s defenders cheered; military and naval parade scores hit; great crowd today; final day of Exposition opening sees largest crowd of all it city; soldiers and sailors win hearty applause as they march through the streets to martial strains; Portland boosters are in evidence.

San Diego Sun, January 2, 1915, 1:1-2. Portland Day at Exposition brings out thousands; Secretary McAdoo, Lieutenant Governor De Bacca of New Mexico and other distinguished guests to be initiated by the Order of Panama in chapel of New Mexico building tonight..

San Diego Sun, January 2, 1915, 1:3. Crowd on New Year’s Day numbered 42,486 men, women and children, including employees as well as the public; 31,000 paid admissions; Publicity Department gives out figures.

San Diego Sun, January 2, 1915, 2:4. Distinguished guests at Panama-California banquet at Cristobal Café; Secretary of Treasury McAdoo, principal speaker.

San Diego Sun, January 2, 1915, 2:5. 500 women attended banquet at the U. S. Grant Hotel in honor of Mrs. McAddo, daughter of President Wilson, and the Countess del Valle de Salazar last night.

San Diego Union, January 2, 1915, 1:2. San Diego women welcome guests to Exposition.

San Diego Union, January 2, 1915, 3:1. Names of the official hostesses.

San Diego Union, January 2, 1915, 4:2-7. President Davidson’s speech.

Los Angeles Times, January 3, 1915, 3:1-5. Thousands enjoy parade at San Diego Exposition.

San Diego Union, January 3, 1915, 1:5. Portland Day — Rosarians of Portland come to San Diego on special train; complete list of Rosarians.

San Diego Union, January 3, 1915, 2:3-4. Cavalry camp established in shadow of Dream City; camp just across ravine southeast of Exposition grounds; set up last week in December, 1914.

San Diego Sun, January 4, 1915, 1:3. Many visitors still here for Exposition; today “Arkansas Day.”

San Diego Sun, January 5, 1915, 1:5, 2:2. Isthmus shows can do spieling; barkers allowed to tell their story afternoon and night; Club Day at Exposition tomorrow; Admission prices from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m., adults 50 cents, children 25 cents; from 6 p.m. to midnight, adults 25 cents, children 10 cents; Sundays – 9 a.m. to midnight, adults 25 cents, children 10 cents; today is Fraternal Day; Should exhibit buildings be open on Sundays?.

San Diego Sun, January 5, 1915, 7:3-5. Drawing of new “Door of Hope”; Meade, Requa and Weaver, architects.

San Diego Union, January 5, 1915, 9:2. Women’s Exposition Board entertains officers and their wives from U. S. S. San Diego.

San Diego Sun, January 6, 1915, 16:1. City officers to enter Exposition; going to issue their own passes; got a few from Exposition manager.

San Diego Union, January 6, 1915, 1:5. Club Women’s Day; attended by clubs throughout the state; entertained by YWCA; names of committee appointed to represent clubs at Exposition.

San Diego Union, January 6, 1915, 1:4. Entries of $10,000 Exposition auto race and the winner.

San Diego Herald, January 7, 1915, 2:2. The Exposition: A Fact Accomplished.

San Diego Sun, January 7, 1915, 2:1. Los Angeles County and Kern and Tulare Counties Day, Saturday, January 9; Kern and Tulare Counties building to be dedicated; Colonel D. C. Collier taking a rest today in hills near Ramona; today was Retailers’ Day; 500 marines of San Diego marine barracks at Fair to be reviewed this afternoon in Plaza de Panama.

Park Commissioners, Minutes, January 8, 1915. Superintendent reported that parking of automobiles on Park Drive interfered with through traffic and also caused damage to the lawn on the east side; Superintendent authorized to prohibit parking of automobiles on Park Drive between the north line of Juniper Street and the south line of Nutmeg Street. . . . Auto buses and other vehicles carrying passengers for money prohibited from soliciting, taking aboard and discharging passengers on Park Drive between north line of Kalmia Street and south line of Maple Street.

Los Angeles Times, January 9, 1915, II, Editorial Section, 1:5. Are You Going To San Diego? Because This Is Los Angeles Day, If You Are.

San Diego Sun, January 9, 1915, 1:1-4. Exposition automobile race on at Point Loma.

San Diego Union, January 9, 1915, 9:4. Tulare and Kern Counties delegation dedicated their Exposition building; the building presents a pleasing appearance, the attractions including a display of grains and grasses, dairy products, fruits, nuts, vegetables and other specimens of which the Counties are duly proud. A complete oil well, one-sixth size, pumping 24 gravity oil; an aerial railroad carrying cars of walnuts; a maid milking a Jersey cow which is eating Kern County alfalfa; a cornucopia made of Tulare butter from which dollars made of butter are shown rolling in different directions, are a few of the best features of the exhibit.

San Diego Union, January 9, 1915, 9:2. 100,000 persons visited the Exposition during the first week.

Los Angeles Times, January 10, 1915, 2:3-4. Big Los Angeles crowd overwhelms San Diego.

Los Angeles Times, January 10, 1915, II, 1:3-5. New Era in American Architecture: Hand of Moor May Mark United States.

Los Angeles Times, January 10, 1915, VII, 1:1-4, 9:4-7. Carlson, a few seconds behind Cooper, sets non-stop record; Earl Cooper leads field.

Los Angeles Times, January 10, 1915, VII, 5:1-4. Motor Truck Exhibit Is Exposition Feature.

Los Angeles Times, January 11, 1915, 3:1. Secretary Lane is in favor of immediate work to stop floods in Imperial.

San Diego Sun, January 11, 1915, 9:1. Same officers will lead Exposition; directors re-elected by nearly 200 of the 4,300 stockholders of Panama-California Exposition at meeting today in California building.

San Diego Sun, January 11, 1915, 9:4. No special events to be scheduled on Sundays; grounds will be open from 9:00 a.m. to midnight as on other days; today is Delaware Day; August Miens, an employee of the War of the Worlds, suffered burns on face and hands while firing a cannon.

San Diego Herald, January 14, 1915, 2:3. Boom the Exposition.

Park Commissioners, Minutes, January 15, 1915. Superintendent reported completion of new aviary at a saving of about $1,250 over the lowest contractor’s estimate.

San Diego Examiner, January 15, 1915, 7:1-3. Isthmus furnishes a mile of clean amusements.

San Diego Sun, January 15, 1915, 1:4-5. President Forward of Park Board says auto buses must have franchises to run on park boulevards; barred from boulevards on which Exposition grounds are located; auto bus men plan fight to the end.

San Diego Sun, January 15, 1915, 1:7-8. Exposition season tickets to be on sale at $10 soon.

San Diego Sun, January 16, 1915, 1:4. Schumann-Heink home for entire year, she says; recovering from an attack of pneumonia which she contacted in Chicago last week.

San Diego Sun, January 16, 1915, 1:7-8. Auto bus men challenged Park Board to arrest them; test case is made ready; “jitneys” continue runs; Attorneys advise them it is okay; Elmer Fifer, auto bus driver, arrested yesterday afternoon on a charge of driving into the park in violation of the park ordinance..

San Diego Sun, January 16, 1915, 1:7-8, 7. San Francisco guests astonished at “Magic City” in great park; great crowds on grounds; record throng expected tonight; this was Stockholders’ Day and San Francisco Day at the Exposition.

Los Angeles Times, January 17, 1915, III, 14:3-7. Pictures in San Diego.

San Diego Sun, January 18, 1915, 1:7. Jitney buses in park; no arrests.

San Diego Sun, January 18, 1915, 3:1-2. Sunday’s crowd at Exposition largest since New Year’s; more than 15,000 people visited the Fair; standing room only audience heard organ recital; Isthmus packed; Saturday, January 16 attendance: 14,793; Sunday, January 17 attendance, 14,789.

San Diego Sun, January 18, 1915, 6:1-2. Women’s Rights? Sure! These Indian girls pick out their husbands, old custom, too; Indian Village at the Exposition: five tribes; tribes do not mingle because of rivalry back home.

Hopi camp in “Painted Desert”

Apaches in teepees

Navajo in mound houses

Acomas in pueblos

Huava-Supais in mud houses

San Diego Sun, January 19, 1915, 1:6-7, 2:3. Exposition great success right now, says President Davidson; special crowds will come.

San Diego Sun, January 19, 1915, 2:3-5. Panama Canal show at the Exposition is the real thing, everyone says.

San Diego Sun, January 20, 1915, 7:1-4. Exhibit on history of man one that every Exposition visitor should see.

San Diego Sun, January 20, 1915, 7:1-3. Sun man saw inner workings of Cristobal Café on tour.

San Diego Sun, January 20, 1915, 7:2. Monday, January 25, is Bobby Burns Day and Georgia State Day.

San Diego Sun, January 20, 1915, 9:7-8. Shoup says jitney bus will drive out trolley; head of Los Angeles Street System tells legislators auto will soon replace electric car lines; auto bus travels ahead of street cars and picks up waiting crowds; lawmakers at Sacramento asked to tax and regulate new competitors.

San Diego Sun, January 21, 1915, 2:1-2. Exposition even more beautiful amid rain.

San Diego Sun, January 21, 1915, 7:5-6. Weird and strange is Underground Chinatown; show depicts deterioration of “hop heads” and slave girls.

San Diego Sun, January 22, 1915, 1:1-2. Cruiser San Diego shaken by explosion; four are killed; boiler accident off west coast of Mexico; crew participated in opening exercises of Exposition.

San Diego Sun, January 22, 1915, 3:2. Today is California Commercial Association Day.

San Diego Sun, January 22, 1915, 4:6-8. Fine old relics of California now exhibited at Exposition; section devoted to aboriginal period of California; Pioneer Society also loans artifacts and documents; exhibited in California History Room next to chapel in California Quadrangle.

San Diego Sun, January 22, 1915, 6:4. Salt Lake building, built of concrete, is permanent.

San Diego Sun, January 23, 1915, 2:1-2. Odd Fellows enthuse over city and Exposition.

San Diego Sun, January 23, 1915, 3:7-8. Big Time on the Isthmus Tonight.

Los Angeles Times, January 24, 1915, VI, 1:3-7, 3:6-7. President says Best is Yet To Come at San Diego Exposition.

San Diego Sun, January 25, 1915, 1:3-6. How about Exposition dance on Plaza?

San Diego Sun, January 25, 1915, 1:7-8. Officials deny reports circulated in San Francisco and Los Angeles about Fair here closing.

San Diego Sun, January 27, 1915, 1:6-7, 6:1-2. Great auto caravan to descend on Exposition, February 12; arranged by Automobile Club of Southern California.

January 28, 1915, Journal of Education, Vol. 81, No. 4, 87-89. San Diego Exposition, by A. E. Winship.

San Francisco to have the last and grandest of old-style expositions.

San Diego to have the first in a new order of expositions.

Permanent attractions: “Forever and ever the reinforced concrete buildings that neither

shock nor flame nor the tooth of time can harm will be the greatest attraction in the

world as far as a revelation of Indian life, customs and traditions are concerned. . . .

The archives of Germany and France, the treasures of the British Museum, the resources

of the Smithsonian Institution, and the Anthropological Palace of Santa Fe will never

rival the attractions of the San Diego Park as it will always be. . . . Here in San

Diego, as nowhere else, is revealed the human unfolding . . . development of the

unborn child. . . . The greatest service Anthropology, as demonstrated in San Diego,

is rendering the world is the faith that some power of personality has always had an

unerring aim in the unfolding of life.”

Five-acre lot exhibit of Indian life

Santa Fe exhibit designed by Jesse L. Nusbaum.

“The grounds . . . are in natural scenery infinitely above anything possible in

Philadelphia, Chicago, St. Louis, Nashville, Atlanta, Omaha, Portland or San Francisco. . . . Here in a primeval forest, with trees undersized for their years, just off the Quadrangle, marvelous in artistic effect, is a labyrinth of paths and retreats bordered with flowers of surpassing beauty and acres of lunching tables shielded from the sun by thick foliage. Nature never had such an opportunity to vie with human nature in art and her triumph is complete. . . . A hundred acres of orchards, vineyards, fields and gardens, with all implements, animals model buildings and a home which a Spreckels could well covet, and is yet appropriate for any man with ten acres of orchard.”

San Diego Union, January 28, 1915, 9:2. Two paintings by artist Robert Henri on exhibit in the Fine Arts Building at the Exposition.

San Diego Examiner, January 29, 1915, Special Exposition Issue . . . .

1:1-7, 2:1-7 Through the Isthmus

2:1-3 Toadstool

2:4 Neptune’s Wonderland

3:1-4 Thompson Safety Racer

3:5-7 War of the Worlds

4:3-4 Imperial Art Gallery

5:7 Climbing the Yelps

6:1-2 Aerial Ferry

7:1-4 Underground Chinatown

7:5-7 Alhambra Cafeteria

8:1-4 Pala Gem Mine

8:5-7 Old Hawaii (Houses Old and New)

San Diego Sun, January 29, 1915, 1:1-2. Spending a rainy day on Exposition grounds.

San Diego Union, January 30, 1915, 7. Gleaned on Prado and Isthmus.

Today is “Find the Treasure Day” at the Exposition. Prizes to be distributed and hidden among the concessions on the Isthmus will aggregate $100.

As usual children will be admitted to the grounds for 10 cents, and an unusually large crowd is expected, particularly at the Isthmus in the evening, as it is there that the lights will be brightest and the spirit of frivolity is expected to reign supreme.

Cash prizes ranging from $1 to $15 are to be secreted by members of the special events committee in each show house on the amusement street. They will be placed in the most unexpected places and visitors will be expected to find them. All visitors are to be given the privilege of investigating any part of each show house they like and they are at liberty to open all suspicious looking packages.

One young woman, who is bent on obtaining a prize today, made a preliminary trip of investigation yesterday. She played every show on the Isthmus and is sure of several places prizes are likely to be placed. She says, however, that she will not eat more than a dozen “hot dogs” for any prize.

Many reservations have been made for the Café Cristobal this evening, and the evening promises to bring fourth one of the largest crowds of the season. Several special events have been planned for the Isthmus and a something-doing-every-minute program is promised.

Eight Indian girls from Santa Fe, New Mexico, are due to arrive in San Diego early next week to work in the several Indian arts in the Indian Arts building, under the direction of Edgar L. Hewett. Some of them will weave baskets, others will make pottery. The object is to show visitors how each is made, carrying out the idea of the Exposition, which is an exhibition process rather than complete article.

Plans for the entertainment of the Western Fruit Jobbers’ Association in San Diego, February 12 and 23, are being arranged by officers of the Exposition. The men will arrive on a special train over the Santa Fe line at 7 a.m., February 12. That day will be devoted to sightseeing in and about San Diego, and the following day will be Western Fruit Jobbers’ Day at the Exposition. The day will be passed at the Exposition where the men will be entertained at a luncheon and a reception according to present plans. In the evening special events will be held on the Isthmus for the visitors. They will leave about midnight of the second day for Los Angeles, where they will hold their business sessions. February 18 they will leave Los Angeles for San Francisco where they will attend the opening of the Panama-Pacific Exposition, February 20.

A special feature of the Orange Day, which will be February 6, will be the performance at the Plaza de Panama of a troupe of Roman ladder acrobats. The troupe comes to San Diego after a long and successful vaudeville engagement on one of the principal vaudeville circuits of the country, and an entertaining performance is assured at 7 p.m.

Nearly 500 visitors are assured for Orange County Day. Under the auspices of the San Bernardino Chamber of Commerce one large delegation will come, while one special train, bringing nearly 400, will come from Fullerton, Orange and Santa Ana.

  1. G. Helmerichs, who is in charge of the engraving department of the United States

government display in the Commerce and Industries building, enjoys the distinction of having made $40,000,000 per day for a period of three weeks. Helmerichs has been employed in the engraving department of the Philadelphia mint for twenty-four years and has made more money than all the millionaires in the country. “The only trouble with the money I made is that I have been allowed to spend but a small portion of it,” he says.

The government exhibit was installed yesterday and is in working order. Charles S. Muir of Washington, D.C., a regular employee of Uncle Sam, is in charge.

Capable of coining money at the rate of ninety pieces per minute, the coining machine is the marvel of all who see it in operation. The government allows no coining to be done outside the regular mints, so medals are made. They bear a picture of Uncle Sam with a pick and shovel. He evidently has just finished digging the Panama canal and appears a bit chesty. The other sides bears a drawing of a pair of Panama canal locks with the first ship coming through. James T. Fitzgerald is in charge of the coining machine.

The exhibit is one of interest to everyone, for it shows the method of making greenbacks as well as coins. Instead of making the greenbacks, an American eagle is being printed on paper handkerchiefs and other souvenirs.

San Diego Union, January 30, 1915, 9:2. Carl H. Heilbron succeeded D. C. Collier as director of Exposition; Collier resigned January 29, citing need to recoup expenditures and losses of the last few years.

January 31, 1915, Los Angeles Times, III, 15:1-2. Painting at the San Diego Exposition.

January 31, 1915, Los Angeles Times, VI, 1:7, 2:4. San Diego Is Hospitable.

January 31, 1915, San Diego Union. San Joaquin Valley building cost $26,500; total cost with exhibits $50,000; ceiling of grain, designed and executed by Mrs. M. J. Wesseis, cost about $7,000; more than five carloads of grain used.

January 31, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:2-3. Exposition Excursions, by Edgar L. Hewett . . . Under the above title it is proposed to furnish twice a week to the readers of The Union outlines and studies of various educational features of the Exposition

The people of San Diego do not yet realize, nor does any single individual know, the full value of the material that has been assembled for the use and benefit of the public. The Exposition has been built at a large outlay of money, all furnished by this community, and the community must want to know to what purpose such an expenditure has been made. Those who have been charged with the responsibility of developing the Exposition are anxious that the people shall desire such information and are ready to assist in giving it.

Never before has such an enterprise been undertaken by a community of this state. Never before has such an enterprise yielded so much for the lasting benefit of the people who originated it. The writer has spent the considerable part of a lifetime in studying the achievements of civilization throughout the world, is fairly familiar with the cities, architecture, public parks, museums, art galleries and institutions in America and Europe, and does not hesitate to say that the park development brought about by the San Diego Exposition is unsurpassed; that the architecture here assembled will stand comparison with that of any city in the world; that the exhibits in science and art will afford material for the enjoyment and education of the public to an extent that is equaled by only a few of the most advanced cities anywhere.

The present plan contemplates the systematic presentation of the various lines to be seen at the Exposition, in the belief that the people wish to see and use the material afforded. The classification will be First, the Grounds, second, the Buildings, third, the Exhibits. Articles will be prepared by the most capable writers that can be found, who will give the most serious thought to the work. Each one will be some important theme under the headings above noted. They will form a basis for actual excursions of pupils from the public schools, not only of the city, but of the county and state. Students and all visitors to the Exposition will find these outlines valuable to have in hand when visiting the Exposition. It is recommended that each article be cut out and carried to the grounds to serve as a guide.

Subjects are being chosen for the first series that bear directly upon public education, such as “The Model Farm,” “A Walk to the Pepper Grove,” “The Architecture of the Exposition,” “In the Painted Desert,” “The San Diego of Yesterday,” “America Before the European Came,” “The California Missions,” “The Story of Man.” The themes that can be selected are almost without limit. An exhaustive study of the grounds, buildings and exhibits of the Exposition would mean a liberal education, and this cannot be had this month or this year.

Most fortunately, in the three great divisions here mentioned, all that is best is permanent. The grounds will through all the future form a superb public park for the city of San Diego. The buildings establish a high plane of architecture for the development of this future great city. The California Quadrangle will be the imperishable monument of the year 1915. The greater part of the exhibits in science and art to be seen in the Science of Man, Indian Arts, California and Fine Arts building will remain the permanent possession of the people.

It is hoped that the local people will at once begin the active use of all this material and become thoroughly informed concerning it. We need not be concerned about the traveling public. Whatever splendid things are to be seen, there people will go, and not only for this year, but for all time to come. The city of San Diego will draw to itself people of culture and means, because they will find here that which makes life worth living.

The articles that are being prepared will run in the Sunday and Thursday issues of The Union. The one for today is on the subject “The Model Farm” and is written by Professor Spilling of the State Normal school. Do not forget to cut out all of these articles and bring them when coming to the Exposition. Each will be a valuable guide.

San Diego Union, January 31, 1915, 4:2-3. “Model Farm,” by William F. Spilling. . . . Visit the model farm and you cannot help becoming a booster for the “back to the farm” movement. If more farms were like this one, there would be no need of such a movement.

When we consider that only two years ago the seventeen acres now under cultivation was wild mesa land, we can more fully appreciate the present condition. There is no “closed season” for the growth here, and the citrus orchard, now laden with golden fruit, has become what it is by growing twelve months in the year.

This orchard, three years old from the bud, is, perhaps, the first thing that attracts the attention of Eastern visitors. It bears eighteen varieties of citrus fruit. The first section of the orchard, at the south, is planted to navel oranges, now (January) well laden with ripening fruit. Across the path, to the north, is another section of similar size, made up of late Valencia oranges, which will bear after the navels are gone. The time of its bearing is what gives the Valencia its greatest commercial value. Then comes a block of lemon trees which, although so young,, are bending under a load of fruit. Crossing the west path, we come to the pomelo orchard (grapefruit).

Four Standard Fruits

The four standard fruits above mentioned are represented by about eighty trees each. Then comes a very interesting row of trees grafted with all the varieties of citrus fruit, some trees having as many as a dozen varieties growing on one stock. These varieties are more fully represented by about half a dozen trees, each of golden variegated orange, golden buckeye naval orange, ruby blood orange, paper rind St. Michael orange, willow-leaved mandarin orange, citron of commerce, Kumquat, bouquet des fleures orange, tangerine, lime, Mediterranean sweet orange, golden nugget navel and variegated lemon. As insurance against a possible frost, distillate heaters are distributed throughout the orchard. They can be lighted readily with a torch and will raise the temperature of the whole orchard several degrees.

The pergola fence surrounding this orchard is covered with a wonderful profusion of Cecil Bruner roses. Thirty-five varieties of roses are found on various parts of the farm. Especially beautiful is a garden of Lafrano and General MacArthur roses back of the house. The arrangement of ornamental vines and clumps of shrubbery about the house and out-buildings is worthy of study.

Wonderful Vineyard

South of the combination garage and barn is a vineyard of fifteen varieties of grapes. These according to the prevailing custom of pruning are cut back to mere stumps, but will begin to grow in the early spring and are expected to bear heavily this year. They are raised without irrigation. The fruit trees are irrigated by means of a cement pipe system, which may be seen along the upper side of the farm.

The deciduous orchard is made up of different varieties of each of the following fruits: Japanese persimmon, crabapple, apple, quince, pear, nectarine, plum, prune, peach, apricot, walnut, pecan, almond, fig and chestnut. Interesting semi-tropical fruits are olive, banana, joquat, cherimoya, or custard apple of Peru, the avocado, or alligator pear, and several varieties of guavas, including the “pineapple pear” and feijoa, or Paraguay guava.

The best varieties of blackberries, loganberries, dewberries, raspberries and strawberries contribute beauty as well as profit.

The vegetable garden shows an attractive variety, including tomatoes, potatoes, peas, beans, rhubarb, artichoke, cabbage, sugar beats, turnips, onions, radishes, spinach and lettuce.

The poultry yards furnish a model in poultry house construction. Six breeds of chickens, loaned by the Poultry Association, are each represented by a half dozen hens and a cock. Upon the gate of each yard is a framed card upon which the number of eggs laid by each breed is daily recorded. All the flocks are fed and cared for alike.

A method of allowing turkeys to range over alfalfa without injuring its growth is shown in one of the yards.

Incubators will be in operation during the hatching season.

From 10 until 4 o’clock the model bungalow is open to visitors, who are shown by the hostess the attractive features of a home, which although planned for rural surroundings, should be equally suitable to the city.

The particular feature of the ranch which entitles it to be known as a “model farm” is that no pains have been spared to make it beautiful as well as productive. There is nothing ornate or showy about house or grounds, but that the aesthetic nature of the rural man has not been forgotten is manifested by a simple beauty and good taste everywhere visible.

February, 1915, The California Garden: The Exposition, Horticulturally, by G. R. Gorton. . . . Our exposition having specialized on its horticultural features, it is difficult to do more than mention in a rather superficial way some of these features which, perhaps, would be most apt to attract the attention of the visitor at this time.

Possibly he would consider the groups of giant Phoenix as being the most conspicuous objects at the entrance — especially if he knows that they have been in their present location less than three years.

The acacias floribunda and baileyana, the latter just coming into its mass of golden bloom, are sure to make their appeal to the lover of these typically Californian shrubs.

Approaching the Puente Cabrillo he passes successively masses of Abelia rupestris, just now wearing a sort of autumnal tint, various Bottle Brushes,Leptospermum laevigtumEscallonia albaGrevillea thelemannianaCassia tomentosa, Tecomaria capensis, the last four in flower. Passing across Cabrillo canyon, and under the two arches joining the California and Fine Arts Buildings, he enters the “Prado” — the main street of exhibit buildings.

The “Prado” is lined with Acacia melanoxylon, the popular Blackwood acacia. The arcades which form a shady walk from building to building furnish a support for Begnonia venusta — just now in full flower.

The Coprosma forms a deep green background for the bright red Poinsettia blossoms. On the second plaza — the “Plaza de Panama” — the arcades are resplendent in the magenta of Bougainvillea braziliensis, and just beyond — again on the “Prado: — the arcades on one side are clothed with the terra cotta Bougainvillea lateritia and on the mother with more Bignonia venusta. The shrubbery here is largely of “needley” planting such asAcacia verticillata, Grevillea thelemanniana, with its delicate feathery foliage and dainty red flowers, and here and there a Hakea or a Casuarina.

The corners of the buildings are given over in some instances to sub-tropical groups of many species, including Phoenix canariensis, Erythea (edulisand armata), Cocos plumosa, Chamaerops (both humilis and excelsa), etc., combined with Dracaenas, Phormium tenax, Eucalyptus and Acacias.

In the groups in front of the Foreign Arts building are one or two Pittosporum phillyraeoides, a “weeping” Pittosporum of rather interesting habit. Some of the entrances are guarded by solitary specimens of Dracaena indivisa, others by tall Italian cypresses.

There are, here and there, around the grounds interesting groups of specimen plants. One such is a group east of the Food Products Building. This group contains Gunneras Musa ensete (the Abyssinian banana), Sterculla acerifolia, Corypha australis, Hibiscus mutablis, Derringea, and many others.

The Streptosolen jamesonii in front of the Southern California Counties building has attracted much attention with its wealth of bloom. The same group contains a fine specimen of Wigandia macrophylla.

The patio . . . is typical of much of the sub-tropical planting and contains a number of good specimens of this class.

There is north of the California building a planting of meadow grasses and wild flowers which promises much for the near future. There is also a similar plot at the bottom of Cabrillo Canyon, north of the bridge.

The aquatic plantings are worthy of mention. There is the naturalistic planting around and in the lagoon in Cabrillo Canyon — the lilies and lotus, however, are hibernating just now, but promise well for the warmer months to come. The more formal pool in front of the Botanical building contains some of Mr. Sturtevant’s best in lotus and lilies, together with the usual aquatics, such as the Water Hyacinth, Water Poppy, Parrot’s Feather, Thalia, Arrowhead, Water Iris, etc.

Inside the Botanical building the Azaleas are now at their best, as are also the Primulas, Streptocarpus, Saintpoulias (the dainty little African violets), and many others, besides the curious Philodendrons, Cretons, Anthuriums, both the ornamental leaved types and the “Flamingo Flower” which are always on show.

There is very much to interest the visitor, be he “amateur” or “professional” in matters horticultural and he may profitably spend hours and days studying and enjoying.

February, 1915, Santa Fe Magazine, Vol. 9. No. 3. Sidelights on the Great Exposition at San Diego

Several weeks have passed since the opening of the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego on New Year’s Eve, and the never-ending stream of visitors from East and West gives daily proof that an all-year exposition in a land where extreme heat and extreme cold are both unknown is a powerful attraction. Especially to a stranger from the East or the Middle West is the San Diego exposition, a dream city which causes wonder and admiration.

From the icy winds off the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes the traveler crosses the snow-swept prairies to the Pacific coat, to Southern California, to San Diego. In the city by the San Diego Bay he finds an exposition — an outdoor exposition covered under a riot of foliage and with displays both in the great buildings and scattered about the grounds out of doors.

In the East, perhaps, he saw in a florist’s window a number of crimson poinsettias carefully sheltered from the slighted draught and offered for sale at a dollar apiece. At the San Diego exposition he finds tens of thousands of poinsettias growing in profusion about the grounds and attaining a splendor never equaled by the hothouse plants of colder climes. This is but one of the many striking contrasts between the country from which travelers come to San Diego and the exposition which they see on their arrival.

Although the excursion rates on the railroads do not go into effect until March 1, thousands already have crossed or are crossing the continent to the Pacific coast. With the time for the opening of the San Francisco exposition drawing near, many travelers are coming west over the southern route, planning on seeing the San Diego exposition first and then going north to attend the opening at the city on the Golden Gate on February 20. Reports observed by the railroad passenger traffic department show a westward movement far larger than was expected; and the railroad men are frank in saying that the European war has aided the “See American First” doctrine far more than they dared hope.

Of course, the greatest drawing card since the opening of the exposition was the exposition road race over the Point Loma course which was run by Earl Cooper. Before the race was run the crack drivers who were entered declared that the course was by far the most spectacular in American and asserted that car and driver would have to be at their best to stay in the prize money. The forty thousand people who attended the race saw that what the drivers had said was true. Men like Kerry Grant, Bob Burman, Harry Rickenbacher and Barney Oldfield drove like demons, only to force their cars out of the race under the terrific strain.

On the same day with the race, three California counties held celebrations at the exposition grounds. From Los Angeles came special trains bearing delegations to attend exercises in the Southern California Counties Building. Kern and Tulare counties, in the central part of the state, sent hundreds to take part in the dedication of their building.

Among the recent exhibits received for the ever-changing agricultural and horticultural displays is a hundred-foot grape vine from Escondido, Cal. The vine, which bears branches having a total lineal footage of more than 1,000 feet and measuring 100 feet in length, has been installed in the Southern California Counties Building on El Prado to decorate the section occupied by the Escondido Valley.

Selected by the Chilean government to represent the South American republic in the international armada which will reach San Diego in March, the battleship Capitan Prat probably will be waiting at the Pacific entrance to the Panama Canal to join the international fleet on its way to the expositions at San Diego and San Francisco. According to the announcement made by the Southern American Republic, the Capitan Prat, a vessel displacing seven thousand tons, will be the official representative of Chile in the naval parade.

Marked attention is being paid to the exhibit of the U.S. Forestry Service, in charge of Don Carlos Ellis, of the educational staff, which occupies a large space in the New Mexico Building. The demonstration work shows in graphic form the work the government is doing to conserve the great forests of the country and persuade timbermen to use scientific methods in their cutting, so as to add to the life of the forests. Another important government exhibit is the coin press in the Commerce and Industries Building, which demonstrates, by the manufacture of souvenir medals, the method of turning out coins. It is operated by a force from the bureau of printing and engraving.

Enthusiastic over what the San Diego and San Francisco expositions will do for the United States, and especially for the West, Dr. Onufri Getseff, correspondent for the Novoye Vremya of Petrograd, Russia, has left San Diego after passing more than a week in looking over the grounds and buildings of the exposition.

“The problem of the American west,” said Dr. Getseff, “is very similar to problem which confronts Russia. You have great undeveloped lands which need only the hand of man to make them productive of enormous wealth. You have also the men in the great cities who can find no work or who are working away their lives under unfavorable conditions. The problem is to get the men without land to the land which needs the man. That also is our problem.

“While it is not so large as some other world’s fairs have been, the San Diego exposition certainly has found what appears to be the proper method of bringing a solution of this vexing problem. Here in San Diego you not only show the man that he ought to go back to the land but you show him also how he can go back and how he can do his work on the farm.

:The San Diego exposition teaches a lesson which we in Russia would do well to follow. Our problem, of course, is not only the man in the city but also the man in the country working for another man who is working for another man, and so on, indefinitely. We must give those men small tracts of land to work independently; and we certainly shall find it profitable to adopt the American system of distributing agricultural information.”

Dr. Getseff went from San Diego to visit the grounds of the Panama-Pacific Exposition. He will pass six months in the west, spending most of his time in one or the other of the exposition cities.

To visitors from eastern states who go to San Diego one of the most attractive displays is a miniature oil well in actual operation in the building occupied by Kern and Tulare counties, California. The standard pump found on oil fields throughout California stands seventy-five feet high. The miniature pump is twelve feet high, and stringer for stringer and bolt for bolt, is an exact replica of the full-sized pump. The miniature, which is operated by an electric motor, pumps the crude oil from a reservoir underground into a large vat. The mouth of the pump is some distance above the vat, but the heavy liquid ours into the pool below without a splash.

“Panama-Pacific Day,” signalized by the attendance of the principal officials of the sister exposition at San Francisco, soon to be opened, and leading citizens of the northern city, brought to the grounds of the San Diego exposition the largest number of visitors since the opening celebration of New Year’s Day. The celebration, in which there was participation by the full military force of the San Diego exposition, in which the United States army and navy departments are extensively represented, filled to overflowing the day and a half stay of the San Franciscans. The enthusiasm of the visitors over the beauty and novelty of the display at San Diego has done much to cement more closely the friendly feeling of the two expositions. The officers and directors of the San Diego exposition will attend in a body the days which San Francisco sets aside for San Diego, in addition to being present at the opening of the exposition in San Francisco on February 20.

A feature of the rally of the two expositions was the participation in the parade of the entire band of Indians from the Painted Desert, the Santa Fe’s great exhibit, who escorted the visitors from luncheon at the Café Cristobal along the Isthmus, San Diego’s famous amusement street. For the night scene in the Panama Canal extravaganza there was arranged a grouping of the stars to read “Panama-Pacific, San Francisco, Good Luck.”

Thousands of tons of food supplies will be purchase in San Diego and San Francisco by the United States government to care for the great fleet of war vessels which will come through the Panama Canal in March to bring President Wilson and his party to the California expositions. Among the foodstuffs to be purchased will be 352,000 pounds of beef, 32,000 pounds of mutton, 32,000 pounds of fowls, 45,000 pounds of frankfurters, ______ dozen eggs, 600,000 pounds of potatoes, ______ pounds of pork and veal, 42,000 pounds of pork sausage, and 20,000 pounds of ______ sausage, 1,000 pounds of yeast, and ______ pounds of onions, in addition to a large quantity of fresh vegetables and fruits. More than sixty warships and auxiliaries will anchor in San Diego Bay. After a tw0-day visit at San Diego, the fleet will sail for San Francisco. Off San Pedro, the harbor for Los Angeles, eight warships will be attached to escort President Wilson to that port, while the remainder of the fleet will proceed northward toward the Golden Gate. The president will stop a day in Los Angeles and then leave for San Francisco.

With San Diego the foremost aviation center in North America, thousands of visitors sat the San Diego exposition are fascinated by the daily aeroplane flights above San Diego Bay by army and civilian birdmen. The United States army’s aviation school is located there, and, of course, civilian aviators are attracted by the military camp. The latest evidence of the city’s importance as an aviation center is given by the list of awards of the Aero Club of America for records made during 1914. The medals were awarded to aviators, constructors and inventors for work during the last year; and of these ten medals were given for flights and experiments in San Diego.

Eight thousand members of the International Typographical Union are expected to visit San Diego during August of this year. The union’s convention will be held at Los Angeles from August 9 to 14, and at the close of the meeting the delegates and visitors will go to San Diego on special trains over the Santa Fe.

The “Isthmus” has achieved a notable popularity. From sunset of December 31 it has been crowded with visitors swarming though the many amusements along its five thousand feet of frontage. They have spent hours in the Painted Desert, watching the Apache, the Hopi, the Zuni, the Navajo and the other Indians at work in the varied arts and crafts. They have wandered among the palms and banana trees and pineapple shops of the Hawaiian village, listening to the singers and ukulele players and watching the hula dancers. They have strolled through the streets of Japan and the depths of underground Chinatown and have seen the other curiosities of what is asserted by San Diego to be the greatest amusement street in exposition history. The heavy attendance is the best index to the justice of the boast.

A unique feature of the military side of the exposition is the presence of the Twenty-fifth Regiment Band from Ensenada, Mexico. The Twenty-fifth Regiment is famous throughout the southern republic for its fidelity to whatever government may be in possession of the national capital. The soldiers fought for Diaz against Madero, for Madero against Carranza, for Carranza against Villa; and now that Villa has Mexico City (or has he?) they are staunch adherents of his cause. The regiment’s band is one of the best known military organizations in Mexico.

To the hundreds of children who visit the grounds by far the most fascinating attraction is the flock of 2,000 pigeons which flutter about the Spanish-Colonial buildings. The pigeons, which are remarkably tame, eat from the hands of their little friends, who find great delight in feeding the birds.

February 1, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:8. 180,270 people passed through Exposition gates during January; rained almost all last week; Attendance Sunday, January 31, was 5,434, January 30, Saturday, was 1,000 during a wet day..

February 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2-4. Santa Fe Issues Exposition Folder; high compliment paid San Diego, its Fair and climate.

February 2, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:5. Crowds at Exposition defy rain; Teachers’ Institute being held this week at Panama-California Exposition.

February 2, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:3. This Is Straw Hat Day. . . . This is Straw Hat Day. It is San Diego’s unique holiday. A year ago San Diego was placed on the map and advertised throughout the country when San Diegans turned out in summer attire and paraded when the East and Middle West were frozen up. Today San Diegans will repeat.

Several pessimistic citizens late last night said San Diego’s second Straw Hat Day would be raw and cold. It remains to be seen whether their predictions will come true.

It will be up to the Gas Company to tell San Diegans whether this is a good Straw Hat Day or not. If the parade is to start at 2 p.m., the Gas Company’s whistle will blow two long blasts at 11 a.m.

Major Fay, chief marshall of the parade, has completed all arrangements which will be carried out according to schedule if the weather is fair.

It will be Straw Hat Day from the time the parade arrives at the west gate until the hours begin to grow small tomorrow morning. A something-doing-every-minute program has been arranged by Leigh D. Bruckart, chairman of the special events committee and popularly known as “Brucks, King of the Isthmus.”

(Events scheduled: fat man’s race, ballyhoo contest, parade of bands and employees of concessions, game of “stump,” special shows on the Isthmus.)

San Diego Sun, February 3, 1915, 3:6-7. Davis announces daily Exposition attendance figures

Thurs. Dec. 31 – 31,836

Fri. Jan. 1 – 15,120

Sat. Jan. 2 – 11,315

Sun. Jan. 3 – 7,715

Sat. Jan. 9 – 6,112

Sun. Jan. 10 – 6,165

Sat. Jan. 16 – 14,793 (San Francisco Day)

Sat. Jan. 23 – 5,082

Sun. Jan. 31 – 5,434 180,270 during month

February 3, 1915, San Diego Sun, 12:4-5. Description of Alhambra Cafeteria.

February 4, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:1-2. Exposition boosters advance suggestions to Board.

February 4, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:4. Local Chinese plan big time at Exposition, February 13, Chinese New Year; Quon Mane making arrangements; three-day celebration, February 12, 13 and 14.

February 4, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:8, 3.

100 various civic, business, social and fraternal organizations of San Diego pledge aid in movement to support Exposition. . . . In a spirit of entire loyalty to the Exposition, at the invitation of President G. A. Davidson, some 100 fraternal organizations of San Diego met last night in the auditorium of the U. S. Grant Hotel to discuss ways and means for promoting the interests of the Fair and for encouraging every method possible to increase the attendance. Many suggestions were made and occasionally a friendly criticism was offered, but harmony, which amounted almost to a love feast, prevailed throughout the meeting.

