Balboa Park History 1935




Increases work in bldg. Trades, Mr 3 X & XI, 3:3.

Roosevelt plans visit, Ap 13, 13:6.

Special 3-cent postage stamp to be issued, Ap 14, 28:5.

Plans; preparation for 12,000,000 visitors; illus, Ap 28 X 17:1.

Postmaster Gen. Farley announces special 3-cent stamp, My 7, 18:8.

Mexico authorizes display of Monte Alban jewels, My 10, 10:4.

Roosevelt promises visit, My 18, 2:2.

Feature article, illus. My 19, IV, 15:6.

Ford bldg. to appear on Fair stamp, My 24, 23:5.

Pres. Cardenas appts L Rodriguez to represent him, My 27 6:5

Opens; Pres Roosevelt s by telephone; Sec

Roper dedicates U S Govt Bldg, My 30, 3:3;

illus, My 31, 6:2; ed, My 31, 14:4.

Former Pres Hoover visits fair, Je 19, 18:7.

Gov Palencia brings greetings from Pres Cardenas, Ju 7, 23:6.

Facilities offered to Boy Scouts for jamboree, Ag 10, 4:3.

  1. E. Smith send brown derby for N Y day, Ag 16, 17:1.

Illus, S 29, IV, 10:4.

H S Johnson, s, O 3, 15:4.

Roosevelt s; illus, O 3, 1:5, ed, O 4, 20:3.

Bible Day; Dr R A Millikan s, O 7, 4:2.

Medal awarded to Portland Symphony Orchestra for concerts, O 20, X, 7:8.

Closes; attendance rept; reopening date, N 13, 8:2.




San Diego Union, January 1, 1935, 5:1. City awaits fire equipment for park station.

San Diego Union, January 2, 1935, 6:1. SERA musical units entertained more than 3,000 at Organ Pavilion yesterday afternoon.

San Diego Union, January 3, 1935, 3:8. William E. Harper, California State Senator, may ask for state building in Balboa Park.

San Diego Union, January 3, 1935, 3:6. Buildings at Exposition boost December permits; highest record since 1931.

San Diego Union, January 3, 1935, II, 1:4. 39 branches of the Arden Dairy will participate at the Exposition August 17 and demonstrate Red Cross methods used by drivers.

San Diego Union, January 3, 1935, II, 8:8. Walter R. Hepner, chief of division of secondary education of state department, is making plans forPalace of Education; Exposition directors will be Dr. Ira W. Kibby, chief of bureau of business education, and Mrs. Vesta C. Mueleisen.

San Diego Union, January 4, 1935, 1:2-4, 2:4. State education men discuss details of Exposition exhibits in San Diego parley.

San Diego Union, January 4, 1935, 1:3, 2:5. Dr. Kibby, W. R. Hepner, Mrs. Vesta C. Mueleisen and Richard Requa, Exposition supervising architect, considering plans for Palace of Education.

San Diego Union, January 4, 1935, 1:7-8, 2:1. Sailing ships of 14 nations may visit San Diego Exposition.

San Diego Union, January 4, 1935, 9:3. San Diego History Center will rededicate San Pasqual Memorial Ceremony, Moore and Friar streets, tomorrow at 3:30 p.m.

San Diego Union, January 5, 1935, 10:5-6. Salon of photography in $100,000 structure will be Exposition feature.

San Diego Union, January 5, 1935, II, 1:2. House of Pacific Relations will bring together representatives of 23 foreign nations to further world peace.

San Diego Union, January 6, 1935, II, 1:1. Past Exposition experience indicates 1935 Exposition will advance San Diego in a business way.

San Diego Union, January 6, 1935, II, 1:3. HALF-MINUTE INTERVIEW: Irwin A. Blietz, Chicago visitor, praised plans; Juan Larrinaga described lamps and lighting fixtures for Exposition; Orrin Chaffin, assistant manager U. S. Grant Hotel, mentioned creative activities.

January 10, 1935, Letter, Oscar G. Knecht, Chief Inspector, to Richard Requa, Architect, California-Pacific International Exposition, Headquarters Building, Balboa Park, San Diego, California.

Dear Sir:

A permit for the Organ Plaza wall and fountain was issued today. The plans for this wall and fountain display insufficient structural data and no specifications were presented. Nevertheless, rather than cause any delay we have issued a permit. The permit is issued with the strict understanding that you will see that the structural and safety requirements of the Building Code be followed.

A majority of the plans so far submitted to this department have been presented more or less incomplete; no specifications and insufficient or incomplete working drawings and details. We also called your attention to the structural mistakes. We do not desire to inconvenience you or the workmen. Consequently, we allowed the permits to be issued and the work to proceed without delay. However, in each instance, we called attention to the above-mentioned omissions, and delinquencies. On four occasions only were the plans sent back for corrections. Each time they were partially corrected and returned within 24 hours and a permit was then issued. The object of this letter is to point out the fact that we are depending upon you, together with your assistants, to see that all buildings are made structurally safe and that the State horizontal force laws are complied with. Insofar as the plans are concerned, we cannot be sure of the structural safety in many instances, due to specifications and the reasons above mentioned.

This department has no preference regarding the use of steel or wooden trusses, triangular parallel chord, curved or otherwise, nor do we care whether the posts and columns stop at the bottom chord or continue in one piece to the top chord, when properly designed relative to position, connections, external forces, etc. In many instances, of course, one method, device or arrangement may be more economical or expedient than another. All that we require is that whatever method is used, the same must be structurally safe, capable of rational analysis and in harmony with the spirit and intent of the code in such cases made and provided.

On two former occasions we called attention to the fact that additional reinforcing and bracing was necessary in the New Mexico Building Annex. We again mentioned that the other rows of 8 x 8 posts are too light, due to the eccentric loading. See notes on your stamped blue prints.

It has been rumored that someone has been going around intimating that I may have a preference for steel trusses and special curved wooden roofs. Should this nonsense be heard by you, please ignore it, as no doubt you know that I have no preference. I am fully convinced that flat roofs, and trusses, horizontal, sloping, curved, or otherwise, can be economically and safely constructed or erected with local workmen. I am personally acquainted with many of the local mechanics and workmen. Some of the very best mechanics in the country are now directly and indirectly employed under your jurisdiction. We can build both steel and wooded roofs and trusses locally without sending away for special materials, methods, shapes or devices.

Yours very truly,

Oscar G. Knecht, Chief Inspector (signed).

(Box Files, California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Union, January 11, 1935, 5:3. Midget colony to be Exposition feature.

San Diego Union, January 14, 1935, 5:3-4. Huge flower beds planted in park will bloom when Exposition opens.

San Diego Union, January 17, 1935, 5:1. Emblem of Exposition conceived by Juan Larrinaga depicts various building types.

San Diego Union, January 18, 1935, 1:1-3, 2:6. Fletcher asks State for $200,000 building, exhibit at San Diego.

San Diego Union, January 18, 1935, 1:4, 2:4. Helen Towe, formerly of La Jolla, leaves $40,000 to San Diego Fine Arts Society.

San Diego Union, January 18, 1935, 1:7, 2:4. Solons pledge fight for Exposition building funds.

San Diego Union, January 19, 1935, 3:2-3. Zack J. Farmer named director of 1935 Exposition.

San Diego Union, January 19, 1935, II, 1:2. San Diego Zoological Society officials apply to Sacramento for $336,000 to make improvements and additions to San Diego Zoo.

San Diego Union, January 20, 1935, 1:7-8, 10:1. Fletcher seeks $200,000 for Exposition building.

San Diego Union, January 20, 1935, 5:2-4. Boy’s circus started San Diego Zoo; Dr. Wegeforth once wire walker, by Naomi Baker.

San Diego Union, January 21, 1935, 5:1. San Diego Army Reserve Officers and ROTC cadets held battle maneuvers near Balboa Park swimming pool yesterday morning.

San Diego Union, January 24, 1935, 3:5. Carl H. Heilbron named head of Collier memorial group; solicitation of funds will start soon.

San Diego Union, January 24, 1935, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The State Exhibit.

San Diego Union, January 25, 1935, 2:4. Palace of Education has more than 15,000 sq. ft. of exhibit space.

San Diego Union, January 25, 1935, 9:1. Council asked to clear title to Russ school; 560 x 660 ft. wide tract in southwest corner of park; people voted a strip of land 60 ft. wide out of park to form Russ Boulevard, along south line of park.

City records show that in 1920 the voters gave 10 acres of park land adjacent to the high school to the Board of Education for intermediate school purposes at the same time that the Roosevelt

Junior High School tract was voted out of the park and to the Board.

San Diego Union, January 25, 1935, 10:3. Committee on Finance passes Fletcher’s Exposition exhibit measure.

January 26, 1935, Letter, From: J. David Larson, Executive Manager, California Pacific International Exposition; To: Robert M. Gregory, Construction Superintendent, S.E.R.A, Pier Building, San Diego, Calif.

Dear Mr. Gregory:-

Mr. Harry Foster, our Superintendent, has stated that you have made inquiry concerning the building of the amphitheatre over on the Exposition Palisades.

In explanation, may we state that we have had scores of requests from the citizens of San Diego to provide a bowl or an amphitheatre which could be used after the close of the Exposition for symphony concerts, other cultural musical programs, pageants, etc. As you know, there is no suitable place now in the Park for such features.

After much careful consideration it seemed to the Executive Committee and the Board of Directors that if large exhibitors and other organizations could be prevailed upon to furnish, during the Exposition, excellent cultural programs in such a bowl or amphitheatre, the citizens of San Diego would be fully justified in providing such facilities.

Accordingly, during the negotiations with the Ford interests the proposition was submitted to them, and they agreed to furnish very excellent attractions for at least six weeks provided the citizens of San Diego, through the Exposition organization, would furnish the amphitheatre. It is estimated that the programs which this organization plans will cost them over $200,000.

The amphitheatre, because it belongs to San Diego, is to be built at the expense of San Diego through the Exposition. No exhibitor will play any portion of the cost. The amphitheatre is to be at the disposal of not only the Ford interests but also to all others who will provide suitable entertainment. The amphitheatre is at all times under the control of the citizens of San Diego through the Exposition organization.

It is planned to so build the amphitheatre that it will serve the citizens of San Diego for many years.

We trust that this explanation is satisfactory, and we again assure you tha this amphitheatre will be one of the most important assets which will be left for the citizens of San Diego when the Exposition is over, and it will undoubtedly be an important factor in the continued development of the cultural side of the community.

Very truly yours,

  1. David Larson,

Executive Manager.

(Box File 17 Folder 73, California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Union, January 26, 1935, 1:4, 2:4-5. Big Ford exhibit assured; $2 million Exposition plant announced.

San Diego Union, January 28, 1935, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Verdict from Detroit – The Exposition is a good thing for the country, a great benefit to the West, and an opportunity for every exhibitor who takes part in it.

San Diego Union, February 2, 1935, II, 1:2. State legislators inspect Exposition, praise progress.

Letter, February 5, 1935, Assistant Director of Exhibits to Director of Exhibits.

Upon telegraphic advice from Mr. McHenry, you can easily recognize the fact that General Motors is hesitant to commit themselves for participation since knowing they cannot compete with Ford’s two million dollar expenditure for special building. They are rather discouraged at the idea of participation.

Mr. McHenry has sent a telegram requesting a sketch be prepared which can be submitted to General Motors and I, therefore, recommend that Mr. Larrinaga be commissioned immediately to prepare a sketch along the following lines:

About an acre or two of space be known as the General Motors Garden. This site will be behind the organ, and that their garden be most beautifully done in a semi-formal way of tropical and semi-tropical growth. That the cars be shown in beautiful, little, exotic temple [sic] at various intervals during this garden. In these temples most beautiful lighting effects can be obtained. At some place in this formal garden there will be a clearing where real class entertainment such as aesthetic dancing, etc., may be put on if they so desire. The canyon can either become part of this garden or be utilized for some spectacular show effect, such as assembling cars or that activity. I know that assembling cars in the canyon is impossible, but I merely say this to illustrate what is in my mind.

I sincerely desire that you give this sketch, myself and Mr. Larrinaga the benefit of your experience in showmanship and the suggestion which can not help but be valuable in the creation of this sketch. I believe one of our sales points will be that it was the most beautiful outdoor auto show ever done in America, and it takes them out of the class of competition with Ford, since Ford is stressing beautiful building where General Motors can stress beautiful landscaping.

And thirdly, and after this Fair is over and after removing their cars, these gardens can always be known as the General Motors Gardens in San Diego. Mr. McHenry advises that next Monday the final meeting is to take place regarding participation, and although I know Mr. Larrinaga is tremendously rushed, I believe this project is of sufficient importance to take priority.


(Copy of letter taken from Box 9 Folder 32, California-Pacific International Exposition, kept by San Diego Public Library.)

February 6, 1935, Letter: Mr. Tupper, Mr. Requa; Subject: Standard Oil Building.

Since my conference with the Standard Oil representatives several days ago, I have given a great deal of thought to the discussions and the suggestions made, and the more I have thought the matter over, the more I have been impressed with the outstanding feature we can make of aStandard Oil Building, placed at the north end of the main axis of our Palisades Group.

I have given a great deal of study to the plan of the grounds in that location and would suggest quite a radical change and re-arrangement. If the Standard Oil Company will erect a building on the site which its representatives tentatively selected when here. With the help of Mr. Larrinaga, who is a Mexican artist of prominence with considerable architectural designing experience, I have worked out a suggested design for this building. Mr. Larrinaga has made a colored sketch which I am submitting with this report. I am also sending you a sketch of the revised ground plan which, by reference with the present ground plan, you can appreciate the changes required.

While I have been deeply interested in the Aztec and Mayan architecture and have made a study of it for a number of years, I have in Mr. Larrinaga, a co-worker who really knows and feels, and has the rare ability of expressing and adapting to more uses the remarkable architecture of the prehistoric people in Southern Mexico and Central America. I am satisfied, beyond any question of a doubt, that a building located as I have shown it on the revised plot plan, and designed and built after the general character of the sketch, will be one of the two outstanding and spectacular features of our Exposition.