At the conclusion of the session, President Davidson said: “I am glad to see so many present, and I can assure you that every suggestion with reference to the management of the Exposition made here tonight, and I am persuaded that the majority of them have their merits, will receive due consideration by the board of directors. I want to say that this Fair is not the directors’ Fair, but it belongs to the people of San Diego, and it is our purpose to find out what they think of its management and to weigh every suggestion that is made.”

Frank J. Belcher, chairman of the executive board, who presided at the meeting, expressed practically the same sentiment. “We want you to feel that it is your Exposition,” said Belcher, “and anytime the people of San Diego have a suggestion to offer which we believe will further the Exposition on the road to the memorable success which it is going to be, and while I may say it already is, these suggestions, I assure you, will be welcomed by the board of directors. And I want it understood that I am not excluding criticism.”

Weekly board meetings for the Exposition is the plan and the next one will be held Wednesday night, the place to be announced later.

The idea is to have all local organizations work in harmony with the board of directors with a view to a perfect understanding and an increase in the attendance. Following is the invitation issued by President Davidson which explains the purpose of the meetings:

“For the purpose of creating a more harmonious spirit throughout the city, in order that the Exposition shall be the success expected by the citizens of San Diego, and to make the year 1915 memorable as one of progress and prosperity, it has been suggested that the directors of the Panama-California Exposition call meetings of the representatives of every civic, business and social organization in the city, to discuss plans to bring about this happy result.

“The first meeting will be held in the auditorium of the U. S. Grant Hotel on Wednesday, February 3, at 7:30 p.m., and you are earnestly requested to be present in person or to appoint a representative of your organization or association, who can at that time meet the directors of the Exposition.”

The first speaker called was Carl H. Heilbron, president of the Chamber of Commerce, and a member of the Exposition board of directors. “In the last analysis,” said Heilbron, “the success of the Exposition depends upon the people of San Diego. We had a successful opening and we must carry our enterprise through to a successful conclusion. We are going to do it.”

Among the suggestions offered by other speakers were: the sale of season tickets on the installment plan; six-month tickets for $5; a San Diego County Day every Saturday, with admissions reduced to twenty-five cents; club tickets to admit to all the attractions on the Isthmus; that the exhibits be open on Sundays and in the evenings; an exhibit showing the growth of cotton and its manufacture into goods in the interests of the Imperial Valley cotton growers; that means be adopted to popularize to a greater extent the concessions on the Isthmus; and that the various organizations of the city set aside days to attend the Exposition in a body.

It was pointed out that while it was expected that January and February would be dull months as far as attendance was concerned, the records how that more than 180,000 persons passed through the gates last month, a showing in the history of Expositions in this country exceeded for the first thirty days only by the Chicago Exposition. Also, it was said that Eastern visitors to the Fair have not begun to arrive to an perceptible extent in view of the fact that excursion rates will not be on until Marsh.

Practically every speaker — and many of them had attended all the great fairs ever held in the United States — agreed that the Panama-California Exposition for beauty, completeness, artistic finish of architecture, landscape, gardening, and general effect, ranks ahead of anything they had ever seen.

The other speakers of the evening were: R. A. Chapman, who suggested the cotton exhibit; H. W. Sumption, president of the Rotary Club; Judge E. J. Henning, president of the Federated State Societies; Judge J. M. Chatterson, who suggested a $5 six-month’s ticket; Allen Wright, city clerk; A. A. Unger, superintendent of the Holzwasser department store; J. F. Haight, president of the San Diego Ad Club; W. D. Crum, banker and real estate dealer; W. H. Hinman, secretary of the Cabrillo Club; W. O. Talbot, secretary of the Chamber of Commerce; William Tomkins, secretary of the Chamber of Commerce; W. H. Wheeler, secretary of the Manufacturers’ Association; Secretary Higley of the Southern Automobile Club; Mrs. Nannette Payzant, president of the Connecticut State Society; Duncan MacKinnon, superintendent of city schools; Attorney Eugene Ferry Smith, member of the board of directors of the Archaeological Society; Ed Crolic, president of the Retail Clerks’ Association and a representative of the Eagles; A. H. Girffin, president of the Canadian Society; Jacob Breckel, president of the Central Labor Council; A. E. Blethen, representative of the Federated Improvement Clubs; B. Naylor, who suggested an “Optimistic Day,” and said that the only criticism of the Exposition he had heard was from a woman who asserted that a girl rigged out in a Spanish costume looked to her like a Swede; H. S. Coffield, president of the Illinois State Society.

Before adjournment, President Davidson called attention to the fact that the steamer Great Northern is due in San Diego harbor, February 11, with five or six hundred notable aboard and that he hoped the citizens on this and the following day will turn out and attend the Exposition in full force.

On motion of Judge Henning it was decided to hold weekly meetings with the directors and the motion was made to include not only the organizations invited to participate in the one last night, but any other citizens who may wish to attend.

February 4, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:6.

Exposition Excursions No. 2: Architecture of the Exposition, by William Templeton Johnson. . . . History binds California so close to Spain that it was appropriate that the officials chose Spanish architecture for the Exposition buildings.

The architecture, which was one of the glories of Spain during the period of her greatest power, had its beginnings centuries before in Constantinople.

After Rome was overthrown by barbarians in the fourth century, the capital of the Holy Roman Empire was transferred to Constantinople, and all through the dark ages, almost the only men of learning were gathered there. When Constantinople was captured by the Turks in 1453 AD, this group of brilliant scholars, architects and artists pushed westward into Italy. The seed of the revival in art and letters had been planted by such men as Dante, Cimabue and Nicholas Pisano, and artistic talent was in high demand in the great cities of Venice, Florence, Milan, Pisa, Genoa and Rome. It was a remarkable age, a reawakening of culture, everyone studying, everyone interested in architecture, sculpture and painting, and it was only natural that such enthusiasm should have produced an architectural style which has never been surpassed.

The new architectural ideas traveled slowly from Italy into Spain, and once there the style changed very materially and became a curious combination of severely plain and ornate features. The Moors had long dominated Spain, and their plain, thick-walled, small, windowed buildings with cool interior patios, designed for the scorching heat of Africa, has a decided influence on Spanish building. The ornament, however, was elaborate in the extreme, the Moorish fancy contributing to the more fanciful designs. Doorways and windows, balustrades, porticos and towers were literally covered with arabesques (the ornament of the Arab) of griffins and grotesques of all sorts, scrolls and garlands, masks, shields, cherubs, flowers — in short, anything a vivid imagination could evolve.

The result was an architectural style differing widely from that in other countries, and one which became more and more gay and free until it degenerated into coarseness.

Spain was at the very height of her glory when America was colonized, and her galleons, laden with treasures, were crossing and recrossing the Atlantic. This period was also that of the finest architectural achievement, and it was quite natural that its influence should have crossed the water with the colonists and affected the buildings erected in the New World.

At the Exposition there is a splendid chance to study how Spanish architecture was modified by contact with the Moors, and how it gradually changed in Mexico and in California.

As one walks across the Cabrillo bridge, the Fine Arts building on the right, with its high walls and deep recessed windows, is evidently Moorish in feeling, while on the left the great dome of the California building is similar in many respects to the tiled-covered churches of Mexico, which in turn trace their origin back to the domed churches of Italy to Hagia Sophia at Constantinople. The deep-arched gateway has quite the air of being built for easy defense against foot soldiers, but once inside the gate all thought of a fortress vanishes, for we are in the quiet patio before the magnificent sculptured front of the California building. It is a beautiful example of Spanish-Renaissance. There is no finer facade in Spain, and the tower holds its own with the gorgeous towers of Cordoba and Seville.

The tile-roofed arcade at the north side of the Fine Arts building is typical mission architecture, as is the eastern front of the Indian Arts building, and these should be contrasted with the rich, elaborate towers and balustrades of the Foreign Arts and Home Economy buildings — the latter following closely in design the palace of Monterey at Salamanca. The difference between the ornament used on these buildings and that of the Varied Industries, San Joaquin Valley and Sacramento Valley is marked — the details used being much heavier and less delicate.

The mission architecture that the Franciscan monks gave to California and the Rio Grande valley was far more simple than most of the work in Mexico and Spain; the reason being that the buildings were, a large part of them, erected by priests with Indian labor. The New Mexico building, which is taken from the mission of Acoma, is a very good example of how their construction came to have features like those to be found in Indian architecture in the same vicinity. The building is a much savage as civilized in feeling, and the use of tree trunks to support window openings and roofs shows how close to Indian methods this very interesting building is.

After all is said, the whole group of buildings may be viewed as a single artistic unit. As one stands on the Plaza de Panama, it would not take a vivid imagination to picture oneself in Mexico or Spain. The harmony of the architecture, the beauty of the planting, the many colored curtains floating from the balcony windows, the gay Spanish costumes of the attendants — all go to make a picture that will sink deep and last long in the minds of the people.

San Diego Union, February 4, 1915. Gleaned on Prado and Isthmus. . . . Interest in special events at the Panama-California Exposition centers on the second Society Night, which will be tonight and Orange County Day which is Saturday and on which day several hundred northern boosters will visit the Fair.

Combined with Society Night is the celebration of San Diego Rotarians, who will visit the grounds in a body, take dinner at the Cristobal Café, attend the dinner dance to be given at the café and later make a tour of the Isthmus. The two big events of tonight will be merged so that the festivities may be of wider scope than at any previous celebration since the Exposition opened.

Just to be different, Rotarians have placed a ban on dress suits. In an announcement printed in The Rotator, the magazine of the local organization, the following words appear in black face type: “No dress suits.”

The Thursday evening society functions have proved popular with scores who now reserve their tables a week ahead. Manager Bob Singer always arranged special entertainment on Thursday evening each week and from now on it is planned to augment the function with a gathering of some other organization. It is understood that the Rotary Club will repeat their stunt of tonight each month during 1915.

The celebration of Saturday, Orange County Day, is becoming bigger as the day draws near. One excursion is coming under the auspices of the San Bernardino Chamber of Commerce and officers of the National Orange Show, and another is coming from points in Orange county, Fullerton, Santa Ana and other live towns. The Orange county train will arrive in San Diego at 11:15 Saturday morning and the San Bernardino train will arrive fifteen minutes later.

The visitors will be met at the Santa Fe station by officers of the Exposition, probably a squad of Balboa guards and the Panama-California Exposition band. As the time of some of the visitors will be limited, they will be taken to the east entrance, where they will go directly to the Southern California Counties building, where all of them will be required to register.

At noon the visitors will eat their luncheon at the Cristobal café, after which they will make a tour of the grounds, first going through the buildings representative of Southern California and the out-of-door exhibits.

Later in the afternoon a reception will be tendered the visitors in the bungalow on the model farm. Mrs. W. W. Wilson will be the official hostess for Orange county and she will be assisted by Mrs. Charles I, Wilson and Mrs. Florence Collins Porter of Los Angeles.

In the evening an athletic entertainment will be given at the Plaza de Panama by athletes from the YMCA. Later the visitors will be taken on a tour of the Isthmus.

What is predicted will be the largest and most spectacular event of the life of the Panama-California Exposition will be the celebration of the Chinese New Year which comes on February 13.

Officers of the Los Angeles Chinese Chamber of Commerce notified Leigh D. Bruckhart, who is in charge of the arrangements, that a special train, bearing about 200 Los Angeles Chinese, will arrive in San Diego on the morning of February 13. A large number are coming from San Francisco and some of them have arranged to come on the special from Los Angeles.

The celebration, which will be under the direction of some of the most prominent Chinese residents of San Diego, among whom there are many loyal boosters of the Exposition, will really begin on Thursday evening, February 11, with a mandarin dinner dance, which will be given at the Cristobal café. Elaborate plans are being made for this event. Known for their love of good things to eat, the committee of Chinese in charge of the function say that neither time nor expense will be spared to make it the greatest banquet of Chinese foods ever spread in the city. On the evening of the banquet, the new steamship Great Northern will have arrived and the new visitors will be entertained at the dinner and dance.

Friday, February 12, the delegation of visitors from the convention of the Western Fruit Jobbers’ Association at Los Angels, will arrive. On this day the Chinese will fly their New Year’s kites from the Exposition grounds. This ceremony is expected to be one of the most interesting presented.

Early morning visitors to the Isthmus on Saturday morning, February 13, will find the amusement street a mass of Chinese flags of both the old regime in China and the new, augmented by thousands of Chinese lanterns.

At 8 p.m. the feature of the whole celebration will be given, when the great parade of the 300-foot dragon will be held. With gleaming eyes, and smoke pouring from its furnace-like mouth, it will be taken on its tour, by which it is expected to chase the devil from the grounds and from the lives of the Chinese for another year. Never will the Isthmus be more brilliantly lighted than on the night of the celebration. Thousands of Chinese lanterns will be lighted and with the usual brilliance of Isthmus lighting, the effect, it is thought, will be most spectacular.

Miss Yung Hing, famous Chinese vocalist from Los Angeles, will be queen of the festival. This was decided at a meeting of the Chinese community yesterday, and she accepted the invitation by telegram. She will sing at the Cristobal café both Friday and Saturday evenings. In addition, the Toy Kee Chinese orchestra of eight pieces, has been engaged to play.

Chau Kiu Sing, secretary of the Los Angeles Chamber of Commerce and Henry U. Yip, former secretary of the same organization, are greatly interested in the San Diego celebration and predict that hundreds of Chinese from all parts of the state will attend.

Gwin Hicks, who is in charge of the Washington building at the Panama-California Exposition, is planning a celebration of “Potlatch,” to be held at the Washington building, February 22, Washington’s birthday.

“Potlatch” is the name given an old custom by Indians of Washington. At a certain time each year they give to the more unfortunate members of the tribe, blankets and food. It is the annual Indian charity.

Hicks intends to combine the celebration of Washington’s birthday with that of “Potlatch.” In the evening officers of the Exposition will pay an official visit to the Washington building and a tempting menu has been arranged by Hicks for the officials and other visitors.

Appropriate of Washington’s birthday, will be served ice cream, topped with cherries. The largest cake every made in San Diego has been ordered from a local baker. It will be made of Washington flour, Washington eggs and other products of Washington, made and grown in that state. At the reception to the Washington officials, Mrs. Gwin Hicks will be official hostess and will be assisted by other women who were former residents of the Evergreen State.

The enormous cake will be served by women dressed in pioneer costumes. The ice cream will be served by Holland girls, dressed in native Holland costumes. Cider and applies will be served by Indian girls. The women who act as hostesses will be dressed in colonial costumes.

February 5, 1915, San Diego Examiner, 2:3. Progress at Mission Beach.

February 5, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:3. Fine welcome planned for visitors; first Port-of-Call to extend royal greetings to Great Northern; arrives Wednesday; brings distinguished guests who will visit city and Exposition; first of great passenger steamships to come through Panama Canal to San Diego from the Atlantic.

February 5, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:1. Tomorrow Orange Day; Two trains bearing San Bernardino, Riverside and Orange County delegates to arrive at 11:00 a.m.

February 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4. San Diego County school teachers were entertained at all the state buildings.

February 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:4. Summer school to open at Exposition; made possible by Andrew Carnegie; courses in Spanish, geography of South America, and the problem of the European war are planned.

February 6, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:3-4. Orange is King in city today; Orange County Day at Exposition.

February 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2. Orange County Day is celebrated.

February 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:2-3.

Exposition Excursions No. 3: The San Diego of Yesterday: Indian artifacts of San Diego region displayed in lower floor of Fine Arts Building, by John P. Harrington.

The romantic and interesting period of Spanish rule on this coast, about which so much is told and written, lasted only half a century. Back of that lies ten thousand years of more of Indian San Diego.

The San Diego of yesterday is to most people a dream, a picture imagined with difficulty.

In what sort of houses did our predecessors in this region live? How did they navigate the esteros and seas? What were their utensils, implements, weapons? How did they hunt and fish? What was their dress or undress? How did they smoke? What did they eat? What were their dances and dancing regalia? What musical instruments did they play? How did they dispose of the dead?

These and similar questions will be asked by anyone who begins to think about the subject.

A visit to the California room of the Fine Arts building will answer all these questions in a satisfactory way. There you can see a reconstruction of the life of the vanished or vanishing Indian, as represented by a large collection of the objects made by them.

A unique specimen is the plank canoe of the type seen on San Diego waters by Cabrillo and other early explorers. Made of rough-hewn boards of native pine or cedar, lashed together with string of red milkweed fiber, caulked with tule and coated with asphaltum, these boats would stand the roughest seas and played an important part in Indian fishing and transportation. The canoes carried from two to six Indians. In them the Indians navigated not only the esteros along the shore, but ventured far out to sea, crossed to the islands, or made long trips up and down the coast.

Another much-used king of boat was the canoe-shaped raft or balsa of tule. These were more easily made than the wooden canoes. They would carry one or two persons and were paddled like a wooden canoe. They were used on the ocean and on the bays or esteros.

Still another type of craft is the square balsa, used only on still water.

The coast Indian house was shaped like a wigwam. A number of willow poles were leaned together, lashed and thatched with petates (mats) of tule, loose tule or grass. The fireplace was at the center of the house, and a hole was left at the apex for the exit of smoke. In fair weather the people passed most of the daytime out of doors and the cooking was done outside the house. But they slept in the house on mats, loose tule or on the earth floor, and, if the night was at all cold, kept a fire burning in the house until morning. A tule mat served to close the doorhole. A group of these houses, irregularly arranged, constituted a village, called in Spanish rancheria and in Indian merely “awa” — “houses.” Each village was governed by a hereditary chief who rules with autocratic authority. The Indians were monogamists and, roughly speaking, each family had a separate house. When the owner or occupant of the house died, the house was burned as were also the personal belongings.

Dress Scanty

The dress of the men was either nothing at all or a G-string of buckskin supported by a belt of string. The women wore a dress of buckskin, tule or bast. Specimens of these articles of clothing are exhibited. Beads, pendants and other ornaments for personal adornment were made of shell, bone or wood in the most varied shapes and sizes. The rarest beads were the long cylindrical ones of purple color made from the shell of the rock oyster, and the long slender beans with minute boring made of the thick white shell of the large clam.

The baby cradle was a simple affair. The fork of a willow tree was cut and twigs were tied across to form slats. On the framework these made a tule mat was fastened, and on this the child was kept tied, body, arms and legs, during the first two years of its life. This was said to make the child grow up straight in body and to make him obedient. The cradle was carried on the woman’s back or head; was planted erect in the ground; or suspended by rope from the roof of the wigwam.

There are exhibited specimens of the coarse, porous, brittle, blackish pottery made by the coast Indians; also pot-rests of clay for supporting the pot over the fire, and pottery pipes. These latter were straight tubes and the head had to be held back when smoking.

Mush made of acorn meal or of various seeds was a principal food. It was taken from the pot on wooden ladles and eaten with the fingers. It was stirred with a stick, a ladle or a bunch of reeds tied together for the purpose.

The materials used by the Indians in manufacturing baskets form an interesting exhibit. Here is the bone awl, the willow splits (for white), manzanita bark (for red), fern roots (for black), and tall rice grasses for the core of the coil.

Baskets Unique

Large conical baskets were used by the women for carrying burdens on the back. With seedbeaters they knocked the seeds so that they fell from the plants into the basket. A carrying net of string was strung across the shoulders and used for carrying things.

Storage baskets of two types were used — of mud and of coiled basketry. On these the food supplies were stored.

Rings made of twigs or fiber were used for carrying burdens on the head.

An interesting twine-twisting device is exhibited. The implements of war and the chase form an important group of objects. There are seen men’s and boy’s bows. For shooting small birds four little sticks were tied transversely near the tip of the arrow, and then the chance of hitting the bird was increased. There are shown spears of two types, a shield, four kinds of war clubs, an ancient stone ax, a deer-stalking outfit, boomerangs or throwing sticks and a whale’s bone gourd; also crooked sticks used for extricating lizards from their chinks and crannies, and a cage for keeping wild pigeons to be used as decoys, and a snare for catching wild pigeons.

The three fishing implements are represented — the pole and line, line and harpoon. The hooks were made of the shell of the abalone or the large seashell. The Indians had not discovered the principle of the barb.

Digging sticks, with and without stone weights, are shown; also walking-sticks and fire-sticks. In using the latter the horizontal stick is held on the ground and the foot is placed on it. The other stick is then rapidly twirled between the palms. Sometimes two or three Indians took turns, each twirling till he got out of breath, before the fire was produced.

The paraphernalia for the games of ring and pole, shinny, kicking race (the counterpart of our game of football) and peon have been installed.

Among the ceremonial objects should be mentioned the feather dancing skirts, feather headdresses, clapper sticks, rattles, feather wands held in the hands of the dancer, a bullroarer or buzzer used for calling people to the ceremony, and an old tule case for keeping regalia.

Musical instruments are represented by the primitive Jew’s harp, the musical bow and the flute. These instruments were used chiefly by young people and love-makers.

The collection herein referred to occupies the lower floor of the Fine Arts building, known as the Gallery of California History. Cut this article out and take it with you when you go to the Exposition.

February 9, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:7-8. Jitney bus on trial here today; City asks for injunction.

February 9, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:6. Many on way to Exposition City; excursions start from East; summer rates of $62.50, round-trip from Chicago to California.

February 9, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:3. People’s Chorus to sing with outdoor organ every month.

February 10, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:1-2. Great Northern passenger steamer comes in rain, but thousands cheer her at city pier; trip through canal is made without trouble; will sail at midnight.

February 10, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:1-2. Mystic charm of Hawaiian Village pleases visitors; under supervision of Kenneth Croft; 56 natives employed, headed by Ernest Kaai, a musician, and Princess Niau Inakea, an actress; reproduction of Hawaiian volcano guards gateway to exhibit; Old and New Hawaii represented; natives make mats, spears and what-nots.

February 11, 1915, San Diego Herald, 3:2. Exposition Travel.

February 11, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:7. Friday’s program, February 12: Straw Hat Day, Chinese New Year, Western Fruit Jobbers’ Association Day.

February 11, 1915, San Diego Sun, 5:5. Amphion Folk lunch at Exposition; music features gathering at Cristobal café; L. B. Behymen and Dr. Stewart talk.

February 12, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:4. Chinese ready for celebration tomorrow night; a huge Chinese dragon at the head of a parade will be followed by 500 Chinese; Hour of the Rat Sunday night.

February 12, 1915, San Diego Sun, 9:3-4. Sacramento Valley Exhibit shows resources of wonderland of west; C. H. Dunton, manager.

February 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:7-8.

Jim Corbett Appears With Other Notables in Monster Pageant. . . . Local weather forecaster E. Herbert Nimmo relented yesterday and allowed Major Herbert R. Fay to stage his straw hat parade. Major Fay didn’t kick when Nimmo opened the flood gates above on February 2. Fay is the boss of the city water department. It’s his business to see that J. P. soaks the back country and gives a good run-off, but occasionally Fay, who is a good military man, insists on pulling off a parade in San Diego; so he notified Nimmo shortly before midnight Thursday to put fair weather on the schedule for San Diego’s postponed Straw Hat Day.

Clouds hung over Point Loma and the city at noon, but the sun was shining, and the whistle blew announcing that the straw hat parade would take place.

Straw Hat Day boosters began to gather along lower Broadway, shortly before 1 o’clock. By 1:20 they commenced to arrive in droves and when the parade started at 2:10 p.m., there were more than six thousand ready to move over the line of march.

The parade, like last year’s pageant, was a democratic one. Organizations, business houses, schools, and Uncle Sam’s defenders were represented. Jim Corbett, for two decades the idol of fight fame, rode near the head of the parade and pronounced it one of the best he had ever seen.

  1. Keno Wilson, chief of San Diego’s department of criminal investigation, in a real Panama and astride his horse, like a real Texas ranger, rode at the head of a half dozen of San Diego’s finest and cleared the way for Fay’s straw hat brigade. The procession moved from Lower Broadway past the U. S. Grant Hotel where the movies snapped the principal features and the committee of awards viewed the parade, up Fourth to B, east on B to Fifth, north on Fifth to Laurel, and east on Laurel t the Exposition’s grounds.

Major Fay’s staff was one of the most picturesque that ever had a parade in the city. All wore Exposition hat bands. The women of his staff were all expert horsewomen and Mrs. Fred Fanning won the prize for the best appearing equestrienne in the parade.

(A list of Major Fay’s aides follows.)

At the Exposition, the parade was reviewed and dismissed and all wearing straw hats were admitted to the grounds at half price. The musical organizations participating in the parade were admitted free.

For a few hours after the parade was dismissed, the Isthmus did the best business it has done since the Exposition opened.

Big Brindle Bulldog Objects to Straw hart and Hides Behind Man

(See newspaper for story.)

One of the best laugh-getters in the parade was the jitney bus which a number of boys fixed up out of an old pushcart and a barrelhead. One of the men who laughed hardest as it was William Clayton, manager of the electric railway.

February 13, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:3. Chinese to celebrate New Year on Isthmus for three nights beginning at 8:00 tonight with parade of big dragon.

February 13, 1915, San Diego Sun, 3:3. City may take over Exposition work of caring for streets, roadways, walks and grounds of Exposition for rest of year; now costs Exposition about $5,000 a month; City will be asked to spend $40,000 for rest of year.

February 13, 1915, San Diego Sun, 3:4. Straw Hat Day is voted success; Aviator Knox Martin flew over city and dropped six straw hats into the business district during parade.

February 13, 1915, San Diego Union, 7:2-3.

Cavalry Review Stirring; Horses Thunder Down Street; Crowds Sound Applause; San Diego Given Unusual Treat When First Squadron Passes Before President Davidson at Trop and Gallop. . . . Passing in spirited review before President G. A. Davidson, yesterday afternoon, the First Cavalry Squadron and band furnished San Diego with a never-to-be-forgotten spectacle of the first magnitude. Park avenue, moreover, was an ideal setting for the brilliant action.

The afternoon was perfect, the mud of the wide boulevard had dried and conduced readily to fast mounted work. The olive drab uniforms of the troopers blended perfectly with the greenery of the park’s verdant foliage, as did the color of the horses with the road. This striking harmony caused much comment. Aside from pleasing the eye, it was patent also that as fighting units these troopers would prove singularly inauspicious targets for an enemy’s bullets.

Like Horse Race

The form and character of the review were unusual. San Diego people were given an especial treat. For four troops of cavalry to thunder over a city street at a speed almost that of the charge is a little out of the ordinary. The customary review does not include it. Those who saw yesterday’s review are not likely to forget the well-ordered dash of the sixteen platoons from Laurel street to Upas street, nor the tingling patriotic thrills of approval awakened as line after line of running horses swept by in even rows. Liveliest of martial music rendered brilliantly by the mounted cavalry band drawn up in Quince street, opposite President Davidson, imparted just the right atmosphere of glamour and dash. The great crowd assembled on either side of Park avenue shouted its affirmation and was stirred profoundly. One’s sensations were similar to those attending the finish of an exciting horse race, with something much bigger and finer added.

Returning from the parade, the four troops of cavalry proceeded in platoons along Park avenue to Quince. Wheeling left into line and backing to the south curb, the long line of mounted men presented saber to President Davidson, who acknowledged the salute by raising his hat. A series of snappy evolutions, of machine-like precision followed. After evolutions at Upas street, the sixteen platoons passed in review at a walk. The band played stirring music. Turning once more at Laurel, the trot was taken up, and at this gait, with horse prancing but perfectly controlled, the reviewers were passed a second time. Still again the reviewers were passed, this time at a gallop. Sitting erects and easily in saddle, saber at carry, still in platoon formation, the mounted men created an impression of verile force and effectiveness. The crowd gave its approval voice. Men shouted lustily, women clapped, and along the entire parkway countless handkerchiefs fluttered and waved. The movie man was busily engaged with is crank, and Snapshot Bills, stationed at various points of vantage, clicked the shutters of Kodaks with great frequency.

Mounts Dash Forward

Then came the grand finale. One by one, at Laurel street, the platoons wheeled to the about. A trumpeter sounded trot. The increased gait was taken uniformly and without excitement or confusion. Once again sounded the clarion bugle notes. As one unit the several hundred horsemen burst into a gallop, rapidly increasing the gait until the gallop became all but a charge. In short the pace was about as fast as the slowest horse could run. Eager, expectant, jumping against the bit, the horses thundered down the roadway toward the reviewing stand, shoulder to shoulder. They seemed to anticipate the full charge. A slight pressure of the legs, reins quickly released, that wild abandoned shout the trooper is taught, and they would have bounded forward, full cry, an irresistible avalanche of destruction.

Indeed, as the shouting of the spectators vibrated above the tingling music of the cavalry band, all the horses appeared to leap forward, evidently mistaking the source of the shouting and believing it the signal for the charge. Expert horsemanship and coolness along avoided a wild melee. The horses were controlled, the swinging lines maintained their evenness and accurate alignment, and, though laboring under some difficulty and handling reins with only one hand, each trooper kept his place, maintained his ease and grace in saddle, held each his saber rigidly erect and close to the shoulder, and thus platoon after platoon of cavalrymen swept by the reviewers for the last time.

February 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4-5, 3:2-3. Chinese Festival Attracts Thousands to Isthmus; “Hour of Rat” observance at Exposition will close two days of incense and Cantonese music, dancing.

February 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:2-8.

New Mexico Building; state in miniature; activities and industries of southwestern commonwealth to be shown on screens. . . . A little journey to New Mexico was the ideal the state’s Panama-California commissioners set before them in planning the New Mexico building and exhibits at the Exposition.

“New Mexico is like no other state,” they said. “It developed a mission architecture peculiarly its own. It possesses a greater range of minerals than any other state. Ancient ruins found within its borders are of immense interest to archaeologists, surpassing anything north of the Rio Grande. Wealth in wheat, fruits and lumber is drawn from its soil. It raises many cattle and sheep. Its landscapes are unique, vivid with colors found nowhere else.”

The commissioners set themselves to portraying these things and more, in the New Mexico building. Visitors always assert that they succeeded, and, at the same time, made the portrayal in a novel manner.

They selected the old mission Acoma to serve as model for the building. They reproduced its low, strong lines; rough ends of tree trunks projecting from adobe walls; the little, severe chapel where the friars intoned mass; its crude tower.

“California’s mission architecture will be followed in many buildings,” they said. “Let us show how widely the style of New Mexico differs from it.”

In doing this they attained the unique. The New Mexico building surmounts the mesa’s edge across a canyon from the California building, lacking graceful arches and dusky colonnades, twined about with no rambling vines, strong and crude, just as the mission of Acoma stands on its sun-baked rock and watches the centuries fall.

Chief among the exhibits they brought to San Diego specimens of the myriad ores the state produces — fine gold, meerschaum white silver, copper bearing porphyry, seamed with ruddy native metal, glistening mica, gray iron and curious mineral forms in which many metals mingle. These specimens first meet the visitor’s eye as he enters the building. And he is likely to linger long before them, for they gleam in an infinite variety of colors and shapes, a rare study in the picturesque, even to a man who cares nothing for the immensity of the wealth they represent.

Mission Model Shown

Then the commissioners had models prepared of the ancient pueblos of Quaral and Pecos — pueblos that were old when the first Spaniards toiled across the Rio Grande and into north country. But the white man added missions, where the friars might baptize and teach, and these, too, are shown, apart from the dwellings of the Indians, but enclosed by the same walls. There are striking differences between various pueblos, some exhibiting a high order of architecture, some only crazy wasps’ work.

There also is a model of the old mission of Santa Fe, and one of the Maxwell mansion, host to many a motley crew when the adventurers turned their faces down the Santa Fe trail and started to form an empire, and another of Bent’s fort, which that picturesque solder of fortune set on the Arkansas river as the outpost against the Latins and Indians.

On the models, portraits of the rulers of New Mexico — Spaniard and American — look down so that the room has been christened the Hall of Governors, a reminder of the Palace of the Governors in old Santa Fe.

On the opposite side of the building, under the tower peering down into Mexico, is fitted an auditorium and motion picture room. It is a faithful replica of the chapel of the Acoma mission — severe, dedicated to service, not to aestheticism. On its walls hang many oils of New Mexico’s scenery, ruins, sagebrush, vivid under the setting sun, cyclopean stairs of stone. There also are water colors and oils of the buildings of Santa Fe that remain to recall the past. Some are pierced with bullet holes that occurred at the battle of Taos and are said to be more than 100 years old.

In this auditorium are shown many striking motion pictures, films and slides. Five Indian pueblos are shown in films, nine in slides. There are films of Indian dances, bizarre and grotesque, that have been among the popular entertainments at the Exposition. The annual Navajo fair at Shiprock is depicted, a colorful event that has no parallel in America, and can be compared with the fairs in central Russia.

Pictures Show School

There is the Indian school at Shiprock, motion pictures of coal mining operations, slides on agricultural subjects, cattle in quiet meadows that the average visitor hardly believes exist in the state; movies of farming; great artesian wells; immense irrigation projects — altogether an interesting array. As the films are changed daily, the building welcomes back day after day the same persons. The programs begin at 10:30 o’clock in the morning and at 1:30 o’clock in the afternoon, the latter hour being fixed to avoid conflict with the recitals by Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart on the Spreckels organ.

On the second floor is the forestry room, where there are additional slides, all emphasizing the idea of conservation of resources. In this hall there are innumerable photographs of the forests and forest service in New Mexico, cross-sections of great trees, model of a forest section, and another showing graphically the effects of deforestation on the soil. In assembling these exhibits the commissioners wished to aid the federal government in its propaganda work as well as to call attention to the abundant timber the state possesses.

After the visitor has gazed at all the exhibits, he usually remains to luxuriate in the colors of Navajo rugs and hangings, or to wonder at the designs of the pottery and plaques, or to sit in the cheerful reception room, or on the sunny porticoes.

Many classes of persons visit the building, and each finds something of interest. The easterner seeking to “get back to the soil” will find lists of homestead lands open to entry, with descriptions. The commissioners wished to leave every road open to the man who, having seen films, slides and photographs, and heard lectures on agricultural New Mexico, wishes to get detailed information, so that, in addition to the homestead lists, there are pamphlets devoted to different counties, as well as one great volume covering the whole state.

Pueblos Win

The tourist usually lingers longest before the pueblo and mission models and the Indian dances and fair films. The man with the commercial turn of mind likes the minerals best, since they represent the chief wealth of the state, but all usually linger longer, finding attendants to explain to them all details of the exhibits. All the attendants are residents of New Mexico and thoroughly familiar with their subjects.

Much of the credit for the showing made by New Mexico is given Colonel E. R. Twitchell, chairman of the commission, who visited the Fair and building recently, giving, when he returned home an interview in which he found it difficult to say enough for San Diego.

New Mexico placed “all its eggs in one basket.” It chose to exhibit in San Diego instead of in San Francisco.

But reports being sent home to the commissioners show that New Mexico is immensely pleased. The crowds at the building have surpassed expectation many times over, as the crowds at the Exposition itself have surprised even the most sanguine. New Mexico estimates that it gained 100,000 new settlers from the exhibits made at St. Louis ten years ago and the literature distributed there.

It is predicted that the results from the San Diego work will exceed those of St. Louis.

February 15, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:7, 2:3. Works Division is Done; Allen leaves soon; Davis explains letters taken from Exposition files concerning contracts for exhibits and concessions; 14,500 gross admissions Saturday; South Dakota Day is February 17; Cabrillo Club Day, February 19; Kentucky Day, February 20.

February 15, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3. 14,080 enter Exposition gates in one day; paid admittance record probably exceeded by Saturday’s figures; Chinese New Year’s Celebration Popular; Attendance yesterday about eight thousand; Open-air organ recital strong drawing feature; crowd surges through Isthmus; concessions busy.

February 17, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:6. Labor Union Day is Saturday, February 20; local labor unions to hold dance on Plaza de Panama in evening.

February 17, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:7. San Diego Society of Natural History advocates use of Exposition buildings by schools and organizations without taxation.

February 19, 1915, Park Commissioners, Minutes. A motion was duly made and carried that automobiles be prohibited from parking on the east side of both Park Boulevard and West Drive.

February 19, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:1-2. Santa Fe admits it is using station as club over the city; Attorney for road tells Commissioner Thelen, Santa Fe wants B Street closed for good and hasn’t opened new station for that reason; road is allowed ten days to file a legal brief, then Commission will render a decision.

February 19, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:3. President Davidson to call a meeting of Exposition Board to hear all complaints and criticisms aimed at the management.

February 19, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:5. City has Water Department buildings near 11th Street entrance to Balboa Park.

February 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:4-5. Exposition Excursions No. 4: Child Welfare at San Francisco and San Diego, by Gertrude Longenecker.

February 22,1915, San Diego Sun, 1:8. Expo Thronged With Visitors; Fine Weather Brings Out Crowds; special programs enjoyed today; 6,786 passed the gates yesterday (Sunday); open house at Washington building today, cider and ginger snaps also served; also Santa Barbara Day.

February 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:3. Outdoor dancing attracts throng; hundreds trip light fantastic on Plaza de Panama at Exposition.

February 23, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 9:3-4. Interested throng attends State’s unique celebration; Famous potlatch held in Washington building at Exposition; first President’s birthday observed.

February 24, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:6. Great crowds expected at Exposition beginning March 1; Davidson encouraged.

February 24, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1-3. A wide piazza added to Kansas State Building.

February 25, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:8, 6:4. Let us all vote for Marston, says Wilde; says merchant is man for mayor; would put it up to O’Neall; not seeking place.

February 25, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:6. Movies are new Exposition attraction.

February 26, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:7-8, 2:5. Mayor O’Neall makes hot retort to Wilde.

February 26, 1915, San Diego Union, , 8:4. Free vaudeville assured for Fair; headliner numbers will be furnished by concessionaires Saturday.

February 26, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:1. Mayor O’Neall praises San Francisco Exposition; friendly feeling for San Diego liberally expressed, says executive; 2,200 attend banquet; Mayor much entertained by Bay City and Oakland officials.

February 26, 1915, San Diego Union, 16:1. San Diego Day set for April 21 at San Francisco.

February 26, 1915, San Diego Union, 16:2. San Diegans inspect new Santa Fe Station; hear safety first talk.

February 27, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:1. Experts will talk at gathering of ranchers; Farm Bureau announces general plan for Exposition meeting; big event promised; agricultural exhibitors to give demonstrations for visitors.

February 27, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3.

Southland Grips Heart of Movie Beauty; Grace Darling Prefers San Diego Exposition to Northern Fair. . . . Miss Grace Darling, the movie beauty, who does all sorts of unique things for the Hearst Selig Company, has returned to San Diego. Miss Darling, who has been in San Francisco attending the opening of the northern exposition, has come back to inspect fully the wonders of the San Diego fair, which she found impossible to do when she was here as a passenger on the Great Northern because of the ship’s short stay at this port.

Miss Darling frankly confesses to preferring Southern California to the northern part of the state. “Of course, the San Francisco Fair is very beautiful,” declared the vivacious movie girl, “but the Panama-California Exposition appeals more strongly to me. The difference between the two expositions can be expressed aptly by say that the San Francisco Fair is a brilliant diamond, but the San Diego Exposition is a matchless pearl. Of course, it rained all the time I was in San Francisco and I was kept on the jump so much that I am worn out. I shall be very grateful to have an opportunity to inspect your Exposition leisurely and to listen to the great organ.”

According to L. K. Dewein, the cinematographer who accompanies Miss Darling when she goes on her “stunts,” the pretty, fair-haired slip of a girl has had a rather strenuous time since she left San Diego on the Great Northern several weeks ago. Miss Darling visited Stanford and Berkeley Universities, rode up Mount Hamilton, prowled through Oakland, and did many other things, in addition to taking in all the Exposition ceremonies and meeting all the celebrities. Miss Darling finally broke down, and, by the doctor’s orders, was compelled to take a rest of several days.