As I explained to the Standard Oil Representative, I have in mind, and we are developing in the Palisades Group, a definite and original architectural scheme. Starting with the Standard Oil design, with flanking buildings, all in prehistoric American architecture, which will be located in the entrance plaza, we pass on to the modern development which is exemplified in the Travel and Transportation building, and the building devoted to Varied Industries, business machines and electricity. These buildings, while modern in character, will all show their direct relation to the prehistoric architecture of America and will demonstrate the fundamental forms and ideas of modern architecture can all be found in our prehistoric architecture of America. The ornamentation, such as we will use in these buildings, will be developed from the Mayan and Aztec forms.

Proceeding on down to the Ford Building, which will be on the south or opposite axis from the Standard Oil Building, we finally arrive at a purely modern architectural treatment in which forms and proportions and other architectural ideas of the ancient American architecture are exemplified, but in which decorative embellishments have been eliminated.

I believe that the architectural scheme which we are working our for the Palisades Group will prove to be one of the most interesting and talked of ideas that has ever been used in Exposition architecture. It will satisfy the tastes of the people of education and culture, and at the same time there will be a tremendous appeal to the people of little architectural appreciation.

It would add greatly to the interest of the building and to the advertising possibilities of the scheme, if a chimes could be installed in the top of the building. The chimes in this location could be clearly heard over the entire grounds and would, therefore, constantly call the Standard Oil Buildingto the attention of visitors in any part of the Exposition grounds.

(Unsigned letter in Box Files, California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Union, February 8, 1935, II, 3:7. Exposition area to be closed to traffic February 15.

Letter, February 9, 1935, Waldo T. Tupper, to Mr. Requa & Mr. McHenry; SUBJECT: General Motors.

Following is a hurried sketchy outline of certain features or possibilities which the G.M. Garden of Jewels presents to me:

1 – Each temple to be named after a Jewel –

a – Diamond – White – Cadillac

b – Turquoise

or Topaz – Blue – LaSalle

c – Ruby – Red – Buick

d – Pearl – Cream – Oldsmobile

e – Amethyst – Lavender – Pontiac

f – Emerald – Green – Chevrolet

Cadillac car in Main Temple can be white and by electric light effects changed into any color desired, or, three distinct models can be used by means of the plate glass mirror illusion.

2 – The smoke from the large incense burners from the Main Temple can be used to carry the names or emblems of different G.M. cars. This is easily done by a special electric spot for such purposes.

3 – A great variety of colored birds and various species of monkeys in the trees, peacocks on the ground, etc.

4 – All fountains to be electric and synchronized to music, a la Singing Fountains. Electrical transcription to be used with music composed by well-known composer, such as De Francisco, who composed and directed all special scores for Cavalcade.

5 – Auto fashion show using a variety of cars of different colors – beautiful girls or models gowned to contrast with color of car or to match as desired. From time to time during the Exposition a society auto Fashion Show using debutantes or movie stars could be featured.

6 – Fashion Show to be presented from main center stage or pedestal with mirror fountain at base. Four pretty, shapely girls to be used as trumpeters – pennants from trumpets to carry G.M. – these trumpeters to rise thru stage and be costumed differently each appearance. After trumpet call, narrator announces the car and model as it appears; then trumpeters disappear while car is slowly revolving on turn table, and then driven off stage, circling in front of audience, and disappearing into foliage leading to garage.

7 – The Main Building can be used for working exhibits. The Fisher Body Company could put on an interesting display, sketches, models, ventilation, demonstration, etc. Brake tests, knee action demonstration, non-shattering glass tests, etc. The building is also large enough to house a display of cars. Here too the G.M.C. financing plan could be explained. Lounge rooms, rest rooms, motion picture theater, etc. could also be included.

8 – The Garden of Jewels offers an idea opportunity to do something outstanding and different in electric lighting effects.


ADVERTISING AND PUBLICITY – See “Important Facts”, pages 3 and 4.

Within the past two weeks 180 stories have been placed and accepted by various trade magazines and national publications. We have had requests and stories have been prepared for such national magazines as Time, Fortune, Literary Digest, Good Housekeeping, McCalls, Vanity Fair, Review of Reviews, Colliers, etc.

Many of our exhibitors are tying their advertising and publicity campaigns directly into the Fair; for instance – The Shell Oil Company, which as over 34,000 filling stations throughout the U.S., will cover every VeeBoard with five-colored one-sheets pertaining to the C.P.I.E. They are also giving away to all these stations a 12 page pictorial folder, station attendants, as they wipe the windshields, will ask the drivers whether they have attended the World’s Fair at San Diego yet, and do everything to interest people in the East to drive to California and take in the Fair. In addition to this, the Shell Oil Company will tie their entire national advertising campaign, magazines, newspapers, etc., into the Fair. They are also devoting their radio program to the Fair.

Standard Oil, General Petroleum, Richfield, Texas Oil Company, Associated and in fact all of the major oil companies in the west will use similar means and we are assured that they will billboard the country from Vancouver, B.C., to the Mexican Boarder. Coca Cola will have a $200,000 (?) display and their Pacific Coast Manager assures us that the entire billboard campaign throughout the U.S. will be tied into America’s exposition 1935. The National Biscuit Company, Standard Brands, Inc., Electrical Transcription Company, Spreckels Company, Masonite Corp., Maytag Washing Company and other national organizations have offered similar cooperation; all railroads, steamship companies, bus lines, public carriers of every description will naturally publicize this in a big way because of their desire to help the Fair and increase travel on their lines.

As you know, Harrison has already bought one million tickets for advance sale and will bring his entire Century of Progress organization to California, within the next few days to actively start his campaign.

The American Railway Company have reserved several hundred rooms in the City of San Diego during the period of the Fair and are selling a complete ticket which includes transportation, hotel, meals, sight seeing, etc. Other travel organizations are doing the same thing.

I am enclosing a rough copy of some notes which were taken by a L.A. Secretary, unknown to me at the time when I was talking to a group of salesmen in Los Angeles. There may be some points here that will serve as good ammunition for you. One of the finest endorsements of this Exposition, in my opinion, is the fact that the outstanding showmen and concessionaires of the country are pouring real money into it. Men like Dufour & Rogers, Graham, etc. The first concern is spending over $100,000 while the latter is investing over $86,000. All of which means that we will have to get people if they are to cash in on their investment. These men have an uncanny faculty of estimating attendance and both agree that from all the checking they have done we are more apt to play to 10,000,000 people instead of 5,000,000 or 6,000,000 people which we have been telling prospective exhibitors.

(Copy of letter taken from Box 9 Folder 32, California Pacific International Exposition, kept by San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Union, February 9, 1935, II, 1:2. House of Hospitality’s housewarming attracts many to new building, by Irene Clark.

Yesterday afternoon more than 600 persons crowded in a constantly growing stream into the auditorium of that “palace” which so nobly fits its hospitable name, in answer to an invitation of the San Diego Women’s Civic Center backed by the friendly permission of the exposition board.

San Diego Union, February 10, 1935, II, 1:2-5. Drill troop training for exhibitions and for honor guard duties.

San Diego Union, February 10, 1935, 5:1. Birds favorite at Natural History Museum.

San Diego Union, February 11, 1935, 1:2, 2:5-6. Henry and Edsel Ford to visit Exposition; firm plans permanent structure.

San Diego Union, February 11, 1935, 5:1. Housemaking will be shown at Exposition.

San Diego Union, February 12, 1935, 1:6. Ford exhibit to rise in Balboa Park; contract is let for building of display at Exposition.

February 13, 1935. Be it resolved by the Park Commission of the City of San Diego as follows:

Whereas numerous applications have been made to members of the Park Commission and to the Director of Works on behalf of various public and quasi-public organizations and charities that said organizations and charities be permitted to construct within the confines of Balboa Park certain lodges or meeting places; said construction to be under plans and specifications having the sanction and approval of the Park Commission and the Director of Works – but said buildings and lodges to be under the exclusive control and possession of the organization or charity making the said request; and

Whereas precedent for such construction and control has heretofore been created by the granting of such privilege to the organizations known as the Boy Scouts of America, and also to the Girl Scouts; and

Whereas the members of the Park Commission feel that such organizations should, particularly at the present time, be encouraged and that our young people should be encouraged to have more activity within such organizations; that the creation of such organizations within the park would be of great public benefit in that it would tend to keep the members of such organizations off the streets of San Diego and out of the beer parlors and dance halls; and

Whereas the members of the Park Commission appreciate the obvious fact that letting down of the bars for quasi-private and quasi-public organizations in the park might result in severe encroachments over a period of time, the commission feels that such objection should be overcome by setting aside a definite limited area in the park for the use of such organizations;

Now, therefore, be it resolved by the Park Commission that the City Manager of the City of San Diego be requested to set aside a suitable area (but not to exceed ten acres) in Balboa Park at some point adjacent to MORLEY FIELD.

That said area of ten (10) acres be set aside for the purpose of allotting in said area, building sites to various quasi-private and quasi-public organizations and charities, the object of which being to train and care for San Diego boys and girls.

That in said area, building sites be assigned to such organizations subject to application therefor and approval thereof on the park to the Park Commission and the Director of Works.

That the plans and specifications for such buildings must be submitted to and have the approval of the Park Commission and the Director of Works.

That all such buildings shall be with the distinct understanding and agreement that such permission granted for the erection and occupancy of such buildings shall be subject to revocation upon thirty (30) days written notice, and upon the further understanding that should notice of removal be given such organization or charity shall, before the expiration of said thirty days notice, removed from the said park any buildings or improvements placed thereon.

That such permission be granted with the further understanding and agreement that the occupation and operation of said buildings and improvements shall be subject to the direction of the Park Commission and the Director of Works.

That such permission shall be subject to the further condition that said premises, buildings and improvements shall not be used by said organizations for the conduct of any commercial enterprise whatsoever.

Passed and adopted by the Park Commission of the City of San Diego, on the 13th day of February, 1935; Commissioners Otto, Naylor and Yale voting aye.

  1. Hill , Assistant Park Director,


San Diego Herald, February 14, 1935, 1:3. All Exposition purchases shall be made locally.

San Diego Union, February 14, 1935, 1:7-8, 3:4. Standard Oil contracts for space at Exposition.

San Diego Union, February 14, 1935, 3:3. Adrian J. van Rossem, bird expert, joins staff of Museum of Natural History.

San Diego Union, February 15, 1935, 1:2, 2:7. House passes $350,000 Exposition exhibit bill; Senate approval is predicted.

San Diego Union, February 15, 1935, 5:4. U.S. Cavalry troops may be based in park for Exposition.

San Diego Union, February 16, 1935, 3:7. The Modern Art Studio, Inc. of New York and Chicago was named last night as the official builder of exhibits for the California-Pacific International Exposition.

San Diego Union, February 16, 1935, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Flying Colors – A smashing victory of the San Diego California-Pacific International Exposition made the headlines yesterday with the news that the U.S. government would be a principal exhibitor.

San Diego Union, February 17, 1935, II, 5:5-6. Kate Sessions’ dream of park “desert” is coming true, by Ada Perry.

San Diego Union, February 18, 1935, 1:2, 3:5. City Manager George Buck was asked yesterday in a resolution approved by the San Diego Park Commission to set aside a 10-acre site in Balboa Park for buildings to be constructed by organizations and charities.


Letter, February 20, 1935, Director of Exhibits to All Offices; SUBJECT: Hall of Photography.

The management has decided that the Hall of Photography will be located in the building now [known] as the Palace of Science and will comprise Booths 16, 15, 14, 12, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8 and the eastern portion of 7. The exhibits now located in this section of the building will be moved to other locations in the same building. The plans of sales in this building is as follows:

Those exhibits which can be classed as scientific will be sold in the West Wing of the building, and moving consecutively toward the center. The photographic exhibits will be sold in the East Wing of the building as noted above, and if the sale of exhibit space in the Hall of Photography exceeds the space allotted, the Hall of Photography may expand westward. The only party who shall sell space in this Hall of Photography is Mr. John Sirigo. No office will take any action in this field except by direct instruction from the office of the Director of Exhibits.


(Copy of letter taken from Box 9 Folder 50, California-Pacific International Exposition, kept by San Diego Public Library.)


San Diego Union, February 20, 1935, 1:4-5, 2:8. Exposition California State Building assured; $90,000 project to start soon.

San Diego Union, February 22, 1935, 1:7-8, 2:1. Governor Merriam visited Exposition grounds yesterday; work started on $90,000 California State Building.

Letter, February 23, 1935, Waldo T. Tupper to Mr. Purcell; SUBJECT: New Contracts

We also closed a contract with Shoolman Brothers, 1113 Avenue “O”, Brooklyn, N.Y. This concern represents Morbeck of London, England. They manufacture and import domestic novelties, leather goods, china, bronzes, etchings, art pictures, antique jewelry, old and moderate plate, lacings, linen and tapestry. Again, I refer you to Mr. Massmann for further details as they also exhibited at Chicago. This should make a good story.


(Copy of letter taken from Box 8 Folder 3, California Pacific International Exposition, kept by San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Union, February 23, 1935, 1:2, 3:1. El Capitan Dam dedicated with ceremony.

San Diego Union, February 24, 1935, Society-Club, 7:1. Donal Hord work placed in park here, by Julia Gethman Andrews.

Donal Hord’s fountain figure of the Mexican woman with the olla is now in place in the patio of the Hospitality house, Balboa Park, and is no doubt the most permanent note in the exposition grounds. Michelangelo it was, I believe, who said that perfect sculpture demands that one should be able to roll it down the side of a mountain and find it unmarred. Donal Hord’s sculpture should meet this test of perfection, it is so completely of a piece.

At the same time, it possesses a deep subtlety and an irresistible rhythm from whatever side you approach it. The simplification of the human figure here adds expressiveness, both spiritually and physically. The face of the Indian woman has an eternal kind of beauty. (One thinks of Chinese portraiture.) There is the shadow of a smile, not the Mona Lisa smile of a decadent Italian society, but a smile that grows out of an elemental wisdom of a society that has lived intimately with rain and sun and wind and the good earth.

It is interesting to pass from the patio into what will be the women’s lounge, where San Diego craftsmen are decorating ceiling and doors in the manner and after the pattern of the 14th century craftsmen. The work is an exact copy of the Gothic decoration in the cloisters of the monastery of Montesia, a Dominican convent which stood from the end of the 14th century until recently in the heart of Barcelona. The lounge opens upon the construction of Moorish gardens, the construction of which Mr. Taylor himself is at present supervising.

San Diego Union, February 24, 1935, 1:1, 2:2-3. President Roosevelt promises Exposition visit.

San Diego Union, February 26, 1935, 1:2, 3:6. $350,000 Exposition bill sent to President Roosevelt; Senators pass fund by consent; Burnham’s measure provides for $125,000 Federal Building; foreign invitations authorized.

San Diego Union, February 26, 1935, Sports, 1:1-2. Navy accepts 25-acre Navy Field as gift of San Diego.

San Diego Union, February 27, 1935, 5:1. A. H. Gianninni, executive chairman of Bank of America, figures Exposition attendance at five million.

San Diego Union, February 28, 1935, 2:2. Shakespeare’s plays will be Exposition feature.

San Diego Union, February 28, 1935, 3:1. Board of Supervisors opposes taking management of Mission Bay State Park out of hands of State Park Commission.

San Diego Union, February 28, 1935, 5:1-2. Public is invited to contribute to Collier memorial.

March, 1935. The Architect and Engineer.

Exposition by William Hamilton, pp. 11-18, illustrated.

California International Fair will be Unique Contribution to Architectural Planning.

With more than eighty-five percent of the buildings of the California-Pacific International Exposition already erected in Balboa Park, San Diego, and the remaining structures definitely taking shape, “America’s Exposition of 1935” promises to offer a group of exhibition edifices that will be unique in the exposition annals of the Pacific Coast.

Concisely stated, the architecture of the 1935 California Pacific International Exposition will be a development of the historic and pre-historic architecture of Southwest America, in which modern ideas in building design will be expressed, inspired by the remarkable examples of buildings and decorations in the monuments left by the unknown people who inhabited these favored lands before the advent of the white man.

The embellishments and color treatment of the new exposition palaces will be supplied to a great extent by living forms, trees, shrubs, vines, fruits and flowers, such as only Southern California can produce.

The present park buildings, heritage of the 1915 exposition, are in the Spanish, or, more properly speaking, the Spanish-Colonial style and exemplify the culmination of centuries of art and architectural development in this section of America.

Richard S. Requa, Supervising Architect of the exposition, says:

“In designing the new buildings for this exposition, we will show by modified examples the steps and progress of this development and through the inspiration and ideas of these old forms, produce an architecture in certain of the new exposition palaces that is in harmony with the development during the last quarter of a century in transportation and the industries.

“Thanks to our sunshine and benign climate, we have the opportunity here to supply color and adornments with living plants instead of academic decorations, such as perhaps could not be accomplished in any other portion of the globe. In the Spanish Village and the Court of Pacific Relations, a transitional type of architecture is exemplified, between the prehistoric and the pretentious styles which were produced in the opulent period of Spanish occupation in the Americas. In their proportions and treatment, they are no less interesting than the florid work which followed. They are in the simple, unostentatious, hospitable style that is now influencing the development of our California architecture.

“One of the noteworthy and characteristic features of Spanish, as well as Spanish-Colonial architecture, was their patios and gardens, embellished with fountains and brilliantly decorated tiles. These important enrichments unfortunately were lacking in the 1915 fair, but are to be one of the most prominent features of our present exposition. Among these features special mention should be given to the beautiful Casa del Rey Moro Garden — reproduced as faithfully as possible — the finest small garden in all Spain, with its alabaster fountain, grotto, lily pond, quaint old well, seats and pergolas. Next in importance is the Alcazar Garden, planned from a section of the extensive and beautiful gardens surrounding the Alcazar in Seville. The Alcazar Gardens in Spain are considered the finest public gardens in the country.

“In the center of the House of Hospitality, the finishing touches are being put on a patio, which is not unlike the famous patio in the Museum in Guadalajara, Mexico. Chief features of this patio are the arcaded galleries, the large tiled central fountain and pool, and the quaint old well embowered in bananas.

“Another quaint and charming garden is in the court in the Pacific Relations group with its fountain, old well from Algeciras, Spain, and the large pool in which the beautiful trees of the background will be reflected.”

Perhaps the outstanding exhibition building to be erected by an individual exhibitor will be the Ford Motor Company building.

Although this structure, purely modern in conception and treatment, will not be of the Spanish or prehistoric derivation, it will be developed in such a manner as to blend harmoniously with the entire physical plan of the exposition buildings as well as locale.

Situated on the rolling plateau, southwest of the Organ Pavilion and the Music Bowl, the Ford Building will be of circular construction, approximately 350 feet in diameter with a circular patio in the center. The walls of the main building will be forty-one feet high; a tower on the north side of the structure, forming the great entrance rotunda, will be 198 feet high with a base 100 feet in diameter. This tower will rise to a height of 420 feet above sea level. The total floor area of the building will be 118,000 square feet.

The exhibition of late models of Ford motor cars will be the main feature of the patio. It is believed that this will be the first time in automotive history and one of the few places in the world where climatic conditions will make possible an all-year display of cars under the open sky.

In accordance with Henry Ford’s idea that art forms a perfect expression for mechanical processes, the exhibition throughout will achieve a blend of artistic harmony. Murals above rare wood wainscots will decorate the walls and color schemes that conform with the entire decor will be used.

Walter Dorwin Teague of New York is the designer of the building and the interior treatment. Mr. Requa is supervising the architectural and engineering plans. He will also be in charge of the actual construction operations.

The rotunda, which will form the base of the tower, will be known as the “Court of Nations.” Here a series of dioramas around the walls and in the center of the rotunda will be used to depict a dramatic story of the countries of the Pacific.

In the south end of the Ford Building will be found a theater with a complete stage and screen facilities and a seating capacity of 350. Smoking rooms, lounges, dressing rooms and other quarters of a semi-public nature will be located there.

The basement and the main floor of the building have been designed to sustain heavy loads and vibrating machinery. It will be of reinforced concrete construction and the entire tower will be of structural steel covered with sheet metal to insure perfect fireproofing.

In the basement will be located service rooms, garage and a tunnel entrance. The building, omitting the tower, calls for steel and wood framing with cement stucco on the exterior. The interior is to be finished with acoustical plaster.

The second floor of the south section of the building will contain several lounges, executive offices and kitchen and pantry facilities. The executive lounge will be utilized for a dining room. Opening from this lounge will be a glass enclosed porch overlooking the city, while on the main floor a two hundred and twenty-foot terrace on the arc of the circle will afford a sweeping panorama from Mexico to Point Loma.

Lighting effects throughout the building will be given careful consideration, with the tower receiving a unique treatment in this respect. Stepped-back lights will flood the fluted column, with overlapping layers of color that will “paint” the tower as the rays ascend from the base.

Monel metal and chromium plated trim will be used to provide striking and modern contrasts against the wood of the interior.

It is important to note that the design of this building, as well as the other buildings to be constructed by individual organizations, while providing distinct personality for each structure, will at the same time assure a complete merger of all in a harmonious plan.

For this reason it has been stated that the California-Pacific International Exposition will be an outstanding contribution to architectural planning for spectacles of this nature. Of a certainty it may be said that beauty of building, embellished with plants and flowers, rather than ornamental architecture, will be paramount at “America’s Exposition — 1935.”

Circa March 1, 1935. BULLETIN FOR SPEAKERS

With the opening of America’s Exposition about two months away construction activity is spurred to new heights. Already we are more than 80 percent complete, and President Belcher has announced we will be ready on May 29th. The work has been started on the huge Federal Building, which will house the Government’s $200,000 exhibit. Hundreds of men are employed on building construction throughout the Exposition grounds. Many are detailed to jobs where work goes on around the clock, divided into three 8-hour shifts. On all construction jogs, at least two 8-hour shifts are operating. The Ford Building, largest of new constructions, is now beyond the foundation stage, with three building contracts already let. Forms for the retaining walls of the great outdoor Ford Music Bowl are now in and steel is being installed. Forms for footings under the stage of the Bowl are being placed. The Ford Company will spare neither money nor energy in making their superlative Exposition effort. Visitors will be given free rides along replicas of the most famous highways of the Pacific. In the Music Bowl, adjoining the Ford exhibit, a symphony orchestra of eighty pieces will be maintained by the great motor car company.


The Bank of America’s building and the Spanish Village are completed. The fifteen hacienda-type bungalows, which make up the House of Pacific Relations, where representatives of foreign governments will be quartered, are ready for occupancy. The ten 90-foot trusses which will support the roof of the $90,000 California State Building were swung into place last week. Trusses are now being raised at the Palace of Travel and Transportation. Construction here is above the first floor. The Standard Oil Company of California has indicated it will begin construction of its $100,000 building before Friday. General grading of the grounds is 75 percent completed. Landscaping is finished, except where construction makes it advisable to defer it until buildings are ready.


In a twisting Gulch, built by the hand of nature, a striking reproduction of a mining camp, typical of the gold rush days of ’49, will be placed. There will be shacks of forty-niners, built with actual timber used in construction of the colorful towns of that period and reminding the visitor of an era that died with Bret Harte and Mark Twain. Here one will see the actual door that led to the Cabin in which Bret Harte wrote his famous tales. Here, too, will be replicas of the bars over which the hardy mining men gulped their fiery beverages . . . the color and atmosphere of the roaring forty-niners. To reach this scene one passes from the shadows of Old Spain into the atmosphere of ’49 upon the back of a prospector’s burro.


Installation of exhibitions in the Palace of Foods and Beverages was started last week by Coca Cola Company, Challenge Cream and Butter Association, Globe Mills, Standard Brands and other exhibitors.

  1. Gellerson, Vice-President and director of Libby, McNeill & Libby, outstanding food packers,

today announced participation of his Company in the California-Pacific International Exposition. Installation of an exhibit to cost in excess of $20,000 and employing a dozen attendants will start the middle of next month.


Heads of the Federal Housing Administration’s activities of the several Western States were notified today that the FHA exhibition will be in addition to departmental displays in the Federal Building. The FHA display is designed to show how the public may profit from the National Housing Act, and will visualize clearly phases of the Federal Housing Act heretofore not thoroughly understood by the general public. This exhibit has been authorized by James A. Moffett, of Washington, DC, Federal Housing Administrator.

A modern improved community will spring up in ten minutes, from a dilapidated, antiquated Village, by dramatized, mechanical operations. Thirty buildings in miniature will be __________ community. They will demonstrate “modernization magic” for ___________ maximum loans of $2,000.

Another exhibit, “Modeltown”, a community of 56 miniature homes, will show newest types of residential construction. It will consist of 14 types of houses in four classifications — houses that can be built and owned for $30.00 per month, $40.00 per month, $50.00 per month, and $60.00 per month, inclusive of interest, taxes, fire insurance and amortization of principal.

The 14 houses of each of these four classifications will present different types of architecture — Spanish, English, French, etc. — of one and two-story construction in frame, stucco, brick, concrete and steel.

In addition the FHA will establish and maintain a Regional office on the grounds which will be the Official FHA Headquarters at the Exposition. Here we will distribute illustrated pamphlets, booklets and other information desired by visitors to the exhibit.



This building is about completed and will be the most important new unit contributing toward the educational features of the Exposition. It is of Indian Pueblo style of architecture and contains approximately 15,000 square feet of exhibit space. A most unique exposition of public school education has been outlined by the Director of Education, Mrs. Vesta Muehleisen, under the general theme, EDUCATION FOR GOOD LIFE. The large central room, known as the “Theme” room will portray in an artistic and animated style the seven objectives of education. A beautiful mural for this room is being painted by Miss Belle Baranceanu, which depicts in a realistic and forceful manner the progress of education through the Ages.

A most novel and entertaining exhibit in this building will be the Hobby Display. One of the chief factors in the determination of character is the wise use of leisure time. In recognition of this fact, many school principals of the State are already conducting Home Hobby Contests or Fairs in their schools. Supplementing this effort and as an additional stimulus thereto a series of hobby contests or fairs will be held in order to select a hobby to represent each individual school in the Palace of Education. Prizes and medals will be awarded for the most unique hobby in all classes of entries, which will be according to age, classification and types of projects.



Professor Frederick Schweigardt, whose sculptured bust of President Roosevelt stand in the White House study as a gift of the latter’s son, Elliott, was found here quietly working on a fountain piece for the Palace of Education.

Professor Schweigardt, who lives at 5517 Carlton Way, Hollywood, is now clay modeling a group showing youth triumphant, supported by figures symbolizing home, school, church and community.

The sculptor was formerly on the staff of the Munich Museum, Germany, and more recently executed several important works for the New York Museum of Science and Industry. He refused Philadelphia offers to go to Hollywood. He has many medals awarded for artistic work here and abroad.


In connection with the Parent Education section it is planned to exhibit a demonstration Nursery School. An attractive room for this purpose is being built at the present time. One side wall is so constructed that visitors may look into the room, while the children will not know they are being observed. This demonstration class will be a Federal Emergency Nursery School and will run with the same high standards of Nursery School procedure and the same careful supervision that has characterized the Nursery Schools throughout the country.

Dr. Gertrude Laws, Bureau of Parent Education, has already worked out a splendid scheme by which she will interpret to visitors through a staff of trained workers the parent education angle of the work. These works will be in addition to the regular Nursery School staff. It is hoped to carry on full-day Nursery School program with hot lunches served at noon, followed by naps. The children will have a large yard, well equipped with play apparatus. It is expected this class will offer a great attraction to visitors. This demonstration will be under the local supervision of Mrs. Ethel D. Mintzer, Advisor.


The following notables were on the grounds last week arranging for the exhibit of the University of Southern California in the Palace of Education: Assistant Comptroller of the University of California, Director of the Riverside Agricultural College, Dean of Education of the University of California Los Angeles, and the Director of the Scripps Institute of Oceanography.


Italy was the first country to officially dedicate its hacienda in the group known as the House of Pacific Relations. Other countries will soon follow suit. Practically every House is spoken for at the present time. Among those definite are Italy, Japan, Sweden, China, Great Britain, France, etc.

Priceless exhibits are being gathered together from all parts of the United States and South America to tell the story of governments. The great Maya temple and the historic temple of Sacrifice from ancient Yucatan are but two of the many relics depicting early American history.

From Egypt will come treasures from the land of the Sphinx, from China and Japan the riches of the Far East. From every corner of the globe will come relics of the past.


Sanction for an international marathon over the classic distance of 26 miles, 385 yards, was received here from the A.A.U. by A.E.D. Combat Post 1460, Veterans of Foreign Wars.