Miss Darling passed a strenuous morning yesterday at Los Angeles and faces the prospect of another one today. She is to visit the Painted Desert, the Hawaiian Village, and the Pala Gem Mine on the Isthmus this noon, meeting aboriginal and Kanaka celebrities and see how San Diego County gems are mined, and will meet Judge R. S. Lovett, president of the Southern Pacific Railroad. She also will renew acquaintance with G. A. Davidson, President of the Exposition, whom she met on her former visit to San Diego, and, as the wind-up, will attend the recital by H. J. Stewart on the big Spreckels’ out-of-door organ. John D. Spreckels, donor of the organ, will explain to her the intricacies of the only instrument of its kind in the world.

With all this program ahead of her, Miss Darling sought her couch early last night. She had been on duty thirteen hours yesterday, which she declared was almost as strenuous as being a newspaper woman. At the Hearst-Selig studios in Los Angels yesterday morning she boldly walked into the cage of a leopard and posed for the camera man.

“Then they asked me to ride the wild zebra,” said Miss Darling. “I had never ridden one, but I was game and said yes. When the hostlers brought him out it took four of them to hold him and then they didn’t hang on very long. After I saw him plunge and rear for several minutes, my wondrous courage suddenly shrank surprisingly and I promptly said:

“Not for me, thank you. I want to get back to New York in the regular way and not in a big, black box.”

This well-known movie star also passed half a day at San Gabriel, viewing the “Mission Play,” and inspecting the famous old mission there.

February 27, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:1. Heavy gain shown in attendance at Fair; average daily attendance in February 900 above that of January; total to date 300,107; free vaudeville show on Isthmus will be popular feature.

February 27, 1915, San Diego Union, 9:3. Fair to expedite vast expenditure; Quarter million will be disbursed to San Diego merchants during the next month in settlement of Exposition obligations for goods purchased and credit extended.

February 28, 1915, Los Angeles Times, VI, 1:4-7. Relics tell tales of ancient America; art and history enriched by exhibits at San Diego Exposition; wonderful archaeological discoveries made near the Isthmus are taken to the Fair; outdoor doings.

February 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4. Grace Darling, movie girl, captures Fair; interesting scenes filmed; notables greet actress.

February 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:1. Count Okuma discounts war scare talk; jingoists hope to see Japan and U. S. clash over China, says Premier.

February 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:1. Dr. Stewart promises Welsh airs for organ recital on St. David’s Day.

February 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:2-3.

Exposition Excursions No. 5: A Visit to the Botanical Building, by H. W. Sumner. . . . Few features at the Exposition are of greater interest to the traveling public than the California wild flowers and cultivated plants. In order to meet the constant inquiries for information and assistance in identifying the California flora, a series of “excursions” has been prepared which will be run during the next few weeks in The Union. These will be entitled, “A Visit to the Botanical Building,” “The Exposition Wild Flower Field,” “A Walk to the Pepper Grove,” and “The Horticultural Work of the Exposition.” These have been prepared by Messrs. Sumner and Gorton of the horticultural staff of the Exposition and Professor Skilling of the San Diego Normal School. The first of this series is here presented.

The Botanical building comprises the great domed lath house and glass house in the rear. The lath house is equipped with overhead pipes and spray nozzles, so that in dry weather a cool mist keeps the ferns and tropical plants in a proper atmosphere.

There are a few survivors of the tree ferns that were shipped from Australia. When they arrived at the nursery about two years ago an onlooker asked what was going to be done with the dead fern logs, for they were ten or twelve feet long and about four to six inches in diameter, dry apparently. Today you may see the survivors, one near the pool in the glass house, and the other in the east wing of the lath house, and all probably will agree that is was worth the time it took to wrap the trunks in a moss, so as to duplicate as nearly as possible the natural conditions of moisture.

The central palm, reaching upward into the dome, is a huge cocos plumosa. Nearby are several aralia papyrifera with their spreading branches and large lobed leaves. It is often called the rice paper tree. The pith of this tree known as rice paper is in layers which are carefully unrolled into narrow sheets. These are used by the Chinese for drawing figures of plants and animals and also for making artificial flowers.

On each side of the east doors stand two ficus pandurata, majestic rubber trees. It has enormous leaves and is a rapid grower. Visitors are generally interested to know that it belongs to the fig family, An easterner was recently overheard telling his friends that this was the kind that grew in the Garden of Eden. One should take a careful look at it when the chance presents itself and see what kind of dress material Eve had to contend with.

A large strelitzia nicolae just at the right of the archway leading to the glass house attracts one’s attention. It appears not unlike a banana tree, but the leaves are not so large and are of a blue tinge. A peculiar spike of blue flowers has given it the name of “bird of paradise.”

Birds Weave Homes

In passing by the bird cages one is interested in the waver birds’ nest. All must wonder at this instinctive knowledge made so apparent as these busy birds skillfully weave perfect little homes.

Around the pool of the glass house are several plants which must be considered. A vine called vitis utilis is twining along the steel beams and its aerial roots reach nearly to the water in the pool. These roots hang so close in some instances as to form a real portier. Also, it will grow out of doors in a southern exposure and do well.

On one of the posts that support the glass roof is hung a large moose horn fern (platycerium grande). There are several elk horn ferns (platycerium alcicorne) nearby. The large perforated leaves belong to a plant named monstera deliciosa, or translated delicious monster. The long, rather heavy aerial roots give it decidedly a tropical look, and the fruit is said to be delicious.

Asparagus myriodadua, from Natal, is an unusual plant, with its white stems and interrupted whorls of green needles. It bends gracefully over the pool and attracts much attention.

Among the many ferns is one lygodium japonicum, or climbing fern. It is a splendid vine to climb about a post in a fern house, and is sure to attract the eye.

Aquatics Commended

An aquatic with finely-cut leaves floats in several of the pools. It has a formidable name, myriophyllum proserpinacoides, or parrot’s feather for short, but grows in spite of it very rapidly from cuttings.

Aquatics is a study by itself, and should be used more in home gardens. An expensive pool is not necessary, several half-barrels will make a pretty showing with certain varieties.

Just a word of explanation as to botanical names which seem hard to remember. If one gets the meaning to hitch the name to, it is much simpler. Take “myriophyllum,” for example: “myrio” means “ten thousand,” literally, “thickly set,” “phyllum” means “leaves,” so the translation is plain, “thickly-set leaves,” which is a noticeable thing about the plant. Take “ficus pandurata,” “Pandurata” means “fiddle shaped: and the leaves really do resemble a violin in shape. Then “streptosolen” means “twisted tube,” “streptos” for “twisted” and “solen” refers to the tube of the corolla.

It is not so hard after all.

February 28, 1915, San Diego Union California Limited will come to California in 29 sections; enormous traffic during low-rate term assured by early rush; rate effective March 1; nearly all travelers routed by way of Los Angeles and San Diego

February 28, 1915, San Diego Union. Indians pay tribute to ocean; Brave flees before booming breakers; denizens of mountain, plain and desert see Blue Pacific.

March, 1915, The California Garden, 7:

At the Exposition, by Miss K. O. Sessions: The broad border of ageratum and lobelia, around the lawn leading to the organ, is fast coming into bloom, when the effect planned for a shaded blue border can be enjoyed.

The white ageratum and white Cherokee in the bed at the south end of the main water pool on the north side of the Prado is looking well and is a pretty and effective planting.

In the front tile terrace of the Seven Southern California Counties, the four beds of chorizema illicifolia around the base of the Japanese fan palm is a gorgeous display. The two beds in the shade look better than the others where the sun fades the flowers. This chorizema will be a valuable addition to our north and east flower beds. The flowers are like rows of little butterflies sitting on fine twigs. In the front of this same building, the group of slender trees with thread-like foliage — casurina teni — is very attractive. At the north side of this building is a group of the casurina equisetifolia — with similar thread-like foliage, but coarser. That group of trees is most effective against the building and the ground is so well covered with the ornamental strawberry.

The garden proper is full of thrifty galdiola, blur larkspur and phlox, all promising early blossoms. The bed of mixed roses has had a pruning and by April and May will make a fine showing of bloom.

The campsidium vines, bright green, very glossy and growing vigorously, are coming into bud and bloom this month. This vine has so many virtues and so few faults — and it is a most useful vine for immediate results — they have been most generously planted everywhere about the buildings and the effect is most satisfactory.

In the Garden of Montezuma, the formal garden near the California Quadrangle, is now showing the low shrub coronella, with its brilliant yellow blossoms in small clusters, also some charming light salmon-colored dimorpotheca, a sort of daisy and an annual from South Africa.

March 1915, Santa Fe Magazine, Vol. 9, No. 4, 25-27. Sidelights on the Panama-California Exposition.

With the arrival of heavy delegations which had delayed western travel until able to find both California expositions open, attendance at the San Diego Exposition has picked up rapidly. On St. Valentine’s Day — the second day of the Chinese New Year’s celebration — the attendance figures brought the total for a month and a half to over 250,000, a daily average of 5,500.

A considerable delegation from the San Diego Exposition, including officials and directors, attended the opening of the Panama-Pacific Exposition at San Francisco on February 20. This was a return of the courtesy of the northern visitors who attended the San Diego opening. Both expositions are exchanging special days at various times in the year.

The annual battleship practice of the Pacific fleet will take place off San Diego during the next three months, forming an important addition to the list of special attractions offered in the vicinity. The cruiser San Diego has been in port, with nine of the torpedo boats of the west coast fleet, and from time to time all other vessels of the fleet will assemble. The harbinger of the annual practice as the U.S. naval tug Iroquois, which steamed into port after nine thousand miles of travel in ten weeks, exclusive of service at towing targets for the maneuvers at Mare Island. The tug is to be used off San Diego for hauling small ships, targets for the marksmen of the battleships at practice. San Diego and its Harbor of the Sun constitute the naval rendezvous for the southwest coast. The sailors and marines are almost constant attendants at the exposition and participate in all parades, with the artillery, cavalry and infantry regularly stationed in Balboa Park and in the vicinity of San Diego. The Mexican border is eighteen miles to the south, and another large camp is maintained near the line.

Thousands of dollars worth of gold ore has been placed on display in the mineral exhibit in the New Mexico Building at the San Diego Exposition. The gold specimens, which took first prize at the Chicago World’s Fair, are included in the display. A number of the ores come from the Pinos Altos district of New Mexico, where, according to the New Mexico Exposition Commission, the richest strike since 1849 has been made. There are also in the exhibit several large blocks of meerschaum from Magellan, New Mexico, where there is located the only commercially operated meerschaum deposit in America.

Company L of the First George Cavalry, known as the Governor’s Light Horse _____ and the crack company of the state’s militia will visit the San Diego Exposition in Ju___, according to word received from officials of the southern commonwealth. More than three hundred men, bring with them horses and equipment, will make the trip in a special ___. Company L has been in existence for more than half a century and is known as one of the most aristocratic organizations of the ___ in the world. The members are direct descendants of the founders of the company.

Fishermen along the coast of southern California are planning to add to the collection of exhibits at the San Diego exposition a shark sucker, known far and wide among sailors as the laziest and most good-for-nothing fish in the seas, and generally recognized as a rare catch. This particular shark sucker was captured by fishermen on the sloop Ask Me, which is in the harbor in San Diego, after a trip along the Mexican coast. Besides being lazy and useless, the shark sucker is the prize trap of the seven seas. By means of a vacuum cap attached to the back of his head, he fastens himself to any moving object and clings there for days and often weeks at a time, calmly loafing along while his unwilling carrier, if a fish, cures piscatorially to the aquatic heavens. The fishermen hope to display the Ask Me’s catch at the great aquarium on the exposition grounds.

Complete in every detail, a 985-pound model of the U.S. S. San Diego, flagship of the Pacific fleet, has been received at the San Diego Exposition and placed in the navy department’s exhibit, The model, which is constructed of wood and steel, is an exact replica of the powerful cruiser, even to having the tiny oars securely lashed to the miniature lifeboats. Two other models of American war vessels also will be placed in the navy department’s display.

March 1, 1915, San Diego Sun, II, 7:3. Today is Saint David’s Day at the Exposition, in honor of the patron saint of Welsh people; a special program has been arranged by Dr. Steward, official organist.

March 1, 1915, San Diego Union, 12:1. Grace Darling, movie princess, danced with Indians; participated in special picture exhibition at Exposition; efforts pleased redmen.

March 2, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2-3. Gleaned on Prado and Isthmus.

March 2, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:4. Colonel D. C. Collier was elected president of the Order of Panama last night to fill vacancy left by the resignation of Theoron H. Tracy.

March 3, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:1. Santa Fe ordered by Railroad Commission to open its new depot within 10 days and to wreck the old station within 30 days.

March 5, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:4-5. Exposition Excursion Number 6: the Wild Flower Field, by R. W. Sumner.

March 6, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:8. Housewarming at the Nevada building tonight.

March 7, 1915, Los Angeles Times, VI, 1:6-7, 2:1-2. Desert Indian tribes feature of Exposition; dances and handiwork of the red men are wonderful sights of the San Diego Fair; Painted Desert of the Santa Fe is work of art and magic; sample of original apartment house, by Mary S. Gulliver.

March 7, 1915, Los Angeles Times, VI, 2:2. Historic battles – Lexington and Concord; Patriots’ Day, Monday, April 19th, the 140th anniversary of the battles of Lexington and Concord.

March 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. Twelve platoons of mounted men from the cavalry camp in Balboa Park turned out yesterday morning at 9 o’clock and were reviewed by Admiral Thomas Benton Howard, commander of the Pacific fleet. The review took place just outside the Exposition grounds on Park Avenue, between Laurel and Upas streets. Admiral Howard and his officers watched the parading cavalrymen from an automobile; details.

March 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:3. Nevada State Building opened.

March 7, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1-3. Gleaned on Prado and Isthmus.

March 8, 1915, San Diego Sun, 3:2. The old Santa Fe station is being wrecked; the task was undertaken at an early hour this morning by the San Diego Wrecking Company; bits of glass from the stained glass windows in the tower are to be distributed by City Agent Hunt as souvenirs.

March 8, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:1. Louisiana Day at Exposition.

March 9, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3. Admiral Dewa, Japanese naval officer, and staff visited the Exposition.

March 9, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:3. D. C. Collier takes up practice in law court.

March 9, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:6-7. Exposition Excursions Number 7: A Walk to the Pepper Grove, by William S. Skilling.

March 9, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:6-7. Gleaned on Prado and Isthmus.

March 10, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:7-8. Exposition Excursions Number 8: Horticultural Work at Exposition, by C. R. Gorton.

March 10, 1915, San Diego Union, 11:1. Notables coming to San Diego Exposition; Railway and University Heads lured by charms of Southland; Governors plan trip; Senators, Congressmen and prominent professional and business men due.

March 10, 1915, San Diego Union, 11:2-3. Gleaned on Prado and Isthmus.

March 10, 1915, San Diego Union, 11:2. Curtis Company head arrives in San Diego; Exposition visited by well-known Easterners.

March 10, 1915, San Diego Union, 11:3. G. A. Davidson, Exposition president, will take vacation.

March 10, 1915, San Diego Union, 11:3. Exposition buildings to be open until six.

March 11, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:5. Judge Puterbaugh ruled city ordinance prohibits jitney buses from stopping in the congested district for a longer time than is necessary to load and unload passengers.

March 11, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:7. Rear Admiral Thomas Benton Howard assumed the rank of full admiral in the U.S. Navy on the afterdeck of the warship Colorado in San Diego harbor at 11:30 this morning.

March 11, 1915, San Diego Union, 14:1-2. Council rules B Street will be closed permanently: D. C. Collier says City should offer encouragement to corporations.

March 12, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 9:1. Arboriculturists will meet at Exposition; plans for beautification of San Diego will be discussed; mayor gives welcome; park building described by system head; Angelenos on program.

March 12, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 9:2-3. Skating carnival on Isthmus will enliven Saturday night; experts to give exhibition.

March 12, 1915, San Diego Union, March 12, 1915, II, 9:2-3. Gleaned on Prado and Isthmus.

March 12, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 9:3. Vermonters pledged to visit Fair in July; special day for natives of Green Mountain State will be held.

March 12, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 9:4. Plan to entertain visitors to Fair suggested; attorney proposes that State Societies of city act as hosts; outings contemplated; system would afford tourists good time at minimum cost.

March 12, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 9:5 Taxpayers favor city hall offer by John D. Spreckels.

March 12, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 9:5. Old Santa Fe Station nearing demolition.

March 13, 1915, San Diego Sun, 3:7-8. Publisher W. C. Bobbs suggested an annual fair to exploit products.

March 13, 1915, San Diego Sun, II, 7:1. Colonel Ed Fletcher announced that the direct highway from San Diego to Yuma by way of El Centro is in use; five or six miles of sand dunes planked; temporary road put through from El Centro and Holtville to Yuma.

March 13, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:4-5. Congressman Kettner brought delegation of congressman to visit Exposition; names given.

March 13, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:6. Taxis to be allowed in Exposition grounds after 6 in the evening if the driver has an annual parking ticket.

March 13, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:6. Governor Hammond of Minnesota asked to visit Fair.

March 14, 1915, Los Angeles Times, VI, 1:4-5. Flowers are features of an exquisite design; San Diego Exposition unique in its way to differentiate from San Francisco Fair; Scientific exhibits delight persons of learning; Story of California, past and present.

March 14, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:2. Princess Tsianina Redfeather, interpreter of Indian songs and descendant of Tecumseh, visited Exposition as guest of Gertrude Gilbert, who was in charge of music at Exposition.

March 14, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:4. Panamans ask to meet at Fair; use of New Mexico Building chapel offered Order.

March 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 8:1-3. Gleaned on Prado and Isthmus.

March 14, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:5-6. Exposition Excursions Number 9: The Maya Monuments, by Irving E. Outcalt.

March 15, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:8. Lincoln Beachey, unfamiliar with monoplane, fell into San Francisco by and drowned.

March 15, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:2. Poet Edwin Markham to speak this afternoon at Exposition.

March 15, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:3. Vice President Marshall, Secretary Lane, and Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt are due at Exposition about March 26.

March 16, 1915, Letter from Mack, Jenney and Tyler, Decorators, New York City, to Board of Park Commissioners: they put reredos, made of polychrome plaster, together for $2,263.03.

March 16, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:6. Wonderland Park and adjacent properties at Ocean Beach were sold at a trustees’ sale today; C. H. Wagner purchased the park and Colonel D. C. Collier purchased the remainder of the properties for the Mission Bay Corporation, composed of creditors of the concern, for $40,000. The Company also took over the Wonderland Park bonds.

March 16, 1915, San Diego Sun, II, 7:3. Promise speed in sheep-shearing contest at the Painted Desert tomorrow afternoon.

March 16, 1915, San Diego Sun, II, 7:4. Local organization to meet in Science of Man building tonight to consider preserving some of the Exposition buildings.

March 17, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:6. James F. Brooks announced at meeting of the League for the Preservation of the Exposition Buildings that he had written to members of house and senate agricultural and military education committees in Washington, DC, regarding establishing a federal institution on Exposition grounds in 1916.

March 17, 1915, San Diego Sun. Saturday – Back County Day, Farm Bureau Day, Kern County and Orange County Day; April 1 set aside for dedication of Nevada building.

March 17, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:6. Federal Use of Exposition site, plan of the League for the Preservation of the Exposition Buildings: James F. Brooks announced that through correspondence with members of the committee on agricultural and military education in both the house and senate at Washington, he had succeeded in interesting them in the matter of establishing a federal institution on the exposition grounds in 1916. . . . A committee of give was appointed to report a plan for permanent organization of the league. Among the speakers were Dr. Hewitt, M. T. Gilmore, Duncan McKinnon, W. W. Whitson, M. L. Ward, L. G. Jones, W. J. Mossholder, H. R. Ricknecker, Mrs. J. E. Jennison, Miss Lee.

March 17, 1915, San Diego Sun, II, 7:1-2. Big time at Exposition; record crowds are due.

March 17, 1915, San Diego Union, 11:1-3.

Gleaned on Prado and Isthmus.

For the evening of Saturday, which is Farm Bureau Day, San Diego County Day, Orange Day, Kern County Day and the second day of the show of the San Diego Floral Association and on which day, it is predicted, all attendance records will be broken, a grand ball has been arranged in the auditorium of the Southern California Counties building.

Arrangements for the ball are not complete, but the of music will be furnished, and the ball is considered a fitting event for a celebration which undoubtedly will bring out thousands of Californians.

Between 1 and 2 p.m. oranges will be given away to callers at the Southern California Counties building, the San Joaquin building, the Kern and Tulare building. H. B. Gurley, secretary of the Southern California Counties commission, expects to give away 4,000 oranges from the Southern California Counties building alone.

A carload of wild flowers gathered by schoolchildren of Kern County will arrive the day before, and visitors at the building will be given bouquets of wild flowers. Many other features have been arranged at county and state buildings, and it is expected that a number of free attractions will be given on the Isthmus during the afternoon and evening.

Because of the many features for Saturday afternoon, the pipe organ recital by Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart will be given at 3:30 instead of 2:30, the regular time.

The San Diego Floral show, given under the auspices of the San Diego Floral Association, beginning Friday at the California Quadrangle will be the best exhibition yet given by the association, claim the members.

There are by far more entries than at other shows and growers from outside the city are sending exhibits. Some of the exhibits are being made by Los Angeles, Pasadena and Imperial Valley growers. Many entries are being made by amateurs for whom there are awards, just as for the professional growers.

To R. Reers Loos belongs the honor of having landed for San Diego and the Panama-California Exposition an excursion of 600 members of the American Insurance Union of Columbus, Ohio, which will come to California in July. According to George W. Hogias, secretary of the organization, the excursionists will come in a special train and will pass an entire day in San Diego.

When Loos heard sometime ago that the organization was to make a trip to the Pacific coast, he immediately got into communication with friends who are members of the society. Through them those who were arranging the route were influenced to include San Diego.

Julius Wangenheim, president of the Bank of Commerce & Trust Company, received a letter yesterday from J. W. Butler, manger of the Texas Bankers’ annual tour in which it was announced that the Texas bankers will be in San Diego June 8. The bankers will come in a special train and it is expected that at least 150 will make the trip on which stops will be made in twelve states and which will last twenty-three days.

Souvenir coins which bear a picture of Uncle Sam on one side and the Panama canal on the other are being manufactured in the Commerce and Industries building at the United States Treasury exhibit. The machine on which they are made is capable of turning out 90 coins per minute.

The design of Uncle Sam was designed by Charles E. Barber of the Philadelphia mint from drawings made by Clifford Berryman, cartoonist of theWashington Star, the man who created the Teddy Bears, James Fitzgerald, is in charge of the press, which has been in operation since 1864. Later presses show no improvement over the one made that early, claim the experts. T. G. Helmerichs, who is in charge of the engraving department, has shown the work of his department at seven expositions. Charles S. Muir is in charge of the exhibit.

In honor of St. Patrick’s Day, Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart will render a special program of Irish music during this pipe organ recital this afternoon. Dean Blake, who has made himself popular with San Diego music lovers, will sing several Irish airs and Irish folk songs.

Residents of Pacific Beach are expected to turn out in large numbers for the celebration of Pacific Beach Day at the Southern California Counties building, March 18. A musical program will be given in the reception room of the Southern California Counties building and refreshments will be served. The hostesses will be Mrs. Thomas Davis, Mrs. F. L. Scripps, Mrs. E. F. Ravenscroft, and Mrs. C. B. Woodward.

John Toogood’s bull is on his way to the Exposition, according to a letter received yesterday.

Toogood’s bull is a freak. HE has migrated across the country with it, leading it from Florida across eight ranges of mountains and three deserts, say the letter. The animals has double shoulders, a double backbone and six legs. The two extra legs grow out of its shoulders, one on each side. One extra hoof is perfectly formed, the other being one-half hoof.

Toogood’s bull is of aristocratic lineage, the parents being prize winning Holstein cattle. Toogood plans to exhibit the freak here.

March 18, 1915, San Diego Sun, II, 9:1. “Exposition charge” by barber was stopped; easterner pacified.

March 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 16:1.

Orange growers to give away fruit at Fair; seven hundred souvenir boxes for one exhibit on way; large shipper active; enormous crowd expected during celebration of important day: Oranges sufficient for 700 souvenir boxes of California’s best oranges are on their way to one exhibit alone at the San Diego Exposition for distribution Saturday, which is California Orange Day. This was yesterday’s announcement by C. D. Boyer, manager of the Sutherland Fruit Company’s display in the Varied Industries building.

Exactly how much fruit the California counties will have for distribution was not known last night, but in all probability it will be far in excess of the regular stock because there will be free distribution in small quantities at the Southern Counties, Sacramento Valley, San Joaquin Valley and Kern and Tulare Counties buildings, but although this will take place only between 1 and 2 p.m., the enormous crowd expected for the many events of the day doubtless will carry away several trainloads of fruit.

March 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 16:2-4. Indians claim sheep-shearing honors; redskins cheer as paleface draws blood; electric machine does double the work of old-fashioned clippers: While Miles A. Cooper, using a sheep-shearing machine of late model, sheared twice as many sheep as Ko-Wa-Ta, the Indian champion, who used the old-fashioned shears in the contest held at the “Painted Desert” yesterday, the Indians claim a victory for the old style for Cooper with his new-fashioned machine, drew blood, it is claimed.

So great was the interest of visitors at the Exposition in the sheep-shearing contest that it was decided to hold another Saturday afternoon between 2 and 3 o’clock.

The wool which was taken from the sheep will be carded by the Indians and made into rugs.

March 18, 1915, San Diego Union, 16:2. Hawaiian parade in streets, plan; Village is now under the management of Ernest Kaai: Saturday, March 20, will see a grand opening of the new order of affairs at the village. A grand parade during the day on the downtown streets of the city, a company of thirty people taking part: Hawaiian girls riding horseback. . . . At the conclusion of these festivities a grand prize would be given. After the downtown parade, Saturday, a similar and larger one will be given around the Fair grounds in the evening, a free concert on the Prado, songs that made Hawaii famous, both old and young taking part.

March 18, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:1.

Exposition exhibit will be copied in Santa Fe; enthusiastic New Mexicans to reproduce handsome state building; excellent site offered; San Diego promised publicity by proposed erection of structure: Of far reaching importance to San Diego was the announcement made yesterday by Col. S. E. Koehler, who is in charge of the New Mexico building on the Exposition grounds, that the legislature of that state has made an appropriation of $30,000 and that $30,000 more would be raised by popular and private subscriptions, for the purpose of reproducing the present building in the city of Santa Fe as a perpetual monument to the enterprise of New Mexico and of the Panama-California Exposition.

“It would seem,” said Koehler last night, “that the state of New Mexico not being content with honoring the memory of the Franciscan fathers and the conquistadors by reproducing the ancient mission on the rock at Acoma in San Diego, had decided to perpetuate the memory of that achievement and thereby bind the two states with something more enduring than sentiment by reproducing the San Diego building in Santa Fe, the capital of the state.

“This temple, when it is erected in the capital, will become a monumental lesson to future generations, a reminder of the glories of the past, and an incentive for the future as well, as part of the state museum.”

In order to discuss plans for the building which will commemorate New Mexico’s participation in the San Diego Exposition and to arrange means for raising the additional $30,000, Hon. Frank Springer, New Mexico’s most distinguished jurist and scientist, is now in the city. He will remain here for several days before returning to New Mexico.

Word was received yesterday that Mrs. L. Bradford Prince of Santa Fe has offered a site on Fort Marcy for the proposed building. The site is said to be an especially suitable one as it resembles the historic rock of Acoma on which stands the venerable mission church after which the Exposition building is modeled. Fort Marcy itself is historic and commands one of the finest views in the world. It is a veritable Acropolis and a wide road on an easy grade leads to the top so that it is less than ten minutes walk from the center of the city.

That the reproduction of the present building in the romantic city of Santa Fe will give this city valuable publicity for many years to come cannot be questioned. Yearly thousands of visitors register in the museum at Santa Fe, which is located at the Palace of the Governors. And when the present display of exhibits is returned to Santa Fe with the announcement that is was part of New Mexico’s exhibit at the Panama-California Exposition, San Diego cannot but profit by the lasting publicity.

March 18, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:4. Duluth man exhibits apples at Exposition; former steel corporation official given credit for developing country: Chester A. Condgon of Duluth, Minn., formerly general counsel for the United States Steel Corporation, who is greatly responsible for the development and growth of the great Yakima valley fruit country, is in San Diego for an indefinite stay.

Some of the apples grown on the Condgon ranch are exhibited at the Northwestern apple exhibit in the food products division of the Varied Industries Building at the Panama-California Exposition. A. E. Smith is in charge of the exhibit and is proud of the showing made.

March 18, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:4. State Senator and Mrs. Aniceto Abeytla of Socorro county, New Mexico, arrived in San Diego yesterday for a week’s visit to the Exposition. . . . It was partly due to his efforts that the state was enabled to be represented by such an imposing building.

March 19, 1915, San Diego Examiner, 2:4-5. Thought the old Santa Fe Station was lovely.

March 19, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:3-4. Monday will be Schumann-Heink Day at Exposition.

March 19, 1915, San Diego Sun, March 19, 1915, 1:5. Fine program at Exposition Saturday, March 21: California Orange Day, Farm Bureau Day, San Diego County Day, Kern County Day, San Diego Floral Association Exhibit.

March 19, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:6-7. Plans are being made for opening of San Diego Stadium.

March 19, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:8.

Appeal is made for city park; more funds needed and commissioners urge passage of amendment No. 8 on Tuesday, March 23; provides a minimum of eight cents and a maximum of 12 cents on a $100 valuation for parks of city, as against a minimum of five cents and a maximum of eight cents now allowed under the charter.

The Park Commission not only has the upkeep of the park outside the exposition grounds on its hands, but now the grounds inside as well. The exposition actually started out about $250,000 in debt, making this necessary. If the Commission had to keep up only that part of the improvements outside the exposition, the amount now allowed for upkeep would suffice.

A couple of years ago, when the amount given the parks was exactly what it is now, only 50 acres were developed.

Today there are 600 acres beautified. More than 1,500,000 shrubs, trees and plants have been planted; some 300,000 of them were planted last year alone. Forty-five acres of lawns have been created and roads throughout the park improved.

About $180,000 has been spent in the beautification of the park grounds.

At present the further development of the 1400-acre park is not contemplated — it is merely desired to keep the park from “going back.”

The Chamber of Commerce today issued a statement endorsing Amendment No. 8. The Chamber declared the park system was one of the city’s greatest assets and said the increased appropriation was absolutely necessary.

March 19, 1915, San Diego Sun, 4:3-6. EDITORIAL supporting public playgrounds in city.

March 19, 1915, San Diego Sun, , II, 11:1-2. Ranchers flocking to city; Back Country Day at Exposition tomorrow.

March 20, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:5, 3:2-4. Back Country Day attracts many to Exposition; free oranges.

March 20, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:2. Hawaiian Village center of attention today; Ernest K. Kaii, “Hawaii’s Music Master” in charge.

March 20, 1915, San Diego Sun, 9:5. Oh, you Montana girls! Welcome to our Fair city.

March 20, 1915, San Diego Sun, 9:6. Fancy dancing at Cristobal tonight when Meiklejohn returns to San Diego with the popular dances.

March 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:1. One day officially set aside as Madame Schumann-Heink Day at Exposition.

March 21, 1915, San Diego Sun, II, 9:6. Fancy dancing at Cristobal tonight.

March 21, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Parks Must be Maintained.

March 21, 1915, San Diego Union, Women’s Section, 8:1-3. Gleaned on Prado and Isthmus.

March 22,1915, San Diego Sun, 1:4-5. About the Candidates: It strikes The Sun that Edwin M. Capps would be the most independent mayor that could be elected from the list before the voters. He went on record today as saying that personalities and a feeling for revenge or anything resembling that would not control him at all. And that is a mighty good stand to take. Add to that Capps’ rugged honesty and experience, and the voters have before them a good candidate.

March 22,1915, San Diego Sun, 1:4-5. Schumann-Heink Day at Exposition; ceremony at Organ Pavilion in afternoon; 6,000 school children to sing “America;” dinner at Cristobal Café in evening.

March 22, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:6. Exposition has its first real fire – “Underground Chinatown” at Isthmus damaged by mysterious blaze at 10:30 a.m. today.

March 22, 1915, San Diego Sun, 14:1. Marston urges vote for Number 8 on the ballot to keep up fine park improvements: Balboa Park is by nature a wonderful piece of ground for the landscape architect, and the climate of Southern California is another great natural gift. To these have been added the skill of artists and gardeners, supported by the boundless enterprise of a people of imagination and devotion. In a few short years a transformation that we scarcely dared to think of has been wrought before us. Verily ‘the desert has rejoiced and blossomed as the rose.’

March 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:4-5. Exposition Excursions No. 10: The Maya Monuments (second paper), by Irving E. Outcalt.

March 22, 1915, San Diego Union, 12:1, 12:1. 17,000 enter Fair in two weekend days, estimate; Tuskegee Institute Quintet gives old plantation melodies.

March 23, 1915, San Diego Sun, 3:3. Colonel D. C. Collier honored in back country; citizens of Ramona tender him luncheon; fine 10-acre park there; Collier brought Paul Thiene, landscape gardener of San Diego Exposition, to Ramona to superintend the work which will do much to make the park attractive..

March 23, 1915, San Diego Sun, 3:4-5. “I love them all,” Schumann-Heink cries as 6,000 children sing for her.

March 23, 1915, San Diego Sun, 3:7-8. Plans for Stadium dedication May 31 are started; Carl Heilbron chairman of committee.

March 23, 1915, San Diego Sun, 6:2. Women greet Exposition visitors; fine reception tomorrow for residents of El Cajon, La Mesa, Bostonia, Encanto and other localities in blue parlor of Southern California Counties Building.

March 23, 1915, San Diego Sun, II, 7:1.

Exposition attendance growing, report; Grant Army of the Republic Day and Federated Societies Day, Saturday, March 27: For the first 21 days in March, they say, the total was 100,238. This is a daily average of 4,776. The best attendance in this period was Saturday when 8,542 passed through the gates.

From March 7 to 13 inclusive the total is announced as 32,552, a daily average of 4,650. From March 14 to 20 inclusive the total was 37,296, making a daily average of 5,328. This is an increase of about 700 in daily average over the March 7 to 13 week.

The combination of G.A.R. Day and the outing of the Federated States’ Society Saturday is expected to turn out another big exposition crowd.

Capt. S. W. Bell, who has charge of the G.A.R. program, has informed the exposition officials that the veterans are taking keen interest in it. The program will comprise organ music, singing and patriotic addresses. Judge E. E. Headee will be one of the speakers. In the singing and music the old songs of ? will be featured.

The veterans will begin their program with a campfire at 1:45 p.m. This will be at the organ rostrum. At this time the assembly will be sounded by a bugler. Tickets have been placed on sale at the San Diego Savings Bank and Brewster Hotel. They are also being sold from 8. a.m. to noon at the G.A.R. Hall, 815 5th Street.

The Federated States’ Society will celebrate with a picnic in the pepper grove. The society’s program will begin at noon.

March 23, 1915, San Diego Union.. D. C. Collier for John Akerman as mayor of San Diego: Louis J. Wilde for John Akerman as mayor of San Diego.

March 23, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:3-8, 2:3-4.

Famous Diva lifts wondrous voice in “America,” Mayor O’Neall awards her honorary citizenship; Hopi Indians give Campfire dance during dinner at Cristobal Cage; Redskin contributes gift; Angelenos present during celebration.

When Duncan MacKinnon, superintendent of San Diego schools, forming a trumpet with his hands and shouting at the top of his voice from the stage of the Spreckels out-of-door pipe organ at the grounds of the Panama-California Exposition announced, “Madame Schumann-Heink will give a free concert for the school children at the Exposition grounds in June,” pandemonium broke loose from the throats of 6,000 lusty-voiced boys and girls, who had gathered to honor the great diva at the first reception of the kind ever held in the city.

With the first tumult of applause which greeted the announcement, Madame Schumann-Heink’s face took on a happy smile. She had been smiling before, but the smile with which she swept the cheering multitude was one of inward happiness — a smile and happiness which came of promising something which would make others happy.

It was Schumann-Heink Day at the Panama-California Exposition and thousands had gathered to help the children do honor to the great singer. The great plaza before the organ was a swaying mass of humanity which crowded itself nearer and nearer the American flag-draped chair upon which she sat. The crowd was estimated at 20,000, and it is believed that this estimate was conservative.

The day’s events were crowded with incidents of human appeal. It seemed that in the presence of the children and the bond of love which exists between them and Madame Schumann-Heink, man understood better his fellow man. It was a happy, joyous occasion, and one never to be forgotten by the children as well as thousands who craned their necks to gain a better view of the honored guest.

Fifty years hence, perhaps, some dignified business man with a shadow of gray over his temples will tell his grandchildren of a time at San Diego, when a little freckled-face lad, Madame Schumann-Heink kissed him in return of the bouquet of California poppies he handed her. And at the same minute, perchance, some motherly woman will tell, when asked for a bed-time story, of how Madame Schumann-Heink kissed her on both cheeks and gently twitched her ear before a vast throng at San Diego, oh, so many years ago!

Probably a but few functions has “America” been sung with more intensity of feeling than at the reception of school children to Madame Schumann-Heink. Accompanied by Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart on the great organ which seemed to quiver with the emotion it seemed to feel, the children sang as though inspired. When they realized that mingling with their volume of song was the great voice of Mme. Schumann-Heink, they were further inspired to a tremendous effort. There were reserved-looking men who knew they could not sing, but they felt bound to make a noise. Guards forgot their duty and joined in the singing, and newsboys forgot their papers in time to come in on “Let freedom ring.”

When, after the singing, President G. A. Davidson stepped forward, there was a silence broken only by the whispering of a gentle breeze through the leaves of the trees. “You have honored us with your presence here,” he said. “We want you to know that the honor you have bestowed on us is appreciated. We thank you for the privilege of making this Schumann-Heink Day at the Panama-California Exposition.

After the few words by President Davidson, Mayor O’Neall presented Madame Schumann-Heink with a scroll which makes her an honorary citizen, the first honor of the kind ever bestowed on any one by the citizens of the city, it is said. Mayor O’Neall expressed his pleasure in representing the people for the occasion and hoped that Madame Schumann-Heink might find happiness here for many years to come.

Dressed in a spring costume of pink, which matched perfectly the basket of sweet peas which she carried, little Ella Norine O’Neall, daughter of Mayor O’Neall, presented the flowers to the singer. Madame Schumann-Heink kissed the little girl and thanked her. Then a younger tot, Edwinna Pearl Clark, representing the school children of Kern county, presented a basket of wild flowers which had been picked by Kern county school children. Little Miss Clark also was kissed for her compliment.

The marine barracks band broke into “The Star Spangled Banner: and again 6,000 school children heard the powerful voice of the diva leading them in song.

After the numbers Superintendent MacKinnon announced that all the children were at liberty to leave the plaza and the grounds if they chose. Not a child moved. They were awaiting something, although they probably did not know what. Then Madame Schumann-Heink whispered something to MacKinnon and he announced the free concert in June. Thousands immediately joined in the cheers of the children. When MacKinnon asked for three cheers for Madame Schumann-Heink, the plaza was a veritable battlefield of noise which echoes and re-echoed from the corners of the buildings on all sides. The return compliment of Madame Schumann-Heink to the children brought them closer to her and hundreds of them refuse to leave their places even after she had left the stage.

With her during the exercises were John D. Spreckels, G. A. Davidson, Mayor O’Neall, Col. J. H. Pendleton, Capt. R. F. Fifenberick, W. B. Gross and Duncan MacKinnon. As she left the stage she took with her the American flag with which her chair had been decorated. When she placed it over her shoulder and graciously posed with the two flower girls as the target for hundreds of cameras, it was the signal for another burst of applause and was but another incident of human interest with which the events of the day had been punctuated.