The race will be run May 30, from Agua Caliente, Mexico, to the grounds of the California-Pacific International Exposition, over the historic route followed by Padre Junipero Serra, founder of California’s chain of missions.

F R Gleason, promotion manager of the Post, said he anticipate about 150 entrants in the strictly

amateur event, including some from Mexico, Cuba and Canada.

The starting gun of the race will be fired, it is planned, by a high official of the Mexican Government. The runners will be me in the Exposition grounds by the Greek Consul and a gathering of American officials.


Large comfortable tractor-drawn semi-trailers, painted in brilliant colors and each designed to accommodate 100 passengers, will furnish transportation within the grounds of the California-Pacific International Exposition.

The Exposition Transportation Company, specially organized for the purpose and owned by the J. D. Spreckels Company, will operate five large buses. Each of the buses will be named in Spanish for a bird and painted in a color scheme to correspond to its plumage. The names are “La Golondrina” (swallow), “El Loro” (parrot), “El Canario” (canary), “El Cardenal” (cardinal), and “La Paloma” (dove). Seats are provided for 40 persons, but a hundred passengers can be carried comfortably. The transportation fare will be 10 cents.


American Express Company officials have purchased a initial block of 100,000 admission tickets and reserved 2,000 hotel beds daily for the entire Exposition period for the accommodation of travelers who will arrange their trips through that organization. Redpath, Inc., prominent tour organizers, have secured 1,000,000 admission tickets and reserved an additional million in anticipation of heavy demands.

Officials of the Santa Fe Railroad Company report that traffic Westward this summer will be the heaviest since the depression. Santa Fe is increasing its service this summer by the addition of 369 fully air-conditioned cars. Once each week there will be a very special and fast train across the country, which will be drawn by a 3600 horsepower Diesel Engine, now under construction. This is the largest locomotive, as far as horsepower is concerned, in service in the World today. It is being built at a cost of $370,000. It is possible to attain a speed in excess of 100 miles an hour. Santa Fe’s display at the Exposition will be started late next month.


To date more than 120 organizations, representing every kind of human endeavor, have accepted out invitation for special days at the Exposition. The attendance of several of these organizations will run up into the tens of thousands. In addition to numerous days, many of these organizations will present attractive and very high class programs of every character, including orchestras, choruses, pageants, etc. In addition to the special days designated and the with cooperation of the Exposition Sports Commission many interesting athletic events are being staged, including the National Volley Ball Championship, an open clay pigeon championship match, and International Police Pistol match, in which two teams at least from Mexico City will participate. This match has been given to the Exposition by Chief of Police James A. Davis of Los Angeles, who was given authority this year to hold the match any place he desired.

The Health Department is raising 700,000 fish to keep visitors to American’s Exposition from being “stung”. The tiny fish are Gambusia Afinis and they are very fond of Mosquitoes’ larvae. They will be placed in the many fountains and pools on the grounds of the California-Pacific International Exposition.

San Diego Union, March 1, 1935, 8:1. Many start fund for Collier memorial.

San Diego Union, March 2, 1935, 1:3, 3:1. Group to break ground for Ford Building today.

San Diego Union, March 2, 1935, II, 8:1-2. C. G. Disbrow comments on slow progress on golf course

San Diego Union, March 3, 1935, 1:1, 3:1. Ford Building gets underway with fitting ceremony.

San Diego Union, March 3, 1935, 4:2-3. Bird and boy friendship leads Clinton G. Abbott to Museum of Natural History directorship, by Naomi Baker.

San Diego Union, March 3, 1935, 10:1-8. San Diego’s dream takes substance of reality: busy hammers play daily symphony of progress in park; Exposition construction is 60 percent completed; carpenters have driven 90,000 lbs. of nails; contractors have poured 12,000 sacks of cement; 41,184 ft. of fence wire protect grounds.

San Diego Union, March 3, 1935, 13:2. “Better Housing” praises San Diego building progress.

San Diego Union, March 3, 1935, II, 1:4. Exposition setting has impress of Spanish adventurers.

Letter, March 6, 1935, G. H. Thomson, Ford Motor Co., to Richard S. Requa, Division of Architecture, California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego, Calif.

Dear Mr. Requa:

The following is a copy of a telegram received today from H. B. Hanson, Ford Motor Company:













Upon studying this telegram you will note that it will now be possible to proceed with certain portions of the concrete work and I suggest that B. O. Larsen, the contractor, be notified immediately that he can start work tomorrow, with the understanding that he is not to push the work too rapidly for the present.

We should be in a position to release the balance of the work within the next two days.

Very truly yours,

(Sgd.) G. H. Thomson

(Copy of Letter in Box File 18 Folder 51 California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego Public Library.)

Letter, March 7, 1935, Massmann to Larson; SUBJECT: Christian Science Building

Mr. Earl Giberson, architect, is drawing plans which will be submitted for approval on Saturday morning. This is being followed thru.

(Copy of letter taken from Box File 16, Folder 11, California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Union, March 8, 1935, 1:3, 3:3. President Roosevelt signed bill yesterday appropriating $325,000 for federal participation in the California-Pacific International Exposition; $125,000 will be used to construct the Federal Building; balance to be used to prepare exhibits and other features; rider on bill provides for the admission, duty free, of foreign exhibits.

San Diego Union, March 10, 1935, 6:1. Hotchkiss goes to arrange Federal Building at Exposition.

San Diego Union, March 10, 1935, 6:6. City Manager Buck would improve park roads.

San Diego Union, March 10, 1935, II, 1:6, 2:6. Exposition buildings rapidly growing under three shifts.

Letter, March 13, 1935, Hal G. Hotchkiss, to Richard S. Requa, California-Pacific International Exposition, Balboa Park, San Diego, Calif.




George Burnham Committees:

20th District, California Naval Affairs

District of Columbia

Dear Mr. Requa:

I have sent by air mail today letter of instructions regarding proposed contract with the Government for our building. The specifications you sent are not complete enough to be of use. Please draw a full complete set of specifications and I think you will have no trouble in getting the requirements from an Army Engineer if you do not have them yourself.

I have just looked over the specifications attached to and made a part of the contract with the Century of Progress and it is a volume about an inch and a half thick covering every minute detail possible in a set of specifications, and ours must be as complete. I am sorry I am unable to get you a copy of them, but it will be impossible in the length of time we have to get them to you. However, I feel you know exactly what will be required and you can get that out as quickly as possible. There must be four copies of these specifications. There must also be four copies of the plans similar to those I have here to accompany the contract.

The Supervising Architect returned the plans to me today with information to the State Department that the building, according to said plans, could be built for the amount of $125,000.00. In fact his figure was $124,700.00, and he made the statement to me that if anyone took the contract to put up that building according to your plans he would not make any money on it, but that the Government would get its moneys worth when the building was completed.

The sketch which you sent to me showing the elimination of the column in the front of the doorway entrance is not satisfactory, so will you please go ahead with the original plans which you had for the columns as the officials here do not want an extra column placed in the building.

I am enclosing to you herewith a rough sketch as to how the State and Agricultural Departments’ representatives want the office space arranged. I think you will have no trouble in conforming to this. I will send you a copy tomorrow of the letter written by the Supervising Architect to the State Department as to the costs as he estimates them. Of course, this will have nothing to do with your plans or specifications as his figures come within yours.

Hoping that you can get these plans and specifications by the time that the contract is ready, and with very kind personal regards, I am

Very sincerely yours,

(Sgd.) Hal G. Hotchkiss

PS Referring to your letter of March 9th, just as soon as it is possible to obtain the information contained therein regarding the height, width and weight of exhibits and necessary electrical connections, I will advise you.

(Copy of letter taken from Box File 18 Folder 111, California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego Public Library.)





The building will be located on a point of land extending east from the new road, leading south from the organ to the new Palisades group of Exposition buildings. It will face north and will be between the canyon road connecting from Eleventh Street, to the Palisades area, and the Travel and Transportation Building. Directly in front will be a triangular Plaza, substantially in shape and area to the Plaza in front of the Women’s Building. The buildings surrounding it will all be in the style of, ,or suggest the architecture of the prehistoric Southwest. The building proper will be 150 feet wide by 170 feet deep. The wings on either side of the entrance facade will be 35 feet wide, along the front, by 25 feet deep, giving an entrance facade of 220 feet. As will be noted on the floor plan, the wings will be used for toilet rooms, lounges, etc. At the rear is a loggia, leading to tropical gardens, which it is proposed to develop on this point to the south.

The entire enclosing walls of the building will be of solid reinforced concrete, strictly conforming in every particular to our local building ordinances and the State earthquake laws. It is proposed at the present time to grade the space below the floor, so that after the Exposition a sloping concrete floor could be installed, suitable for use as an auditorium. Over this grade a level wood floor will be placed for use during the Exposition, covered with linoleum, mastic tile or other suitable material, for durability and pleasing effects. Steel roof trusses, as indicated by the broken line shown on the floor plan, will span the entire width of the building, resting on the pilasters shown as a part of the exterior walls, and will leave the interior entirely free of posts or columns, except the row of five columns shown on a line with the back walls of the projecting wings, which columns will support the curtain wall which rises above, and back of the main entrance treatment. The roof will be covered with two-inch planking, slow burning construction, approved by the Building Department for buildings of this class, and finished with 20 year composition roof. The building will be lighted by two lines of metal frame skylights, as indicated on the roofing plan. The height from the floor to the bottom of the trusses will be 26 feet, and from the floor to the ridge of the roof will be 42 feet. The height from the floor to ceiling from the main entrance to the line of columns will be 20 feet.

The architectural style of the building will be Mayan, the main entrance is reproduced from the Hall of Governors in Uxmal. The ornamental work will be carefully and faithfully reproduced under the direction of the Mexican artist Juan Larrinaga, who is familiar with and experienced with the Mayan architecture. Soft, pleasing, harmonious colors will be used in finishing the decorations. This also applies to the treatment of the loggia at the rear of the building and to the continuous band around the parapet of the upper part of the building, as indicated on the color sketch.

Attention is directed to the upper part of the great triangular arch that forms the main entrance of the building, as shown on the north elevation. It is proposed to construct this entire upper portion of flashed opal glass, in appropriate colors, and illuminated from behind.

It is further proposed to suitable decorate the interior of the building and provide lighting fixtures harmonizing with the architectural scheme of the building.

The building has been so designed and planned that later, after the Exposition, it can be readily and with comparatively small expense converted into an auditorium, seating approximately 3,000 people. The rear loggia to be converted into a stage.

Very careful estimates have been made of the cost of the building and also the construction time. Bids have been received for the various part of the general structure and if contracts can be let for the concrete work and the steel work not later than March 20th, the building can be erected and the interior finished, ready for the installations of exhibits by May 15th. We are absolutely certain that the building can be completed and finished as above described for the Government appropriation of $125,000.

(Copy from Box File 18 Folder 111, California Pacific International Exposition, San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Union, March 13, 1935, 1:6-7, 10:4. California Senate approves Fletcher’s measure providing $75,000 for California State exhibit at Exposition.

Letter, March 14, 1935, Waldo T. Tupper, Director of Exhibits, California-Pacific International Exposition, to Mr. Frederick H. Blair, Executive Secretary Goodwill Industries, Southern California, 342 North Main St., Los Angeles, Calif.

Dear Mr. Blair:

This will confirm our verbal agreement of this date to transfer the Goodwill Industries Exhibit from Space A as shown on the original plans of the Palace of Varied Industries, to space No. 24 in the Palace of Better Housing.

For your information this is the same building but the name has been changed as has the floor plan arrangement. There will be no additional charge to you on this space.

If this is satisfactory, kindly sign and return the original copy of this letter to us, retaining copy for your files.

Yours very truly,

Waldo T. Tupper

Director of Exhibits

(Copy of letter taken from Box File 24 Folder 10, California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Union, March 14, 1935, 8:6-7. Six painters injured at Exposition as scaffold breaks in Palace of Education building.

San Diego Union, March 14, 1935, 12:1. Van Schaick says Exposition will safeguard beauty of park.



Prominent showmen from all parts of the world will join to make the Exposition’s Amusement zone one of the best ever created.

Four big units already have been signed by Dufour & Rogers. They are the “Crime Does Not Pay” show, “Life,” “Two-Headed Baby” and the “Snake Farm.”

Lew Dufour and Joe Rogers have returned to Chicago after a flying trip to San Diego, where they signed up the four units. They scored a great hit at “A Century of Progress” and now are participating in the world’s fair at Brussels, Belgium.

Construction work on the Dufour & Rogers shows will get underway in Balboa Park on March 15, and both men will return about that time to supervise the work.

Another group of great Amusement zone attractions will be those staged by Graham & Eagle.

Stanley R. Graham has been on the ground in Balboa Park for some weeks, getting things under way for “The Midget Farm,” “The Midget City,” the “Miss America” show and other midway features to be produced by this organization.

“The Midget Farm” and “The Midget City,” where 100 Lilliputians will work and play, will have a combined midway frontage of 325 feet; the “Miss America” show will have a 60-foot frontage, and other Graham & Eagle shows will swell the frontage total at least another 100 feet.

R L Ripley’s famous “Believe-It-or-Not” show will present a more glamorous spectacle that its predecessor, the Odditorium.

(News Flash from Box File 19 Folder 12, California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego Public Library.)


FAMOUS NAMES SWELL LIST OF EXHIBITORS; Enormous Sums Represented in New Contracts

Millions of dollars worth of new exhibit palaces and displays will make America’s Exposition – 1935 the biggest show the West has seen in years.

Nine nationally known firms will build their own exhibit palaces. They are: Ford Motor Company, Bank of America, Christian Scientists, California Exposition Home, Hollywood Potteries, Shell Oil Company, Standard Oil Company of California, and Wells & McClelland.

Food Leaders in Expo

In the Palace of Foods and Beverages, the following companies and organizations have contracted for space:

Bosch Electric Baking Machine Company, California Consolidated Water Company, Calavo Growers of California, California Olive Association, Challenge Cream and Butter Association, Coffee Products of America, Crescent Manufacturing Company, Genessee Trading Company, Heppe Brothers, George H. Harris, Hill Candy Company, Hilandale Ranch, Hollywood Cup, Inc.

Standard Brands, Interclean Manufacturing Company, Huggins-Young Coffee Company, Iokelp Company, The Junket Folks, National Biscuit Company, National Pressure Cooker, Kerr Glass Manufacturing Company, Knudsen Creamery Company, Padre Vineyard Company, Krispy Kate Kone Company, Liberty Orchards Company, Frank Poglitsch, Sparkletts, Vegetarian Cafeteria and Bakery.

George B. Wright, Fred H. Wylia, Associated Ice Industries, A. Sensenbrenner Sons, Coca Cola, Neff K. Bakkers, Household Specialties, Jenny Wren Company, the Desert Date Shop, Fletcher Candy Company and the Kraft-Phenix Cheese Corporation.

Many Housing Displays

The Palace of Better Housing will provide space for this list of exhibitors:

Bowers Manufacturing Company, Inc., Naomi E. Cleaves, Church of Jesus Christ Latter Day Saints, F. E. Compton & Company, Encyclopedia Brittanica, Pacific Coast Division Goodwill Industries, Anna Ketonen, Nassau Pen & Pencil Company, W. F. Quarrie &Company, Rosicrucian Fellowship, the Salvation Army, Mrs. J. W. Ware, Western Union.

Foreign Antique & Art Company, Bowen Unique Handicraft, Bookhouse for Children, Gefroj Studio, I. Jacobson, Pacific Union Conference Seventh Day Adventists, F. J. Hansen Company, Limited, Standard Sanitary Manufacturing Company, Ganna Walska-Jules Riviere Parfum, Morbeck of London, England.

Varied Exhibits Slated

The following exhibitors have already contracted for space in the Palace of the Parent and Child: Mrs. Jack C. Adams, Mrs. Constance D. Ellis, Sterile Products Company and the Pacific Coast Hanger Company. In the House of Hospitality will be found the Leroy Gordon Beauty Salon, P. E. O. Sisterhood, Jones Decorating Company, Modern Art Studios, Inc., and the San Diego Neon Sign Company.

In the Palace of Science will be:

Dictograph Products Company, Inc., the Grolier Society, National W. C. T. U., San Diego W. C. T. U., Rees Stealy Clinic, Pacific Coast Division of Encyclopedia Brittanica, American Telephone & Telegraph Company, and MacFadden Jewelry.

In the Spanish Village will be the Gefroj Studio, Alelardo Linares, Briggs Floral Company, Rohn and Hutchings, Bernard J. Joachim, Free Port Importers, the Jenny Wren Company, the Verdugo Shop.

In the Palace of Varied Industries will be the American Potash and Chemical Corporation, George H. Harris, Pacific Wire Products, and Simms and Pascoe. The White Sewing Machine Company will have an exhibit in the Palace of Electricity.

Boyer, the society perfumer, will have a complete cosmetic and skin testing laboratory in the Women’s Palace. The Clevelin Realty Corporation will exhibit in the Travel and Transportation Building.

(Copy from News Flashes, Box File 19, Folder 12, California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Union, March 15, 1935, 10:4. Representatives of property interests in southern end of Mission Beach discussed with Planning Commission yesterday methods to enable south end of Mission Beach to escape architectural fate of northern end.

Letter, March 16, 1935, C. S. Harper to Harry L. Foster, cc. H. H. Barter.

Hereby granting H. H. Schmohl the contract to model as per plans, the fountain spill bowl, shells and 4 phineals [sic], etc., for the fountain improvement in wall north of Organ, for the sum of $295.00, said models to be approved before cast is made. Same are to be cast in art stone as per texture and color approved by the Director of Works. Spill bowl to be set so the water will flow evenly over all orifices, also substantially anchored to the wall and cast in place making a leak-proof joint.

San Diego Union, March 17, 1935, 3:2. Scouts prepare for Exposition camp.

San Diego Union, March 17, 1935, II, 1:6-7, 2:5-6. Senator Leroy A. Wright traces pueblo title back to 1789 in history of local park.

San Diego Union, March 17, 1935, II, 1:7-8. Work begun on Standard Brands exhibit in Palace of Food and Beverages.

San Diego Union, March 18, 1935, 1:6, 2:7-8. All Exposition facilities available for radio systems; network officials here to arrange publicity programs; Exposition to supply working studios, by Jack Barnes.

San Diego Union, March 20, 1935, II, 10:4. Workmen dig up whale bones on Exposition grounds

San Diego Union, March 24, 1935, II, 1:2-3, 3:1-3. Major Keating tells about Exposition in light of past experiences.

San Diego Union, March 24, 1935, II, 1:2, 3:8. Doctors assert midgets at Exposition won’t grow tall.

San Diego Union, March 25, 1935, 1:1-2, 2:1. Exposition construction work to hit peak as Federal Building starts.

San Diego Union, March 25, 1935, 6:7. Aloe and Agave Garden dedicated to Kate Sessions.

San Diego Union, March 26, 1935, 1:3, 2:2. Santa Fe plans crack service for Exposition crowds.

San Diego Union, March 26, 1935, II, 1:2. One hundred Exposition palaces to match park beauty.

San Diego Union, March 27, 1935, 5:5. Italy assumes possession of section in House of Pacific Relations.

March 29, 1935. RADIO TALK: The Amusement Zone and Its Attractions

A kaleidoscopic city of merry-making soon will rise in Balboa Park, where the Exposition opens May 29.

The amusement zone of America’s Exposition will present an unrivaled group of fun attractions culled from every part of the world. Bookings are being handled by J. Ed Brown and William (Bill) Barie, noted showmen, who are in charge of shows and concessions for the Exposition.

The midway will be 1200 feet long and 350 feet wide, with a 40-foot pavement through the center. The 2400 feet of frontage will present the best shows in existence.

Lew Dufour and Joe Rogers, who scored a great hit at the Chicago world’s fair with their shows, will produce new and greater shows at San Diego. Their units will include the “Crime Does Not Pay” show, “Two-Headed Baby,” “Life”, and the “Snake Farm”.

Dufour and Rogers are also producing shows at the Brussels, Belgium, exposition.

Stanley R. Graham and Nate Eagle will present those attractions for which they have become famous. Graham and Eagle were prominent in amusement production for A Century of Progress and at many other previous expositions and fairs.

They will produce “Midget City”, “Midget Farm” and the “Miss America” show, as well as two or three other distinctive features.

“Midget City” will be built on doll-house scale, where more than one hundred Lilliputians will work and play.

It will have a city hall, hotel, theater, barber shop, beauty parlor, office buildings and other structures and a completely organized civic administration with a mayor, chief of police and fire department.

“Midget Farm” will be a novel feature with midget cows, chickens, hogs and horses. It will have midget fields producing midget corn and grain. In a shed will be housed the tiny parade wagons and buggies once owned by Tom Thumb, protégé of P. T. Barnum.

The residents of these colonies will range in age from 18 to 60 years. Some are as short as 18 inches and many weigh less than 20 pounds.

They will include dancers, singers, artists and craftsmen.

The Midget City News, the world’s smallest newspaper, will be published in a midget printing shop each day during the Exposition and current events and features will be presented from the midget viewpoint.

Final plans for the Ripley “Believe-it-or-Not” show are now being formulated by J. Dwight Funk, who announces that the Ripley show at America’s Exposition will far surpass the previous Ripley productions.

Funk and his partner, Frank Zambreno, will personally manage the “Believe-it-or-Not” show. They also will be co-producers of the “Sensations” unit, an illusion show created solely by the refraction of light and without the use of mirrors.

Twenty beautiful girls from all parts of the nation will be seen in this series of animated tableaux. Many art critics and stage producers have commented on the beauty of this attraction.

Actual studio production of motion pictures will be seen at the Exposition.

Sixteen Hollywood studio workers will be stationed in the Exposition grounds during the world’s fair, where they will produce animated cartoons and other short subjects as they are made in the Hollywood studios. The Studio will be open to Exposition visitors, who will get a first-hand glimpse of the inside of making movies.

Visitors not only will see the complete production of these films, but will, also, see the finished product in a movie theater which will form part of the exhibit.

Not located on the midway proper, but part of the amusement zone will be Golden Gulch, a typical gold mining camp of California’s days of ’49.

In a deep, twisting gulch beneath a canopy of trees will be shacks made from actual timbers of the gold rush days. It will be a realistic picture of that era when the names of Jimtown, Hangtown and Whiskey Flat were on the lips of every adventurer from China to Cairo.

So faithful will this reproduction be to the originals that the visitor walking the paths of Golden Gulch will imagine himself transported back to the days of ’49, when the name “California” reverberated throughout the world.

An old, wooden door, warped by the winds and rains of more that fourscore years, will add a note of realism to the scene, while the Chinese laundry, iron-barred bank, blacksmith shop and hitching posts will line the streets of the camp.

Throughout the length of Golden Gulch will be found men and machines performing the tasks common to the era when the cry of “Gold!” was enough to bring men from the heath fires of far-off London and the steppes of Siberia. A further note of realism will be evident by the stage coaches and the burros which will form the only ingress to the camp.

The Venetian Glass Blowers, ten skilled craftsmen from Venice, Italy, will show their unique methods of blowing molten glass into many varied forms and designs.

Glass blowing is an art form from the days of the early Egyptians. It flourished during the splendors of medieval Venice, and since that time it has been handed down from father to son.

The world-famous Gay’s Lion Farm of El Monte, California, will be another attraction of the amusement zone.

Ponies from the circus stables of Harry Wooding will play an important part in “Toyland”, created especially for the children.

The eyes of the show world will be on San Diego this year, with theatrical performers and producers congregating from many lands. The public will find at the California-Pacific International Exposition an unequaled array of midway shows; attractions that are of such outstanding quality that they will obtain the enthusiastic scrutiny of veteran showmen who may previously have concluded that there is nothing new under the sun.

San Diego Union, March 31, 1935, II, 1:2, 2:1-2. Romantic history of Balboa Park is inspiring tale, by Senator Leroy A. Wright.

San Diego Union, March 31, 1935, II, 5:1. Cactus planting on large scale planned in park:

Advance glimpses into gardens under construction in Balboa Park reveal a cactus planting on a large scale and a gigantic rockery and pool.

San Diego Union, March 31, 1935, 8:1. Arabian horses to be presented as Exposition feature.

San Diego Union, March 31, 1935, 8:2-3. Charles Wakefield Cadman appeals to Exposition managers for attention to local musical forces.

San Diego Union, April 1, 1935, II, 1:3-4. Jules F. Jacques, secretary of Exposition music section, will plan programs.

San Diego Union , April 6, 1935, 1:1. Nine hundred more men get Exposition jobs.

San Diego Union, April 6, 1935, 5:1. Eastern visitors praise park gardens.

San Diego Union, April 6, 1935, 5:5-7. Easter picnic dinner and program arranged for shut-ins at Organ Pavilion.

San Diego Union, April 7, 1935, 8:1-5. Pick and shovel men raise big city overnight.

San Diego Union, April 7, 1935, II, 1:4-5. Continuous music festival including vocal and instrumental groups culture feature of Exposition.

San Diego Union, April 9, 1935, 9:5. Federal Housing Administration breaks ground for miniature model town.

Letter, April 10, 1935, Norman Huff, D. and M. Tile Company, 707 Antonia Street, Los Angeles, Calif. to Richard S. Requa, California-Pacific International Exposition, Balboa Park, San Diego, Calif.

Dear Sir:

Confirming our verbal quotation of yesterday for the Persian type decorative and plain tile to be set on wall in the park, we will manufacture the tile for the fountain as per your drawings, for the sum of one hundred and twenty five dollars, which price includes the package.

This includes the bottom of the pool, and also to glaze the edges of the tile where they protrude beyond the adjoining tile.

We will submit a sketch of the pattern tile for your approval of colors and design.

Thanking you for this opportunity, and hoping that we may have word to proceed with the work, we are,

Yours very truly,

Norman Huff (signed), D and M Tile Company

Letter, April 10, 1935, Ben Black, Authorized Agent, Fanchon & Marco, Inc. & Kenneth Thomson, Executive Secretary, Screen Actors Guild, Inc. to California Pacific International Exposition Company, San Diego, Calif., Attention: Zack Farmer.


This letter sets forth the agreement between Fanchon & Marco, Inc., and Screen Actors Guild, Inc., on the one side, and yourselves on the other.

We agree that we will furnish for the California Pacific International Exposition a motion picture exhibit consisting of treasures, private belongings, personal wardrobes, antiques, and various other interesting items of the motion picture arts and sciences, together with exhibits showing how pictures are made, motion picture sets, and the like, in order that an adequate exhibit showing the development and present state of the motion picture art may be displayed. In addition thereto from time to time we will cause well known motion picture stars from the membership of the Screen Actors Guild, Inc., to be present at our exhibit.

You agree to furnish us the building, thereto, heretofore known as “Women’s Palace”, and designed on your ground plan as Building No. 34, the plan of which is hereto attached, and made a part thereof. You will furnish and install in said building such conduits, piping, wiring, plumbing fixtures and electric power outlets as are reasonably adequate for the purpose of making water and electric power available for our use, and will cause the same to be connected to the necessary power lines and water mains to make sure such electric power and water so available. It is understood that the foregoing includes general overhead lighting, but does not include any equipment or appliances peculiarly adapted to our operations within said building. You will keep said building in good condition and repair, except for repairs occasioned by our own negligence. Should the exposition run into the cold season, you will furnish the building heat at our own expense.

You have assured us that you will carry adequate insurance for the protection of both you and ourselves, covering public liability so far as structural defects in the building are concerned, fire and earthquake, and will furnish us evidence before the opening of the Exposition that such has been obtained for our protection. We, however, will maintain workmen’s compensation for our own employees and carry public liability, insuring both of us insofar as our own operations are concerned.

You will allow no other exhibit or concession connected with the motion picture industry, but this shall not prohibit the incidental showing of motion pictures in connection with other industrial exhibits or concessions, or prevent any man from walking around the grounds and taking pictures of the spectators, or forbid the making of newsreels, it being the general intent hereof that we shall have the exclusive motion picture exhibit at the Exposition. You will keep the grounds around the building clean and in good condition. We will be permitted to erect a ticket booth or booths outside the building and put up any signs that we feel necessary or proper to further exploit our exhibit. However, we will erect no sign without your approval, which you agree will not be unreasonably withheld, and unless you disapprove said sign, with forty-eight (48) hours after submission by us to you, it will be deemed approved. We agree to conduct our operations so as not to unreasonably interfere with the operations of other exhibitors.