Perhaps never in the history of the city has there been such a sight as was presented when Cabrillo bridge was lost in the mass of school children which crowded it while on their way to greet Madame Schumann-Heink. The bridge was covered by a solid mass of humanity — youngsters out of school for a new lesson.

As the children passed the California building, they were reviewed by Mme. Schumann-Heink and a party of Exposition officials.

Headed by the Marine Barracks and marching twelve abreast, it took at least fifteen minutes for the parade to pass. They were of all races and of all creeds. But each one knew that Mme. Schumann-Heink was to be at the California building, and each one of them looked toward the front of the building and waved a hand as the singer was recognize.

As soon as the parade had passed, Mme. Schumann-Heink was taken to the Plaza de Panama, where she reviewed the United States marines at their daily drill. She had great praise for the work of the officers and men and heartily congratulated Colonel Pendleton.

At the Southern California Counties building, a reception and tea was given for the party. This was preliminary to the informal dinner last night at the Cristobal Café, which was the final event of Schumann-Heink Day.

The celebration was a great success and the largest crowd, excepting the opening night, of the year took advantage of the opportunity of seeing both Mme. Schumann-Heink and the Exposition.

At the dinner last night Hopi Indians from the Painted Desert gave their campfire dance, which was enthusiastically received. Little Da Don, four years old, and whose name really means “tall tree,” astonished Mme. Schumann-Heink by giving her a silver bracelet. Performers gave several exhibitions of the newest dances, and the guests danced between the exhibitions.

  1. E. Behymer of Los Angeles brought a party of musicians and composers from Los Angeles to attend the reception. Among them, Miss Cora Foy, president of the Los Angeles Women’s Symphony Orchestra; Mrs. W. Hamilton Cline of the music section of the Eboli Club; Mrs. Jonathan Bixy of the Long Beach Eboli Club.

Another conspicuous attendant was Carrie Jacobs Bond, the composer. Others present were: Mr. and Mrs. Hans Schumann-Heink, Miss Marie Schumann-Heink and her fiancee, Mr. Hubert Guy, Mrs. and Mrs. J. D. Spreckels, Mr. and Mrs. Frank Belcher, Jr., Mr. and Mrs. Julius Wangenheim, Mr. and Mrs. H. H. Jones, Mr. and Mrs. George Burnham, Mr. and Mrs. H. Timken, Mayor and Mrs. Charles O’Neall, Mr. and Mrs. Ivor N. Lawson, Mrs. George McKenzie, Mr. William B. Gross, Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart, Miss Gertrude Gilbert, Mr. and Mrs. A. S. Bridges, Mr. and Mrs. C. P. Douglas, Col. and Mrs. J. H. Pendleton, Dr. H. M. Kutchin, Gen. and Mrs. John McClellan, Rear Admiral and Mrs. Uriel Sebree, Mr. and Mrs. Frank Von Tesmar, Dr. and Mrs. H. P. Newman, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Marston, Capt. and Mrs. Frank Spalding, Mr. and Mrs. L. J. Wilde, Dr. and Mrs. F. H. Mead, Mr. and Mrs. E. O. Hodge, W. F. Beardsley, D. M. Barteau, H. O. Davis, C. W. Fox, F. W. Scripps, C. W. Holzwasser, Duncan MacKinnon and others.

March 24, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:6. New plan of city government to be tried out locally; amendment for a “manager of operation” authorized by people in yesterday’s primary election.

March 24, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:6. Amendment No. 8 carried in primary election March 23.

March 24, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:7. Race on between Akerman and Capps for mayor; O’Neill, seeking reelection, ran third.

March 24, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:5. Universal Manufacturing Company to make comedy film at Exposition tomorrow morning.

March 24, 1915, San Diego Union, II (Classified) 1:2-4. Citizens prevent sale of park lands. Beauty and value gradually realized; reproduction of original petition signed by San Diego citizens asking the State Legislature not to repeal the act setting aside certain municipal lands for park and burial purposes.

March 24, 1915, San Diego Union, II (Classified) 1:2-4. Provision for pleasure ground appreciated by champions who brought about conclusive action in State Legislature to preserve tract; compiled from Smythe’s History of San Diego.

March 25, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:4. Vice President Marshall to enter harbor on warship Paul Jones according to telegram from Franklin D. Roosevelt, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, received today; plan subject to change; Marshall and Roosevelt to speak at Exposition Monday.

March 25, 1915, San Diego Sun, 4:3. Miss Hornbuckle, teacher at Lincoln School, writes about Exposition: All Knockers Should Become Boosters.

March 25, 1915, San Diego Sun, 12:1-2. Exposition events keep officials busy at Magic City in park.

March 26, 1915, San Diego Sun, 8:1. Grand Army of the Republic boys to gather at Exposition; great times are planned for tomorrow at Veterans’ campfire at Fair; will assemble at the Organ Pavilion rostrum at 2:30 p.m. and be introduced to Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane; picnic of Federated State Societies in Pepper Grove at 12:30 p.m.

March 26, 1915, San Diego Sun, 8:4. When city tax budget is made up, it will include about $30,000 for city maintenance of streets and grounds at Panama-California Exposition.

March 28, 1915, Los Angeles Times, VI, 1:6-7. New Mexican exhibit rich in traditions; relics of ancient past teach lessons of Indian life and customs; modern Americans permitted glimpses into distant days when Southwest teemed with other peoples; educational conditions reversed in mission which once taught red men of white brothers, by Mary S. Gulliver.

March 28, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:6. D. C. Collier made chairman of general committee to elect John Akerman mayor.

March 29, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:2-3, 3:7-8. Vice-President Thomas R. Marshall honored as great pageant leads way to Exposition gate; stayed at U. S. Grant Hotel; reviewed troops at Plaza de Panama.

March 29, 1915, San Diego Sun, 3:8. Electriquette takes eye of vice president

March 29, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:6. Akerman, candidate for mayor, denies he has slated H. O. Davis or Frank P. Allen, Jr. for city manager.

March 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:1. Vice President and Mrs. Thomas Marshall visited Exposition as representatives of President Woodrow Wilson; the President’s message is “keep peace with world;” Marshall recommends firing line for those favoring war, by William Mountain.

March 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:2-3, 3:3.

Roosevelt says full Atlantic fleet coming to San Diego; U.S. will build two dirigibles, by B. H. K. Morin: San Diego is to receive the Atlantic fleet in its entirety, following its passage through the Panama Canal in July, while the port may also see the establishment of a base for Navy dirigibles according to a statement made last night by Franklin D. Roosevelt, assistant secretary of the Navy.

Roosevelt, looking just as boyish as when he first visited San Diego a year ago, entered the harbor on the torpedo destroyer Paul Jones at sunset last night. Before embarking on the speed boat at San Pedro, the assistant secretary of the navy, accompanied by Livingstone Davis of Boston and Owen Winston of Bernardsville, New York, went for a frolic in the depths of the Pacific as the guests of Lt. G. E. Davis, commander of the submarine K-7.

“It was great,” said Roosevelt as he enthusiastically recounted his experiences in the submersible. “We all got into dungarees and felt perfectly at home for the first time since we left Washington.”

Roosevelt said he never before had the pleasure of making a dive in one of the K boats and the opportunity offered at San Pedro, even though it was Palm Sunday, was too great to resist. For thirty minutes of the hour voyage on K-7, Roosevelt was under water at a depth of more than thirty feet.

Although a choppy sea prevailed yesterday afternoon the Paul Jones plowed through the waves at an eighteen-knot clip. The destroyer hove in sight at 5:45 o’clock and as she swung gracefully past the bunker’s wharf, Admiral T. H. Howard’s steam barge went alongside to take Roosevelt and his friends to the landing near the barge office.

As Roosevelt stepped ashore, he was greeted by President G. Aubrey Davidson of the Exposition; Colonel J. H. Pendleton; Capt. G. H. Lyman, USMC, aide to vice president Thomas Marshall; Lt. D. M. Randall, marine aide to the assistant secretary of the Navy; Capt. Arthur Polilan (?) of the First Cavalry, military aide to the vice president; and Capt. R. P. Rifenerich, military aide to the president of the Panama-California Exposition.

In entering the lobby of the U. S. Grant Hotel, Roosevelt sighted Mr. and Mrs. Vincent Astor. He greeted them both warmly. Later the assistant secretary of the Navy was taken to the armored cruiser Colorado where he dined with the wardroom officers.

In discussing the coming of the Atlantic fleet, Roosevelt declared that unless the exigencies of the service called the vessels to other waters, the armada would come to the Pacific coast early in July. He said that the fleet would not be split, but would call at San Diego in its entirety.

The establishment of a base for dirigibles for which the Navy Department has just asked bids for two of this type of aircraft is still under consideration by the Navy authorities according to Roosevelt. The Department’s attitude will be determined, Roosevelt said, on bids received from American manufacturers of dirigibles.

Mrs. Roosevelt did not make the ocean voyage with her distinguished husband. She came with the other women of the vice-presidential party on the 12:40 train.

March 29, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:4-5. Exposition Excursions No. 11: The Mohave Indians, by John P. Harrington.

March 30, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:1. Both Vice President Marshall and Assistant Secretary of the Navy Roosevelt were delighted with the Exposition and praised it lavishly in speeches at the Exposition late yesterday. Roosevelt said he rejoiced that San Diego is the first port of call for war craft via the canal and predicts the further development of San Diego harbor by the Navy Department. A supply depot for the Navy may be installed here, as reported months ago.

March 30, 1915, San Diego Sun, 7:8. Last call for Exposition tickets; price is $10 and is good for as many admissions as the holder wished until the Exposition closes.

March 30, 1915, San Diego Sun, 14:1-3. Olive Day at Exposition tomorrow.

March 30, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:1-2, 3:1-4. Cheers ring as pageant passes U.S. officials; Marshall and Roosevelt extol marvels of Fair; Vice President declares the exposition is a service to the American people; he says humanity will benefit by the lessons taught; the Navy Secretary rejoices that San Diego is the first home call port for water craft via the Panama Canal.

March 30, 1915, San Diego Union, 2:2-3. Hearts of visitors won by San Diego Exposition: Vice President Marshall” “The San Diego Exposition is Old Spain reproduced on the hills of one of the most beautiful cities in the world. . . . Today I stood in a dream city, and the memory will never fade from my mind.”

Franklin D. Roosevelt: “This Exposition is an Exposition with a soul. It takes one away from the great fairs of maddening crowds. A year ago, on my last visit to San Diego, I walked through this park. The work for your beautiful Exposition was underway. You have transformed wild fields into a garden spot. I have seen many cities and several Expositions, but for beauty the San Diego Exposition surpasses them all.”

March 30, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:4-5. Vice Presidential party guests at brilliant Cristobal dinner; dazzling uniforms and sparkling gowns grace function given by Davidson; Hawaiian songs entertain noted visitors.

March 30, 1915, San Diego Union, 4:4. Mayor astonishes candidates by resignation; both nominees declare O’Neall’s action will handicap successor.

March 30, 1915, San Diego Union, II, 1:4. Navy Department plans to build supply depot; Roosevelt says San Diego will be center of battle practice; shipyard not planned; each militia organization will be lent two dirigibles for drilling.

“When the Atlantic fleets comes to San Diego,” said Roosevelt, “it is in the vicinity of San Diego where the bluejackets and marines will be drilled in landing boats and field pieces through the surf, in pontoon building sub-caliber work, individual and divisional battle practice in seamanship drills, small arm target practice, and in the other duties incident to making the men who man our ships the finest and most efficient sailor men in the world. Here also will be the principal liberty port of the men of the fleet while they are engaged in drill work on the southern drill grounds.”

March 31, 1915, San Diego Sun, 1:5. Boosters plan Exposition trip to San Francisco on April 21, San Diego Day at the northern exposition.

March 31, 1915, San Diego Sun, 3:3. Nevada building to be dedicated Friday, April 2.

March 31, 1915, San Diego Union, 1:5-6.

Irvin S. Cobb, humorist, newspaperman and war correspondent, calls San Diego’s Fair “Little Gem”: “Your exposition,” here Cobb threw off his coat, sat down abruptly and leaned forward, talking earnestly, “Your exposition is talked of all over the east as a little gem; as an exposition that will be a wonderful success, even if it doesn’t make a cent; as a Fair that will bring the admiration of the world to you, not only for your pluck in building it, but because it is an artistic achievement that will make the east, which thinks it has a stranglehold on everything in the art line, sit up and take notice.

“The thing which it me between the eyes when I went up to the Exposition today was that the men who built your Fair have succeeded in creating an atmosphere of restfulness, an air of contentment that is exceedingly welcome to the visitor who comes from a noisy city. To clutch an elusive thing like that and to convert it into building and walks, lines and columns, wood and tower, is one of the most difficult things in architecture — it’s breathing spirit into inanimate objects. The Fair, in addition to being beautiful, is compact. You don’t have to wander all over a hundred and fifty-five acres to see what is there. Maybe that doesn’t mean much to you, but if you will ever get so you sit in your own lap, like I do, you’ll appreciate what a saving it is.”

San Diego Union, March 31, 1915, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Naval Program Here:

Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt’s clear statement of the Navy Department’s plans with reference to San Diego harbor is very gratifying to the people of this city. It is the more satisfactory because it is the first authoritative avowal of the official program for the more extensive use of the harbor for naval purposes. In brief, it is the purpose to establish here a great depot for general storekeepers’ supplies, ammunition and other essentials for the fleet. There will probably be a repair shop also. Warships of all classes, too, will rendezvous here for practice and drills. As a result San Diego during many weeks each year will be crowded with bluejackets and marines on shore leave. In a work, the Department’s plan recognizes this port as the only Southern California one that is suitable for the Navy’s purposes.

Of course, it could be wished that the Assistant Secretary had not negated the idea of a dry dock being established here. However, if the plan for a repair shop should be carried into effect, very possibly the dry dock will be added in time. A repair shop is a good beginning and may grow into a large plant. It any event there is every assurance now that San Diego will soon become a more important port from a naval viewpoint than ever before.

April, 1915, Sunset Magazine, Vol. 34, No. 4, 665-679.

Exposition Gardens — How Landscape Architects at California’s Two Exhibitions Have Kept Pace With Planners of Palaces, Designers of Sculpture and Wizards of Illumination, by Arthur Z. Bradley.

(Data for this article secured from John McLaren, the “father of Golden Gate Park,” Chief of Department of Engineering, Panama-Pacific International Exposition, and Frank P. Allen, Director of Works, Panama-California Exposition.)

Both of the California expositions have opened in the depth of winter. At San Diego, on New Year’s Eve, the pressure of the Presidential finger at Washington let loose upon the Californian midnight a flood of light and noise that proclaimed the advent of a year devoted to the Panama-California Exposition. Celebrants of the event wore no overcoats; the tones of the open-air organ floated upward toward a cloudless moonlit sky; the air was sweet with the breath of blossoming acacias and orange trees. At San Francisco, February 20th, just before noon, a sudden rain brought into instantaneous bloom thousands of umbrellas, black toadstools in a giant’s garden that withered and vanished when on the stroke of noon the warm sun burst upon waving banners and flashing fountains, just then released for almost a year of activity by a second pressure of the President’s finger and a spoken greeting from three thousand miles away. Like scenes in an old-time “Grand Transformation” masses of snowy cumuli drew apart; and against the clear blue of the Californian sky the Tower of Jewels flashed in the sunlight, like vertical beds of flowers drenched with dew. At its foot the South Gardens spread out, a golden carpet of yellow pansies, from whose petals the recent raindrops flashed back their challenge to the radiant tower; beds of blue pansies mirrored the sky; clusters of white callas flecked the edges of the great Lagoon. In the gardens of both expositions, visitors sat in the shade of palms and evergreens which apparently had grown over night, beside walls screened by blossoming vine and shrubs, surrounded by lawns and beds of flowers in bloom.

All these vistas, to eyes that saw the ground a little more than two years ago, are apparently the work of magic. Gardens, which appear to be the result of many years of careful culture, stretch luxuriant where sage-brush and adobe spread at San Diego, sand and sea-water at San Francisco. The art that has wrought this illusion is no less notable than that which has reared dream palaces, decorated them with sculpture, illuminated them with mural paintings and rainbow light.

At San Diego, the canyons and mesa of Balboa Park, a fourteen-hundred-acre reservation around which the city has been rapidly clustering since the tract was set aside for the uses of the future, offered surfaces of adobe soil, packed hard by much sun and little rain and covered by cactus and sage-brush and chaparral with a disconsolate grove of thirsty pepper trees as a faint hint of what three years of exposition gardening was to produce. With the first blast of dynamite, presto-change began. The whole surface soil was blasted to loosen the adobe; where lawns or formal gardens were projected, the soil was plowed and harrowed; water was poured over the ground; the place was ready for the sudden verdure that exposition gardeners must know how to produce.

At San Francisco the problem was entirely different. San Diego needed to get water upon the surface of Balboa Park. San Francisco had not only to get water off the submerged surface at Harbor View but it had to add soil to take its place. First, the water was displaced by pumping, from the bottom of the bay, mud in which no sun-and-air loving plant life could thrive; then the reclaimed area, 200,000 yards of muddy surface, was covered eight inches deep with soil brought from various parts of California. Geological processes were speed up for the sake of the great year, 1915. With spade and spray, pump and plow, the labor of ages was imitated, two modern scientific Edens were created from the void, between the morning and the evening of pre-exposition days.

The topography of the two exposition sites is as different as their soil conditions. At San Diego the visitor crosses upon a seven-arched concrete bridge, 1,000 feet long and 135 feet high, a canyon to match. From this deep arroyo, gentler grooves reach up through its sloping side to the mesa where stands the charming city that is the Exposition. Every canyon slope is thickly dotted with trees and shrubs, most of them brightly flowering. Acacias of different kinds with foliage varying all the way from the darker greens to the green that is almost steel-gray; endless varieties of eucalyptus — blue gum, red gum, ficifolia with its feathery scarlet blossoms; palms of all sorts of plumage; these trees in great family groups, sweep up the slopes toward the glistening walls of New Spain — a wave of shaded green that breaks upon the high mesa in a foam of brilliant floral bordering.

At San Francisco, the Exposition stands upon the level strand of the bay, just inside the Golden Gate, faithful to the idea which animates it. Although two-thirds of the visitors to the Panama-Pacific will enter through the gates on the city side of the grounds, the Exposition has its face set toward the sea, in greeting to the Nations of the West who pass through the Isthmian waterway and to the Nations of the East who cross the twentieth-century ocean, to join and enter through the Golden Fate. Thus, in one sense, the palaces front upon the Marina, an enormous lawn bordering the bay, against whose balustrade the tides of the Pacific rise fresh from the Gate and upon whose green surface hundreds of gray gulls stand solemnly at attention, an aviation corps of welcome at parade rest.

The ground plans are as radically different. At San Diego there are great stretches of plumy hillside crowned by a Spanish city; at San Francisco a vast Oriental palace, composed of eight pavilions connected by huge gardens, lies stretched between the lawn of the Marina on the north and the foliage and flowers of the south gardens. This eight-ply palace is set also between the familiar gaiety of the Joy Zone on the east and the dignified variety of the State and National pavilions on the west, and is flanked immediately by four additional palaces, each an individual structure. At San Diego, the white buildings of the Colonial City face each other upon tree-lined avenues and across blossoming plazas; at San Francisco almost all the exhibit palaces are enclosed by four great avenues from which access to the inner gardens is had through archways and colonnades. At the Exposition of the Silver Gate, the sidewalks on the avenues run under the cool arcades of the vine-hung buildings with beds of shrubs and flowers between them and the street. By the Golden Gate, the walks lie under palm borders or in the open, and lawns stretch from them to the buildings whose severe walls are softened by pyramidal plantings of evergreens with shade-loving flowers below. Panama-California is a place of pergolas and trellised terraces and pepper groves, devices to escape a too eager sun; the Jewel City is an arrangement of mighty pillared screens, backed against the steady breeze through the Gate, facing the arc of the sun, washed with rose and azure and gold, courting warmth.

Yet, naturally enough in their elements, the gardens of both expositions are much alike, for both have been opened and will be closed in midwinter and thus the body of the planting at both is evergreen. Acacia, eucalyptus, palms, cypresses and oranges are the foundation of their green settings. Against this background, bougainvillea, nasturtiums, passion vines and geraniums and climbing roses flaunt their silken flags, and floral rugs of California poppies with all the gaiety of spring bulbs and summer and autumn perennials will be spread in their seasons.

Treatment of these elements, however, differ in the two great gardens. At San Diego the citrus trees are set out as an orchard and have borne fruit under those conditions. The orange trees at San Francisco have been transplanted in full bearing and planted as decorative trees in sheltered courts. The cypress at the southern fair has been used sparingly in planting against the buildings; at the north, one of the most beautiful effects produced comes from the rich green of cypress, fir, spruce and yew against the creamy tone of the travertine walls.

To match the differences in soil, topography and plan, completing the departures which made the two fairs so truly complementary, each has its distinctive gardening features. When the southern exposition wizards descended upon Balboa Park, they looked with optimistic eyes upon the one bit of planting already there, a pathetic grove of peppers, weary with a struggle against drought and neglect. Expert care restored and developed the grove, soft lippia and heather were spread beneath its feathery branches. A cool walk along the edge of the canyon, lined with stone benches, leads to this place of sequestered quiet, intended as a resting place particularly for women and children. At Harbor View, close by the waste of the northern tidelands, stood an old garden bounded by a double cypress hedge and further sheltered by a clump of hardy acacia. Around this garden, the beautiful California Building lifts its tiled roofs and bell-hung Mission towers, while the waves ripple up the smooth beach just beyond. Within the inner hedge is a careful suggestion of the famous “Forbidden Garden” of the Santa Barbara Mission. The stone cistern is three, an ancient pepper tree, the quaint irregular beds, filled with the same kinds of plants which the Franciscan fathers tend in their secret close. No woman may set foot in the Santa Barbara garden, the California Building is in charge of the Women’s Board, which has not retaliated. In the California garden, of which this is the heart, only native California plants are set, among them groups of sequoia, forty-five feet high, madrones and oranges and pepper.

San Diego boasts a tea plantation brought from Ceylon by Sir Thomas Lipton, where some two hundred young tea saplings are growing and bearing and furnishing commercial tea leaves, served in the pavilion in the center of the tiny plantation. San Francisco “points with pride” to the extraordinary exhibit by the National Board of Horticulture of the Netherlands, one which of which is 60,000 bulbs in blossom in the nine-acre exhibit garden adjoining the Palace of Horticulture.

The Panama-Pacific display of vines cannot hope to catch up with the brilliant creepers that already have reached the eaves of the Panama-California palaces and view with the gay draperies that float from the Spanish casements. But where, north or south, is there such a magical hedge as that which makes the Panama-Pacific boundary line gopher-proof against the eager small boy? This wall is a veritable flower-garden on edge, twenty feet high, eight feet thick, and 1,150 feet long, surely second only in wonder to the Great Wall of China. It is made of 7,500 large boxes, closely set with the pink flowered ice plant, covered with chicken wire to confine the soil, and set on edge one above another. Irrigated from above, the plants growing horizontally are actually flowering far better than when set on the ground. It is a great wall of moss, dusted with starry bloom. And yet, effective as this invention is for the purpose of a boundary wall, it rises to the dignity of architecture when employed to represent curving sections of ancient hedge in connection with the exquisite beauty of the Palace of Fine Arts.

In both of California’s official gardens this year, there will be a regular plan of rotation of bloom. San Diego’s opening was marked by the scarlet banners of the poinsettia; San Francisco’s gates opened upon a field of the cloth of gold, a ground-work of yellow pansies, thickly tasseled with daffodils. This early bloom will give way suddenly overnight to the scarlet flames of tulips and azaleas, transplanted in full bloom; then begonias. Summer will see carpets of gay blossoms followed by Autumn’s gorgeous pageant, in bloom but not in leaf — Autumn lingering in the lap of Winter until the gates close upon the Exposition. Much of beauty will persist at San Diego where drought is forever banished from canyon and mesa. At San Francisco only one thing is as yet certain — never again will sea-weed grow where once was an Exposition garden.

San Diego Herald, April 1, 1915, 1:1-2.

Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt accords interview, by C. R. Miller: I had an interview with Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin Roosevelt on the land title situation here and he allowed me thirty minutes of his time. I asked him if there was any truth in the statement which has appeared from time to time in the Spreckels newspapers, which stated that the United States government would buy North Island for two or more millions. Roosevelt said that the government would certainly like to establish some kind of station here, but that the government would not buy North Island at any price while the title was clouded and that it would never consider paying a million or even a half million dollars for a site for a station here.

Mr. Roosevelt said that he was very much interested in the documents which I sent him on the title of North Island and he said that the government would certainly like to establish a permanent aviation station here, and a navy and marine supply base here. “Keep me in touch with your work on this land problem, and write me personally so that your letter will not be stopped by clerks in the department,” said the assistant secretary of the navy.

When I explained to him, that I wanted to get back North Island and offer it to the United States government for uses as a navy and aviation base, Mr. Roosevelt said that such action would very materially aid this city by inducing the government to locate here many things which the high price of land at present prevents. After talking with Mr. Roosevelt, I am more than ever convinced that the greatest boost that could be given to this city would be to get back North Island and give the United States all or any part of it for use as a naval base.

I am convinced that even Mr. Spreckels would profit by such an arrangement as he must make money if this community gets such a government station here.

April 1, 1915, San Diego Herald, 1:1-2. Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin Roosevelt accords interview, by C. R. Miller.

April 1, 1915, San Diego Herald, 1:2. Vice President Marshall remains on U.S. side while party visits Tijuana.

April 1, 1915, San Diego Herald, 1:3. At the Exposition: Four-hundred school teachers of Riverside County will gather at the San Diego Exposition Monday and begin a 5-day session of their annual Institute. . . . Most of the meetings will be held in the Science and Education Building.

April 1, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:3. Madame Naui, Hawaiian Bernardt, here at Hawaiian Village; exponent of the old music of her country.

April 1, 1915, San Diego Sun, 2:8. Booster trip plans ready; Superior Judge W. A. Sloane to give San Diego County address at Panama-Pacific Exposition on San Diego Day, April 21.

April 1,1915, San Diego Sun, 7:1-2. Giuseppe Creatore and his band to come; outdoor festivals planned; engaged for two weeks beginning April 24, with at least two concerts daily; other hours will be occupied by the 13th Artillery Band, 4th Marine Band, Spanish Band of Exposition and other musical organizations; Shakespearean week planned; dances on May Day; rose carnival in early July; today was April Fool’s Day; musical concert arranged for Easter Sunday at Organ Pavilion: People’s Chorus to sing Haydn’s “Creation.”

San Diego Sun, April 2, 1915, 1:8. Nevada building dedicated today.

San Diego Sun, April 2, 1915, 12:3. Stadium plans are discussed; great sport program assured for dedication on May 31.

San Diego Sun, April 3, 1915, 3:4. Days of ’49 to open at Exposition; concession will show some of the life of the mining camp during the California gold rush; gambling games will be operated; there will be a bar and dance hall; patrons “will be able to get something a little stronger than water”; patrons will by 100 bucks in play money for $1 in real money; the bucks will be accepted in payment for anything sold at the attraction.

San Diego Sun, April 3, 1915, 3:4. Nevada building dedicated yesterday by Governor Doyle of Nevada; description of ceremonies.

Los Angeles Times, April 4, 1915, VI, 1:4-5. Peace and quietude of “Dream City,” Vice President Marshall charmed with beauties of Panama-California Exposition; gentle entertainment please, by Mary S. Gulliver.

San Diego Union, April 4, 1915, 1:1. Kansas dedicates state building at Exposition; speech-making and sunflower social feature opening exercises; pioneer woman talks; Glee Club music entertains; agricultural exhibits viewed.

San Diego Union, April 4, 1915, 1:2. American soprano will sing at Fair; Sarame Rainoldi to be heard at Spreckels Organ recital Tuesday.

San Diego Sun, April 5, 1915, 3:1. Soprano Signora Rainoldi to appear at Exposition tomorrow; realistic battle to be staged tomorrow for movie purposes at marine camp; marines will fire many rounds of blank ammunition as they attempt to hold their position against invaders — a company of marines dressed as Filipinos; in the end the Filipinos will be forced to fall back and the U.S. forces will be victorious; scene to be filled by cameramen from Lupin Company; Panama carnival and masquerade outdoor ball to be held at Exposition Saturday night, April 10, on Isthmus; parade downtown Saturday afternoon to acquaint visitors with the character of the celebration.

San Diego Sun, April 6, 1915, 1:6-7. EXTRA! All about that horrible battle right here on the Exposition site: “it was almost as exciting as the real thing.”

San Diego Union, April 6, 1915, 1:3. Councilman H. N. Manney yesterday declared that Capps is unfit to be mayor; candidate proved hot-headed, injudicious and insubordinate in former office.

San Diego Union, April 6, 1915, 3:2-3. Sarame Rainaldi, gifted American soprano, will be heard today at Exposition organ recital.

San Diego Union, April 6, 1915, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Get Out the Akerman Vote.

San Diego Sun, April 7, 1915, 1:7-8. Ed Capps elected mayor.

San Diego Union, April 7, 1915, 1:7-8. Capps elected mayor; wins by 2,453 votes.

San Diego Union, April 7, 1915, 3:2-4. Fair dance pavilion decorations deceive birds; structure to be opened Carnival Night; known up to this time as the “Divided Dime.”

San Diego Union, April 7, 1915. Sarame Rainoldi, dramatic soprano and opera singer, charms hearers at Fair.

San Diego Union, April 7, 1915, II, 1:2-4. Savage Filipinos routed by U.S. troops; Marines saved by brave dash through lines of foe; mimic battle filmed by Lupin Motion Picture Company.

San Diego Sun, April 9, 1915, 2:4-5. Col. Fred Jewell says Capp’s election as mayor was a victory of the people; laughs at “power behind throne” rumors.

San Diego Sun, April 9, 1915, 2:5. Dance Pavilion on Isthmus will be formally opened tomorrow night; 15,000 sq. ft. of space on dance floor; Harry C. Middleton, manager.

Los Angeles Times, April 11, 1915, VI, 1:1-3. Fun on the Isthmus feature of the Fair; the San Diego side-shows give great pleasure to thousands; Indians prove fine drawing card and their quaint ways amuse spectators; wonderful creations of fancy and reproductions of world’s works; noted visitors enjoy every bit of it, by Mary S. Gulliver.

Los Angeles Times, April 11, 1915, VI, 1:3. San Diego Fair is paying well; large attendance and good weather prevail; many organizations throughout country planning to trek West to great expositions; increasing interest shown by tourists; Los Angeles conventions to help.

Los Angeles Times, April 11, 1915, VI, 1:3. The U.S. Treasury Department is operating a miniature mint and engraving and printing bureau at the San Diego Exposition; a coin press is stamping out souvenir pieces at the rate of ninety a minute.

Los Angeles Times, April 11, 1915, VI, 1:6-7, 3:4. Story of man told million years back; wonderful anthropological exhibits collected from all corners of earth give unerring testimony of the origin of the human race and its development to date.

Los Angeles Times, April 11, 1915, VI, 3:5-5. Big things stirring at San Diego Exposition in next few weeks.

San Diego Union, April 11, 1915, 1:3. Exposition President Davidson tells of financial success; profit of $40,000 during first three months.

San Diego Union, April 11, 1915, 4:6-7. Sixty Minutes at the Exposition, by Robert H. Wilson.

San Diego Sun, April 12, 1915, 7:4. State legislators had fine time here; 33 members of Assembly and four senators plus 63 hangers-on.

San Diego Union, April 12, 1915, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Success of the Exposition Assured.

San Diego Sun, April 14, 1915, 1:5-6. This is Vermont Day.

San Diego Sun, April 14, 1915, 3:1. Special train to San Francisco called off; County Board of Supervisors and Chamber of Commerce could not get large enough crowd together.

San Diego Sun, April 14, 1915, 6:2. Kettner reviewed cavalry forces on parade grounds in Balboa Park today, just outside Magic City; Monday, April 19, will be National City Day at Exposition.

San Diego Union, April 14, 1915, 8:1. Governor William C. McDonald coming to Fair from New Mexico; Cavalrymen and Marines will escort visiting executive into Dream City.

San Diego Union, April 14, 1915, 8:1. National City throngs to see fair on National City Day, Monday.

San Diego Union, April 14, 1915, 8:2. Gleaned along Prado and Isthmus.

San Diego Union, April 14, 1915, 8:2. Spirited review of 4 troops of U.S. Cavalry will honor Congressman Kettner this morning.

San Diego Union, April 14, 1915, 8:3. “Rotarian,” organization’s magazine, to give Exposition a boost.

San Diego Union, April 14, 1915, 8:3. Massachusetts fold to meet tomorrow at Fair.

San Diego Union, April 14, 1915, 8:4. Independent Order of Odd Fellows lodge men invited to San Diego Fair; will celebrate 96thanniversary at Exposition.

San Diego Herald, April 15, 1915, 1:1-2. Naval and Marine Base would aid San Diego and how it can be secured, by C. R. Miller.

San Diego Sun, April 15, 1915, 7:1-2. Fine events planned by Exposition heads, April 22 and 23, Iowa and Illinois Days; get-together of visitors and former residents from states; railroad men her April 23; Motor Day, April 24; Jose Antonio Estudillo to be Exposition guest, May 26.

San Diego Union, April 15, 1915, 3:2-4. Jose Guadaloupe Estudillo, only survivor of three men who set aside 1400 acres comprising Balboa Park, will be feted at San Diego Exposition; May 26 has been proposed as his “day.”

San Diego Union, April 15, 1915, 7:2. Vice-President W. E. Hodges, Santa Fe official, lauds Exposition.

San Diego Union, April 15, 1915, 7:3. Kettner reviews cavalry troops; parade ground scene of brilliant mounted action.

San Diego Examiner, April 16, 1915, 6:2-4. The request of the (California Building) commission from the California State Legislature) was for $30,000, $5,000 over the balance due on the structure and $5,000 for the maintenance of the structure for the next two years. The Commission incurred an indebtedness of $25,000 to complete the structure.

San Diego Sun, April 16, 1915, 8:1-2. Special events planned at Fair in May and June.

Los Angeles Times, April 18, 1915, VI, 1:7, 2:6. Dim distances drawn nearer; history of southwest done in a condenser; wonderful reproductions of ancient buildings; Naval exhibit attracting many visitors, by Mary S. Gulliver.

Los Angeles Times, April 18, 1915, VI, 2:6. San Diego Exposition elated over profit of $40,000 for first three months.

Los Angeles Times, April 18, 1915, VI, 2:5. Exposition Notes.

San Diego Union, April 18, 1915, 2:3. Creatore’s Italian band booked at Exposition; direct from Italy.

San Diego Union, April 18, 1915, 10:1-3. Gleaned on Prado and Isthmus.

San Diego Union, April 20, 1915, 2:4. Cavalry troops hold first Fair maneuvers; exposition drill occupies three continuous hours of work; big program Saturday; mounted men will be shown in marching order; many stunts arranged.

San Diego Union, April 20, 1915, 2:2-3. The Expositions Contrasted. (taken from Sunset Magazine)

San Diego Union, April 20, 1915, 2:2-3. Lad, 8, comes to Fair by parcel post (insured) from Utah.

San Diego Union, April 20, 1915, 2:6. Exposition pleases Australian visitors.

San Diego Sun, April 21, 1915, 1:3. San Diego Day at San Francisco Fair; dedication of San Diego County exhibit in the California Building at the Panama-Pacific Exposition; Mrs. Cora G. Carleton and Mrs. Bell Stewart made addresses.

San Diego Sun, April 21, 1915, 5:3-4. Shakespeare pageant at San Diego Exposition on Friday in garden of Indian Arts Building.

San Diego Union, April 21, 1915, 3:2. Day Nursery opened for children under five; playground provided for children over five; an elaborate black has to be filled out by those who leave the children to prevent “mixing up.”

San Diego Union, April 21, 1915, 6:1-3. Gleaned on Prado and Isthmus.

San Diego Union, April 21, 1915, II, 11:5. Fair will present pageant to honor Shakespeare on the broad lawns overhanging Cabrillo Canyon in back of the Fine Arts and Indian Arts buildings.

San Diego Sun, April 22, 1915, 2:5. John Nolen to speak at Exposition convention hall Friday at 3:15 p.m. on “Lessons of the Exposition;” will make suggestions regarding future of Exposition buildings; he is presently developing Sacramento park system.

San Diego Union, April 22, 1915, II, 9:1. Iowans to gather at Exposition today; basket picnic in Pepper Grove scheduled first.

San Diego Union, April 22, 1915, II, 9:2. John Nolen, landscape architect, to lecture at Fair tomorrow in the auditorium of the Public Service Building.

San Diego Union, April 22, 1915, II, 9:5. “AD” men of world will visit San Diego Fair; Los Angeles convention ends May 29, then San Diego; Dr. Hewett gave speech at Ad Club luncheon yesterday.

San Diego Sun, April 23, 1915, 1:3. Automobile caravan leaves Los Angeles for San Diego; 200 cars in line.

San Diego Sun, April 23, 1915, 9:1. New state tax of $12.50 a seat on jitney buses; Senate passed bill yesterday afternoon.

San Diego Sun, April 24, 1915, 17:1-3. Panama-California Exposition is unique among all the world’s fairs of the past and is a credit to all of the great Southland; name should be “The Profitable Exposition Beautiful;” Exposition for everyone; buildings do not constitute the whole stage; grounds are also of importance; an artist comments: “The man who built the exposition was a poet and a dreamer. He knew what Cabrillo saw four centuries ago. He knew the dream of a glorious city in New Spain which Serra had. And that city he has built.””

San Diego Sun, April 24, 1915, 26:1-2. Alhambra Cafeteria described.

San Diego Union, April 24, 1915, 3:3-5. Roses enhance beauty of Balboa Park; fragrant display covers two-acre area near Exposition.

San Diego Union, April 24, 1915, 7:5.

John Nolen, landscape architect, praises San Diego’s park system; congratulates City on preserving Torrey Pines: San Diego is realizing her ambition for a great park system, and Balboa Park, in its present improved condition, is a long step in the right direction. This was the statement made by John Nolen of Cambridge, Massachusetts, one of the foremost landscape architects in the United States, in his lecture given yesterday afternoon in the lecture room of the Public Service building at the Exposition.

Some years ago Nolen drew a scheme for the beautification of San Diego, and many of the improvements made since his last visit were along the lines he designed. He congratulated the city on taking into the park system the Torrey Pines near Del Mar, and suggested that in time to come the proposed waterfront park will be demanded by citizens.

Nolen highly praised Balboa Park. He said the improvement was a logical one, and really the first move in a comprehensive system of public parks which was sure to follow.

Nolen spoke before an audience at the home of George W. Marston last night, pointing out improvements which can be made as the city grows.

San Diego Union, April 24, 1915. Cavalry reader for drill today; troop D to give daring exhibition of mounted gymnastics.

San Diego Union, April 24, 1915, 7:4.

Autoists to rule Exposition today; Creatore’s Band will hold first concert at Fair; Cavalry review scheduled: In honor of the Automobile Club of Southern California, today is Motor Day at the Panama-California Exposition. It is also the second day of the entertainment of the passenger traffic officers, and it is the first day for the engagement of Creatore’s band.

The first review to be held for the public by the U.S. Cavalry will be given at the tractor field at 11 a.m. for the motorists, the railroad men and visitors at the Exposition.

Several hundred motorists arrived in San Diego last night from Los Angeles. They were met at Del Mar by a delegation of San Diego motor enthusiasts and escorted to the city. Today they will be entertained at the Fair. Open house will be kept for them at the Seven Southern California Counties building all day.