The compensation to you and to us will be determined and paid as follows:

Fanchon & Marco, Inc., will advance all the necessary funds for equipping the building for the purpose of the exhibit, publicity expenses, and other expenses preceding the opening, and for equipping, maintaining, and running this motion picture exhibit. The business management of the motion picture exhibit will be run by Fanchon & Marco, Inc., which will keep true and adequate books of account open to the inspection of both the Guild and the Exposition at any and all reasonable times by said parties, or either of them. The gross receipts of whatsoever kind or nature or howsoever derived from said motion picture exhibit will go into a general fund and a separate bank account and will be disbursed as follows: First, to reimburse Fanchon & Marco, Inc., for any and all funds so advanced and next, for paying the running expenses of said motion picture exhibit, and thereafter, all remaining sums will be divided into three equal parts, one part to go to you, the second part to Fanchon & Marco, Inc., and the third to go to the Screen Actors Guild, Inc.

Notwithstanding the foregoing, no matter how great the initial or running expense, in computing the net to you, you will be paid one-third of all receipts after deducting either (a) the actual initial and running expenses, or (b) Ten Thousand Dollars ($10,000.00) initial expense and Two Thousand Dollars ($2,000.00) a week running expenses, whichever results more favorably to you.

Three days after the end of each week, commencing with the end of the first week after the Exposition opens, Fanchon & Marco, Inc., will render you a statement covering receipts and expenses and will accompany the same with any payment due you under the terms thereof.

“Heat”, as herein used, means only a heating system, and not the furnishing of heat.

Overhead lighting does not mean that you will furnish electrical current. (“equipment” crossed out & initialed by LWB)

This agreement between us is for the duration of the Exposition. (“but” crossed out & initialed by LWB)

The relation between you and us is that of Lessor and Lessee, and not that of partners or co-adventurers.

Yours truly,

(signed) Ben Black

(signed) Kenneth Thompson

We agree to the foregoing.


(signed) Zack J. Farmer

(Transcription taken from letter kept by the San Diego Public Library in Box Files on California Pacific International Exposition.)

Letter, April 10, 1935, W. T. Tupper to E. H. Conklin, SUBJECT: Water Exhibits.

Mr. J. L. Van Norman, of the Bureau of Water Works and Supply, just phoned long distance stating that they have decided to participate on the basis covered in my letters of the 9th inst., addressed to Mr. Thad M. Erwin, copies enclosed.

The space we are reserving for them is shown on the enclosed floor plan, and be sure and use this one when talking to him and not the regular floor plan you have, because this plan does not contain prices and I do not want them to have any chance to get into an argument over price rates.

You will note that the total floor area is 7,350 sq. ft., from which we have deducted 640 sq. ft. and given same to Imperial County at no cost, because they would have used this amount of space free in the California State Building, and we are transferring this to make the major exhibit possible.

I am enclosing space application blank properly made out, with the exception of the names of the contracting firms. These and the nature of the exhibit you will fill out.

As to the arrangement of the space to be occupied by the water group, the details of this construction can be worked out by their engineers with our architect. Mr. H. Arthur Price, Civil Engineer of the Bureau of Water Works and Supply, was down here the other day with Mr. Erwin and went into some of the details with our architect, Mr. Requa. Mr. Requa just explained to me that the water companies desire to make an entrance of their own on the side adjoining the California Gardens. The details as to what is desired in this end of the building should be worked out between their engineers and our Mr. Requa. This is merely a detail and will not affect our contract. So I think they should get Mr. Price or whoever they decide upon to handle this down here at once to contact Mr. Requa before we start construction.

You explain to Mr. Van Norman that this is merely an application for exhibit space which he is signing, and that in the letter of acceptance we will embody any special agreements, which will legally then become a part of the contract. I am sure you will do a good job on this.

If there is any point not clear when you get to Mr. Van Norman’s office, you can call me by long distance and we can thrash it out. Explain to Mr. Van Norman that we have been holding construction of this building depending upon their participation; and if for any reason he objects to signing our contract, but agrees that he is going ahead with this exhibit, get something from him in writing to that effect which will serve as my authority to proceed immediately with construction. You understand, of course, that if they do not participate, then we would not erect this building. I did not tell them that we were depending on their participation to construct this building; this is merely for you own information, so that you will realize the importance of getting something in the form of a written acceptance, so that we may proceed immediately.

Better do this the first thing in the morning, and once you have a written agreement, call me on the telephone and let me have the information, so I may proceed accordingly.

You might ask them to have their Publicity Department prepare for our Publicity Department the type of story which they would like to have released; or, better still, you can have Mr. Murray contact them for us and obtain all information, which he in turn can pass on to Purcell for instructions.

(Copy of letter in Box File 10 Folder 52, California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Union, April 10, 1935, 1:6, 3:2. Federal Housing Administration chief states Government will show model of San Diego’s new Civic Center.

San Diego Union, April 10, 1935, 10:1. Bank of America officials inspect progress at park.

San Diego Union, April 10, 1935, 10:5. 12th. Avenue artery traversing park to have lighting.

San Diego Union, April 10, 1935, 10:6. San Diego motorcade spreading Exposition news in Texas.

San Diego Union, April 10, 1935, II, 5:2. Exposition arranges dining service for 140 workers; lunch counters in Palace of Better Housing and inInternational Drug Store, which occupies a corner in the House of Charm.

San Diego Union, April 11, 1935, 5:2-3. Women’s group formed to preside at House of Hospitality.

San Diego Union, April 11, 1935, II, 2:1. Huge Exposition Café [of the World] facing Plaza del Pacifico to cost $100,000.

April 12, 1935, Southwest Builder and Contractor, pp. 13-14: Distinctive Architectural Style for New Exposition Buildings – Old Forms Are Given Touch of Moderne, Progress of Construction at San Diego Fair.

From the standpoint of all traditions the building of an exposition involves the development of a complete new plan. Generally the start is from zero — grounds and buildings all have to be made. For a few expositions some sort of a nucleus has been made available but none that had been comparable to the one at San Diego utilized for the California-Pacific International Exposition which is scheduled to open May 29.

Beautiful Balboa Park, as landscaped for the 1915 Panama-Pacific [sic] Exposition, and the principal buildings of Spanish-Colonial and Renaissance design, erected for that colorful fair, which have been carefully preserved for just such another enterprise, form the nucleus of the 1935 exposition. It is a fine tribute to the genius of a great artist and architect, the late Bertram G. Goodhue, who created the architectural dream, that the buildings designed by him for such a purpose should have had so strong an appeal to the public that they have been kept intact through two decades.

Problems of the promoters of the California-Pacific International Exposition were greatly simplified by having such a splendid nucleus around which they could build. Many new buildings had to be erected and the opportunity was seized to illustrate in their architectural treatment the progress from the Indian pueblos of the pre-Spanish period to the present time with its Moderne influence. So architecturally the Exposition buildings run the gamut of architectural traditions of Southern California. The only exposition buildings are among the finest examples of the Spanish Colonial and the Spanish Renaissance and the new buildings are Mayan and Indian Pueblo types with a touch of the Moderne.

Richard S. Requa is director of architecture for the exposition. He is a recognized authority on Spanish architecture and its Colonial adaptations and the Indian Pueblo types of the Pacific Southwest. In working out the architectural scheme of the new exposition he has sought to show by modified examples the progressive steps in the development from the pre-Spanish period to the present time and through the inspiration of the old forms and influence of modern ideas to produce a new and distinctive California style. This is exemplified in the Palace of Transportation and Travel and other structures, in designing which opportunity has been taken to supply color and adornment with growing plants instead of academic ornamentation. Here the broad plain wall surfaces of the Pueblo type are relieved by festoons of plants hanging from concealed planting boxes to form a living frieze. The effect over the white stucco wall surfaces is both striking and pleasing.

Under Mr. Requa’s direction, a highly efficient architectural department was organized. His immediate assistant is H. Louis Bodmer, architectural supervisor. Next in line in this department are George Palliser, specifications writer; F. E. Evenson, electrical engineer; and G. H. Davies, structural engineer. Eighteen architectural draftsmen, six structural draftsmen, six electrical draftsmen and eight civil engineers are employed.

Construction work is organized in two divisions, some of the projects being handled by private contractors and others by the exposition staff, employing SERA labor. Approximately 65 percent of the workmen on the projects are SERA workers, the balance being employees of private contracting firms. To facilitate the direction of the SERA crews, a large staff of foremen is employed. They are under the control of O. B. Cole, general foreman.

The men behind the construction scene are H. H. Barter, director of works; Harry Foster, project superintendent and purchasing agent, and C. H. Harper, general superintendent.

Except for the exhibit palace of the Ford Motor Company, which is of steel and concrete, the new buildings on the exposition ground are frame construction with wood roof trusses and white stucco exterior walls. The buildings used during the 1915 Panama-Pacific [sic] Exposition are of similar construction.

Construction operations are now being pushed with all possible speed, two shifts of workers being employed on the dozens of projects now under way, to insure the completion of all structures and installation of exhibits in readiness for the opening on May 29.

The Federal government building will be a permanent structure with concrete walls and steel roof trusses. It was designed by the architectural department of the Exposition in the distinctive style evolved from the older forms with Moderne influence. The ground dimensions are 150 x 170 ft. and the height 35 ft. Of the $350,000 appropriated by the government for its exhibit, $125,000 will be spent on the building. It is being erected under contract by M. H. Golden.

The California State Building is being erected by the Exposition construction department with SERA labor. It will be a wood frame and stucco structure, 228 x 120 ft., and will cost $90,000. It was designed also by the Exposition architectural department.

The Palace of Electricity and Varied Industries is about 80 percent completed and the Palace of Education and Women’s Palace are finished except for interior painting. Grading for the Transportation and Travel building has been completed and it will be erected under contract by J. A. Hunt. This structure will be 230 x 118 ft. All of these buildings were designed by the Exposition architectural department.

One of the most imposing new structures on the ground will be the Ford Motor Company’s building. It was designed by Walter Dorwin Teague, the company’s architect, and will house the Ford exhibit from the Chicago Century of Progress Exposition. Construction will be reinforced concrete and structural steel. It will be circular in form, approximately 300 ft. in diameter, with a tower. Adjacent to it will be an open-air bowl for concerts. The cost of the plant will be around $350,000. It is being built under contract by B. O. Larsen.

Modern Housing will provide one of the most extensive exhibits planned for the exposition. In the Palace of Better Housing, everything pertaining to construction, equipment and furnishing of the home will be shown. Grouped around it will be the exhibit of the Federal Housing Administration, comprising 100 small scale models of homes illustrating different styles of architecture, different types of construction and different floor plans. These models will be made from designs prepared by architects and selected by competition under the supervision of David J. Witmer, district architectural director of the FHA.

The Model California Exposition Home, representing an investment of $50,000, including furnishings, is now nearly completed.

Among other features will be the Spanish Village, the largest of its kind ever built for an exposition, and reproductions of the Casa del Rey Moro Gardens and the Alcazar Gardens, all of which are now nearly completed.

Construction of buildings in the Amusement Zone is well advanced. It is estimated that more than $1,500,000 will be expended on structures and devices in the zone, which will be the largest ever seen on the Pacific coast.

San Diego Union, April 12, 1935, 14:2. Miss Cynthia Ricketts, San Diego Venus, poses for Professor Frederick Schweigardt, sculptor of the fountain which will be placed in the assembly hall of the Palace of Education.

San Diego Union, April 13, 1935, 3:3-5. Aerial view showing Exposition construction progress.

San Diego Union, April 14, 1935, 10:1-3. Senator Wright recalls bitter park controversy.

San Diego Union, April 15, 1935, 5:8. Shell Company will have space at Exposition.

San Diego Union, April 17, 1935, 5:5. Ground broken for Exposition “Gold Gulch” yesterday.

San Diego Union, April 17, 1935, II, 10:1. School exercises in park present problem for Exposition Board.

San Diego Union, April 18, 1935, 1:8, 2:2-3. San Diego white spot on United States business map; 35 percent upturn noted as Exposition opening nears.

San Diego Union, April 19, 1935, 7:1-2. SERA orchestra, radio artists on park broadcast.

San Diego Union, April 21, 1935, 1:3-5, 2:1. One hundred shut-ins ready with wheel chairs to broadcast program of good cheer; invalids will go to park for unique radio hour; music, interviews to be feature; flowers sought.

San Diego Union, April 21, 1935, 13:1. Sam Hamill, San Diego architect, shows house drawings of competition.

San Diego Union, April 21, 1935, II, 2:2. Firestone promises Singing Fountain.

San Diego Union, April 21, 1935, II, 2:4. Easter concert in park today.

San Diego Union, April 23, 1935, 2:4. Three types of Exposition tickets go on sale here.

San Diego Union, April 23, 1935, 5:6. Board of Supervisors agree to finance a $15,000 San Diego County exhibit in the California State Buildingat the Exposition.

San Diego Union, April 23, 1935, II, 1:2. Experts work at creating scenes for Gold Gulch.

San Diego Union, April 23, 1935, II, 3:1-3. Shut-in program popular; may be arranged yearly.

San Diego Union, April 26, 1935, 10:1. Park gas station plan is rejected.

New York Times, April 28, 1935, X17:1. The San Diego Exposition this summer is expected to attract a throng of visitors to the coast, by James F. Roche.

San Diego Union, April 28, 1935, 1:2, 2:3. W. B. Courtney, associate editor of Colliers, lauds Exposition and Zoo; will write story.

San Diego Union, April 28, 1935, 11:4-5. “End of Trail” spectacle at Exposition will have 150 Indians of 30 tribes; show to be staged at Indian Village.

San Diego Union, April 28, 1935, II, 1:1. Huge throngs due here for Exposition Special Days.

San Diego Union, April 28, 1935, II, 1:8, 2:1-2. Exposition construction 95 percent complete; $20 million fun plant to be ready by opening date; 8 million visitors expected at Exposition this summer; 100 buildings to house 200 exhibits; grounds form “S”.

San Diego Union, April 28, 1935, Society-Club, 1:1, 2:1-2. Mrs. G. Aubrey Davidson defines Exposition psychology.

San Diego Union, April 28, 1935, Society-Club, 3:1. Sala de Oro in House of Hospitality is Exposition drawing room, by Katherine M. Kahle.

San Diego Union, April 28, 1935, Society-Club, 4:1. Mrs. Fred M. Gazlay recalls Exposition days of 1915.

San Diego Union, April 28, 1935, Society-Club, 6:1. Statistics of 1915 failed to tell all.

San Diego Union, April 28, 1935, Society-Club, 8:1. Mrs. E. Thelen recounts embarrassing moments of 1915.

San Diego Union, April 28, 1935, Society-Club, 10:2-3. Miss Alice Klauber recalls Persimmon Room and art shows.


San Diego Union, April 28, 1935,

3:1-2. San Diego’s $20 million Exposition opens in Balboa Park May 29; exhibits will record milestones in development of civilization, recent achievements of mankind.

3:3-6. $2 million Ford Exhibit and Transportation and Travel exhibits to be magnets for visitors.

3:5. Spanish Village built speedily.

3:6. Rooms reserved for Exposition visitors.

3:7-8. Elaborate city of merry-making in Amusement Zone will provide attractions for old and young.

3:8. Day for Ohioans is set July 28.

4:1-4. Industrial firms of nation will exhibit at San Diego’s Exposition; gigantic commercial strides and national progress will be depicted in huge displays.

4:3. Skill of ancient surgeons shown in Exposition display,

4:5. Murals painted for Exposition.

4:7. Equine displays – Gay’s Lion Farm, Midway features.

4:8. San Diego expects 5 million to see Exposition.

6:1-4. San Diego Palace of Fine Arts exhibits works of world-famed artists; institution in Balboa Park contains steadily growing collection of masterpieces, by Reginald Poland.

6:7 Intricate design seen on Palace of Fine Arts.

6:8. Display of old Italian masters brilliant event, by Reginald Poland.

8:1-2. Palace of Natural History houses thousands of priceless specimens; diversified collections will be major attractions for visitors, by Clinton G. Abbott, director.

8:1-2. San Diego Federation of State Societies will welcome “hometown” visitors to Exposition.

8:3-4. Hydrographic relief map at Exposition, only one of its kind in existence.

8:5-6. Taxidermist shop, where all displays are made, by Clinton G. Abbott.

8:7. Some exhibits too valuable to be exposed, by Clinton G. Abbott.

8:7. Fossil is found on site of Exposition.


APRIL 28, 1935


8:8. Palace of Natural History carries study of nature to schools, by Frank F. Gander, County Supervisor of Nature Study.

8:7-8. Identification exhibits, useful Natural History Museum feature, by Clinton G. Abbott.

10:1-2. San Diego Zoological Gardens ranks with best in United States; rare collection of animal and bird life will add to enjoyment of Exposition, by Belle J. Benchley.

10:7. “Flying” sea lion to be unusual exhibit at Exposition.

10:8. Two gorillas provide fun for visitors, by Belle J. Benchley.

Section II.

10:1-2. Exposition will present scientific, artistic and cultural exhibits; all phases of world’s progress will be represented by displays in brilliant settings.

10:7. San Diego police will wear new Exposition uniforms.

10:7. Local Veterans’ posts ready to aid Exposition.

10:8. Palace of Science offers unique displays.

Section III.

4:3-5. Drawing of model home to be given away at Exposition.

4:6-7. California State Building to show government at work.

4:8. Varied displays, special events planned.

6:1-2. Living plants to enhance Exposition buildings’ beauty.

8:1-2. PTA will provide exhibits for Palace of Education.

11:2-4. Frank Drugan credited with idea that started San Diego’s Exposition.

Section IV.

4:8. Powerful aerial fleet will have exercises in July.

4:8. National Guard will drill for Exposition visitors.

Section V.

6:3-4. 24 nations represented in Photo Salon at Exposition.

Section VI.

9:2. 1,700 Indians in San Diego County.

9:3. Counties of California will show their products in San Diego.

9:4-7. O’Rourke Institute instructs children in nature lore free.

Section VII.

2:1. Boy Scouts plan active programs for Exposition.

2:2-3. Countless Exposition attractions in superb setting.

2:4. Catholics to attend Mass at Exposition June 2.

2:6-7. Scientific library in Balboa Park provides facilities for extended research, by Alice M. Barlow.

3:1-8. Patrick Francis O’Rourke invites the world to San Diego’s Exposition.

4:2-3. Spreckels outdoor organ to be played each day.

4:4. Transportation facilities will be neat exhibit.

4:8. Smart displays for American women.

6:1. Gold Rush days will live again.

8:2-3. Girls have fine Scout House in Balboa Park.

8:4-5. Special art collection featured.

12:1-8. Café of the World will serve epicures of all nations. San Diego Union, April 29, 1935, 2:7-8. Representatives of Czechoslovakia and Germany raise flags in House of Pacific Relations circle.

San Diego Union, April 29, 1935, 4:1. EDITORIAL: For the Exposition – We want the world to see our Exposition. We want the world, too, to see our prosperous and beautiful city.

San Diego Union, April 30, 1935, 5:1. Café of the World to use 50 cooks.

San Diego Union, April 30, 1935, 5:5. Standard Oil plans unique displays.

San Diego Union, April 30, 1935, II, 1:2. Exposition outside lighting ample to supply ten towns.

Publicity Release, San Diego, 1935: Plan for Sea Island Sugar Exhibit of Western Sugar Refinery, California-Pacific International Exposition.

LOCATION: This Exhibition is designed for a space approximately 71’ x 95’, located at the easterly end of Building #12 at the intersection of Avenida de los Palacios and the Avenue of Nations.

GENERAL CHARACTER: The area is divided into two main subdivisions: (a) the Theater and (b) the general exhibit space in which are located various exhibit items. The entrance to the Theater has been placed well back in the general exhibit area for the purpose of increasing circulation around the exhibits. The exhibit area can be reached either (a) from the aisle in Building #11, across a gang plank and onto a wharf suggestion (to create the impression of landing from a ship) or (b) the main aisle in Building #12. A principal element in creating the tropical island setting will be the cycloramic drop featuring tropical verdure, mountains, etc. The foreground of the cyclorama consists of actual plants (both real and artificial) and rock (paper mache) formations, possibly with trickling waterways, ferns and other appropriate items. The columns of the building are to be made to simulate palm trees.

Set out some three feet from the base of the cyclorama will be a native style, thatched roof hut, the walls of which will largely open to afford a view of the background. The front of the hut will be a low stage on which will be exhibited the large size replicas of the toys featured on the sugar bags. These figures will pass across the stage with varying characteristic movements.

To the left of the foregoing will be a display of actual sized dolls, such as can be made from the patterns on the containers. These will be sold for a nominal figure, mailing facilities being provided. A placard can suggest that the toys can be obtained without cost by purchasing the 10 pound bag of Sea Island Sugar which has the figures printed thereon.

To the right as one descends the gang plank will be shelves for a display of Sea Island packages. In this general area tables and chairs may be placed. These will undoubtedly proved inviting to foot-weary visitors. These might lend to the Sea Island idea by having beach umbrellas over the tables.

To the south of this area is located the Cooking Demonstration. This will be surrounded by a counter at which refreshments will be served, probably at a slight charge. While at the counter the cooking demonstration can be observed.

Much atmosphere would be created by the introduction into the scheme of various tropical birds and a few monkeys. These would have to be located with due regard, both for their own safety and that of the public. It might be possible for the monkeys to be dressed in suits giving them the appearance of animated Sea Island sugar bags. The attention-attracting power of these features, particularly the monkeys, would be great.

THEATER: In the course of a conference relative to this exhibit, Mr. Tupper mentioned the striking success of the theatrical method of presentation at the recent “Century of Progress” at Chicago. In view of this experience, the present scheme features a small theater, seating about one hundred and fifty, in which can be shown both the educational motion pictures which it is desired to present, as well as other entertainment as may be desire. The general scheme is to attract attention by means of entertainment given on the balcony near the aisle and main entrance to the building/ During this entertainment, either by placard or voice an invitation will be extended to attend the presentation to be given in the theater. While the people are entering the entertainers can reach the stage through an overhead passage way and continue to entertain the audience until the time to show the film. On leaving the theater, the public will again traverse the exhibit area.

San Diego Sun, May 1, 1935, 11:2-3. Ford exhibit to present wonders of modern age.

San Diego Sun, May 1, 1935, 12:2-4. Mayan architecture, Standard Oil Building feature.

San Diego Sun, May 2, 1935, 1:3-4, 2:6. Real nudists to be at Exposition.

San Diego Sun, May 2, 1935, II, 13:2-3. Building the Exposition.

San Diego Sun, May 2, 1935, II, 15:2-3. Exposition Mixed Chorus has 500 voices.

Letter, May 3, 1935, Vandeburg to Sandusky; SUBJECT: Amateur Broadcasting Station

This is to advise that we now have an excellent amateur radio broadcasting station among other exhibits and attractions here in the grounds. Short Wave Station WGUSA will be located in a room at the head of the stairway directly under the tower of the Science Building.

The station will be maintained and operated without cost to the Exposition under the management of Messrs. Earl Kiernan, Howard Breedlove and A. Wayne Prather. It is strictly an amateur station, and operators will be chosen day to day from the ranks of amateur radio operators here in San Diego.

The broadcasting equipment is being built and will be installed without cost to the Exposition, and the radio station will operate in broadcasting short-wave messages on highlights of the Exposition to other short-wave stations. Its power is sufficient to reach all parts of the world, and we should gain some good publicity from this source.

The station will be open to the public without charge, and an attendant will be maintained to explain the operation of the short-wave equipment.

Let me know if you want additional information.

(Sgd.) CMW

(Transcription from Box Files of California-Pacific International Exposition kept in San Diego Public Library.)

Box File 9, Folder 73, San Diego Public Library, List of Exhibitors & Concessionaires – 1935.




Bowers Mfg. Co., Inc. 6700 Avalon Blvd., L. A. Claude E. Bowers #23 224

Cleaves, Naomi E. 6521 Hollywood Blvd. same #29 493


Church of Jesus Christ 153 W. Adams Blvd., L. A. Mr. Alonzo A. 750

Latter Day Saints Hinckley

  1. Compton & Co. 1000 N. Dearborn St. Mr. C. E. Snell #25 224

Encyclopedia Britannica 681 Market St., S .F. Mr. W. P. Bastien #34 S-1/2 288

Pac. Coast Division

Goodwill Industries 342 N. Main St., L.A. Mr. Frederic H. #A 102-1/2


Anna Ketonen 525 14 St., N.W. same #50 493

Nassau Pen & Pencil 116 Nassau St., N. Y. City Harry Horne Allocation 4/1

Rm. 1800 100 W.

Monroe, Chicago

  1. Quarrie & Co. 6404 Hollywood Blvd. J. G. Woods #30 480

Rosicrucian Fellowship Mission Ave., Oceanside, Mrs. Max Heindel 224

Calif. to be allocated

Salvation Army 115 Valencia St., S. F. Major H. French 704

to be allocated

Ware, Mr. J. W. 1060 Sixth Ave., S. D. same #12 384

Western Union S. D., Calif. Mr. D. Topham #21 664

Foreign Antique & Art Hot Springs, Ark. Chas. Nonneman #51 1224

Bowen, Mr. A. M. 2035 Broadway, S. D. same 50

Bowen Unique Handicraft

Bookhouse for Children 360 N. Mich. Ave., Chicago Mr. Harry Miller #26 224

Gefroj Studio 4840 Washington Blvd., L. A. Mrs. W. W. Whitson #27 224

Jacobson, I. 758 – 8th Ave., S. D. Isadore Jacobson #19

Pac. Union Conf. Glendale, Calif. Glenn Calkins #4,5,6,7 1568

(7th Day Adventists) 1531 E. Wilson

  1. Hansen Co., Ltd. 642 B St., S. D. same #3 756

Ganna Walska Rm. 1800 – 100 W. Monroe St. Harry Horne E 12’ 60

Chicago, Ill. #28

Morbeck of London 1113 Ave. “O” Brooklyn Shoolman Bros. #11 256

Standard Sanitary Mfg. P.O. Box W, Richmond, Calif. F. A. Kales, V. P. 18, 19, 835


Sullivan’s Art Gift 109 Chestnut St. W. G. Sullivan #22 270

Athens, Pa.

American Flange Mfg. 26 Broadway, N. Y. C. J. G. Macormack #15 224

  1. Helrigel 9944 Connors Ave., Detroit same N24 #2 456
  2. D. Mirror & Glass 640 – 10thSt., S. D. J. A. Fernald #28 256

Railway Express Agency 1220 – 3rd St., S. D. C. A. Townsend #4, 5 640

Barker Bros., Inc. L. A., Calif. R. E. Craig #45 480

Moroccan Palace 2454 – 5th Ave., S. D. H. Ohayon #48 480

  1. D. Mirror & Glass 640 – 10th, S. D. J. A. Fernald #28 256

Expo. Hdqtrs.

Meyer Coupling Co. 433 S. Spring, L. A. C. H. Matthiessen #30 480

Calif. Redwood Gifts P. O. Box 103 Ira E. Thatcher N-1/2 34 224

Klamath, Calif.

(Box 9 Folder 73, California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Sun, May 3, 1935, 1:5. Police ready for throngs at Exposition; detective assigned to crack down on “Bunco men”.

San Diego Sun, May 3, 1935, 4:1-6. Building the Exposition.

San Diego Sun, May 4, 1935, 3:3-4. Carl H. Heilbron, president Chamber of Commerce, endorses Visitors’ Bureau; accommodations for an anticipated surplus of 10,000 visitors needed.

San Diego Union, May 5, 1935, 1:3-4, 10:1. “House of Magic” will display electricity marvels; vast exhibit by big national concern announced for Exposition at cost of $50,000.

San Diego Union, May 5, 1935, 13:1. Earth to auto is theme of Ford display.

Letter, May 6, 1935, H. A. Van Norman, Chief Engineer & General Manager, Bureau of Water Works & Supply, 207 So. Broadway, Los Angeles, Calif., to Zack Farmer, Managing Director, California-Pacific International Exposition, Balboa Park, San Diego, Calif.

Dear Sir:

I have been advised that we are sending our men to San Diego tomorrow with complete plans and specifications for the construction of the 100-foot tower to be erected at the entrance of our water exhibit — together with other floor plans which you requested.