Today is the last day of the Iowa-Illinois celebration. All former residents of these states are invited to meet at the Exposition grounds for the renewal of acquaintances. The Iowa picnic was held Thursday, and the Illinois picnic was held yesterday. Today the members of the two societies expect to blend their celebrations into one. Many former residents of both states came to San Diego from Los Angeles and surrounding points to attend the celebrations, but the threatening weather of both days has interfered. It is thought today will be the biggest day for the former Middle Westerners.

As today’s programs teems with good things in the amusement line, it is thought that with fair weather thousands will visit the Exposition. Saturday is, as usual, Children’s Day, in addition, and this fact always brings up the attendance figures.

San Diego Sun, April 25 1915, Special Exposition Edition, 1:1. San Diego has a new word for the world. Exposition City is going ahead with a speed that cannot be beaten. “No other city on the whole glorious Pacific coast offers more chances for sensible, rational, happy living than San Diego can afford.”

San Diego Union, April 25, 1915, 1:4, 2:7. Motorists make merry at Exposition; Dance on Isthmus attracts large throng.

San Diego Union, April 25, 1915, 1:7, 2:4. Cavalry work revelation to crowd.

San Diego Union, April 25, 1915, 3:2-4. San Diegans to honor Bard; Festival program arranged; five typical scenes depicting evolution of drama will be presented by John Lane Connor’s pupils at Fair Friday.

San Diego Union, April 25, 1915, 4:4-5. Exposition Excursions No. 5: Science of Man Exhibits, by Ales Hrdlicka.

San Diego Union, April 25, 1915, 7:1. Creatore’s band unleashes flood of melody; cheers sweep over listening throng as spirited numbers close; Leader’s “antics” shown.

San Diego Union, April 25, 1915, 8:1-3. Gleaned on Prado and Isthmus.

William James Fogarty, representing Thomas Cook and Son, the well-known touring agency, who was at the Exposition yesterday, predicted an overwhelming volume of travel in June and July.

Mayor Mitchell of New York City probably will visit the Panama-California Exposition within two weeks.

George W. Penniman of Mattapan, Massachusetts, who is chief lecturer for the Knights of Pythias, was at the publicity department of the Exposition yesterday to secure pictures.

Employees of the Benson Lumber Company visited the Exposition to familiarize themselves with the Fair so that they can be of service to visitors.

Old and New Hawaii continues to attract thousands of visitors. Under the able directorship of Ernest Kaai, one of the foremost Hawaiian musicians and composers, music is being made a feature.

Los Angeles visitors passed much time at the Pala Gem Mine yesterday. They watched the operation of mining tourmalines, watched them being cut and polished, and set in pins and rings.

The Cristobal Café was the scene of a merry party last night when Los Angeles motorists and railroad men mingled for a good time. Manager Singer has prepared an attractive program.

The ’49 Camp is one of the liveliest places on the Isthmus.

Manager Fesser has inaugurated the serving of tea and a light luncheon on the balcony of the Alhambra cafeteria.

The Panama Canal, one of the largest and most costly of all the attractions on the Isthmus, is being shown before large audiences daily. Manager Harris has installed a number of new features, which makes the show well-worth a second visit.

Clyde H. Osborn, manufacturer of the Osborn electriquette, which is in extensive use at the San Diego Exposition and latterly at the San Francisco Exposition, is going East next month to introduce the motor chair at Atlantic resorts.

The San Diego Natural History Society met at the laboratory of the department of anthropology at the Exposition grounds. After an address by the president, Gen. A. W. Vogdes, Surgeon J. C. Thompson gave a lecture on the natural history of men. . . . At the end of the lecture, attention was called to the necessity for a metropolitan museum association to permanently preserve the treasures that have been assembled in the Science and Man and Indian Arts buildings and in the California Quadrangle.

Odd Fellows’ Day, July 3, promises to be one of the largest fraternal days held at the Fair.

Last of the state buildings to officially join the group at the San Diego Exposition will be that of New Mexico, which will be dedicated May 3. Gov. W. C. McDonald of New Mexico will make a special trip to preside at the exercises. With the governor will be Col. R. W. Twitchell, president of the New Mexico Exposition commission, and J. J. Schuler and Guy A. Reed, members of the commission.

The New Mexico building has been opened since the Exposition threw open its gates, but the formal dedication has been delayed until Gov. McDonald could be here.

“The Hunter’s Paradise” in front of Underground Chinatown on the Isthmus is the Mecca of all sportsmen. The collection of Joe Clark’s, famous trapper of Northern California, is one of the best collections of animals native to the mountains of this state ever seen in California.

“The greatest novelty show in Southern California,” is the way a visitor to Underground Chinatown expressed himself. As one enters the typical Chinese street, with its homes and shops with Chinese inscriptions on the doors, it is easy to imagine he is on one of the streets of the famous Chinatown of San Francisco. A guide accompanies visitors to the depths below and explains the life and habits of the Chinese.

The ’49 Camp continues to draw the larger percentage of visitors to the Exposition. At the present time Arizona Bill is one of the attractions. He has taken up his abode at the camp and will remain indefinitely. This old fighter, miner and trapper can always thrill the visitor with tales of the wild and woolly West. Managers Couden and Miller are ever on the alert for new entertainers.

Situated on the Alameda, is the five-acre tract which for a year and a half the International Harvester Company has been turning into a western Garden of Eden. The exhibit consists of farm equipment, ranging from hay rakes to tractor engines.

Passing through the beautiful building with its modern conveniences, back beyond a citrus orchard already bearing fruit and interspersed with parkways and settees, the visitor comes face to face with a battery of farm power tractors.

Stabled in a shed sixty-feet long ready to be called upon are four oil tractors ranging in size from the little 100-acre type to the huge locomotive of the prairie, capable of hauling as much as thirty ordinary farm horses.

Back of the orchard, a bare tract of land has been left for a demonstration field, and visitors are given the opportunity of seeing plowing, harrowing and other operations performed by these engines.

The management of the exhibit is in the hands of P. M. Price, a rancher and business man of Southern California, who, with his assistant, W. D. Zarley, is ready to demonstrate the machines.

San Diego Union, April 25, 1915, 11:4. May Day Festival program teems with interest; 28 contests scheduled for young athletes of track and field; 500 children to dance; Queen, flower girls, pages and crown bearers will enliven scene; program will be held on the Golden Hill playground.

San Diego Sun, April 27, 1915, 26:1-2. John McLaren, who made Golden Gate Park, praises the grounds of San Diego’s Exposition.

May, 1915, Vol. 9. No. 6, Santa Fe Magazine, 39-42, News Notes From San Diego.

Tours and excursion companies are playing a big part in increasing the attendance at the San Diego Exposition. Some of these companies are operating transcontinental special trains with de-luxe equipment and furnishing every comfort that a traveler would have at home. One of these magnificent trains was run from eastern cities under the auspices of the World’s Fair Company. This company’s schedule of specials will bring one of the trains into San Diego every ten days.

The San Diego Exposition has passed its fourth month with the best profit shown to date, and has broken all records in exposition history by paying expenses with a good margin of profit so early in the year. The success at the gates is attributed in great measure to the fact that the low railway rates from eastern points went into effect on March 1 and immediately released an enormous touring population that refused to travel in the first two months of the year.

With the financial success of the fair now assured, as the bulk of the eastern tourist business is not yet under way, the exposition is planning numerous special events which were delayed in execution until the visiting crowds should warrant the expenditure.

It is also contemplated to start the imposing pageants shortly. Detailed plans for these were prepared months ago, but the schedule was delayed until spring. These are planned in connection with the special days set aside for the states.

A visitor from the back country, sauntering through the San Diego Exposition grounds a few days ago, strolled to the Fourth U.S. Marine camp, which is situated between Canon Cabrillo and Canon Espanol. Just as he stepped through a grove of palm trees, a soldier dashed past him, hotly pursued by a score of half-naked Filipinos waving bolos and yelling with glee. A moment later there was a volley of rifles and back came half the Filipinos with a battalion of marines in chase.

The back country visitor didn’t wait any longer. He dived through the palm trees and would have kept going for a mile had not a stalwart man who used shocking language tripped him up and sat on him. When the rifle fire was ended, the visitor was allowed to get up.

“You darned near ruined the best battle picture I ever go,” said his captor. “Can’t you see that camera there?”

Examination showed a motion picture company (Lubin) at work on a Filipino drama, in which had been enlisted the full battalion of marines, together with the cavalry and artillery from the government posts in San Diego. Even the Filipinos were marines, properly dressed — or undressed — and painted within an inch of their lives. Within limits set by the company director were gathered several thousand persons watching the “battle.”

This is the first film of the sort that has been staged at the exposition. Many comedies have been presented, and the pictorial news companies have made miles of film of the military and naval parades and the visits of Vice-President Marshall, Secretaries Lane and McAdoo, Admirals Howard, Uriu and Dewa and other distinguished visitors. Also, there is a motion picture plant among the amusements of the Isthmus, where films are made daily of the crowds on the Isthmus and visitors [are] also allowed to see the acting of dramas before the lens of the movies camera.

Declaring that the real cause of the European war was the jealousy between the belligerent nations for commercial supremacy and expansion, Irvin Cobb, noted war correspondent, does not see any end for the gigantic struggle until one side is decisively beaten and its resources exhausted. Cobb is a visitor at the San Diego Exposition.

“I came here to drink in the beauties of this great exposition,” said Cobb, who is a daily visitor at the grounds. “As I stand here and look over this wide expanse of beauty and peacefulness, what a striking contrast it makes to what I have just seen on the European battlefields. There all is strife and devastation. Here all is prosperity and happiness. Over on the other side they want to fight it out.”

Cobb declares he is taking a much needed rest, but plans to go back and resume his work in Europe in May. Cobb does not appear to have lost his humorous vein even though he has been associated with an atmosphere conducive to all things excepting comedy. Good nature radiate from every inch of him, and the fact that he has never been accused of being a handsome man he considers quite a joke.

In all probability visitors to the San Diego Exposition in the later summer will have the opportunity of seeing the famous Liberty Bell, which it is planned to take from Philadelphia to the Pacific coast for exhibition at both the San Francisco and San Diego expositions.

Opposition in some quarters, due to feat that the priceless relic from revolutionary days might be injured in transit, has been overcome and the Philadelphia city council has approved the idea, insisting, however, that the trip be made after July 4, when Philadelphia’s annual Independence Day celebration acquires the bell. Most of the patriotic societies feel that the best ends will be advanced by exhibiting the relic to the vast throngs who will be at the exposition during the summer — a patriotic stimulus in a year when patriotism is already inspired by California achievement.

“The Liberty Bell announced the independence of the United States,” remarks President G. A. Davidson. “It is appropriate that it be honored in San Diego, where the history of the Pacific coast of the United States started. Cabrillo, the discoverer, made his first stop here. More than two hundred years later the first permanent settlement on the coast was made, and again San Diego was the place.”

A late announcement from Washington says there will be seventy-nine warships and auxiliaries in the great fleet which is to sail from Hampton Roads through the Panama Canal and on to the San Diego Exposition in July. The fleet will include nine divisions of battleships.

Probably a score of fighting craft now in Pacific waters and working out of San Diego, as the southern base, will join the armada down the coast, although it is possible some of these will be detached for other duty in the east during the absence of the main fleet from the eastern seaboard.

American Review of Reviews, May, 1915, Vol. 51, No. 5, 587-590. The Fair at San Diego, by Bensel Smythe.

San Diego, California, six years ago decided to stake her future on a single throw — her Exposition. Many of her own citizens thought it a foolhardy proposition. Almost everybody outside of the little city regarded it as preposterous.

Nature had planned a great city on the shores of San Diego Bay, “the first Port of Call in God’s country,” if the world only knew it. San Diego was determined that the world should know it.

The dominant idea seized for the Panama-California Exposition was a complete Spanish city to suit the traditions and architecture of Southern California. The site chosen was a 1400-acre park in the city’s heart, overlooking sea and mountains, business and residential districts. And San Diego proceeded in the following years to create an Exposition so entirely unique, and of such surpassing beauty as utterly to confound criticism.

Now is the dream of six years ago come true. The San Diego memorial to the opening of the Panama Canal is no longer a project: it is a “going enterprise.” And like any other great new business concern, Uncle Sam is curious to learn how it is succeeding.

The REVIEW OF REVIEWS is the first magazine to publish the story of the San Diego Exposition, “three months after the opening day.” Throughout the West, and even in San Diego itself, the common report has been that the attendance is very meager, and that the enterprise is losing money every day.

These are the facts, up to April third; and they have never before been made public:


The Exposition, as a business concern, lost $3,000 in its first month, January. In February it made $13,000 above its entire operating cost. In the month of March it made a net profit of $24,467.97. The receipts for March amounted to $64,439.28; the expenses were $39,971.31.

The operating expenses at the start were fixed to care for a larger attendance than so far has been experienced. Expenses were materially reduced during the second month. The average daily expense during March and April is fixed at $1,250.

The San Diego Exposition is an $8,000,000 business concern. The city bonded itself for $3,000,000, and through State and additional municipal and individual aid another $2,000,000 was raised. The value of the exhibits is approximately $3,000,000. The ground occupied by the Exposition itself, 614 acres, is in the midst of a magnificently developed 1400-acre park owned by the city.


The complete attendance figures for the three months were also give the REVIEW OF REVIEWS, from the auditor’s books. They are: January, 180,270; February, 133,168; March, 153,042. The average daily attendance the last two weeks in March was between 5,400 and 5,500. The average for the first week in April was approximately 6,000. These records show that the number of people visiting the Exposition is steadily increasing with the growth of the year.

The Exposition is today on a money-making basis. It is conducted on strict business lines by a very able group of business men. There is reason to believe that it will pay a good dividend on its stock at the end of the year. This statement of facts will be a surprise to California at least.


Americans who have read much about California history, but who have not seen California, imagine it to be a land dominated by the old Spanish Mission style of architecture, with Spanish crosses and Mission cloisters and arches peeping out from dense orange and lemon groves on every hand. The State has them all, although they do not dominate the landscape.

But for the people from all parts of the land who go to see San Diego’s Exposition, it is their ideal visualized. There the fairy Spanish city is a reality. Old courts and patios abound. Stately towers reach into the restful blue of California skies. A carefully trained wilderness of tropical plants delights the eyes. It is a sweet and restful land, where “castles in Spain” seem realities; a land in which to “loaf and invite your soul.”

The Exposition contains ten main exhibit buildings, and everything about them is true Spanish-Colonial in design. For sheer beauty of natural and architectural effects, this Exposition is probably the most delightful and satisfying spot in America today. The landscape gardening surpasses that of any other Exposition, and is as nearly perfect as nature and man can make it. From the grounds, one of the world’s most beautiful views is commanded.


The one weak spot for San Diego is the exhibits. There were not enough exhibits available in the world this year to satisfy the ambitions of two great Expositions holding forth at the same time in the same State. San Diego has many varied and marvelous things to show, but it is in no sense a “world’s fair.” It is, however, the most complete presentation of what California and the southwestern part of this country have done and are doing that has ever been made. The history of the politics, science, and soil development of the Southwest is here in vivid form. Nine-tenths of the total exhibit space is now fully occupied. Probably the most interesting single feature is the ten-acre model ranch, started in the grounds four years ago. We see that and e all wish we had just such a little ranch in California somewhere.


It is safe to tell the many thousands of people in the East and Middle West who plan to come to the Pacific Coast during the summer and fall that they will be well pleased with the way San Diego treats them. They can afford to spend four or five days there. Between two and three days at least should be spent at the Exposition. A day should be set aside for rest, as exposition-seeing is hard work. Another day can be used in viewing San Diego itself and her very attractive surrounding country.

When the tourist reaches Los Angeles, which is the gateway to San Diego, he may take the trip the rest of the way either by rail or by water. The train reaches San Diego in three hours and a half, and it is a delightful five hours’ ride on the sea.

A careful investigation has determined that San Diego hotels and apartment-houses are not attempting to “hold up” the tourist. They have signed an agreement with the Exposition to charge regular winter rates, which are about one-third higher than summer rates, but are by no means excessive. Restaurants and cafeterias (the latter a great California institution) have not raised prices one cent. The cafeterias furnish good fare at very moderate prices.

The street-car service to the Exposition is first-class in every respect. People are carried to the grounds direct from every section of the city. The service is supplemented by the new “Jitney” auto buses, several hundred of which are operating.

A man and wife in average circumstances can live very well in San Diego for one week, go to the Exposition every day and spend a little money o its “Isthmus” for between $35 and $50. And so much more as they desire.

So far this season the travel to the Exposition has been largely composed of the “private car” and “stateroom” class. The two largest and most expensive hotels have been full every day. The railway yards have been well filled with private cars and special trains have been quite a regular feature.

With the close of schools and the beginning of summer vacations, it is expected the rush of the great American middle class to California will begin. It is probable that many people from the States of Utah, Arizona and New Mexico, and from Southern California will spend their vacations in San Diego.

The city is not crowded. There is plenty of room, and plenty or really comfortable room, for all who will come, and there is every indication that the Exposition will have a successful attendance throughout the summer.

For a city of some 70,000 people, San Diego has done one of the biggest and most wonderful things in the history of American cities. Her Exposition would be a distinct achievement for a world-metropolis.

California Garden, May, 1915, 5-6.

Monthly Excursion Through Exposition Grounds, by R. W. Sumner.

The “Matilija Poppy,” Romneya coulteri, will be Queen of the May in Southern California Counties garden this month. Its large white crepe petals, draped gracefully about the golden center and the tall stately stems with artistically-cut leaves lend to the Queenly effect. Besides, it is native to San Diego County and responds to the care of the cultivated plant.

Nearby stands a group of Cryptomeria japonica“Japanese cedar.” The cones are just forming and look more like leaf buds than seed containers now, but later will develop into little cones. This trees is like our “Giant Redwood,” Sequoia gegantia, in form and leafy habit, but a sequoia would never have cones at such a young age, also the Sequoia cone is about the size of a hen’s egg.

Over near the building and close to a group of Wigandia macrophylla, which is plant of many leaves and blue-spike flowers, is a specimen of Pharmium tenax, “New Zealand flax.” It is now sending up tall flower spikes. The leaves, however, are the interesting part as in them is a fiber of great economic value. The Decoration Day Lily — which is only an Easter Lily that has not been forced into early bloom — will soon be blooming by the hundreds.

In front of the Botanical Building are eight bowl-like vases containing small plants of Coprosma bauriana, the glossy, petaled shrub that is so much used against porch and house fronts. Get on your tiptoes and take a close look at them. They are in flower, and it will take sharp eyes to discover them because of their green color. The staminate or pollen-bearing flowers grow on one plant and the pistilate or seed-bearing flowers on another. It will be worth your time to hunt them up, for both are in evidence, in compact heads. They are good examples of dioecius flowers. Between these bowls and the door grows a wide border of Sally heterophylla, a slow-growing vine. Its simple little blue bells are worth noticing. The water lilies and bog plants . . . are well on their way to a gorgeous display. The Eichornia, or “Water Hyacinth,” has not had the necessary warm weather to bring the blue in sight, but May ought to accomplish it. On the outer sides of these beds, next to the lawn, is a low hedge of Crataeus crenulata, a narrow-leafed Hawthorne. At the moment it is a compact mass of half-cracked, open, little buds as are the other Hawthornes about the grounds. Next fall they should show a splendid array of berries.

Now step into the lath house. On the east side of Cocos plumosa that towers into the dome, you will find a modest little plant with variegated leaves, creeping stems and a stalk of peculiarly shaped flowers. The long petals hang like the ends of a ribbon bow. The three upper ones are delicately dotted and blotched. Saxafraga sarmentosa is its name. Back in the glass house, along the steel beams, one of the show vines of the conservatory is climbing. It is Stigmaphyllum ciliatum because of the ciliate or hear-like teeth on the margin of the leaves. The yellow flowers are numerous and have been blooming for some time, the buds promising flowers for a long time yet. The delicate structure of these flowers have won for them the name “Poor Man’s Orchid.”

The two kinds of Myoporum spoken of last month just behind the Botanical Building are in bloom. They are rather insignificant, but interesting. The blooming period is short.

At the head of Palm Canyon, reached by following the path running between the formal garden and the Santa Clara-Alameda Counties Building, is a small patch of Messembryanthemum geminatum, a small-leafed ice plant. It makes a good ground cover and has not the coarse look of the larger-leafed sort. About fifty feet or so below the path, there is a small group of Melianthus major, or “Honey Flower.” The tall red spikes are still in bloom and are distinctly contrasted by the large, deeply-cut, glaucus-colored leaves.

A little further along the path in the direction of the Kern-Tulare Counties Building are some Melaleuca hypericifolia with its red, bottle-brush flowers breaking into bloom. The species hypericifolia means Hypericum-like leaves, as it resembles one kind of Hypericum, with the leaves evenly set in two ranks.

Nearby is a Duranta plumieri, the yellow berries still intact and clusters of buds ready to break into dainty little blue flowers.

Further, on the right-hand side of the path, is a Ligustrum macrophyllum, or large-leafed “Privet.” If signs count for anything, it should show a mass of white before you read this.

Nearby is another large “New Zealand Flax,” that you can examine more closely that the one mentioned before.

Between the Foreign Arts Building and the San Joaquin Counties Building is a little corner of shrubbery that will soon show a patch of gaudy yellow. It is Hypericum moserianum, or Saint John’s Wort.

Nearby is a ground cover of “Rock,” Cistus monspeliensis, but they are bloomed and gone. A Melaleuca ericifolia stands near the iron grating. Its small Erica-like leaves give it the species name. The flowers are small, dull-red bottle brushes, quite a different flower from its cousin Callistemon rigidus and the Melaleuca hybrids that will soon be coming in at the Laurel Street entrance.

The Gladioli are making a fine display in many parts of the grounds. The light scarlet is “Mrs. Francis King.” “America” is a large light pink and “Baron J. Hulot” is a deep purple. “Chicago White” is another. Some bulbs are planted across the path on the east side of the Botanical Building which when they come into bloom the last part of May or the first of June will cause visitors to exclaim. They areIsmene Calathina, or “Peruvian Daffodil.”

The wild flower field north of the California Building invites inspection. Just now a cultivated form of Gila androsacea is head-and-shoulders above the rest. Several kings of satiny Godetias might bright spots here and there.

As you walk along the canyon path parallel to the Prado but north of the buildings, you will see many kinds of perennials and annuals. “Sweet William,” or Dianthus barbatas, is especially plentiful. Dianthus coriophyllus is another from which our carnations originally came. Columbines, Gaillardias, Foxglove, CorcopsisSwainsonias, Hydrangias, blue, white and yellow Marguerites, and last, but not least, a splendid little bed of Pansies. These and many others cheer the way of the wise man who takes this canyon trail. People are learning to use it more than formerly. It is worth it. Try it and you will see why.

San Diego Sun, May 1, 1915, 8:3. San Diego Exposition will get $25,000 from the state to make up the deficit in the California Building; house passed bill 49-18.

San Diego Union, May 1, 1915, 16:1-2. Hundreds to try for trademark parade prizes; special awards promised by many firms in San Diego; Committees announced; Carnival costumes will feature merry night at Exposition; Ad Club big-doings all day Saturday, May 22.

San Diego Union, May 1, 1915, 15:16:2. Creatore’s band attracts throngs; threatening weather fails to deter crowds from attending concerts.

Los Angeles Times, May 2, 1915, VI, 1:7, 2:3-4. Western land of resources; states of the Rockies show wonderful products; richness of mines and crops astound visitors; San Diego Exposition hold diversified exhibits, by Mary S. Gulliver.

San Diego Union, May 2, 1915, 4:4. $25,000 appropriation for California Building at Fair.

San Diego Union, May 2, 1915, 4:4-5.

Exposition Excursions No. 13: The Evolution of Man, by Ales Hrdlicka, U.S. National Museum.

San Diego Union, May 2, 1915, 10:1-3. Gleaned on Prado and Isthmus: Napoleon Duval, a famous French clown, will give an exhibition of his skill at the French game of Diabolo at the California Quadrangle next Saturday afternoon at 5 p.m.

Duval promises to throw the Diabolo spool as high as the California tower and catch it on its downward trip on a piece of string. He challenges baseball players to duplicate his stunt with a baseball.

The French entertainer has traveled all over the world and has shown his games of skill before thousands of people. His feat was recognized by Exposition officials as fine entertainment for visitors and he was immediately engaged.

Missouri Day, Thursday, will be celebrated by hundreds of residents and ex-residents of the “show me” state. It is estimated that there are nearly 2,000 ex-residents of Missouri in San Diego.

The big feature of the celebration will come at night when an old-fashioned country barn dance will be given at the Exposition dancing pavilion. Manager Middleton has arranged for straw, pitchforks and wagons and other relics of Missouri barns to be used as decorations. Guests will come dressed in overalls and calico.

New dances will be barred, at least early in the evening, for the older Missouri folk want to give the old-time Missouri country dances. The Paul Jones, Virginia Reel, Rye Waltz, Money Musk and others are to be shown. Manager Middleton has arranged for a fiddler’s contest. He has also arranged for a prize for the largest family on the grounds.

Governor Major of Missouri, who is at San Francisco, will be invited to come to San Diego for the celebration of Missouri Day and officers of the Missouri Society have assurances he will accept.

Mrs. L. B. Hague of Ventura will act as hostess at the Seven Southern California Counties building during May. Mrs. F. C. Martin of Riverside, who was hostess during April, has presided over many brilliant society events during the month. The receptions, teas and musicals have been greatly enjoyed by visitors. Mrs. Martin has by her ability as a hostess brought up the average attendance at the building and she was highly complimented on her success yesterday when she turned over the duties to the Ventura woman.

Dr. William Forgo, editor of Forgo’s Guides and attached to Town Topics of New York, arrived yesterday and passed a short time at the Exposition preliminary to a more prolonged visit today. He was here in December and was so much impressed by the beauty of San Diego, Coronado and the Exposition that he devoted extensive space in the California Guide to the Southland.

“The first edition is exhausted,” said Dr. Forgo, “and I am making some important revisions. Many people are coming to San Diego and there is an admirable opportunity to build up a good fall and winter business among the wealthier people who will continue to pass their summers at Eastern resorts, postponing the Western tours until the arrival of cool weather.

“You will be glad to know that there is a flood of favorable comment on the San Diego Exposition, to which Vice President Marshall has added his aid, telling of the charm and loveliness of the Panama-California Exposition as contrasted with the larger display at San Francisco. Incidentally, I am using his observations in next week’s issue of Town Topics.”

  1. O. Merriman, principal of the boy’s school in Cleveland, Ohio, sent to the Exposition a few weeks ago for information and lantern slides for his lecture work in the East. Two weeks later, delighted at the pictorial description, he wrote that he was organizing a tour. Yesterday another letter arrived, still more enthusiastic.

“In arranging our party,” he wrote, “I found they had allowed too little time in San Diego. I put up a big kick, took some of the northern time off and transferred it to San Diego, so don’t give yourself any uneasiness. We will certainly do San Diego and do it right, as I realize there is no finer climate in the world and my party will find more enjoyment there than at any of the other stops. I trust I will be able to shake hands with you on several occasions about July 1.”

Dr. Maria Montessori, world famous for her work as an educator, now passing most of her time away from Rome in lecture work and supervising changes in educational activities, will arrive in San Diego at 1:10 today for a short stay, probably only through tomorrow morning.

This visit is preliminary to the educator’s protracted stay scheduled for the San Diego Exposition at which she is expected to be one of the principal figures in the summer school, July 5-August 8, general plans for which were announced a few days ago.

On arrival from Los Angeles, Dr. Montessori will be met by Duncan McKinnon, superintendent of schools, and probably several Exposition officials and escorted to the grounds for the afternoon in order that she may look over the facilities for conducting her educational campaign for children in the courses of the summer school. She will, also, obtain her first detailed information of the Exposition Beautiful in its general aspects.

Employees of the Weidon (?) planing mill visited the Exposition yesterday. There were about 100 in the party. In the morning the delegation inspected the four educational buildings and heard an explanation on their architecture and their exhibits by Dr. Edgar L. Hewett. In the afternoon the party visited the rest of the Exposition and enjoyed the Isthmus entertainment last night

Parties from Frye and Smith and the Citrus Soap Company were at the Exposition in the afternoon. There were about forty employees from the two firms. These met at the California Building and were taken on a lecture tour of the building by Dr. Edgar L. Hewett.

These excursions of employees of local firms are being arranged by the secretary of the commercial organizations of the city and are for the purpose of giving store and mercantile help a correct knowledge of the Exposition so that the employees will be in a position to discuss the Exposition intelligently with visitors.

The largest single delegation that will visit the San Diego Exposition this summer will be the Loyal Order of Moose, which will come to San Diego 30,000 strong for a week’s convention beginning July 17. This convention will call here several governors, senators, congressmen and men of high rank in national life. Vice President Marshall, who is a member of the order, is likely to be here.

During the week’s convention the visitors will be kept on the go. A large fund for their entertainment has been raised. At the convention practically every Moose lodge in the country will be represented and many of these have already secured their hotel accommodations. Governor Johnson of California, who is a member of the order, is one of the well-known men who is scheduled to make an address.

Children have come into their own at the San Diego Exposition, and children’s activities now play an important part in the holiday events. And for tired mothers, there is a boon in the form of the “creche” or outdoor nursery operated by the Women’s Board, where babies are checked for an hour or two or for all day.

Joseph Blackshaw of San Diego, son of a physician who was strong in his appeal for a model baby checking station, was the first registered. He was followed by a battalion of babies under five, all of whom are turned loose on Los Jardines del Eucalyptus and allowed to romp until they get ready to take a nap in one of the portable houses which serve as shelters. The older children can remain in the creche if they wish, or, if they show an adventurous spirit, they are taken by nurses through the main exhibit buildings while their parents are elsewhere on the grounds.

“I like you better than mamma,” observed a youngster from Illinois as his new nurse was helping him chase Doolies (?) across the lawn. He was prejudiced because his nurse had taken him to the Indian Arts Building and showed him the red men from Arizona weaving rugs and shaping pottery and let him listen to the tom-tom which a musically-inclined red man was pounding.

No chances are taken of a mix-up of babies. When they are registered, the attendants make careful notations of age, color of eyes and hair, condition of teeth, and special markings. The creche is called the most complete on the Pacific coast.

Manager Scott of the “Hunter’s Retreat” says that all the animals in his famous collection are right at home in the brand of San Diego weather we have been having the past few days. These animals were all trapped in snow-capped Sierra Nevada mountains where hail and rain are the rule instead of the exception. This collection of Joe Clark’s continues to attract the sportsman as well as the ladies who are admirers of beautiful furs.

Arizona Bill of the ’49 Camp will be on hand tomorrow to welcome Gov. McDonald of New Mexico, as he carries a letter of introduction from Gov. Hunt of Arizona, who speaks of him in the highest terms.

Several Chinamen in Underground Chinatown were nearly drowned the past week while asleep in their bunks, but were rescued and are back in their accustomed haunts.

Situated a short distance to the north of the Southern Counties building on the Alameda, which at that point branches off from the Prado, is the five-acre demonstration tract and exhibition building dedicated to the American farmer by the International Harvester interests.

There, after a year and one-half of constant effort, have been assembled those modern types of farm machines which have done so much during the past decades toward changing the economic status of the world’s farmers. Here, in one place, is presented the greatest opportunity ever given the people of the West to see a complete array of farm machines and engines for power purposes.

Whether interested in agriculture or manufacturing, no visitor to San Diego can afford to miss seeing the power appliances shown there by the Harvester people. Power users are given demonstrations of power outfits from the little one-horse engines which run the washing machines and pump water to the huge 50 horsepower oil outfits capable of running entire electric light plants or entire water systems.

Falling in with the idea early advanced by the officials of the San Diego Exposition, the Harvester Company undertook to explain the purpose and scope of its machines not so much by the customary indoor display as by outdoor demonstration. With this end in view, it developed and brought into bearing a citrus orchard. A battery of four oil-driven tractors do plowing, harrowing and cultivating of the demonstration tract left for that purpose. A smaller orchard tractor can be seen hauling a manure spreader, disking the orchard, and hauling in and out between the rows a spraying outfit driven by a smaller engine. An irrigation engine is raising water by the aid of a centrifugal pump, and a practical demonstration of orchard irrigation takes place before the eyes of every visitor.

Apart from the field work, a 50 horsepower oil engine is in constant operation furnishing the light and power to run a compressed air plant and the electric motors attached to the various machines, just as it would be called upon to do in lighting a town or running a factory.

Each machine on display is not only in motion, but many are further equipped with glass parts and electric lights, so that all working mechanisms may be seen performing their various duties even better than if they were at work in the actual field.

To anyone not familiar with present-day farm equipment, the ingenious contrivances brought together in this five-acre tract will be a revelation. Even those who were born and brought up on the farm will be amazed at their scope and completeness. The exhibit as a whole is a marvelous tribune to the efficiency of the American farmer, who relying entirely upon the superiority of his equipment is able to compete in raising crops with the cent-a-day laborers of Indian, the renter of Argentina, and the peasant of Siberia.

All matters pertaining to general farming and orchard raising will be lengthily explained and demonstrated by P. M. Price, manager of the exhibit, whom all Southern Californians will know as a successful rancher and businessman. He is assisted by W. D. Zarley, an experienced farm machine demonstrator.

Park Commissioners, Minutes, May 3, 1915. Stadium accepted from contractors, subject to completion of stipulated work.

San Diego Union, May 3, 1915, 1:2, 3:3. Montessori class planned; founder of system sees Fair; $1,000 voted for building.

San Diego Union, May 3, 1915, 2:2-5, 4:4-7. New Mexicans arrive for dedication of state building; Order of Panama to confer honorary memberships upon executive and two other members of party; music program arranged; military escort.

San Diego Union, May 3, 1915, 2:6. Sunshine draws joyous crowd to Exposition; concert lures throngs; Creatore promises two band programs today and tonight.

San Diego Union, May 3, 1915, 3:4. “Show Me” State folk to frolic at Exposition; Governor Major will address crowd in Pepper Grove; many prizes promised; fiddler’s contest; old time and modern dances on long program.

San Diego Union, May 3, 1915, II, 9:1. Mary Pickford, movie queen, wins hearts of tots everywhere; making of picture “The Girl of Yesterday” brings her to San Diego.

San Diego Union, May 3, 1915, II, 9:2. Miss Claudia Albright, grand opera contralto, to sing at dedication of New Mexico building; Spanish songs on program.

San Diego Union, May 3, 1915, II, 9:4. Old Spanish Days to be revived at Exposition; troupe of Castilian musicians and dancers will open engagement today; patios and plazas to ring with melodies of Spain.

San Diego Union, May 3, 1915, 14:1. Portrait of Christ by Darius Cobb exhibited at Exposition lecture hall; masterpiece required 30 years to produce; Rev. D. Hill Crother, Worcester, Massachusetts, to deliver address prior to unveiling.

Los Angeles Times, May 4, 1915, II, 8:6-7. New Mexico state affair; Governor and notables hold dedication exercises; April returns good profits to Exposition; more tourists are fleeced by Bunco artists.

San Diego Sun, May 4, 1915, 1:2. San Diego will have a new city hall, built in the Mission Style of architecture, with an open patio and courtyard in the center, and situated at 6th and Date Streets in the park if plans advocated today by council members are carried out; room for police station and jail as well.

San Diego Union, May 4, 1915, 3:2-5. New Mexico building dedicated by Governor W. C .McDonald.

San Diego Union, May 4, 1915, 6:6. Senoritas dance to airs of Old Spain; their lithe forms sway in unison with mandolin at Exposition.

San Diego Union, May 5, 1915, 1:3. Spanish entertainers take Fair by storm; troubadours vie with Cristobal band for honors.

San Diego Union, May 6, 1915, 2:5. Tea given at Fair Women’s Headquarters for Anne Morgan, daughter of the late J. Pierpont Morgan.

San Diego Union, May 6, 1915, 5:1. Firemen quench blaze in kitchen of restaurant on second floor of Varied Industries Building at 2:30 a.m.

Park Commissioners, Minutes, May 7, 1915. Street Department authorized to use Redwood grade between 18th Street and Upas Avenue because of unsafe condition on 30th Street bridge; Superintendent instructed to place signs on the west side of Balboa Park directing the public to the rose garden.

San Diego Sun, May 7, 1915, 9:1. Australian Boys’ Band will begin a 9-day engagement tomorrow.

San Diego Sun, May 7, 1915, 9:5. Tomorrow enlisted men of the 4th Regiment, U.S. Marine Corps, and First Cavalry, stationed at the Exposition, and four companies of Coast Artillery at Fort Rosecrans will engage in an athletic meet on the parade grounds at the Marine barracks in the Exposition.

San Diego Union, May 7, 1915, 3:2-6. Charles M. Schwad, steel king, visits Exposition.

San Diego Union, May 8, 1915, 6:1-2. Daring army riders to thrill Exposition spectators today; wall-scaling, monkey-drill, centipede race and other contests will feature military service athletics on Fair grounds.

San Diego Union, May 8, 1915, 6:2. United Daughters of the Confederacy delegates visitors at Fair; Southland airs given on Organ pleases organization’s members.

San Diego Union, May 8, 1915, 6:4 San Franciscans coming to Fair for the celebration of San Francisco Day on May 15.

Los Angeles Sunday Times, May 9, 1915, VI-1. Music and romance add color to Fair; Spanish singers and dancers give fantastic details to streets of Exposition; Miss Anne Morgan delighted with quaint touch of old Castile; keen interest of tourists in new feature, by Mary S. Gulliver.

Los Angeles Sunday Times, May 9, 1915, VI-5. Summer School at Exposition; special course to include teachers of renown.

Los Angeles Sunday Times, May 9, 1915, VI-5. Federation of Women’s Clubs to meet Tuesday at San Diego Fair.

Los Angeles Sunday Times, May 9, 1915, VI-5. Plan for Odd Fellows’ day, July 3.

San Diego Union, May 9, 1915, 2:2. May Day festival at Golden Hill playground at 28th Street yesterday.

San Diego Union, May 9, 1915, 3:1-2. Cavalry captures honors in service field meet.

San Diego Union, May 9, 1915, 3:1-6. Exposition receives publicity at home and abroad through Pan-American Union bulletin.

San Diego Union, May 9, 1915, 6:1-3. Gleaned on Prado and Isthmus:

In a communication from John B. Creighton, secretary to President Lewis H. Pounds of the borough of Brooklyn, New York, it was announced that June 26 had been set aside as the official day of the Panama-California Exposition for Brooklyn people. . . . President Pounds predicts a large attendance of Brooklyn people at the Fair on that day.

The little troupe of Spanish troubadours engaged at the Exposition finished their first week of service yesterday under the most favorable conditions. . . . Mme. Ann Dare, who manages the Spaniards, was jubilant.

“Why even the peacocks came out to hear the singing,” she said. “We went into Los Jardines de Montezuma to rest and while a couple of boys were playing and the senoritas humming a song of Seville, a pair of the birds strutted around the pergola. The male looked for a moment, and then, with a few shakes of his head, spread his great tail and promenaded up and down the path as long as the music lasted. Incidentally, some of the observers said they had never before seen the peacocks display their tails. Usually they are meek.”

The usual Invitation to the Dance was presented in the Plaza de Panama at 1 p.m., and, coupled with the approaching concert by the Australian band, drew a large crowd. At the end of the little drama, a woman approached the singers.

“I’ve seen you following us every day this week,” said Mme. Dare. “Are you Spanish too?”

“Me,” laughed the visitor, “but I was just coming up to introduce myself as a great admirer of your troupe. To be perfectly candid, I had been on the grounds only once a week ago. I’ve now been here seven times. In other words, I haven’t missing a chance to take in this beautiful addition to the Spanish city. It completes the picture.”

Edmund T. Perking of Chicago, president of the American Reclamation Federation and a leader in irrigation councils, prolonged his three-day stay in San Diego long enough to take in yesterday’s drama by the troubadours. Mrs. Perkins divided her attention between the troubadours and the pigeons which she soon had surrounding her.

“The Fair is beautiful,” she said. “We will remember the Spanish singers longer than anything else on the grounds.”

A vast pilgrimage of students, teachers and educational experts will invade the San Diego Exposition for attendance at the Exposition’s summer school to be held from July 5 to August 13. This promises to be without equal in the history of the progress of education, for the faculty will include some of the most remarkable authorities on education. Standing high in this set is Dr. Maria Montessori of Rome, founder of the famed system of teaching of this name. Dr. Montessori will assume charge of the Montessori Institute to be established during this session.

Among the courses will be history and geography of South America, Spanish grammar and literature, modern history and the peace movement, modern literature, culture history, American archaeology, anthropology, vocational education and direction, mental and physical testing with laboratory work, manual training and primitive arts with demonstrations by Indian workers, and agriculture with demonstration. There will be special lectures on peace and conciliation, modern education, human welfare, and arts and science.

To popularize the summer school the Exposition directors have fixed the unusually low fee of $7.50 for the term, which will include admission to the Exposition. Among the educators who will be in the faculty are Dr. J. C. Thompson, surgeon of the U.S. Navy; Dr. Edgar L. Hewett, director of the School of American Archaeology; Percy Alvin Martin, Ph. D., assistant professor of history, Stanford University; Dean W. F. Riles of the State Normal School, San Diego; Miriam F. Besley; William T. Skilling and Maria Goodard, in addition to special lecturers.

The remarkable ethnological exhibit of the Smithsonian Institution, the ancient and modern Indian display, the commercial representation, and the unprecedented agricultural and horticultural displays, crowning the work in architecture, equip the San Diego Exposition with extraordinary facilities for study. Practically all, moreover, is permanent, this being almost unique in world’s fair achievement.

That the dance pavilion on the Isthmus is fast becoming the most popular terpsichorean palace in Southern California is evidenced by the throngs that graced the dance floor the past week. San Diego’s newest and finest dance palace, with its excellent dance music and floor, is nightly the scene of merry parties who trip the light fantastic until a late hour. Many box parties were given at the pavilion during the week. Dancing from the loges is a form of entertaining that is becoming a fad with the patrons.

The “Old Folk’s Night,” given by Manager Middleton on Thursday, brought out the largest mid-week crowd of the present season. An old-fashioned “barn” or “country dance” in which the popular “square dances” were a feature met with instantaneous approval of patrons and the appearance on the floor of old couples, some past three score years and ten, was the occasion of great applause as the old folks went through the dances and quadrilles to the music of old-time fiddlers. The dancers were costumed in the garb of “farm hands” and “rural maidens.” Spectators and dancers enjoyed the evening. Every Tuesday night in the future will be designated “Rube Night” and the old folks will be given an opportunity to participate in the old-time dances with modern dances for the young folks.

Tuesday night, May 11, the Missouri State Society will hold an old-time country dance in the pavilion, being a feature of Missouri Day, which was postponed from last Thursday.

Every Thursday night hereafter will be known as “Society Night,” and admission will be by invitation only. Modern dances will be indulged n on this evening. Box parties have been arranged for the first of these dansants to be held next Thursday night.

For a year and one-half the International Harvester interests extended every effort to make their five-acre tract at the Panama-California Exposition typify the world-wide magnitude of the harvester activities. Every visitor at the Exposition should make it a point to grasp the greatest opportunity ever given the people of the West to see such an array of farm machines and oil engines for newer uses.

The Harvester Building and demonstration tract is located a short distance north of the Southern California Counties building, where the Alameda branches from the Prado. In this one exhibition are grouped the many modern farming machines which a man who has the desire to purchase land or to farm would be interested in.

Back of the commodious Mission building, which contains their indoor exhibit, is a citrus orchard, which should appeal to Fair visitors interested in fruit growing. This orchard has reached the bearing stage. As one goes through it, he sees how an up-to-date orchard should be irrigated and how the best orchardists utilize oil engines in running their spraying outfits. He sees a tractor hauling the spraying outfit from tree to tree, hauling the spreader, and doing all the cultivating.

In addition to this, every man — whether farmer or factory owner — will find it to his advantage to inspect the power plants in operation there, suitable for small or large factory purposes, running electric light plants or town water works.

Merchants, farmers, carpenters — all enterprises in fact — requiring speedy and economical power delivery systems, will find there the 1,000 pound and 15,000 pound motor trucks which have become so familiar in Southern California.

The substitution of kerosene and gasoline power for horses is one of the industrial evolutions which will make the beginning of the 20thcentury epochal in the advancement of the world. What the warring nations in Europe discovered as a necessity in the business of war, American merchants and farmers are discovering in the interests of commerce. Motor truck users in the towns, tractor users on the farm, and oil engine users in general have proved that mechanical power gives them a decided advantage in competition. Everywhere a practical application of this economic tendency is taking root, and because of this, the comprehensive exhibit along these lines which the Harvester people installed as part of their contribution to the Exposition should not be missed by a single visitor to the Exposition.

The exhibit is in charge of P. M. Price, assisted by W. D. Zarley. Mr. Price has had a wide experience in agricultural and orchard work under Southern California conditions and will be pleased to demonstrate the varied farm activities exemplified there. Mr. Zarley, who has had a world-wide experience in connection with farm machines, also places his time at the disposal of visitors.

Among the interesting specimens to be seen in “The Hunter’s Paradise” is a fine specimen of the wolverine. These animals never live in captivity, as they commit suicide rather than live behind bars. Trapper Joe Clark had a desperate fight capturing this animal. One of the most beautiful sights in the collection is a blanket made from the breasts of 52 bobcats.

The ’49 Camp has added to its attractiveness by a number of potted palms and ferns in front of the camp and around the refreshment garden inside. On Thursday, a Special Night, the camp did a tremendous business and the games of chance were freely patronized.

San Diego Union, May 9, 1915, 9:1. Australian band pleases Fair audience; boy musicians worthy successor to Creatore’s organization; stirring numbers today; “The Armada,” honoring visit of U.S. Fleet will open concert.

San Diego Union, May 10, 1915, 2:1. Mme. Anna Pavlowa, Russian dancer, given tea in parlors of Women’s Headquarters; she praises the Exposition.

San Diego Union, May 10, 1915, 2:2. Coast Artillery Band, V. F. Safranek, director, to play at Exposition today.

San Diego Union, May 10, 1915, 2:3. Ellen Beach Yaw is San Diego visitor; California nightingale arrives for stay in City of Sun.

San Diego Union, May 10, 1915, 2:3. Australian Boys’ Band popular; two concerts will be given today at Plaza de Panama.

San Diego Union, May 10, 1915, 2:2. Music program attracts throng; more than thousand persons hear People’s Chorus at Fair

San Diego Union, May 11, 1915, 3:3. Governor Elliott W. Major of Missouri recalls “Old Missouri Days.”

San Diego Union, May 12, 1915, San Diego Union, 3:2. & May 13, 1915, 2:2-3. Commercial Commissioners of China visit Exposition.

San Diego Union, May 13, 1915, 1:3. Maryland Governor Goldsborough and party visit Exposition.

San Diego Sun, May 14, 1915, 1:5-6. City Attorney Cosgrove will not interfere with operation of Camp of ’49 at Exposition; complaints received about dancing, beer drinking and gambling for script.

San Diego Sun, May 14, 1915, 9:1. Junior auto races at Exposition grounds, Saturday and Sunday, May 29 and 30; course one, two miles in length; commences on Isthmus, runs north around Indian Village, back by fire station and Cristobal Café, and on to the Isthmus again.

San Diego Union, May 14, 1915, 16:4. Article in Review of Reviews declares the Exposition is paying.

San Diego Sun, May 15, 1915, 1:4. Flower fete is given; dance of flowers; parade; spring rose show; model of dreadnought North Dakota unveiled at U.S. Navy exhibit in Commerce and Industries Building.

Los Angeles Times, May 16, 1915, II, 8:6-7. Los Angeles as the guest of San Diego; Saturday will be “our” day; Chamber of Commerce will run special train.

Los Angeles Times, May 16, 1915, VI, 1:4. Celebrities flock to San Diego Fair; week of festivity and exchange of good wishes on San Francisco Day; citizens extend personal hospitality; school children help entertain; women give breakfasts and informal receptions, by Mary S. Gulliver.

San Diego, May 15:

The past week was a gala one at the Panama-California Exposition. Celebrities were entertained, not singly but in bunches, special entertainment for them followed in dizzy succession and boosters from different sections of the State celebrated as only Californians can.

And with all the entertaining and festivity, it was the personal note in the hospitality extended by the San Diego Exposition which appealed to the visitors more than any other one thing and which will linger long in their memories.

This particular brand of hospitality, the whole-heated, sunny hospitality of the South and West appeals mightily to the visitor, especially to the tourist from a large eastern city to whom the cordiality of the westerner is a constant marvel.

  1. Aubrey Davidson, the big, quiet-mannered president and his charming wife, personally greet thousands of visitors at the teas of the exposition and often may be seen personally conducting visitors over the fair.

At the afternoon teas in the beautiful rooms of the women’s headquarters, which have become an institution of the fair, visitors meet informally as the guests of the Women’s Official Board of the Exposition. You are made to feel that instead of being a mere sightseer at the fair, you are an honored guest.

Women of the exposition board, headed by Mrs. Ivor N. Lawson and Mrs. George McKenzie, graciously serve you with a cup of tea and introduce you as if in their own homes.

It is not the exposition officials alone, however, who extend this charming hospitality, but the private citizen of San Diego as well. They are all eager to make the stay of the visitors pleasant. One of the most interesting of these self-appointed hosts is San Diego’s ninety-seven-year-old young man, O. J. Stough. Probably no one in San Diego is enjoying the exposition year as much as he, or is so proud of the exposition.

Mr. Stough never fails to go to the Grant Hotel each day, where he makes himself acquainted with some visitor or visitors, and either takes them about the city and the exposition, or puts his car at their disposal. When the New Mexico Building was dedicated, this youthful nonagenarian was a loyal New Mexican. Monday, Missouri Day, he was just as loyal to Missouri, and was busy piloting Missourians about, while Wednesday he was a Marylander, and as one of the escorts of Gov. Goldsborough, he enthusiastically walked about the grounds and would not deign to ride an electriquette.

Next to the personal touch of the hospitality of the entertainment of this gala week, the most distinctive feature was the nature of special events, all of which were out-of-door affairs, because especially appropriate in this sunny climate and the beautiful gardens of the exposition.

Among the noted guests of the week were Gov. Major of Missouri, Gov. Goldsborough of Maryland, Mlle. Anne Pavlowa, the great dancer; Mrs. Percy V. Pennypacker, the national president of the Federation of Women’s Clubs of America; Mayor Rolf of San Francisco, and the commercial commissioners of the Republic of China, including some of the most distinguished men of that country. Riverside, San Bernardino and San Francisco each celebrated special days and sent large crowds of boosters and a number of fraternal organizations attended in bodies.

The crowds seemed to absorb the hospitable spirit of the exposition and mingled in their sightseeing more as if attending a great reunion than “doing” and exposition. One couldn’t be ceremonious or exclusive in a crowd like that.

An instance of this was a snapshot taken of Gov. Goldsborough. The Governor was riding along with his little son in an electriquette, escorted by his staff and President Davidson. “Oh, please wait a minute,” said a woman, and ran breathlessly after the wheeled chair. The Governor obligingly stopped the tiny machine and curious bystanders wondered if she were asking for a pardon for someone or if she were a long-lost friend. But she merely pointed a Kodak at the party and at her request the Governor wheeled the chair into a better position for light for the snap.

“Now, wasn’t that just too lovely,” said the lady as she returned to her waiting husband, “to get the Governor and his staff that way.”

In honor of Mrs. Pennybacker, national head of the women’s clubs, the San Diego county clubwomen gave a wonderful English breakfast in the Pepper Grove of the exposition grounds. Yellow poppies and marigolds on the tables, set under the trees, carried out the idea of spring and, as the guests ate, a troop of little girls, dressed in white, appeared from under the trees, singing folk songs and dancing to their own music.

In the evening an epoch dance program was given on the stage of the big outdoor Organ by young women. Dances of the Egyptian epoch, the Roman muses, a Pompeiian dance, and a French ballet were given by girls appropriately costumed, and with the Organ Pavilion as a background, the program was exquisite.

The Rose Festival today, which was also the occasion of the visit of Mayor Rolph and was San Francisco Day, was the crowning out-of-door event of the week. A gorgeous display of roses was opened in the Plaza de California at noon. A little later the floral parade wended its way down the Prado. The electriquettes, used at the exposition for conveying people about the streets of the fair, were utilized as the foundation of the tiny floats. Many of these miniature floats were entered by State and county buildings and were decorated in the flowers of that particular section. Washington’s float was beautiful in a mass of rhododendrons and other States used other flowers, peculiar to those States.

Next came the doll-baby section. Little girls wheeled their doll carriages, in which reposed the elaborately-dressed dolls, and the carriages were decorated in flowers. Each little girl decorated her own doll perambulator. Then followed a go-cart division and gaily-decked go-carts, wheeled by proud mothers, bore the babies. Each baby brought a round of applause as his or her go-cart appeared.

A comic section, one of the entry conditions of which was that the entry must be human propelled, followed this, and then an entry by the Navy Department. This was a big Navy Bliss torpedo, decorated with roses and propelled on trucks by twelve bluejackets from the U.S.S. Colorado. A large field gun, decorated, was also in the Navy entry.

The parade proceeded to the Plaza de Los Estados, where the entries formed a hollow square and a floral dance festival was given by children. Spanish, Dutch, toe dances and other characteristic solo dances were given by little girls and young women. Classic dances were given by the young women and a pretty woodland dance, “The Forest Spirits,” by 160 girls in Greek costume, closed the program.

After this the children and spectators engaged in a battle of flowers and the spectacle was one long to be remembered. In the evening there was a Flower Girl Carnival on the Isthmus. Hundreds of young women, representing different flowers in their costumes and decorated with flowers, formed this parade which was extremely beautiful. There were California poppies, Tiger lilies, roses, modest forget-me-nots, and almost every flower known was cleverly reproduced by the girls of the pageant.

Instead of confetti, people pelted each other with flowers and soon the Isthmus was carpeted with the blossoms, an appropriate conclusion to a delightful and distinctively Southern California fete.

San Diego Union, May 16, 1915, 1:4-5, 2:3-4. Spring Flower Day festival and pageant triumph yesterday afternoon; children’s flower dance captivates; spring rose show opens festival at Exposition with public as judges; motion picture cameramen kept busy.

San Diego Union, May 16, 1915, 2:1-2.

Exposition Excursions No. 14: Man’s Evolution, by James W. Wilkinson, professor of Biology, State Normal School, San Diego: To fully appreciate the importance of the exhibit in the Science of Man building one must bring with him a lively imagination and attempt to visualize the conditions under which primitive man must have struggled. As you go in at the east end from the plaza, you encounter two rows of busts made under scientific direction by skilled artists to represent the fossil findings plus the imagination of trained specialists in the fields of paleontology and anthropology. The first two busts represent forms scarcely yet human. They have passed the arboreal period, have assumed the upright position and are developing mind through the use of hands. They can make rude tools for protection and the killing of game, and the most cunning are the most likely to survive and hand on to succeeding generations their metal superiority.

The Heidelberg man is possibly the first true human. He has made the wonderfully educative discovery of the power of speech, the ability to transmit the beginnings of ideas to others of his kind. This discovery, doubtless, made possible primitive forms of cooperation that insured greater safety and hence greater likelihood of survival and transmission of increasing metal superiority. The care of the child (see bust of La Quina woman) and the feeling of interdependence must have developed some glimmering sense of moral responsibility and vague conceptions of right and wrong. The discovery of fire must have given a wonderful mental stimulus, and the first conception of life after death must have been a soul-stirring experience! Who had the first dream and succeeded in making his friend understand the experience? The idea of a spirit world must have sprung from that. And the dreamer became the priest, clothed with authority, giving confident explanation of the deepest mysteries.

In the glass cases along the north and south walls, we see casts of skulls and other parts of the skeleton, representing the findings from which the busts were constructed. On the walls are pictures of the places where the more important findings were made, also charts to aid one in tracing man’s relationship to the other primates. In the second room one comes upon a series of plaster casts arranged in rows to show comparisons of the Indian and Negro with the white man at different stages in their development. We should expect to find the infants showing more points of resemblance than the adults. Along the north wall is a case with many plaster casts of brains of primates, and interesting comparative study for one who will take the trouble to look up the structure of vertebrate brains. Even to the novice, the common plan of structure is perfectly evident. In another case, along the west wall, one will find a series of skulls showing development from infancy to maturity. The Mammalian brain developed from the lower ____ type and it is interesting to see the relatively long and low skull of the infant contrasted with the high and shorter skull of the adult, a good illustration of the recapitulation theory.

This exhibit presents evidence supporting the theory of evolution from only one field and from a very limited portion of that field, the study of the past history of man as recorded in the rocks. The record written in stone affords enough evidence of the evolution of all plant and animal life from the beginning as a single cell, to convince the most skeptical.

But the evidence is not found in one field alone. It is the consistency of the evidence as found in three separate fields of investigation that really settles the question. Comparative anatomy is a fruitful field of study. Here one sees similarities of structure in animals that give more than a hint of relationship. We can compare the skeletons of vertebrates and give a more reasonable explanation of the common plan of structure than that the more complex skeletons have evolved from the simpler ones? The two pairs of fins of the fish are homologous with the arms and legs of man. The bones of the skull of the ape are homologous with the corresponding bones of the skull of man.

A third field is the study of development. Life started on earth as a single cell. Every animal and every plant starts life as a single cell. Every individual repeats the history of its creation. In the study of the embryo, startling discoveries are made. All mammals show gill slits and a fish circulation at early stages of their development, man included. The frog lives through a wonderful metamorphosis telling a plain story of its development through fish and salamander forms up to its more highly specialized structure. It goes through a stage showing external gills like the mud puppy, with four legs and a tail. It is a fascinating field of study.

There is no logical escape from the conviction of the unity of all life and the theory of descent by the processes of evolution. The inevitable result of the spread of the doctrine of evolution will be that man will strive more and more to control the forces of nature and make them work for his lasting welfare. There will be an enlightened program favoring courageously the survival of the fittest human beings and the gradual development of a sturdy public opinion that will refuse to tolerate industrial and social conditions that tend toward the debasement and deterioration of the race. Protoplasm will be held sacred only in so far as it gives promise of a worthy spiritual expression.

San Diego Union, May 18, 1915, 1:4. New Jersey Governor James F. Fielder and party visit Exposition.

San Diego Union, May 18, 1915, 8:3. South Dakota girl unveils model of dreadnought North Dakota at U.S. Navy exhibit in Commerce and Industries Building.

San Diego Union, May 18, 1915, Classified, 9:2-3. Exposition grand, lack punch, says Dick Ferris, who aspired to be president of Tijuana: “The only thing lacking at the Magic City on the Hill was the punch. But it’s grand for the high brows.”

San Diego Herald, May 20, 1915, 1:5-6. At the Exposition.

San Diego Union, May 20, 1915: 2:2-3. Liberty Bell coming to Fair.

San Diego Examiner, May 21, 1915, 1:6-7. Fate of California State Building is problematical; failure to appropriate money for maintenance cause of puzzle: The structure is in the position of a building owned by the state, representing a liberal investment on the part of San Diego citizens, occupying municipal territory, under the control of the park board.

Los Angeles Times, May 23, 1915, I, 11:3-4. Angelenos Boosters Capture San Diego; special train brought a Chamber of Commerce party; luncheon in the patio of the Southern California Counties Building, reception in the blue room of the building, and a ball in the California Building in the evening.

Los Angeles Times, May 23, 1915, VI, 1:6-7. Fairyland interiors at San Diego’s Fair; Japanese art and handiwork exhibited in pleasing features from the Cherry Blossom Kingdom; wonderful vases and carvings shown in a bewildering array; skillful adaptations from all nations, by Mary S. Gulliver.

San Diego, May 22.

In our enthusiasm over the wonderful landscape gardening and the picturesque architecture of the San Diego exposition, we sometimes forget the interior of the great buildings and the excellent exhibits there. But though the exposition is small and the directors did not strive to compete with former expositions in scope, as this is largely a California fair, the various buildings contain much of unusual interest and of educational value.

There are no exhibits made by the foreign governments, but there is a splendid exhibit of Japanese art and handiwork in the Foreign and Domestic Arts Building. The Japan Exhibit Association, a branch of the Kyosan-Kai Company, a powerful commercial organization which represents the leading manufacturers and art collectors of Japan has placed the exhibit.

There are rare collections of Satsuma, Cloisonnes, tapestries and wonderfully-carved teakwood cabinets, screens and other antiques. It is a delight to see the rare works of art in the collections, but it is even more interesting to study the progress and cleverness of the Japanese in appropriating for themselves and perfecting the arts of other nations.

The exhibitors have not laid as much stress upon the ancient art as upon the modern Japanese work and the exhibit constantly tells this story of Japanese ingenuity in adopting and perfecting the arts and sciences of other nations. The commercial organization itself, which was formed purely to place exhibits of Japanese and Chinese works of art in expositions, is an example of their progressiveness.


There is a collection of cultured pearls and as interesting as the exquisite jewels seem, there is the story of the cultured pearl which Mr. Shintaro Wada will tell you if you are interested. Not satisfied with the uncertain crop of pearl fishing in their natural state, in which two or three pearls are found in about 1,000 oysters, the Japanese have a pearl culture process whereby they know the exact proportion of production for their market.

The pearl culture consists of the introduction of a small foreign substance into the oyster, which forms a nucleus for the pearl. The oyster is then returned to the water and the natural secretions form the pearl. Out of 100 oysters so treated there are a possible six or seven pearls to be found. The only defect is that the cultured pearls have a flat side where they are severed from the shell and hence they sell for one-sixth to one-seventh of the price of the round pearls.

The oysters are first cultivated for three years before the substance, which is a tiny particle of mother-of-pearl, is introduced into the mollusk. After that they are left in the water for four or five years. Although the courteous Mr. Shintaro Wada did not say so, he probably knows that the Chinese knew something of this pearl culture in the 13th century but never perfected it. The Japanese pearl culture has only been in existence for the past twenty-five years and not until the last fifteen years have any pearls been exported to this country.

Another exhibit of modern Japanese work is the collection of Morimura chinaware. This is the first white ware the Japanese have ever produced and can easily be mistaken for fine Haviland china. Morimura, the manufacturer, is said to have spent $250,000 looking for a clay in Japan from which to manufacture the white ware, as until recently none had been found. His diligence was repaid in locating the proper clay, and now the china is exported to France and Austria and sold to unsuspecting dealers as Austrian and French ware.

Likewise, Morimura’s artists are sent to France, Germany, Italy and other art centers to study their art. They choose the best of these countries and then, with the peculiar art of the Japanese, make it “Japanezy” and sell it to these same countries.

There is a magnificent collection of cloisonnes, including pieces of the old wire process and specimens of the more modern wireless process, which is considered by the Japanese to be the last word in the manufacture of cloisonne. There are beautiful vases of the silver, copper and gold-base cloisonne, but the iron-base cloisonne has been left out of the collection, although it is considered the most beautiful and artistic of all cloisonnes. This is for the simple reason that Americans have never appreciated this style of work so admired by the Japanese, and so the obliging exhibitors refrain from displaying something we are unable to appreciate.

The processes through which the cloisonnes are made are shown in all of the ten stages. One of the gems of the collection is a large oblong plate. The base is copper and both the wireless and the wire process have been used in the design. The price is valued at $2,500. A large Makuzu vase in the old blue that resembles the antique cloisonne is another striking piece of the exhibit. Even the manufacture of cloisonne did not originate with the Japanese. The same story of the adoption of the art of another people for themselves is told in the cloisonne exhibit, as the Chinese made cloisonne 2,000 years ago, but then lost the secret, later rediscovered by the Japanese.

In one large case are a number of Japanese idols. Among these are two terrible-looking images of the Wind God, taken from the Temple of Nara, hundreds of years old, and priceless in value. And with these are some of the very modern tapestries and fine embroidered work. Many of the beautifully-embroidered hangings look exactly like rare paintings. There are teakwood chairs, wonderfully carved by hand, cabinets inlaid with mother-of-pearl and ivory, and a wonderful teakwood hand-carved Chinese bed. The Satsuma collection is also a joy to the lover of Japanese art.

When you are tired of looking at Satsumas and cloisonnes, you can walk across the Prado to the charming little Japanese tea pavilion back of the Botanical Gardens, under the management of the same commercial association. Here, as you sit in the pavilion and look out upon the tiny Japanese garden with its well, its flowing stream and rustic bridges, dainty little Japanese maids will serve you with tea and rice cakes in the dainty manner that is characteristic of their people.

If you have any sporting proclivities, go to the Japan Streets of Joy on the Isthmus where every gambling game conceived by the Japanese is to be found. If lucky, you may win anything from a bowl of goldfish to a kimono.

Apropos of the Japanese ways and their delightful characteristics is a story going the rounds of a little incident that occurred upon the visit of one of the great naval heroes of Japan to the exposition. It was understood that he could not speak English, and army and navy officers, city officials and exposition officials vied with each other in paying the honored guest attention, but were more or less at a disadvantage as all conversation was carried on through an interpreter.

Shortly before his departure someone suddenly came upon the dignitary conversing fluently in English with some of his party. Of course, no one would be so discourteous as to divulge the discovery to the Japanese party, but every one of those army and navy officers, city officials and exposition officials began to cudgel his brains to remember what he had said in English in the presence of the visitor.

But should you leave the Foreign and Domestic Arts Building to sip tea at the pavilion or gamble in the Joy Streets, don’t fail to return to see the collection of Persian rugs in that building. There are rare mosque prayer rugs, hundreds of years old, beautiful Boukaras, Laver kirmans, that graced the palace of some ancient Persian king, and royal Sarenk rugs. The exquisite colorings and the oriental designs, with their significance, are well worth the trip back from the tea garden to the exhibit.

San Diego Union, May 23, 1915, 1:2, 3:2-4. Ad Club celebration; mysterious Ad man captured at ’49 Camp; prominent San Diegans burlesqued in Club pageant; celebration draws crowd-breaking crowd.

San Diego Union, May 23, 1915, 3:1. Throng witnessed Shakespearean Festival in Indian Arts garden at Exposition; scenes fromAlkestie by Euripides, EverymanThe Rivals, and the balcony scene from Romeo and Juliet; program in two divisions given by School of Expression; fencing salute and flower drill close entertainment.

San Diego Union, May 23, 1915, 3:5. Children awarded prizes in free dancing party at Dance Pavilion on the Isthmus.

San Diego Union, May 23, 1915, 5:1-2. A. G. Spalding creating “Newport of Pacific” at Sunset Cliffs.

San Diego Sun, May 24, 1915, 1:4-7. Mayor Capps says ’49 Camp is not so bad; District Attorney Mahoney says gambling with script must stop.

San Diego Union, May 24, 1915, 4:7. 1,000 youngsters from San Diego County schools sing at Fair accompanied by the San Diego Symphony Orchestra and the Spreckels Organ; third concert of the annual May music festival; large number of proud parents generous with applause.

San Diego Union, May 24, 1915, 12:3. Hard times cry put to shame at Exposition; $2,748.80 taken in at gates Saturday; crowd spends $8,567.32 on Isthmus; As Club congratulated; Next carnival will be along lines probably never tried before.

San Diego Union, May 24, 1915, 12:3. Artillery Band to play at Fair this morning.

San Diego Sun, May 25, 1915, 3:3. Jose Guadaloupe Estudillo here for anniversary: “It doesn’t seem like the same old San Diego. It has grown into a great fine city. I hardly recognize her now.”

San Diego Sun, May 25, 1915, 3:7. San Diego Fair directors at San Francisco; arrived on two special cars.

San Diego Sun, May 26, 1915, 7:7. Estudillo Day observed at Exposition.

San Diego Herald, May 27, 1915, 1:5.

At the Exposition: Los Angeles and its contiguous territory captured the San Diego Exposition Saturday when a delegation of 2,000 arrived and took part in the celebration of Los Angeles County Day, the most successful of the county days held at the Exposition. The visitors came by train, boat and automobile and brought with them a large band and Chester Thompson’s Kilties.

Saturday was one of the biggest days in the history of the Exposition, the attendance reaching close to the 25,000 mark. The great crowd was brought out largely on account of the San Diego Ad Club doings, which comprised a dizzy whirl of entertainment from the big parade in the morning until the close of the Isthmus carnival after midnight. The military and civic parade in the morning served as a good advance guard for the day’s festivities and, with Colonel J. H. Pendleton as grand marshal, it was a great success. It passed over the downtown streets and, in the military section, 2,000 sailors, marines, cavalrymen and coast artillery were in line. The civic section turned out as many paraders while 200 decorated floats and automobiles added to its attractiveness. It passed through the Exposition grounds and was reviewed by President G. A. Davidson and Exposition directors.

On the Isthmus at night the Human Ad parade and carnival proved a fitting climax to the day’s activities. The Los Angeles delegation, arriving at noon, was escorted to the grounds and tendered a luncheon at the Southern California Counties building. In the afternoon, the Shakespeare festival, presented on the lawn in the rear of the Indian Arts building, drew a great crowd. It was estimated that Saturday night 10,000 merrymakers were in costume at the carnival. The Ad Club and the Los Angeles delegation buried dull care and the day was voted one of the best since the Exposition opening.

The official women’s board of the San Diego Exposition is taking up plans for a Ellen Beach Yaw Day at the Exposition. As yet no date has been set but it will be within the next month. On Ellen Beach Yaw Day one of the largest musical programs of Exposition year will be given and the famed California singer will be heard in concert at the great outdoor organ.

Meeting with such popular endorsement, the plan of the San Diego Exposition to have Spanish troubadours entertain on the grounds has been broadened and the troupe has been doubled, so that now about twenty singers, dancers and musicians are on the daily programs. These make merry in the flower gardens and balconies of the buildings and add much to the charm of the Exposition.

As a prelude to the summer school, which will be maintained at the San Diego Exposition, Dr. A. L. Kroeber, of the University of California faculty, one of the leading anthropologists in the West, will give a series of lectures at the Exposition near the last of May. With plans well in hand those in charge of the summer school expect a large enrollment. Applications are now being received by Dr. Edgar L. Hewett at the Exposition. The school will be opened July 5 and be in session for six weeks. One of its big features will be the Montessori school for children, which will be established in the wild flower field at the rear of the California building. This school will be taught by Dr. Maria Montessori and her assistants.

San Diego Union, May 27, 1915, 1:3, 2:5-6. San Diego pioneer who helped to save Balboa Park; Estudillo overcome by emotion; would end days with early memories.

That he was not forgotten, that he still lives in the minds of older residents and that they greeted him at the Plaza de Panama of the Panama-California Exposition with the whole-souled cordiality typical of California hospitality of many years ago was almost too much for Jose Guadaloupe Estudillo, surviving founder of Balboa Park and a member of one of the oldest and most respected Spanish families, when he returned to San Diego yesterday as a guest of the city and the Exposition.

“If home means to you what it means to me, if it means fond recollections of happy times, memories of friends and events, if you have ever experienced the feeling of a heart that is so full of joy and gladness that you want to cry out and mere words sound empty, if you have in your heart the love of your country and you love every mountain peak as you love every hillside and valley, if you love God’s sunshine and his manifold blessings and your fellow man — then you know how I feel at being home.

“I have been away many years yet my heart was always here. It was here that California began and I am happy that it was my family which helped found a community which has become so great. As a boy I learned to love the land of our adoption. The cloudless sky and the sparkling sunlight on the deep blue sea, the hill under their green in winter and their tan in summer, the quiet tranquillity of conditions which seemed as though they had conspired for the happiness of mankind. They breathed joy into our souls, and no where are the same ideal conditions. Ever since I have been away I have always imagined myself visiting. One day I intended to return. My visit was long, but my gladness at being here today is worth it. My heart was ever here and I lived in tender memories of a joyous past.”

With the enthusiasm of a debutante and with the vigor of a man many years his junior, Estudillo reveled in the transformation of the 1400 acres which were set aside by the board of trustees of the town of San Diego in 1868 and of which he as president.

“It is all too wonderful for words and I cannot express the feeling in my heart. Who would think that this barren desert, surmounted by these eternal hills, could have been transformed into a second paradise of trees and flowers. It is as though some fairy had waved her magic wand over the territory. I am speechless with amazement. I am overwhelmed with thankfulness to the residents of the city who have made it all possible. It is beautiful and more than the most imaginative mind could have conceived. I had tried to picture what the park would be like from what had been told me, but this is far beyond everything I had imagined.”


His mind reverted back 47 years, for yesterday was the 47th anniversary of the setting aside of the pueblo lands as a public park, and he told of how the idea came to him.

“The faction in town politics to which I belonged was not always successful. Father Horton was a good politician and he elected a board of trustees which agreed to sell him land at what I considered a small price. After the 960 acres had been sold to Father Horton at 26 cents per acres, I set about trying to figure ways to prevent the future sale of land. I wanted to keep it for the city. I was elected to the next board of trustees and I suggested that 1400 acres be set aside as a public park. I really didn’t have in mind that the land should be used for a public park, but merely as a means of saving it for the city. I don’t mean to say that I could foretell coming events or see in the distant future a city like the San Diego of today or a park such as Balboa Park. It was simply my scheme to save the land from being sold. And that is the story of the origin of the park. The idea, which seems prevalent in San Diego, that Father Horton gave the land to the city for park purposes is erroneous and without foundation.”

A trifle under medium height erect and with the mannerisms of a much younger man, time has been kind to this San Diego pioneer. Years are in the background as you talk to him, and you wouldn’t know, unless someone told you, that he has looked on 80 summers. His sincerity, his reserve, his quiet dignity, his pleasing personality, are first impressions. With a few minute’s acquaintance, you will find him cordial, generous, accommodating, more than likable, and you will find yourself trying to lengthen your interview His memory is remarkable and he can recite dates, names, places and events as though they were yesterday. He also has kept pace with the years, taking a great interest in the world and its work.

Some day soon Estudillo hopes to come to San Diego to live. “It is the birthplace of my mother, and it is here that I feel at home,” he said. “San Diego is very dear to me, and I want to live in the present, where visions of the past are most vivid.”

When The Union was mentioned to Estudillo, he recalled the beginning of the paper. “I guess I should remember for the first number was published in the rear of my old house at Old Town on October 10, 1868 and William Jeff Gatewood was the publisher.”

On his arrival at the Laurel Street entrance to the Exposition yesterday morning in an automobile with Don M. Stewart, Philip Morse and ex-mayor D. C. Reed, he was met by a company of marines from Marine Barracks and escorted to the steps of the Sacramento Valley building, where he was met by President G. A. Davidson, of the Exposition, and several hundred old settlers.

Estudillo was given memorials in the form of scrolls by both President Davidson for the Exposition and ex-mayor Reed, representing E. M. Capps and the citizens of the city. President Davidson introduced Estudillo who thanked those present for his reception and congratulated San Diego on its Exposition and park.

He was taken to luncheon at the Cristobal Café and later he was taken on a tour of the grounds in an electriquette. Later he attended the review of the marines at Plaza de Panama and listened to the organ recital by Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart.

Before leaving the grounds he was the guest of honor at a tea given at the women’s board headquarters in the California Building, where he was the center of an interested group. More than 250 San Diego pioneers attended and thoroughly enjoyed the function.

Estudillo surprised members of the Pioneer Society of San Diego County and Mrs. Margaret V. Allen, who is in charge of the exhibit at the Fair, by given them a bound volume of the first copies of The Union.

He will remain in the city until Friday when he will leave for his home in San Jacinto. He is at the U. S. Grant Hotel while in the city.

On the recommendation of members of the Pioneer Society of San Diego County, Superintendent Duncan McKinnon asked the teachers to take five minutes during the school hours yesterday and explain to the pupils the origin of Balboa Park. Members of the Society wanted this done to correct the impression throughout the city that the park was the gift of Father Horton. As yesterday was the 47thanniversary of the setting aside the 1400 acres of pueblo lands as a city park, it was thought an opportune time to send the correct story into hundreds of homes.

Park Commissioners Minutes, May 28, 1915. Carleton M. Winslow submitted plans and specifications for comfort station to be erected in the northwest section of Balboa Park; estimate $928.00.

Los Angeles Times, May 30, 1915, VI, 1:6, 2:3. Peruvians made repairs on skulls with flint; ancient surgery of trepannng illustrated at Exposition by skulls thousands of years old; Members of the Southern California Dental Association listen to lectures over remains; primitive peoples observed nature’s method of healing wounds.

San Diego Union, May 30, 1915, 4:3-4. Exposition Excursions No. 17: The Wild Flower Field, by R.W. Sumner.

San Diego Sun, May 31, 1915, 1:3-4, 7:6. Stadium is dedicated as thousands look on; military parade at 11 a.m.; monster track and field program.

San Diego Sun, May 31, 1915, 1:5-6. Veterans are honored at impressive service; Memorial Day observed with parade and program at Exposition organ; the line of Blue and Gray cheered as it wends way to Magic City from Fifth and F Streets to Laurel Street entrance.

San Diego Sun, May 31, 1915, 11:4-5. Mrs. Carrie Jacobs Bond, composer, to be honored tomorrow; Mrs. L. L. Selby, contralto soprano, will sing a number of her compositions at Organ.

June, 1915, California Garden: Lost on the Isthmus, by G. T. Keene:

Being a schoolteacher in San Diego in the year 1915, one of her duties was to accompany thirty-two youngsters on a trip to the Panama-California Exposition in search of education. Knowing something of the frolicsomeness of her little charges, she persuade two mothers to accompany her.

Those thirty-two boys and girls kept the tree ladies so busy during the day that when the shadows began to lengthen a tired crowd wended its way across the big bridge to the west gate and let itself out one at a time through the turnstile.

Of course they were all there, but just as a matter of precaution to make assurance doubly sure, the schoolmistress counted noses which she had numbered and listed in the early morning. Maybe she was tired, or perhaps one little fellow ran around so fast she couldn’t count him; anyway they didn’t tally. She would count them again. Counting as carefully as possible she was one short and with fear gripping at her heart she lined them up to learn if possible who it was.

Everyone answered to the roll call but Tommy F.

What was to be done? She remembered the story of the shepherd who left the ninety-and-nine to go and search for the one that was lost, but they were all now outside the gate, and besides, kids of the olden times didn’t each have a mother at home waiting supper for her own particular little lamb.

She would hurry them all home and return to find Tommy — if he was to be found.

Being a mother, as well as a schoolteacher, she knew how the mother would feel, so she called up Tommy’s Mamma and broke the news to her as gently as possible. The voice at each end of the line feigned unconcern, but there was a suspicion of fears and tears, and a hurried appointment at the west gate where each arrived in an incredibly short time.

They paid their admissions and hurried on their way across the bridge spanning Cabrillo Canyon. It is a massive bridge, artistic in its simplicity. On either side is a jungle of trees, plants and flowers, growing an apparent wild confusion, but blending into an harmonious whole, while in the distance loomed the tall office buildings of the city, with the bay, ocean, Point Loma and Coronado Islands completing a picture of surpassing beauty. In front, silhouetted against the evening sky, were the exposition buildings, pleasing and restful

The foregoing paragraph immediately preceding this one is entirely my own. The two ladies saw none of those things. Two souls had but a single thought — a little tow-headed boy with a round face, a buster suit and barefoot sandals.

Arriving at the center of the bridge, the mother halted. It was at the highest part. “I must look over,” she said, “to see if ____.” It wasn’t necessary to finish the sentence. They looked at each other. “No, I can’t: you look,” she added. So the schoolmaam looked over.

Far down below, perhaps two hundred feet, was the lily pond, the winding road, the old boat rocking at its moorings, as old boats are wont to do, the little paths leading by circuitous route to the top through shrubbery carefully placed to look careless. That was all.

Once more the ladies looked at each other: the one shook her head, the other breathed again, and they hastened on.

If they hadn’t been in such a hurry, they would have halted before reaching the Administration Building and turned to drink in the wonderful scene, and sniff and sniff and sniff the perfume-scented air from the numberless blossoms clinging and climbing everywhere. As it was, they were just in time to spy a sturdy little form round the arch and come trudging through the Plaza, his cap in one hand and the other firmly grasping a smudgy sack of “crumbles.”

You would have known at once that it was Tommy, by the demeanor of the two ladies which was impulsive to say the least. After he had been kissed in every available spot by the one, and patted and smiled at by the other, they dropped onto a convenient bench and listened to Tommy’s tale of adventure, at the same time regaining their composure, and allowing their tense nerve centers to relax.

“Mamma, youghta been ‘ith me,” babbled Tommy. “Billy’s Gran’pa’z got a ‘lectiket on the Is’mus ‘n he let us ride in it all th’ afternoon ‘n gave us ice cream cones ‘n candy ‘n took us inta the Toadstool ‘n a lot of places. We just had packs of fun.”

“Isn’t that a beautiful spot?,” said Tommy’s Mamma.

“Isn’t it a beautiful world?,” said the Schoolmaam.

And they each took a sticky little hand and walked slowly back across the bridge.

June, 1915, California Garden, 5-6,

Monthly Excursion Through Exposition Grounds, by R. W. Sumner: As we study the plant life at the Exposition this month, let us look a little closer among the shrubbery and trees for this is the time of bird song as well as flower fragrance. Before making note of the plants that are blooming, we will hunt out a few of the birds that are filling the early morning air with music. The Linnet, or house finch, is everywhere and its rollicking cheerful song is a splendid cure for the blues, unless you have fruit trees or a vegetable garden. As you walk from the Prado over to the Botanical Building, you are sure to hear a Song Sparrow. Often it starts with three high notes and then breaks into a flood of varied ones. Walk around to the right or east path and in a high fan-leafed palm, about half way between the fountain and east door of the Botanical Building, you will see the nest of an Arizona hooded Oriole. It is hanging on the under side of a palm leaf, evidently made of the palm threads and securely sewed to the leaf. As you follow on around the Building, near the rear end you are pretty sure to hear the busy twitter of the tiny Bush Tit as he runs over the ends of branches in search of insects.

Back of the Sacramento Building you will probably hear a wild canary, green-backed Gold Finch, singing, and maybe catch a glimpse of the female Oriole whose nest we just inspected, for this seems to be her favorite feeding ground.

Still further on, I have heard the Western Gnat Catcher’s warble and seen him swoop down on some unsuspecting insects. As you cross the great Cabrillo Bridge, you are sure to see many little black-headed, white-breasted fly catchers darting here and there under the bridge, skimming the pond below, always busy on the wing. It is the black-headed Phoebe. And not far from the Laurel Street gate a Bullock Oriole, with orange plumage and black, has its nest. He is the western representative of the Baltimore Oriole.

Now with both eyes open, one for the birds and one for the flowers, let us start with the riot of seed-sown annuals between the Foreign Arts and Commerce and Industries. Coreopsis tinctoria or Caliopsis elegans, as it is often called, is an annual with rich brown and yellow markings and is one of the first to catch your eyes as you arrive at the head of the short flight of steps. Scattered about are some cultivated forms of Godetia, looking very similar to the Godetia bottae and Godetia grandiflora of the wild flower field on the point north of the California Building. Also, there is a spike of peculiar Acanthus-like flowers of reddish brown. It is Digitalis canariensis, still in appearance, but interesting. Still on the left-hand side is a large shrub, Leonotis Cornurus, or “Lion’s Tail,” with lance-shaped, wrinkled leaves and square stems; the flower buds are just starting. You can see some in bloom in the Montezuma Garden, but I want to call your attention particularly to a pink candy-turf that grows close to it on the upper side. A little further and you find the double form of Clarkia elegans. An interesting thing about clarkiasgodetiasoenotheras is the seed case. In these plants it acts for two purposes, for seek and flower stalk, for they are all long and rather slender, often taking the place of a feduncle. The seed receptacle of Oenothera ovata, the “Sun Cup” which grows in Central California, has the seed case underground, the stem of the flower being a slender tube leading out to the stigma.

A rather sprawling plant of Rudbeckia, “Golden Glow,” with its tall stems and double yellow flowers grows a step further. Also, statice latifolia, with its large tuft of wide leaves and tall branching stalk of blue and white paper-like flowers. This is the flower that our Eastern friends like to send to their home folks because of its everlasting quality. Another flower that grows here and in many places on the grounds is the “Blue Marguerite, Agathoea codlestis. Its numerous blue Daisy-like blossoms bloom practically the whole year, and it attracts everyone. On the west side of the path is our largest specimen of Echium fastuosum. It seems to have grown too fast his year to bloom, but its lance-shaped, gray-colored leaves and spreading branches demand attention. The above just gives you a start. There are Gaillardias, Foxglove, Eupatorium, Marguerites, Cannas and many others.

In many places about the grounds will be found Abelia rupestris, one of our best flower shrubs. Its numerous small pink flowers are dainty on close inspection and the dark glossy leaves are always showy. When the plant is not in bloom, the wine-colored sepals almost fill the vacancy. A hedge of it has been planted between the Bulkhead and the entrance to the Pepper Grove. Other places you will se it alone or grouped, and always it is good to look at.

Eugenia myrtifolia is another many-officed shrub. In the Pergolas, on the point back of the Montezuma Gardens, it is used as a vine, growing in front of the pillars. At the cross paths in front of the Japanese Tea Garden it is used as hedge, also out the west end of the Sacramento Building arcade. It will soon be in bloom and later rose-colored berries appear.

As if growing to order, the two large Agave Americana in the bowls at the west end of Cabrillo Bridge are sending up their stalks, making one supreme effort in the great cluster of flowers which they bear. The leaves gradually wilt and the whole plant dies at the end of the season. “Century Plant” merely means they bloom only after several years growth instead of a hundred. Also, the two in bowls at the Bulkhead near the Commerce and Industries Building are getting ready their tall stalks. It is an interesting fact that these all seem to be blooming at once. The reason for it probably is that in digging, the root pruning has thrown the sap and strength upward. Last year one was dug and boxed in the Nursery and immediately sent up its flower stalk.

Walking along the path at the head of Palm Canyon, back of the Indian Arts Building, you will notice on the left a variegated shrub with numerous clusters of small white flowers. It is a variegated Privet, Ligustrum ovalifolium aureo-marginatum, and a peculiar thing is the reverting back to the green type. A green branch will grow directly out of a variegated one. This is the difficulty that men come up against in hybrid propagation and one reason why it takes years, sometimes a lifetime, to get just the right combination. Across the path is a Gunnera Chilensis, an enormous leafed plant belonging to the Rhubarb family. At the point where you can look directly down the canyon, there are some large-leafed false Artichokes. Right at your feet are some small plants with prism-shaped leaves, which earlier in the season has peculiar, leather-textured, star-shaped flowers. Now the seed pods are five or six inches long, pointed and filled tight with silky-tailed seeds. Probably they will crack open about July. As you walk up the path to the Botanical Building, on the east side of the pool, there are one or two Melalecua linearifolia; they may be located by the dense mass of feathery white bloom. As is usual with the Melalecuas, it is the stamens that make the show.

Before passing the Botanical Building, take a look inside. At the side of the main door, just before you enter from the arcade to the large domed area, there is a vine with small Jasmine-like flowers, the petals twisted like a wind wheel. It is not a Jasminum, as so many insist, but Rhyncospermum jasminoides. The show flower this month is the tuberous-rooted Begonia, growing both in the lath and glass houses.

The “Bird of Paradise,” Strelitzia Nicolae, is soon going to have something to show our visitors. This flower is peculiar and will interest you for a long time. As the bud breaks, the parks of the flower rise at right angles, just like so many feathers on the head of a Bird of Paradise. They continue to rise as the flower matures till all have broken from the sheath. This plant, which a good many take for a Banana tree, is just to the right of the door as you pass through to the Glass house. Another is situated in the far end of the east wing. It too has a bud which will bloom later. At each side of the steps leading into the Tea Pavilion is a Tecoma jasminoides rosea. Its pink flower, with the deeper red center, bloom several months, and it is a very useful vine. Passing along the canyon path behind the big lath house are some small gray-leafed trees with numerous plump buds ready to crack open, one near a lamp post is easy to examine. It is Lagunaria Patersonia and its pink-white flowers resemble the Hibiscus in form. Just beyond is a Pittosporum rhombifolium with rhomboidal toothed leaves. The large cluster of small flowers are just at the point of bloom. A hundred feet further is growing one of the best Buddleias we have, Buddleia variabilis. Its light gray stems and leaves make an excellent background for the somewhat pendulous dense spike of purple.

The small flowered slender branched Fuchsia that grows in many places on the grounds is Fuchsia gracites. As you near the Cannabed, back of the California Building on the right-hand side and just below a hardpan Bulkhead, there are several shrubs of Lavater assurgentiflora, the Tree Mallow. Its pink, Malva-like flowers are blooming now.

The green upright shrub that may be seen near the bridge approach is Escallonia virgata, the small white flowers with green centers being in rather large clusters and the finely-toothed leaves are glutinous to the touch. And so we might go on. The wonder and beauty of the plants grow as you search them out. This one for its gorgeous colors, that for its foliage, others, perhaps, for a peculiar botanical feature. “Earth’s crammed with heaven and every common bush afire with God, but only he who sees takes off his shoes, the rest sit around and pluck blackberries.”

June, 1915.

The International Studio, Vol. 55, No. 220, 105-110 (illus.), The San Diego and San Francisco Expositions, by Christian Brinton.

EDITOR’S NOTE: It was Dr. Christian Brinton’s wish to have the two expositions run concurrently in this issue but considerations of space have necessitated our reserving San Francisco for the month of July. This will enable us to illustrate the articles more fully. Other contributions by the same writer will follow in due course, giving special heed to the paintings and statuary.

  1. San Diego

It must be confessed that the congenital weakness for hyperbole which obtains west of the Mississippi leads one to be cautious not alone of the Grand Canyon but of the eloquently exploited expositions at San Diego and San Francisco. Superlatives not unwarrantably make for suspicion, yet in one of these instances is there occasion for undue conservatism. Like the thumb print of God pressed into the surface of the earth that man may forever identify His handiwork, the Canyon transcends the possibilities of verbal or pictorial expression. Although by no means so ambitious as its competitor, or, rather its complement, farther northward along the historic Camino Real, the Panama-California Exposition has scant reason to fear comparison with the Panama-Pacific. Restricted in area, yet rich in suggestion, the San Diego Exposition is a synthesis of the spacious Southwest. It seems to have sprung spontaneously from the soil and the vivid race consciousness of those who inhabit this vast and fecund hinterland. Regional in the sense that the recent Baltic Exposition at Malmo and the Valencian Exposition of 1900 were regional, it is at once more concentrated and more characteristic than either of those memorable displays. Though you may have seen many expositions, you have encountered none like this red-tiled, white-walled city, set amid luxurious semi-tropical vegetation, and flanked on one side by a deeply incised arroyo, and on the other by the azure expanse of the sea. On crossing the majestic Puente Cabrillo, you enter the Plaza de California, or California Quadrangle, the architecture of which furnishes the keynote of the exposition. To the left is the California Building, which exemplifies the cathedral type, to the right is the Fine Arts Building, which conforms to the better-known Mission style. These structures are permanent, and are not only a credit to the exposition and the municipal authorities, but reveal in new and congenial light the varied talent of their designer, Mr. Bertram G. Goodhue. At San Diego you have in brief something that at once strikes a picturesque and appropriate note. The remaining buildings, which with the exception of the Music Pavilion, are the creation of Mr. Frank P. Allen, Jr., all continue the Spanish-Colonial motif with conspicuous success. None of them is in the least out of harmony with the general ensemble, and there is not one that does not display uncommon capacity for the assimilation and adaptation of this singularly effective architecture style.

It is impossible not to respond to the seductive flavor and opulent fancy of such an offering as confronts one at Balboa Park. Climatic conditions royally concur in assisting the architect to the utmost. Almost every conceivable flower, plant and tree here attains unwonted magnificence. The sun is brilliant but does not burn and the close proximity of the sea softens and freshens the atmosphere without undue preponderance of moisture. Proceed along the acacia-lined Prado which constitutes the main axis of the general plan, stroll under the cloisters, linger in the patios, or follow on of the countless calcadas or pathways skirting the crest of the hill, and you will experience the sensation of being in the garden of a typical Mexican mission. The mind indeed travels farther back, back to the Alcazar of Seville, the Generalife, and to remote and colorful Byzantium. Unlike most of its predecessors, the San Diego Exposition does not convey an impression of impermanency. The luxuriance of the floral and arboreal accompaniments, of course, help to dispel any such feeling. Yet behind this is a distinct sense of inevitability which derives from the fact there here is something which is at one with the land and its people — visible expression of the collective soul of the Southwest.

It need scarcely be assumed, however, that this radiant city, which smiles down from its green-capped acropolis came into being over night, as it were. Behind this symphony of beauty is a background of solid endeavor and serious research along widely divergent lines. Mr. Goodhue’s California Building is a successful adaptation to exposition exigencies of the impressively ornate cathedral at Oaxaca, Mexico. The New Mexico State Building, with its more severe silhouette and massive weathered beams protruding from the outside walls, is a free amplification of the famous adobe mission of the Indian pueblo of Acoma, the “sky city,” dating from 1699. The essentially composite character of Spanish architecture is nowhere better illustrated than in these various structures, where you are confronted by turns with details Roman and Rococo, late Gothic and Renaissance, Classic and Churrigueresque. Still, despite this manifest complexity of origin and inspiration, the ensemble achieves the effect of complete unity. The very flexibility of the style employed is its greatest asset when to comes to solving problems of such a nature. You, in short, witness here in San Diego the actual revival of Spanish-Colonial architecture, and you will scarcely fail to agree that as a medium it is as perfectly adapted to the physical and social conditions of the Southwest as is the English-Colonial or Georgian to the needs of the East. Had the Panama-California Exposition accomplished nothing else, the rehabilitation of our Spanish-Colonial heritage would have amply justified its existence.

The same consistency of aim and idea which characterizes the architecture features of the exposition obtains in other fields of activity. It has been the intention of those in charge to show processes rather than products, and nowhere is this more significantly set forth than in the California Building, which enshrines examples of the stupendous plastic legacy of the Maya civilization and in the Indian Arts Building, which is devoted to displays of the craftsmanship of the present-day Indians of the Southwest. To begin with the deep-rooted substratum of primitive effort which stretches back into dim antiquity, and to follow its development down to modern day, entails no small amount of labor and scholarship. For this task the exposition authorities were fortunate in securing the services of Dr. Edgar L. Hewett and a corps of competent assistants from the Smithsonian Institute, Washington. Dr. Hewett is one of that rapidly increasing number of scientists who feel the indissoluble connection between ethnology and aesthetics. Nothing finer has thus far been accomplished than his installation of the several exhibits in this particular section. The collection of pottery, rugs, baskets and domestic utensils, and the detailed series of drawings, illustrating that graphic symbolism which is an inherent element in all aboriginal artistic expression, are as extensive as they are stimulating. On comparing these latter with the canvases devoted to native type and scene by Mr. Robert Henri, Mr. Joseph H. Sharp and others in the Fine Arts Building, one is forced to conclude that the capacity for pictorial representation has diminished rather than increased with the advent of our latter-day art schools and academics.

You can hardly expect perfection, even in such an exposition as that in San Diego, and it is in the choice of paintings for this same Fine Arts Building that one may point to a certain lapse from an otherwise consistently maintained standard. It is not that Mr. Henri and his coterie are not admirable artists. It is simply that they do not fit into what appears to be and in other respects manifestly is a carefully worked-out program. San Diego is so rich in the fundamental sources of beauty and feeling that had there been no paintings on view one would have scant cause for complaint. The welcome absence of the customary flatulent and dropsical statuary, which is such a happy feature of the exterior arrangements, might well have been supplemented by the exclusion of the pretentious and sophisticated canvases.

Intensive rather than extensive in appeal, basing itself frankly upon local interest and tradition, conscious of its inheritance and looking with confidence toward the future, the Panama-California Exposition stands as a model of its kind. If this gleaming little city perched upon its green-crested mesa teaches anything it teaches that the most precious things in life and in art are those that lie nearest the great eloquent heart of nature. That subtle process of interaction which forever goes silently on between man and his surroundings, the identity between that which one sees and feeds upon and that which one produces, are facts which you find convincingly presented at the San Diego Exposition. IT is more than a mere show-window of the Southwest. Alike in its architecture and its specific offerings it typifies the richness and romance not alone of New Spain but of immemorial America.

June, 1915, Santa Fe Magazine, Vol. 9, No. 7, 33-40. Flashes From San Diego.

That portion of the beautiful San Diego Exposition which will be permanent includes, of course, the enormous work done in landscape architecture over a good portion of the 1,400-acrew park. It also includes the California and Fine Arts buildings, which will house the permanent scientific exhibits, and the Botanical Building and the great Music Pavilion, which houses the largest outdoor organ in the world — all of these being of steel and concrete. The New Mexico Building and a few smaller structures are also of concrete. The Puente Cabrillo, the 1,000-foot viaduct across the main canon, is permanent. All other buildings, of staff and plaster, are not metal lath, so that their life should be about twenty years. The big agricultural display will be used at the close of the fair for experimental station work.

Uncle Sam’s parcel post is now accused of competing with Dr. Stork since the arrival in San Diego of Samuel Abraham Randolph, aged eight years, by parcel post. It all came about in this way:

Samuel lives in Salt Lake City and desired to see the San Diego Exposition. His parents were unable to make the trip, so they decided to send Samuel by parcel post to his grandmother, Mrs. John Waterman, who resides in San Diego. In the lapel of his coast Samuel wore two parcel post tags. On tag contained the address of his grandmother and fifty cents in parcel post stamps. The other tag was marked: “Fragile; Handle With Care.”

The boy’s grandmother was at the station to claim her “mail,” eliminating the necessity of Samuel being tossed about in the local post office as ordinary parcel post matter.

The largest single delegation that will visit the San Diego Exposition this summer will be the Loyal Order of Moose, which will storm San Diego thirty thousand strong for a week’s convention beginning on July 17. This convention will call there several governors, senators, congressmen and other men of high rank in national life. Vice-President Marshall, who is a member of the order, is likely to be there. During the week’s convention the visitors will be kept on the go. A large fund for their entertainment has been raised. At the convention practically every Moose lodge in the country will be represented and many of these have already secured their hotel accommodations. Governor Johnson of California, who is a member of the order, is one of the well known men who is scheduled to make an address.

A New York florist passing his vacation at the California fairs stood in arcade off the Plaza de Panama, gasping at the battle of flowers which formed the climax to the exposition’s rose festival. “If that group of girls could transport to my sales office on Fifth Avenue all the roses they have tossed on the pavement, I could make a year’s profits in one day,” he said.

A big delegation from San Francisco sat on the reviewing stand at the head of the plaza and shouted itself hoarse as the parade passed. A feature was a battalion of pretty girls in filmy [sic] garments, almost covered with American beauty roses. Just after them came a long line of electriquettes, the little motor chairs in use on the grounds, each driven by a single girl perched in a bank of flowers. The Nevada and Washington delegations had decked out their floats with flowers taken from their native states.

A few days ago there were parked at the end of the Puente Cabrillo, the great viaduct forming the west approach to the exposition, no fewer than eighty-three automobiles carrying Minnesota licenses. Mingled with them were in smaller numbers cars from other middle west and eastern states. The summer movement is thought to have started already, as the rainy season is past and the famous highways of the Southwest are in the best condition. Incoming tourists grin as they pass the sign at the side of San Diego’s coast boulevard. It really reads, “Beware! Slow down to one hundred miles an hours!”

A vast pilgrimage of students, teachers and educational experts will invade the exposition for attendance at the summer school to be held July 5 to August 13. This promises to be without equal in the history of the progress of the exposition, for the faculty will include some of the most remarkable authorities in education. Standing high in this list is Dr. Maria Montessori of Rome, founder of the famed teaching system which bears her name. Dr. Montessori will assume charge of the Montessori Institute to be established during the session.

Among the courses will be history and geography of South America, Spanish ______ and literature, modern history and the peace movement, modern literature, culture history, American archaeology, anthropology, vocation education and direction, mental and physical testing with laboratory work, elementary manual training and primitive arts with demonstrations by Indian workers, and agriculture with demonstrations. There will be special lectures on peace and conciliation, modern education, human welfare and arts and sciences.

To popularize the summer school the exposition directors have fixed the unusually low fee of $7.50 for the term, which will include admission to the exposition. Among the educators who will be in the faculty are Dr. J. C. Thompson, surgeon of the U.S. Navy; Dr. Edgar L. Hewett, director of the School of American Archaeology; Percy Alvin Martin, Ph.D., assistant professors of history, Stanford University; W. F. Bliss, dean of the state normal school in San Diego; Miriam E. Besley, William T. Skilling and Maria Goddard, in addition to special lecturers.

The remarkable ethnological exhibit by the Smithsonian Institution, the ancient and modern Indian display, the commercial representation and horticultural displays, crowning the work in architecture, equip the San Diego Exposition with extraordinary facilities for study. Practically all, moreover is permanent, this being almost unique in world’s fair achievement.

Exposition visitors have had the pleasure of meeting another star of the movie world. This is dainty Mary Pickford, who came to San Diego and the exposition with the Famous Players’ Company to enact a screen thriller. Part of this was made on board the palatial yacht Venetia, owned by John D. Spreckels. Big crowds followed Miss Pickford through the exposition grounds, while the most ardent of the movie fans pressed forward to shake hands with her. Miss Pickford very graciously received them and talked with them about movie art as much of her time, estimated at $104,000 a year, would permit.


Forty-seven years ago the Board of Trustees of the Old Town of San Diego, near the site of the landing by Cabrillo in 1542 and the first California Mission in 1769, the marriage of Ramona, and otherwise distinguished in western history — set aside 1,400 acres, where new San Diego now stands, for park purposes. In this great park is now the Panama-California Exposition. On the forty-seventh anniversary, there was escorted into the grounds Juan Guadaloupe Estudillo, the only surviving member of the old board.


The famous old wooden depot which since 1887 had done duty in San Diego has ceased to exist. The tower — a well-known landmark to thousands of roadmen and tourists — bit the dust when two yard engines to which was attached a wire cable pulled the wire through the base of the tower and brought it down with a crash.

Immediately after the tower was wrecked, the ground was cleared and additional sidetracks were installed to take care of the ever-increasing exposition business. The big palms which formerly graced the depot platform have been moved to new locations adjoining the new passenger station. These trees were moved through deep, wide cuts and about forty-five tons of earth were moved with each palm. The earth about the roots was boxed tightly to permit of the whole being glided along the cut. While moving the palms in this manner involved a great deal of work, it would have been impracticable to hoist them with a crane without badly damaging them.

San Diego Sun, June 1, 1915, 7:6. Officials report just 789,440 admitted to the Fair since opening; 17,663 on May 31, in addition to those in Memorial Day parade; 179,818 in May; 180,270 in January.

San Diego Sun, June 1, 1915, 9:1. Art Museum planned here; Corporation to apply to Park Commission for permission to use one of the more permanent Exposition buildings.

San Diego Sun, June 1, 1915, 12:1-2. 20,000 visited the Stadium during dedication exercises yesterday.

San Diego Union, June 1, 1915, 1:1. Stadium opened with athletic carnival, by W. W. B. Seymour.

San Diego Union, June 1, 1915, 2:1. Stadium athletic meet furnishes rich reward for unselfish citizens, by Charles P. Cook.

San Diego Union, June 1, 1915, 8:1. Churchill J. Bartlett, representative of Texas governor, visits Fair.

San Diego Union, June 1, 1915, Classified, 1:4. Six more dancers join Troubadours; La Felicia, new troupe star, skilled artist, native of Seville, Spain.

San Diego Union, June 1, 1915, Classified, 1:5. Olive Hinsdell, actor, delivered Lincoln’s “Gettysburg Address” at Organ Pavilion during organ recital yesterday.

San Diego Union, June 2, 1915, 6:1. Carrie Jacobs Bond Day observed; 200 members of American Library Association participated at reception; Mrs. Robert F. Garner new hostess as Seven California Counties Building.

San Diego Union, June 2, 1915, 6:2. Lieutenant Governor John M. Eshleman, guest of Colonel Ed Fletcher, lauds Fair.

San Diego Union, June 2, 1915, 6:3. Dr. Kroeber gave lecture on Indians of California in New Mexico Building last night.

San Diego Union, June 2, 1915, 6:4. Month of May has largest attendance at Exposition since opening; total attendance was 179,440.

San Diego Herald, June 3, 1915, 1:5. At the Exposition: The total attendance in May of 179,440 gives a daily average of 5,800, the greatest daily average in a month’s time since the Exposition threw open its gates. The biggest day in May was the 31st, when 17,663 passed through the turnstiles. This figure does not include the 2,500 who entered the grounds in the Memorial Day parade. The total attendance at the Exposition since its opening now reaches the high figure of 798,440.

San Diego Sun, June 3, 1915, 2:5-6. Gilson Gardner, Sun Washington correspondent, praises San Diego Exposition: “One may go from court to court, drawing joy — emotional or analytical — from the color scheme alone. . . . It isn’t necessary to see exhibits. Why do inside a building when the next turn beyond leads into a garden of magical beauty where flowers have apparently always been growing and birds always singing.”

San Diego Union, June 3, 1915, 8:1. Thousands coming to Exposition this month, special train arranged.

San Diego Sun, June 4, 1915, 2:3. Emma Goldman coming to Exposition; woman, twice rushed out of town, says she is going to speak.

San Diego Sun, June 4, 1915, 9:5. Alameda and Santa Clara Counties Day, Saturday, June 5; free cherries to be distributed at host building.

San Diego Union, June 4, 1915, 3:2. Congressional girls given Japanese tea; Miss Annie Ibrie, daughter of Congressman E. W. Pow of Smithfield, North Carolina, was honor guest at Exposition function; Miss Mayme Ober Peak, secretary to Congressman Kettner, was hostess.

San Diego Union, June 4, 1915, 7:2. New Spanish dancers please; La Jota Aragonesa cheered.

San Diego Union, June 4, 1915, Classified, 1:1. Exposition to honor Admiral Howard Tuesday; directors will show appreciation for aid given by fleet commander; great parade arranged; 1,500 military organizations expected in line of march.

San Diego Union, June 4, 1915, Classified, 1:5. Big sham battle, July 4 arranged; “Defense of San Diego,” military spectacle to be given at Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 4, 1915, Classified, 1:5. Members Christian Commercial Traveling Men’s Association expected to visit San Francisco and San Diego expositions late next month.

San Diego Sun, June 5, 1915, 3:1. Chief of Police Wilson may or may not allow Emma Goldman to speak at Exposition.

San Diego Sun, June 5, 1915, 4:2-4. EDITORIAL: An Easter Who Saw: San Diego’s Exposition is different. . . . It is a splendid lesson on what man can do with nature’s fundaments, and that lesson is good for every man who has a square foot of back or front yard. . . . A great exhibition of machinery, great buildings, architectural excellence makes you wonder and that’s the only sentiment you can take home with you. Some inventor, some builder, some architect had done big things that you can’t. But look on that beautiful floral picture and you will take home with you a new love and knowledge that you can create the big things that will mean more beauty and happiness in your life and the lives of others.

San Diego Union, June 5, 1915, 2:2. John Cosgrave, editor of the New York World Sunday Magazine, to see Fair.

San Diego Union, June 5, 1915, 2:2. Summer school attracts tutors; entrants register in classes from all parts of the United States.

San Diego Union, June 5, 1915, 3:5-6. Celebrities coming to Exposition, June 14 and 15, with 75 beauties who won Universal Film Company’s contest.

San Diego Union, June 5, 1915, 5:2-3.

  1. W. Bowers sheds light on park founding: I came to San Diego in 1869 and have been a resident ever since. I know personally and intimately all the men and officials who were at all prominent in the making of the park. I known the written and unwritten history of its making. I know it as certified to, in the main, by the records of the government of this city.

The records show that on February 15, 1868, E. W. Morse — one of the three trustees of this city at that time — at a regular meeting of the board of trustees offered a resolution to set apart lands for a public park, which resolution was adopted, and E. W. Morse and Thomas Bush — another member of the board — were appointed a committee to select the location and lay out the same on the city map. At that time, the board of trustees consisted of J. S. Mannassee, E. W. Morse and Thomas Bush. I know from Morse that Trustee Bush took but slight interest in the selection of the lands and site, and these were selected by Morse and A. E. Horton, and that their report and recommendation were readily accepted by Trustee Smith [sic], who reported with Morse favorably to the board.

I know also from Morse that he was earnestly urged by Horton and Charles P. Taggert, who were the prime movers in the enterprise, to submit his resolution promptly to the board.

Soon after the report of the committee on location, a new board of trustees was elected, consisting of Marcus Schiller, Jose Estudillo and Joshua Sloane. The records show that under date of May 26, 1868, the said trustees, acting on the report of Committee men Morse and Bush, adopted the ordinance setting aside for a public park forever the 1400 acres of land selected and recommended by the said committee.

On February 4, 1870, the state legislature passed the bill confirming the act of the trustees in setting aside the 1400 acres of Pueblo lands for a city park.

In December, 1871, a bill was introduced in the legislature to repeal the act confirming the establishment of the park. A strong protest against this repeal was sent to Sacramento and the bill was killed.

During the last forty years occasional projects for cutting up and diminishing the size of the park have been suggested, but it remains intact, and the promise is that it will so remain for centuries, if not forever.

I know that A. E. Horton, E. W. Morse and C. P. Taggert were the foremost among the founders of the park and that they were assisted to some extent by James McCoy.

I know that neither Horton nor any friend of his ever claimed that he gave the land for the park. He gave only his earnest and intelligent work for it. I was not aware that there is any “impression throughout the city that the park was the gift of Father Horton.” The impression may have been honestly enough created by the fact that Horton having given the land for so many public buildings and so much public service, was responsible for the park also.

San Diego Union, June 5, 1915, 5:2. Cavalry drill to be repeated;

As an additional feature of Admiral Thomas Benton Howard Day at the Panama-California Exposition next Tuesday, Capt. George Van Horn Moseley of the cavalry will give another cavalry drill at the tractor field in honor of Admiral Howard.

The last event of this kind held for the benefit of Los Angeles motorists, Motor Day, attracted to the grounds an immense crowd which thoroughly enjoyed the performance.

The drill to be held Tuesday will be as thrilling as the one held Motor Day, and, as there are thousands of San Diegans who have not seen this branch of the service in action, a large crowd is expected. It will be held shortly after Admiral Howard reviews the parade from the steps of the Sacramento Building. The parade will leave the foot of Broadway at 1:30 p.m.

In the evening a great outdoor dancing party in honor of the enlisted men will be held at the Plaza de Panama. Society women of the city and Coronado are planning for this event, which, it is predicted, will be the biggest affair of the kind ever held in Southern California.

San Diego Union, June 5, 1915, Classified, 1:2-4. Papoose born at Exposition; Painted Desert folk joyous; congratulations showered on proud mother, age 17, who took part in dance night before man-child came; baby named “San Diego.”

Los Angeles Times, June 6,1915, VI, 2:6-7. Week’s big success at San Diego Fair.

San Diego, June 5. In point of attendance, gate receipts and interest, the week just closed was the biggest since the opening week of the San Diego exposition. More than 70,000 persons passed through the gates, which is about the number of the big opening week, and the gate receipts for the week were nearly $20,000. On the Isthmus the concessionaires experienced the greatest week of the year and about $35,000 was spent there.

Aside from the great crowds, some of the most important events since the opening took place and many important parties were guests of the big fair. It was a week of big events and of celebrities.

On Tuesday evening the Café Cristobal was the scene of one of the most brilliant banquets in its history. The party of tourists, composed of fifty Congressmen and their families on their way home from Honolulu, were guests of honor and the café was converted into the halls of Congress for a few hours when some of the most famous statesmen and orators of the country delivered addresses.

Uncle Joe Cannon, who had received ovations throughout the day wherever he went, was the central figure of the banquet. In a speech uncharacteristic of the famous statesman and which was contrary to his customary style, he shunned politics completely and painted a beautiful word-picture of the early days of the country. The aged statesman told in vivid language how he had seen the country grow from 17,000,000 to 100,000,000 and watched the progress westward.

Tuesday also was the day set aside to honor Carrie Jacobs Bond, the famous composer who lives at San Diego, and thousands of her admirers attended the recital where her songs were sung. A luncheon was given for her and later the treat of the day was given when she herself sang her song, “The End of a Perfect Day.”

On Monday of this week the attendance was the greatest number since the opening. The number of persons registered at the turnstiles was 17,663. Thousands attended the Memorial Day services under the auspices of the Grand Army of the Republic at the big out-door organ.

Although not within the exposition gates, but adjoining the grounds and practically a part of it, one the same day was celebrated the dedication of the big municipal stadium. More than 20,000 persons were seated about the great oval field of the immense stadium, the building of which was the greatest feat, next to the exposition, that San Diego has ever undertaken. Ten thousand school children attended and more than 300 athletes were entered in the athletic events of the day.

On Sunday Gov. R. L. Beekman of Rhode Island and his party were guests of honor at the exposition, and on Monday the 150 delegates to the National Electric Light Association convention, comprising the big men of the electric light and power companies of the country, visited the exposition in a body.

The Congressional party remained in the city until Friday evening and many banquets and receptions were given for them at the exposition.

Next week will also be one of the big events. Tuesday will be one of the most important of these as it has been set aside to honor Admiral Howard, commander of the Pacific fleet. All enlisted men of the Coast Artillery Corps, the Fourth Regiment of Marines, and the First Cavalry stationed here, as well as the sailors of the U.S.S. Colorado and the U.S.S. San Diego, will be in attendance.

A great military ball will be given for these enlisted men, who would number about 2,000, in the Plaza de Panama, Tuesday night. The military bands of the Coast Artillery Corps, the Marine Band and the bands of the Colorado and the San Diego will play and it is planned to make the most gala out-of-door occasion of the year.

Many other important special events are planned for the next two weeks so that June will be a banner month at the exposition in point of attendance.

Los Angeles Times, June 6, 1915, VI-1, 2. Keeping lit clamped on high prices, by Mary S. Gulliver.

San Diego, June 5. Exorbitant prices are taboo at the San Diego Exposition. Contrary to the history of expositions, hotel rates in San Diego are no higher now than at any time and meals served within the grounds may be had for the same price as outside.

This is a part of a great plan made by the directors of the fair to secure for the big show a larger advertising medium, that is to make every visitor to the exposition a personal advertising agent through his satisfaction with the hospitality offered. Courtesy on the part of the guards and of all employees of the exposition to visitors is a third great factor in this advertising plan.

Long before the exposition opened an agreement was made by the exposition management with hotel men and apartment house owners to adhere to a certain schedule of prices agreed upon. The contracts of all exhibitors and concessionaires state that concessions must be conducted satisfactorily to the exposition. And “satisfactorily to the exposition” has been found by the concessionaires to mean without charging the public exorbitant prices.

There was a clearing house for grievances established at the Administration Building to guard against dissatisfaction on the part of visitors through any cause, but the clearing house has been almost abandoned by default. There seem to be no particular grievances. You pay $1.50 or $2 for a room in a good hotel with remembrances of similar accommodations at past expositions for which you paid $5; you may eat a table d’hote luncheon for 50 cents at the best café on the exposition grounds and in answer to an inquiry for information of the blue-suited guards you receive a courteous reply that gives you the idea you are a welcome guest and not a nuisance to be gotten rid of as quickly as possible. All of which has been accomplished through Director-General H. O. Davis and his subordinates in a business-like way that has eliminated all dissatisfaction.

The guards at the San Diego Exposition are all detective agency men, experienced and reliable. However, not so long ago three of the very capable one were discharged on account of their failure to treat visitors with courtesy. Frequently a perplexed sightseer is surprised to receive some courteous direction concerning buildings or grounds from a passing man or woman; because every employee of the fair, whether accountant or stenographer in the Administration Building or gardener on the grounds is instructed to lend every assistance possible to visitors.

And so almost unwittingly the tourist or visitor becomes a part of San Diego’s big advertising scheme.

The subject of cafes and restaurants at an exposition is sure to be and important one for the most interesting of the exhibits pale in interest if that empty feeling has come over the sightseer. There is a great variety of eating places on the grounds from the big café on the Alhambra, where you enjoy the most elaborate meal and dance between courses to gay music, to the sandwich stands on the Isthmus. There are quiet tearooms opening on beautiful balconies, there is a cafeteria where the Californian may feel quite at home, a chop suey restaurant, and a German beer garden. In many of the exhibit buildings there are small restaurants or tearooms where refreshments may be had at reasonable prices.

So take it all in all the visitor to the San Diego Exposition carries away with him not only a memory of the wonderful architecture and landscape beauty of the fair, but a sense of kindly hospitality extended to him by the city which invites him to return.


To properly enjoy San Diego’s exposition one cannot rush hurriedly through with a birds eye view of the whole and glance at the exhibits in the interior of the buildings in a systematic manner, as if on a conducted tour. If I had but one day to spend at the exposition, it would be spent entirely in the grounds outside the buildings. In that way one would at least get an idea of the beauty of the architecture, with its twining vines and masses of bloom and background of flowers and shrubbery.

But I suppose that is not the correct idea of seeing an exposition, so if one must visit the buildings with the educational idea in view, one should at least linger on the Puente Cabrillo long enough to see the magnificent view of the bay and the islands beyond. Then, to become imbued with the idea of Spain which is presented by the buildings, one should wander to the Plaza de Panama and feed the pigeons that flock there by the hundreds or watch the Spanish dancers in groups of twos and threes as they come dancing down the Prado or sing from the balconies.

The troupe of Spanish singers, which does so much to express the soul of the exposition, has been increased to fourteen pretty senoritas and senors recently, and the number will be increased to more later. This is planned that the Spanish singers and dancers may be found all over the grounds.

One cannot see the pretty senoritas dance their native dances, with all the fire and grace peculiar to the Spanish, or see the entire troupe join in some pretty folk dance to the music of the mandolin, guitars and castanets, without feeling the spirit of the exposition. After that it would be useless to choose for another what-to-see in the buildings. The calm, restful spirit of the place will lead the visitor to the exhibit which will most suit his fancy, and that is all that is necessary for the enjoyment of the San Diego fair, whether it be the Painted Desert with its Indians, or the ’49 Camp with its western flavor, the wonderful exhibits of archaeology and anthropology in the California Quadrangle, the State buildings, or the beautiful botanical gardens and buildings.

For if one sees every exhibit here and has not caught the spirit of the exposition, one has not truly seen the exposition.


The Woman’s Headquarters, the wonderful room in the California Building, with its striking color scheme of persimmon, red and gray, which is so attractive, is a great factor in the hospitable atmosphere of the fair. Here celebrities gather, either by invitation or by chance, at the most delightful teas.

One day this past week a delightful instance of this occurred. While everyone was trying to speak with Uncle Joe Cannon, or shake the hand of the famous ex-Speaker of the House, a demure little woman was introduced to Mrs. Carrie Jacobs Bond, the composer, in whose honor the exposition has set aside that day. Mrs. Bond greeted the little woman, but, aside from the usual courteous salutation she gave to all she met, there was no hint of recognition. Finally the friend who had introduced the two women whispered into Mrs. Bond’s ear that the little woman was the Lady of Decoration: for the demure little woman was Mrs. Fannie Macaulay (Frances Little), the writer of the charming story, “The Lady of the Decoration,” and other pretty tales. Soon the two women were engrossed in a conversation about their work, for they had long been corresponding over certain books and certain songs, but had never before met. Mrs. Macaulay, by the way, compares the architecture of the exposition to the famous Taj Mahal.

Soon another famous woman was drawn into their circle, Mrs. Isa Maud Ilsen, the only woman who has the distinction of being a representative of Thomas A. Edison. Mrs. Ilsen is doing an educative work throughout the country, taking up the psychology of music as illustrated by Edison’s inventions and similar subjects to be taught in the schools.


There is much merrymaking in the Painted Desert among the Indians for the first birth since the Painted Desert was opened occurred yesterday. The little papoose is the son of Dolores and Jose of the Acoma tribe, the pottery makers. The pretty young mother is but 17 years old and mighty proud of the distinction of being the mother of the first child of the Painted Desert. A christening with proper ceremonial will be held next week by the Indians.

San Diego Union, June 6, 1915, 1:6. Tons of cherries given away; thousands enjoy feast at Fair; Alameda and Santa Clara Counties hosts.

San Diego Sun, June 7, 1915, 1:1-2. Councilman W. Moore asked City for $3,000 to entertain Emma; a special committee to be appointed by chief of police; resolution referred to mayor’s conference.

San Diego Sun, June 7, 1915, 1:4-5. Admiral Thomas Benton Howard Day tomorrow; commander of Pacific fleet; military parade from Broadway to Plaza de Panama; Cavalry stunts on tractor field; dinner at Cristobal Café in evening; outdoor ball in the Plaza de Panama at 8:00 p.m.; women to be admitted free after 6:00 p.m.

San Diego Union, June 7, 1915, 12:4. Miss Esther Plumb, Chicago vocalist, scores triumph at Fair; concert with Dr. Stewart yesterday at Organ Pavilion.

San Diego Union, June 7, 1915, 12:4. Miss Esther Plumb, contralto of Chicago, scored triumph yesterday at Organ Pavilion; Dr. Stewart surrounds vocal gems with varied program.

San Diego Sun, June 8, 1915, 3:1. Exposition made profit of $28,361 in May; June 19 will be San Bernardino County Day; June 24 will be Orange County Day.

San Diego Union, June 8, 1915, Classified, 1:1. Exposition to pay Admiral Howard honor today; military parade will start for Fair grounds at 1:30; review arranged; outdoor dance feature; exhibitions by cavalrymen and other interesting events on program.

San Diego Union, June 9, 1915, 1:3, 4:4-6. Fair pays tribute to Admiral Howard; great military pageant opens day’s brilliant events; cavalry exhibition, air flights, drills and dances feature festivities..

San Diego Union, June 9, 1915, 1:7-8. William Jennings Bryan resigned yesterday as Secretary of State; claims government’s policy toward Germany is too drastic.

San Diego Union, June 9, 1915, 1:4-6. Bryan’s letter of resignation.

San Diego Union, June 9, 1915, 2. President Wilson expresses deep regret at Bryan’s action.

San Diego Union, June 9, 1915, 4:1-2. EDITORIAL: Bryan’s betrayal of the President: Secretary Bryan has been guilty of one of the most un-American and most unpatriotic acts ever committed by a man holding a prominent position in the government of the United State.

San Diego Union, June 9, 1915, 4:6. Spectacular exhibition of cavalrymen at Fair thrills many watchers.

San Diego Union, June 9, 1915, 8:1. Three hundred Texas bankers arrive to view Exposition.

San Diego Sun, June 10, 1915, 3:1. Women’s Christian Temperance Union Day at Exposition Friday, June 11; 250 members to arrive from Pasadena; address at Organ Pavilion; reception in blue room of Seven California Counties Building.

San Diego Sun, June 10, 1915, 4:1. EDITORIAL: A Splendid Plan . . . supporting use of one of the permanent buildings for a museum; also using ranch exhibit as a laboratory for students of a Southern California agricultural college and hold and agricultural fair for a month or two every year.

San Diego Union, June 10, 1915, 1:4-6. Maharajah of Kapurthala to see Fair; arrived yesterday afternoon on private car.

San Diego Union, June 10, 1915, 3:2-3. Napoleon the Wonderful Man Ape and trainer to visit Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 10, 1915, 8:2. Spanish troubadours win hearts at Fair; sweet melodies float down from balconies; senoritas to stage romantic festival in Exposition gardens.

San Diego Union, June 11, 1915, 3:4. Governor Seymour Whitman of New York to be at Fair tomorrow; New York Day and also Maxwell Day.

San Diego Union, June 11, 1915, 5:2. Mrs. Isa Maude Ilsen to entertain enlisted men of Marine Corps with a musicale in New Mexico Building tonight.

San Diego Sun, June 12, 1915, 1:4. Director-General Davis to be beauty judge today in Los Angeles; 60 American beauties to invade San Diego Monday.

San Diego Union, June 12, 1915, 1:4, 4:5. Sixty one beauties due tomorrow.

San Diego Union, June 13, 1915, 3:2. New York Governor Charles Seymour Whitman and staff visit Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 13, 1915, 10:3. Maxwell car won by Thomas Parker, San Diegan, at Exposition; Santa Ana visitors egg race victors; entrants efforts amuse crowds; obstacle contest honors go to Los Angeles visitor; Tetztaff won speed contest of 50 yards. . . . A large crowd was attracted to the tractor field where the events were held. There were at least 100 Maxwell cars on the grounds.

San Diego Union, June 13, 1915, 10:3. Isthmus Notes.

San Diego Union, June 13, 1915, 10. W. E. Macarron, San Diegan, wins South American contracts; electriquettes will be introduced in cities below equator; 3,000 cars required; has secured privilege of operating these chairs on the boulevards and in the parks of Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Montevideo and Santiago.

San Diego Union, June 13, 1915, 10. M. Logsdon, Exposition gateman at the Laurel Street entrance, marries on vacation.

San Diego Herald, June 14, 1915, 4. At the Exposition:

Military parades, drills and demonstrations, fraught with spectacular features and standing out in luminous contrast to the more sober programs arranged by peace advocates, are some of the attractions included in the mammoth Fourth of July celebration at the San Diego Exposition, July 3, 4 and 5. The program has just been arranged in detail. It is far more comprehensive than was first intended and doubtless will be the greatest given during Exposition year.

The program has been arranged to appeal to all classes, while its features have been set down so that there will be a continued celebration during the three days. Over the whole has been spread the theme of entertainment of visitors, this including a series of Spanish operettas by the Spanish Troubadours, fireworks night and day, illumination of the lofty California tower by a brilliant pyrotechnic display, outdoor balls and special band concerts by the military bands stationed at San Diego. One important feature is that all of the exhibit buildings will be open on the three holidays, thus giving opportunity of inspecting the comprehensive and interesting exhibits to those who are unable to visit the Exposition on weekdays.

Starting with the huge parade of the Odd Fellows the morning of July 3 and ending with a magnificent display of fireworks the night of July 5, the program shows enough diversity to please the most exacting.

While San Diego hotels have ample accommodation for a great crowd, the Exposition urges that reservations be made without delay by those desirous of getting the best service.

San Diego Union, June 14, 1915, 1:7. Park Board plans great zoo; plan to purchase entire menagerie from Wonderland Park at Ocean Beach.

San Diego Union, June 14, 1915, 5:4. Governor L. E. Pinkham of Hawaii guest at Fair today.

Los Angeles Times, June 15, 1915, II, 5:5-7.

Exposition many dollars to good: That the San Diego Exposition was $74,000 to the good on the first inst.; that the overhead cost of operation had been reduced to the equivalent of its actual cash receipts; that its auxiliary income is sufficient to provide for a series of special events and show an increasing profit — these things are the substance of a verbal report made to The Times by President G. A. Davidson of the exposition company.

“Not a single month since the exposition opened have we shown a red figure,” commented Davidson. “Considering that we have passed through the most unpromising part of an exposition year, we believe we have good reason to be proud.

“Our daily attendance is averaging 3,000 admissions and gradually, as the tourist season opens wider, we are observing a healthy increase daily. When the Los Angeles schools close this month and the good people of the Angel City begin crowding in upon us, coupled with the tremendous influx of people promised by the railroad and steamship companies, we anticipate the complete success of our efforts.”

While the San Diego exposition officials have provided a startling variety of amusement attractions on the Isthmus, the visitor is impressed with the unique plan to serve typical and semi-tropical diversions in all parts of the grounds.

Regular Romeo and Juliet balconies on nearly all the exhibit buildings break forth in Spanish melody; brilliantly attired groups of young men and women pour forth Carmen and Spain’s old operas from behind shrubbery and pepper trees; a gaily decorated maiden suddenly darts from an arcade to render some old Mexican dance on the shaded streets. Thus, moment after moment, the tired sightseers are revived in most pleasant manner.

The spirited military music of the Marine Band calls thousands to witness the regular afternoon review of the deep-sea fighting men of Uncle Sam. The gigantic outdoor organ peals forth its deep and delicate tones for an hour. So, minute by minute and hour after hour, you are lured to charm after charm, dreaming the while that you have been wafted on some magic carpet to distant lands.

San Diego Union, June 15, 1915, Classified, 1:2.

Want to meet pretty girls? Here’s chance: fifty film actresses coming with beauties; mock wedding scheduled at Exposition; 61 bachelors will meet visions of loveliness; rousing welcome arranged. . . . There will be a moving picture wedding in the Plaza de Panama at 3:00 p.m. It will be a mock affair, part of a Universal scenario in which the Exposition will be displayed prominently. In the making of this picture a large crowd will contribute to its success, and all who have not enjoyed the making of film plays will have an opportunity to see the details this afternoon.

During the enactment of the scenario the Marine Corps band will play the wedding march. Twelve of the prettiest maids in the lot will act as bridesmaids to Miss. Ruth M. Purcell, while as many of the bachelors chosen as escorts will act as best men.

San Diego Union, June 15, 1915, Classified, 1. More beauties coming to San Diego; 20 teachers due Thursday; Northwestern Girls will arrive on McCormack liner tomorrow.

San Diego Union, June 15, 1915, Classified, 1. New Mexico’s building will surrender to Miss Ruth Safford of Santa Fe, one of the 61 varieties of American beauties scheduled to arrive in the city this morning.

San Diego Union, June 15, 1915, 14:1. Nurses’ Day at Fair set for tomorrow; American Medical Association will visit Exposition on Friday.

San Diego Union, June 15, 1915, 14:4. Park owners offer animals to San Diego; price of $2,500 made on Wonderland Zoo beasts; decision pending; Forward and Ferris of Park Commission discussed matter with Mayor Capps yesterday morning. . . . The Wonderland Zoo contains lions, leopards, monkeys and many other beasts as well as a number of birds.

San Diego Union, June 16, 1915, 1:7, 3:6.

Southland cavaliers make good with beauties; country’s fairest daughters captivated by San Diego and Exposition; 61 heartbreakers pass day filled with fund and excitement.

When at 10:30 last night the chaperons rounds up their charges — the American beauty winners in the beauty contest held by the Universal Film Company — and told them the day at the Panama-California Exposition was at an end, the chaperons became instantly unpopular with San Diego bachelors who were having the time of their lives at the American Beauty Ball at the Cristobal Café. The bachelors, under the astute leadership of Tom Hammond had counted on a midnight hour, with a few minutes to spare to say goodnight, but the chaperons upset all plans and whisked the girls back to the Hotel del Coronado in automobiles — the entire 61 of them!

  1. A. Davidson, at Sacramento Building: “It is appropriate that America’s daughters should visit the fairest Exposition ever held.”

Wedding held on platform of Sacramento Building in afternoon for movie “The World to Come,” produced by Bison Company under the direction of Henry MacRae, in which nearly all the beauties will appear; Miss. Ruth Purcell of Washington, DC, named prettiest of all.

San Diego Union, June 17, 1915, 14:1. 400 nurses, members of American Nurses’ Association, visit Exposition; Mrs. E. H. Thompson, president San Diego Nurses, in charge of entertainment.

San Diego Union, June 17, 1915, 14:2. Professor T. B. Bird, Denver educator, to see Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 17, 1915, 14:3. Tonight is “Society Night” at Exposition; Thursday evening dinner dance at Cristobal Café.

Park Commissioners Minutes, June 18, 1915. Contracts awarded for comfort station in the northwest section of the park: $618.65 for construction of building and $260.00 for installation and furnishing of plumbing; Mrs. Helen Tilden of Venice, Calif. gave Commissioner Ferris and Superintendent valuable collection of oriental curios for exhibition in Fine Arts Building; Superintendent to investigate offer of animals in the Zoo at Wonderland Park, Ocean Beach, for a financial consideration.

San Diego Sun, June 18, 1915, 2:1. Mayor Capps wants to avoid trouble if Emma speaks at Fraternal Brotherhood Hall on Sunday; expresses confidence in Police Department.

San Diego Sun, June 18, 1915, 8:2-3. Police system unique; Exposition is well protected; Captain C. P. Wright, chief of Panama-California Exposition police force; no cases before police court to date; known crooks taken to “show-up room” for each officer on grounds to take a look at them; officers can see in but the suspects cannot see out.

San Diego Union, June 18, 1915, 1:1. 3,000 Yaquis on warpath, plunder Sonora; Marines to land at Guaymas to aid Americans.

San Diego Union, June 18, 1915. 1.5. Armored cruiser Colorado hurries to awe Yaqui braves; big force assembling.

San Diego Union, June 18, 1915, 1:6. Manager says ’49 Camp games are lawful; S. A. Burnside, head of popular Isthmus attraction, placed under arrest.

San Diego Union, June 19, 1915, 4:1.

EDITORIAL on value of Exposition as seen after the first six months: The chief value of the Panama-California Exposition, now in its sixth successful month, it constantly becoming more apparent. When the enterprise was first planned, many persons doubtless expected that the main advantage that San Diego would derive would be only that which comes to any city from the presence of many thousands of visitors. It will probably be conceded that most other expositions have been arranged largely for the purpose of drawing a crowd, and success has been measured mainly by the attendance. San Diego has had the crowd — has it still, and presumably will have it during the remainder of the year. But the city has received even a greater benefit than that resulting from the presence of so many visitors from the outside world, welcome though they are.

The inestimable advantage of the Exposition to San Diego is the advertising that the city has received and is receiving from that uniquely beautiful display at Balboa Park. During the period preceding the opening of the great Fair, earnest efforts were made to let the rest of the country know all about the ambitious project that had been undertaken here. The results were very gratifying, but the real advertising of the Exposition and San Diego has come since the opening on New Year’s day. During the months that have elapsed, there has been no occasion to attempt much “publicity work.” Voluntarily and without solicitude the press of the country has paid warm tribute to the beauty of the Exposition, the attractions of San Diego and the courageous enterprise that made so superb a fair possible. To reproduce all the kind things that have been published on this topic would be beyond the capacity of most newspapers, and The Union has not attempted that task, contenting itself with printing from time to time the more notable articles appearing in other journals. And the field from which the selections have been made may be said with truth to be country-wide.

Of course, one of the immediate results of this unsought publicity is to swell the throngs of Exposition visitors, already more numerous than even the most sanguine San Diego resident had ventured to expect. But there will be other results and probably they will be the more important ones with respect to the ultimate value of the Exposition. For the advertising that this city is now receiving is not of the ephemeral kind. It places San Diego permanently on the map, and long after the Exposition shall have become a thing of the past the people of the entire country will remember this city. Thus viewed, it will be seen that the Exposition will prove of far more value to San Diego than that which is measured by gate receipts, large though they have been.

In what is here said there is no purpose to minimize the temporary advantages resulting from the Exposition. They are very great. San Diego is crowded with visitors and is trying to treat them so nicely that they will be pleased with the city and its people. And it must not be forgotten that this throng of sightseers is here at a time when, owing to depressed conditions everywhere, San Diego could not expect many visitors from the outside world were it not for the attractions of the Exposition.

So when one notes the present and prospective value of that enterprise, there appears good reason for congratulations over the courage shown by the people of this city in carrying to success a project that is doing much and promises to do much more for the benefit of San Diego.

San Diego Union, June 19, 1915, 12:3. Jury to decide ’49 Camp case; plea of not guilty entered by S. A. Burnside, manager.

San Diego Union, June 19, 1915, 12:4. Exposition is Mecca for stream of excursionists; Orange County motorists to arrive June 24; seven hundred and fifty realty men due June 27; one hundred and forty six New York scribes coming; Cleveland Athletic Club will be among visitors.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1915, 2:6. Governor Spry of Utah to visit Exposition July 17; four hundred High School cadets and band will accompany executive.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1915, 3:2. Spanish troubadours to stage love fiesta; Salamanca students will participate in carnival next Thursday night; nine new musicians, all men and experts at mandolin and guitar to arrive tomorrow.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1915, 3:6. Realty men ready to greet 3,500 delegates; President O. W. Cotton of San Diego Realty Board appoints entertainment committees; visitors coming Sunday.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1915, 5:2. Former Senator Clark of Montana, president of Salt Lake Route and donor of Montana Building visits Exposition and tells of benefit to Montana.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1915, 10:5. Governor George W. Clarke of Iowa to visit Fair today.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1915, 10:5. July 1 will be Christian Endeavor Day at the Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1915, 10:5. Dr. George Andrews of Oberlin College, middle-west organist, to play at Exposition Wednesday and Thursday afternoons.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1915, 10:5. Exhibit and County buildings open today; visitors unable to see Fair during week will be favored.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1915, 12:1. Three lively days to mark July 4 celebration; peace program arranged.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1915, Classified, 1:2. Schumann-Heink to keep word; diva to sing for children; program at Fair Wednesday.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1915, Classified, 2:4. Fair officials suggested to control San Diego’s Natural History Museum, by Surgeon G. C. Thompson: The urgent need at present is that the community begin to formulate ways and means that will have in view the proper upkeep and maintenance of these collections as the nucleus of a museum of natural history.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1915, Classified, 8:1. Orange County boosters visit Exposition; San Bernardino County delegation guests at luncheon; dancing party given; 100 northern visitors praise Fair.

San Diego Sun, June 21, 1915, 6:1. Emma Goldman heard by many; refuses to predict end of war; scores some so-called Christians; no disturbance.

San Diego Union, June 21, 1915, 3:2. Former Secretary of State Bryan and President Wilson can work for peace unhampered, says Senator James D. Phelan of San Francisco.

San Diego Union, June 21, 1915, 3:6. Mrs. Helen J. Tilden, former resident, presents art works and curios of Orient to San Diego; Smyrna rug 500 years old; a home for gifts will be made at Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 21, 1915, 5:4.

Emma Goldman leaves after three speeches; anarchist lecturer and editor speaks at Brotherhood Hall; her subject was “Ibsen’s Enemy of the People” in the morning, “Frederick Nietzsche, “The Storm Center of the European War” in the afternoon, and “The Limitation of Offspring” in the evening.

“Nothing Nietzsche ever wrote could be held responsible for such a war,” said the speaker. “He would have seen in the present war only a blood-stained reaction to nationalism and barbarism. Superman of Nietzsche was not of the type of Bismarck or the German emperor, but a superman of the spirit, of character and of mind.”

San Diego Union, June 21, 1915, 7:1. Governor George W. Clarke of Iowa in San Diego to see Fair; Cavalry and Marines will form escort for prominent visitor; luncheon and program at Exposition today will feature stay.

San Diego Union, June 21, 1915, 12:2-3. Mission Cliff Garden’s rare beauty captivates June King, New York writer of tales for American tots.

San Diego Union, June 21, 1915, 12:5. Treasures in art become part of Fair exhibits; far eastern studies by Christoph D. Paulus, German sculptor, secured for Exposition; striking terra cotta figures shown: statuettes and groups have been installed in the choir gallery of the Fine Arts Building in the Quadrangle; some portrait busts by noted genius shown at Kansas Building.

San Diego Union, June 22, 1915, 7:2-4. Clansman shown in San Diego to wild cheers.

San Diego Union, June 22, 1915, II, 1:2-4. Governor George W. Clark, Iowa executive Fair’s guest says the Hawkeye State seems to be solid for Senator Albert Baird for the presidency in 1916.

San Diego Union, June 22, 1915, II, 1:3. Exposition seeks William Jennings Bryan for speech on peace; invitation expected.

San Diego Evening Tribune, June 23, 1915, 2:2-3. Thousands to hear Mme. Schumann-Heink

San Diego Sun, June 23, 1915, 1:2-3. Songbirds to hang heads as Mme. Schumann-Heink sings for the little folk.

San Diego Union, June 23, 1915, 3. Mayo Indians on warpath; Americans menaced; 200 foreigners in danger as Redskins plunder Sinaloa town; appeal for protection sent to Washington; Yaqui Valley situation improved says Admiral Howard at Guaymas.

San Diego Union, June 23, 1915, 3:2-3. Schumann-Heink happy; tots to hear diva tonight.

San Diego Union, June 23, 1915, 7:3. Governor of Virginia Henry Carter Stuart to arrive July 13; Old Dominion’s executive is nephew of General “Jeb” Stuart, famous Confederate Cavalry chieftain.

San Diego Union, June 23, 1915, 7:4. Dr. Karl Much, conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, visits San Diego.

San Diego Union, June 23, 1915, 7:4. Before the end of the week it is expected the Varied Industries building will have been equipped with a novel display of recently invented photographic appliances by the Simplex Photo Products Company of Morris Park, Long Island; 800 pictures taken with single loading; midget camera probably will be featured.

San Diego Union, June 23, 1915, 7:5. A Mardi-Gras has been planned for Exposition Saturday evening; prizes aggregating $100 will be given for the best costumes in the different classes.

San Diego Evening Tribune, June 24, 1915, 1:8 Article by Evan Bird Bosworth — 25,767 at Fair last night; the writer was most impressed by Schumann-Heink’s singing of “Dawn in the Desert” by Gertrude Ross; “Into this Mme. Schumann-Heink put her very soul and it gripped the heart strings and held them taut.”

San Diego Evening Tribune, June 24, 1915, 3:1-3. Big demand for dusters and girls Saturday; Exposition Carnival free to “lady friends” Saturday night for jolly Charley Chaplin party; an occasion for all the amateur Charley Chaplins in the city.

San Diego Evening Tribune, June 24, 1915, 3:3. Big mid-week crowd to dance; tonight is ladies’ night at the dance pavilion.

San Diego Evening Tribune, June 24, 1915. Elks to boost the Exposition; train will leave from Los Angeles the evening of July 14 and on July 15 the Elks will hold a parade of their own.

San Diego Evening Tribune, June 24, 1915. Naval militia leaves Monday morning to be gone until after July 4.

San Diego Herald, June 24, 1915, 1:1-4. Emma Goldman’s arrival and stay did not create excitement, by C. R. Miller.

San Diego Sun, June 24, 1915, 3:2. 20,000 hear Mme. Schumann-Heink sing at Spreckels Organ; It was THE EVENT of the exposition year.

San Diego Sun, June 24, 1915, 7:1. Many visitors coming to Exposition; Saturday will be North Dakota Day and Brooklyn Day in honor of visitors; Sunday designated Billie Burke Day, in honor of actress appearing at Spreckels Theater; Monday will be Mrs. H. A. Beech Day for the well-known musical composer.

San Diego Union, June 24, 1915, 1:3. Mexican troops in Yaqui Valley; landing of American Marines to protect foreigners considered unnecessary.

San Diego Union, June 24, 1915, 1:2, 2:2-3.

Thousands lift voices with Schumann-Heink in Star Spangled Banner; magnificent tribute paid: The greatest contralto in the world faced the greatest crowd in her history at the greatest musical event in the history of San Diego and the Pacific coast when Mme. Schumann-Heink, beloved of and claimed by every man, woman and child in San Diego County, stepped out on the broad platform of the Spreckel’s organ pavilion at the Exposition last night, before a multitude of twenty thousand persons.

As the great singer faced her audience, a road of applause thundered from twenty thousand throats; twenty thousand pair of hands clapped their hardest and twenty thousand pair of eyes were fastened on the jolly, smiling figure, who was there only waiting for the tumultuous greeting to subside, in order to sing to the children in the city she loves.

What Mme. Schumann-Heink saw was a veritable sea of upturned faces, stretching back as far as the eye could reach, and on every face the features of which she could distinguish, a smile in which welcome and anticipation were commingled.

The Plaza de los Estados, the Via de Panama as far back as the Sacramento Valley Building, the Via de los Estados, both peristyles of the music pavilion — in short, every available inch of ground, pavement, lawn, coping, was occupied by human beings. There wasn’t an unoccupied spot big enough to accommodate the smallest human being alive. Directly in front of the platform, which was draped with American flags, were hundreds of children, packed in so closely that they could scarcely move, but every one of them eagerly awaiting the fulfillment of the promise Mme. Schumann-Heink had made to sing to them. Behind them and to each side of them were still more children, scattered among the adults. There were children everywhere and none said them nay, for they were there at the prima donna’s invitation, and that was enough authority for anyone.

As Mme. Schumann-Heink saw the multitude before her, she stepped forward quickly and held out her arms to them in greeting and the tears came to her eyes as the wondrous ovation, for those shouts and cried carried more plainly than any words the measure of love which San Diegans feel for their greatest citizen — their own Schumann-Heink.

With the first note of the organ accompaniment to the diva’s first number, the beautiful recitative and aria from Mendelssohn’s “Saint Paul,” the tumult died and when the first note came from that golden throat a great quiet fell upon the vast audience. “But the Lord is Mindful of His Own,” was what Schumann-Heink sang to her friends and children. Her wonderful voice rang out pure and sweet, carrying above the great tones of the organ so clearly that even loiterers on the Cabrillo Bridge, more than a quarter of a mile away, could hear her voice.

The next number was the beloved Nevin’s “Rosary,” sung with all the depth of feeling at the singer’s command. This song was given with piano accompaniment, played by Toni Hoff, and, in the next number, the beautiful aria, “My Heart at Thy Sweet Voice,” from Saint-Saen’s “Samson and Delilah,” both piano and organ joined.

After each song flowers were showered upon the singer and the crowd gave vent to its approval in thunders of applause. At one time six little children, each struggling under a floral burden almost bigger than himself or herself, came out on the platform and laid their offerings at her feet. And as this wonderful woman hugged and kissed all of them, and turning threw kisses of welcome to the crowd in front of her, another roar of applause from the throats of her legion of admirers.

But it was in her second group of songs that Mme. Schumann-Heink pleased her audience the most, for her selections were the really human songs that appeal to everyone. There was Schubert’s “Die Forelle” (The Trout); Brahm’s beautiful “Wiegenleid” (Cradle Song); “Heimweh” (Long for Home) by Hugo Wolf, one of the singer’s favorite songs; and the comic seventeenth century German folksong “Spinnerliedechen.” Had there been any doubt as to Mme. Schumann-Heink’s earnestness, her singing of “Heimweh” would have dispelled it. Her glorious voice thrilled with feeling, and, as she sang the closing phrase, she stepped forward to the edge of the platform and held out her arms, pouring out in melody her love and longing for her own San Diegans. And in the “Spinnerliedechen,” so well did the artist convey to her hearers the meaning of her song, which was given in German, that the children near her burst into laughter as she sang to them of the little Dutch girl who would spin for no less a reward but the promise of a lover. An encore, the beautiful German folksong, “Lovely Night,” was sung.

In her last group of songs, Mme. Schumann-Heink paid some attention to the grownups, picking her numbers for their dramatic quality. The first number was “Dawn in the Desert” by Mrs. Gertrude Ross, a Los Angeles composer, who is familiar to San Diegans. This was followed by Mary Turner Salter’s “Cry of Rachel,” one of the most stirring songs ever penned. Both of these Mme. Schumann-Heink sung as they seldom have been sung, with tremendous feeling and impressiveness. The closing number was Bizet’s “Agnus Dei,” with violin obligato by Mrs. Frieda Fonte Chapman of this city.

Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart, the official organist, opened the program by playing Schumann’s “Birthday March” on the great order in honor of the natal day of President G. A. Davidson of the Exposition. Later he played Handel’s “Largo,” “Cradle Song,” and “Evening Bells” by MacFarlane; Ravina’s “Adoremus,” and the “Triumphal March” by Benedict.

At the conclusion of the scheduled program, the children crowded about the platform, giving three rousing cheers for Mme. Schumann-Heink, who promptly came out and asked them to join her in singing “The Star Spangled Banner.” Not only the children, but the vast audience lifted their voices in the national anthem. And after more cheers and applause, which kept the great singer busy for some moments bowing acknowledgments, the crowd slowly departed.

“It was positively the greatest tribute I have ever received in my life,” declared Mme. Schumann-Heink after the concert. “I am certain no singer ever had a greater inspiration, for I was singing to my children, all of them, my grownup boys and girls, as well as my little children. And I am as happy as it is possible for me to be. It was all for my San Diego.”

San Diego Union, June 24, 1915, 2:1-2. Home city ovation touches heart of contralto; glorious to sing for townspeople, diva says; “I love them all,” by W. C. Getty.

San Diego Union, June 24, 1915, 5:5. Hundreds coming to Fair Saturday; Brooklyn Eagle party, North Dakota governor, others will be guests.

San Diego Union, June 24, 1915, II, 1:1. Exposition gates will open free for women; fair ones to be admitted without charge after 6 p.m. Saturday; many prizes offered; numerous catchy impersonations, costumes among carnival plans.

San Diego Union, June 24, 1915, II, 1:1. George Whitefield Andrews of the Oberlin Conservatory of Music to be heard at organ this afternoon.

San Diego Union, June 24, 1915, II, 1:1. Exposition traffic aids Canadian Pacific Line.

San Diego Union, June 24, 1915, II, 1:1. Farmer Burns arranges big boxing carnival at the Isthmus Saturday night.

San Diego Union, June 24, 1915, II, 1:5. With the arrival of W. R. Mills, general advertising agent of the Great Northern Railway, with J. W. Phelan, agent for the road at Los Angeles, the likelihood of a spectacular northern Indian festival at the Exposition in August became almost a fact.

San Diego Union, June 24, 1915, II, 14:1. Elks will boost Fair in north next month; big delegation slated for annual convention at Los Angeles; Exposition to send pretty dancers with local antlered herd.

San Diego Union, June 24, 1915, II, 14:3. South American surgeons coming; many delegates to convention in San Francisco will visit San Diego Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 24, 1915, II, 14:4. Georgia autoists end long trip to Exposition; tourists’ car has refrigerating system, electric lighting outfit; journey lasts 56 days.

Park Commissioners Minutes, June 25, 1915. Carleton M. Winslow appointed architect and inspector of comfort station to be erected in the northwest section of Balboa Park; to be paid $60.00 for his services.

San Diego Sun, June 25, 1915, 1:7-8. ’49 Camp is in hands of jury; attorney for camp says it is an “atmospheric demonstration”; prosecutors hold it is gambling pure and simple.

San Diego Sun, June 25, 1915, 9:3-4. Isthmus Carnival at Exposition tomorrow night; Washington Negro sextet to perform; prizes for impersonations and costumes; endurance dancing at dance pavilion.

San Diego Sun, June 25, 1915, 9:1. Christian Endeavor Convention in San Diego tomorrow; program at Stadium and in churches.

San Diego Union, June 25, 1915, 3:5. Real Estate Day at Fair planned for Monday.

San Diego Union, June 25, 1915, 8:3. Old Fashioned Rag Party will be feature of Fair carnival Saturday night; cash prizes; scores pledged for fiesta.

San Diego Union, June 25, 1915, 8:5. Orange County guests to be honored at Fair today: President Davidson and Spanish troubadours will form escort for visitors.

San Diego Union, June 25, 1915, 8:6. Mrs. Jessie C. Knox in charge of the potpourri rose garden at the Exposition announced yesterday the completion of a small building at the rose garden where potpourri will be sold.

San Diego Union, June 25, 1915, Classified, 1:1. Governor Arthur Capper of Kansas to visit Fair next month.

San Diego Union, June 25, 1915, Classified, 1:4. ’49 Camp trial on; witnesses fail to convince; ignorance of roulette admitted under defense’s cross examination; player consults Hoyle; La Jollan testifies that gamekeepers refuse money for chips.

San Diego Union, June 25, 1915, Classified, 1:6. Official figures show 25,767 visit Exposition during Schumann-Heink day.

San Diego Union, June 25, 1915, Classified, 1:6. Newcomb Carlton of New York City, former director of works for the Pan-American Exposition at Buffalo and president of Western Union, charmed by Fair.

San Diego Union, June 25, 1915, Classified, 1:6. Governor L. B. Hanna of North Dakota due this afternoon.

San Diego Sun, June 26, 1915, 1:2. Another trial for ’49 Camp; divided vote of jury last night.

San Diego Sun, June 26, 1915, 4:2-3. EDITORIAL: True Greatness . . . extols beauty of Spreckels Organ and of Mme. Shumann-Heink’s singing, especially of “Star Spangled Banner;” Imagine it! The greatest organ, the greatest voice, the greatest chorus, the greatest song, the greatest outdoors on earth! . . . She’s golrious [sic] !

San Diego Union, June 26, 1915, 1:4-5. ’49 Camp jurymen disagree, dismissed; seven favor acquittal; eleven deadlocked over value of “scrip”; five men holding out for conviction; defense counsel scores prosecution.

San Diego Union, June 26, 1915, 3:5. Big Mardi Gras festival is Fair attraction; North Dakota governor and Brooklyn Eagle party to be guests; hundreds will compete.

San Diego Union, June 26, 1915, 4:2-3. One hundred and forty six Brooklyn folk come to celebrate Fair day.

San Diego Union, June 26, 1915, 14:1. Carnival to reign supreme tonight on Isthmus; big crowd expected; Spanish troubadours and quartet of Negro singers are attractions.

San Diego Union, June 27, 1915, 1:6. ’49 Camp case retrial scheduled this week.

San Diego Union, June 27, 1915, 11:1. Mardi Gras spirit rules Exposition merrymakers; Isthmus revelers judge contestants for costume prizes offered; many Charlie Chaplins; Carl Ecker arrayed as a woman deceives crowd and is declared a winner in unique costume class.

San Diego Union, June 27, 1915, Classified, 1:1. Fair will honor Mrs. H. H. A. Beach of Boston; Dr. Humphrey J. Stewart selects several numbers from Mrs. Beach’s work for organ concert.

San Diego Union, June 27, 1915, Classified, 1:2. D. V. Mahoney resigns as District Attorney.

San Diego Union, June 27, 1915, Classified, 1:3-4. Los Angeles shows gratitude for San Diego achievement; 150 northern boosters given royal welcome.

San Diego Union, June 27, 1915, Classified, 3:4. A committee of the National Association of Real Estate Exchanges wired yesterday from Los Angeles its acceptance of the invitation extended by the New Mexico board of Exposition managers to visit the building of the Sunshine State between 2 and 3 o’clock this afternoon.

San Diego Union, June 27, 1915, Classified, 3:5. Brooklyn visitors observe Fair day; musical program given; dances held; speeches made.

San Diego Union, June 27, 1915, Classified, 8:3. The Thirteenth Band, Coast Artillery Corps, V. F> Safranek, conductor, will give two concerts at Plaza de Panama today.

San Diego Union, June 27, 1915, Classified, 8:3. Today is Billie Burke Day in honor of popular actress.

San Diego Union, June 27, 1915, Classified, 8. Article on Mormon Battalion.

San Diego Union, June 28, 1915, 1:4-5. International Realty Men entertained by San Diegans.

San Diego Union, June 28, 1915, 5:3. Chicago Evening Club’s singers will give double concert at Exposition Tuesday; special train bearing musicians on western trip costs $15,000.

San Diego Union, June 28, 1915, 7:2. Recital at Fair attracts throng; Miss Alice Brown of Elgin, Illinois, a mezzo-contralto, sang; the organ recitals tomorrow and Wednesday will be given by Clarence Dickinson, of New York City.

San Diego Union, June 28, 1915, 7:3. Miss J. J. Eschenbrenner will deliver a lecture on “National Child Labor Legislation” tomorrow in the auditorium of the Science of Man Building at the Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 28, 1915, 7:4. Prominent musicians and society women of San Diego will attend the luncheon to be give at the Cristobal Café today in honor of Mrs. H. H. A. Beach, the noted American composer, for whom the day will be known at the Exposition; Mrs. L. L. Rowan to sing Mrs. Beach’s songs at organ recital and at reception in women’s headquarters.

San Diego Union, June 29, 1915, 8:2. 54,019 Fair admissions in week, make second highest Exposition mark; Fourth of July expected to break all attendance records.

San Diego Union, June 29, 1915, 8:2. Chicago Sunday Evening Club will give two Fair programs at Organ Pavilion today; 100 notes singers to be heard.

San Diego Union, June 29, 1915, 8:3. Mrs. H. H. A. Beach guest of women at Exposition; Mrs. L. L. Rowan, San Diego contralto, sang two of Mrs. Beach’s songs, “Ecstasy” and “Dearie” yesterday afternoon.

San Diego Union, June 29, 1915, 8:3. Dr. Stewart to take vacation for month; five prominent organists will play during his absence.

San Diego Union, June 29, 1915, Classified, 1:4. Independence Day at Fair to draw great throng; hundreds of Odd Fellows will visit San Diego July 3; four hundred and thirty eight editors coming; many events scheduled for Universal Peace celebration Sunday.

San Diego Union, June 29, 1915, Classified, 1:5. Realty men to tour San Diego, visit Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 29, 1915, 14:1 Mother’s Day set for Wednesday at Exposition; admission fee reduced; children under twelve years will be admitted free; Mrs. Louise Rosine Johnson to lecture on development of beauty in Exposition hall.

San Diego Union, June 29, 1915, 14:2. Pan-American Medical Congress delegates visit city and Exposition; guests of State Department.

San Diego Sun, June 30, 1915, 9:7-8. Christian Endeavor Day at Exposition July 1; program of athletic events, singing, dining.

San Diego Sun, June 30, 1915, 11:4. Ellen Beach Yaw to sing at Exposition Sunday afternoon; Odd Fellows Day Saturday.

San Diego Sun, June 30, 1915, 14:1. H. O. Davis, director-general, resigns, to take effect August 1; Mark Watson, in charge of publicity, resigns, to take effect immediately.

San Diego Union, June 30, 1915, 1:4. Director-General H. O. Davis sends in his resignation; he had been head of administrative force for two years; E. J. Chapin will carry on work.

San Diego Union, June 30, 1915, 1:4. 450 scribes due at Fair Friday; National Education Association members accept invitation to visit Exposition, holding annual convention in Los Angeles.

San Diego Union, June 30, 1915. Middies will arrive in San Diego August 1 for stay of two days; ships to leave Annapolis July 7.

San Diego Union, June 30, 1915, 5:3. Chicago Sunday Evening Choir wins encomiums from San Diegans.

San Diego Union, June 30, 1915, 5:4. Honors to mothers will be paid a Fair today; entrance fee 25 cents.

San Diego Union, June 30, 1915, Classified, 1:2. Former President Theodore Roosevelt coming next month; will be in San Diego July 27; Governor David I Walsh of Massachusetts will be in San Diego July 23 for the celebration of New England Day at the Exposition..

San Diego Union, June 30, 1915, Classified, 1:3. Santa Fe agent says 3,000 reach San Diego daily for Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 30, 1915, Classified, 1:4. Manager W. T. Wyatt of the Mason Opera House, Los Angeles, sees Exposition; becomes San Diego booster.

San Diego Union, June 30, 1915, Classified, 1:5. Pacific Electric Band from Los Angeles will play at Fair July 3, 4 and 5; Ellen Beach Yaw engaged to sing Sunday afternoon July 4.

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