The engineers have planned for a very elaborate entrance detail consisting of this 100-foot tower which is to have water cascading over it — all to be flood-lighted at night — making a very pleasing and spectacular feature for the exposition. This tower will have a very desirable and conspicuous location at the end of the California Flower Gardens and facing on the large forecourt of approximately 7,000 square feet where suitable benches are to be placed for the accommodation of the public.

In order to avoid so much red tape and construction details in the way of bids, etc., by this Department, arrangements were made with your officials whereby they would construct this tower and bill it to us in addition to the space charge specified in our application for lease.

However, since we find our finances are limited, if your guaranteed cost for this tower is excessive and too far out of line with reasonable costs, it will mean that this entire tower feature must be eliminated from our plans — unless there is some way in which your officials can arrange to absorb some of this expense.

In view of the fact that the erection of this tower with water cascading over it will be an asset to the exposition itself, and feeling sure that it will be to the interest of the entire exposition to retain this feature, I would recommend that this tower construction be handled on a 50-50 basis.

I would greatly appreciate it if you would go into this matter quite thoroughly and will hope that you can see your way clear to make the necessary arrangements with my representative in order that they may carry out their present plans as far as our finances will permit.

Very truly yours,

(Sgd.) H. A. Van Norman

Organization Representative


Dept. of Water & Power Thad M. Erwin

Metropolitan Water District Don J. Kinsey

Imperial Valley B. A. Harrigan

Copy to Waldo F. Tupper, Director of Exhibits

(Copy of letter in Box File 10 Folder 52, California-Pacific International Exposition, kept by San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Union, May 6, 1935, 1:7-8, 5:5. Triple shifts of labor bring Exposition’s buildings near finish.

San Diego Sun, May 6, 1935, 1:6-7, 6:3-4. Spectacular light system to paint Exposition grounds.

San Diego Sun, May 6, 1935, 4:6. Fun Zone nearly ready.

New York Times, May 7, 1935, 18:8. A special three-cent stamp will be issued to commemorate the California-Pacific International Exposition which opens in San Diego on May 29.

San Diego Union, May 7, 1935, 1:6, 9:1. Exposition to floodlight sky; electrical display to be dazzling.

San Diego Union, May 7, 1935, II, 2:4. Naval exhibits en route here for Exposition.

San Diego Sun, May 7, 1935, 1:2-3. Hollywood moves into Hall of Fame; three freight cars loaded for film exhibit; will make movies daily.

San Diego Sun, May 7, 1935, 20:5-6. Four-legged pickaninny girl to be exhibited in Believe-it-or-not show.

San Diego Union, May 8, 1935, 1:5, 5:1. Group to confer today on California State exhibit; Eagles establish quarters; Swedes set flag raising; actors announce plans.

San Diego Sun, May 8, 1935, 1:3-4. State officials in San Diego complete Exposition plans.

San Diego Sun, May 8, 1935, 4:2-3. Glamorous maidens feature in “Sensations” show in Amusement Zone.

San Diego Sun, May 8, 1935, II, 11:2-3. Exposition opens in 20 days; exhibit schedule rushed.

San Diego Union, May 9, 1935, II, 2:1. Committee to invite guests to Exposition opening.

San Diego Sun, May 9, 1935, 8:6-7. Historic highways of the world reproduced as Exposition feature.

New York Times, May 10, 1935, 10:4. The Mexican government has authorized exhibition of the Monte Alban jewels in San Diego, Calif. During the fair starting May 20 [sic].

San Diego Sun, May 10, 1935, 1:2-3. Giant Boulder Dam model scheduled for Exposition; 30-ft. reproduction arrives tomorrow; terrain to be shown in contour map; for installation in Amusement Zone.

San Diego Sun, May 10, 1935, 22:5-6. Twenty-five tribes of Indians to live at Exposition.

San Diego Union, May 11, 1935, 1:7-8, 2:7. Exposition at half-way mark in advance ticket sales.

San Diego Union, May 11, 1935, 5:6. Japan quarters in House of Pacific Relations will be opened with ceremony.

San Diego Sun, May 11, 1935, II, 9:2-3. Tons of machinery moved into Firestone’s exhibit in Ford Building today; actual production of rubber parts scheduled.

San Diego Union, May 13, 1935, 5:4. 400 men on job “dressing” park’s flora for Exposition.

San Diego Sun, May 14, 1935, 1:2-3, 7:3-4. Electric moon, borealis rival nature at Exposition; ten miles of high-voltage wires “nerve” networks in park.

San Diego Sun, May 14, 1935, 5:4. Globe theater ready for run at Exposition.

San Diego Union, May 14, 1935, 1:7-8. Exposition construction at new peak; work started on lakes, gardens.

San Diego Union, May 14, 1935, II, 1:5. Ford Building nearly finished.

San Diego Sun, May 15, 1935, 1:1-2. Aladdin’s Lamp miracle performed at Exposition.

San Diego Sun, May 15, 1935, 18:2-4. Ford Building nears completion.

San Diego Union, May 15, 1935, 1:7-8. Record-breaking speed made on Exposition buildings.

San Diego Sun, May 16, 1935, II, 11:2-3. Fifty nature lovers on way to nudist colony.

San Diego Union, May 16, 1935, 1:1. Big arch rises on Exposition plaza.

San Diego Union, May 16, 1935, 9:2-4. Helene Richards, 1915 Exposition groundbreaking “Queen Ramona,” recalls fete.

San Diego Union, May 16, 1935, II, 1:2. Scientific exhibits to be featured at Ford exhibit.

San Diego Union, May 16, 1935, II, 1:8. Traffic body suggests Exposition no-parking areas.

San Diego Union, May 17, 1935, 1:3, 2:6. Work on radio station; system of amplification starts at Exposition; broadcasting facilities to be of network magnitude.

New York Times, May 18, 1935, 2:2. President to visit Exposition at San Diego; he promises trip some time this summer.

San Diego Sun, May 18, 1935, 5:4-5. Five symphony orchestras scheduled for Ford Bowl.

San Diego Sun, May 18, 1935, II, 9:6-7. “End of Trail” exhibit featured.

New York Times, May 19, 1935, Section 9, II, 15:6-8. A Great Fair For the Pacific; the International Exhibition Soon to Open in San Diego is Expected to Draw Millions of Visitors to the West Coast, by

Alvin J. McGowan.

San Diego, Calif.

The nearly four centuries of progress and achievement in the West with their climax in the gigantic works now being constructed will be portrayed in bold strokes at the California Pacific International Exposition, which will open in Balboa Park in San Diego on May 29 and continue until November 11.

Such is the main theme. It represents a long evolution from the original idea of the fair, which was to be representative chiefly of Southern California. The large construction projects hereabout were too breathtaking to be left out. Of course the Federal Government was invited to exhibit also; so was the Mexican government, and the circle kept on widening until now some twenty-three or more foreign countries will be represented.

Great interest has been created throughout the United States and much of the rest of the world. Inquiries of travel agencies indicate than an unprecedented number of tourists will travel to the Pacific Coast for the 1935 world’s fair. Confident forecasters are mentioning 10,000,000 as the probably attendance figure for the season. President Roosevelt has announced his intention of coming to the fair.

San Diego is considered the logical site for such an exposition because it claims to be the birthplace of civilization in the West. It was to San Diego bay that the explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo in 1542 first touched the mainland of present California. It was here that the first mission was established in 1769 by Spanish priests. Many relics of the early settlement lie within a short distance of the exposition grounds.

More then 100 Buildings

The exposition proper comprises more than 100 buildings, representing a total investment in excess of $20,000.000. Most of them are permanent structures which were a part of the 1915 Panama Pacific [sic] Exposition commemorating the completion of the Panama Canal, but many new and modern structures have been built to house the varied exhibits at the coming fair. Heavily clustered with trees and shrubs, they make a scene of dazzling brilliance.

Two of the great struggles for progress in this region have been for water and transportation. The struggles are commemorated in the Palace of Water and Transportation. Here is told the story of man’s fight for the “white gold” of the semi-arid West and the advance of transportation from the days of the sandal-shod Spanish priest down to the present streamlined era.

Part of the story is being sponsored by the Metropolitan Water District of Los Angeles in a huge display. Relief maps and working models of great irrigation and water-supply systems will be strikingly shown. Aqueducts, dams, channels, and reservoirs will be reproduced to scale.

All-American Canal

Also in this building will be a graphic representation of the relief project of the All-American Canal, now under construction in Southern California, which will open up thousands of barren acres to agriculture and provide homes for many American families. The exhibit will also tell the story of the Boulder Dam, one of the world’s great engineering projects, and of other undertakings connected with the water problem in the West.

In the transportation section will be a special department devoted to the historical phase of travel. Many relics which played an important part in the development of travel in the United States are being assembled. These include such colorful objects as the horse trappings of the early Spanish Dons, the ox-carts of the first settlers, covered wagons, stagecoaches and other crude vehicles.

The United States Government, which has constructed a Federal exhibit palace costing $200,000, will develop two themes. One exhibit deals with the operations of twenty government departments, which more than forty attendants will help to explain. The other is that sponsored by the Federal Housing Administration.

The first phase of the FHA exhibit is a bit of modernization magic, a dramatization of the improving of homes under maximum loans of $2,000. There will be shown a community of houses antiquated, poorly designed and in need of repairs. In the space of ten minutes it will be changed into a community that is highly modernized and improved.

Still another phase of the exhibit will be the presentation of a “New Deal City,” showing fifty-six houses in miniature, designed to display the newest and best type of residential construction.

Mexico to Participate

General Pascual Ortis Rubio, former President of Mexico and an honorary director of the exposition, has announced, through President Cardenas, Mexico’s decision to participate officially in the San Diego fair.

Included in the Mexico Exhibit Palace will be the famous Monte Alban jewels, priceless Maya gems, which were shown at Chicago’s A Century of Progress Exposition. These are now en route to San Diego, where they will be displayed under special guard. The Mexican government will also have exhibits from the Departments of Agriculture, Communications, Education and National Economy.

Plans are being made to bring to San Diego for the duration of the fair the famous Tipica orchestra of 100 pieces.

A unique exhibit will be that of the Screen Actors Guild on Hollywood. This group will put on display such famous objects as Mary Pickford’s curls, Charlie Chaplin’s shoes, George Arlis’s monocle and other items from the archives of the screen capital.

As to architecture, many of the buildings are of the early Spanish renaissance and Spanish Colonial styles. These are the buildings constructed for the 1915 exposition. The new buildings suggest the oldest and most typically American schools of architecture — the ancient Maya and Indian pueblo.

Industrial Exhibits

Some of the notable commercial exhibits will be found in the Ford Building, including modern industrial devices of all kinds. This building, intended to be permanent, stands on high ground overlooking San Diego Bay and will serve as a landmark for air pilots. Adjacent is a 3,000-seat amphitheater and orchestral shell. Here the symphony orchestras of Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle and Portland will play during the fair.

In this part of the park roads suggesting historic highways that have contributed to the development of the civilization of nations settling along the Pacific have been laid out, flanked by characteristic scenery. Among these world-known arteries are the Gold road of Panama, one of the ancient Inca highways of Peru, the old Spanish road in Mexico, the Oregon and Santa Fe trails, and Alaska’s Fairbanks highway.

Other exhibits will cover a great range of subjects. The Palace of Science will portray developments in its field down to the newest marvels in telephony; the Palace of Natural History contains 307,803 specimens of birds, fish, animals, reptiles and plants; the Palace of Fine Arts, a striking collection of old masters and moderns including Ruben’s “The Holy Family,” and a priceless Gobelin tapestry, and so on.

The entire United States fleet will concentrate in local waters for two-week periods. The first concentration will begin on June 10 and last until June 28. The second will be from August 7 until September 1. President Roosevelt will be here during one of the concentrations for a review.

San Diego Union, May 19, 1935, 1:4, 2:5. 3,000 men race against time to get Exposition ready.

San Diego Union, May 19, 1935, II, 1:2. Exposition to have Schweigardt statue group; sculptor donates work for Palace of Education when funds fail; exhibit won by Mrs. Vesta Muehleisen.

San Diego Union, May 19, 1935, II, 4:5. Visitors to be barred from Exposition grounds as work speeds to finish.

San Diego Sun, May 20, 1935, 1:5, 2:3-4. San Diego orphans to pull switch to open Exposition; will turn on lights after talk by President Roosevelt.

San Diego Sun, May 20, 1935, 3:2-3. Zorine, queen of the nudists, flourishes under San Diego sun.

San Diego Sun, May 20, 1935, 6:3-4. Six architectural styles to prevail at Exposition.

San Diego Union, May 20, 1935, 5:2. Artists finishing California State Building’s historic murals. 



MAY 21, 1935

Section A

4:2-4. 1935 Exposition product of 1915 Fair; idea brought to San Diego by G. A. Davidson.

5:1-2. Shakespeare “streamlined” to be presented in replica of London theater at Exposition

12:1-2. “Arco del Provenir” to be Exposition surprise.

Section B

2:1-4. Frank Drugan, little man with big idea, gave American big 1935 coast Exposition.

3:3. Fifteen foreign nations in Exposition.

4:3-5. “House of Charm” to be magnet for debutante and homeowner alike at 1935 Exposition.

10:3-6. Chinese aid Exposition; Quon Mane exhibit.

Section C

1:1-2. Old mining days live again in “Gold Gulch”.

1:7-8, 2:2-3. Thrill rides, lions, midgets, two-headed baby, Dillinger’s auto on Amusement list.

3:6-7. Twenty-five tribes of Indians to live at Exposition.

Section D

2:5. Welcome Note is Hospitality House Theme: Atmosphere of Spacious Casa Achieved in

Decorations, by Katharine Morrison Kahle.

In Hospitality House, the official reception building of the California-Pacific International Exposition, the women’s committee will act as gracious hostesses to the Exposition guests. It was the desire in planning the interior decorations of the building to give the rooms a feeling of welcome and the atmosphere of a comfortable spacious casa and at the same time keep all appointments consistent with the architecture.

Though the lounges and reception rooms of Hospitality House are being furnished in harmony with the Spanish-Colonial architecture of the building, they will not be replicas of old Spanish rooms.

Modern Antiques

Instead, the spirit rather than the letter of the period is followed in all the furniture, rugs and draperies and accessories. Color, line and texture suggest the ruggedness of the Spanish, yet at the same time a certain modernity is suggested.

Furniture and fabrics have been made to order

The large reception room, called the Sala de Oro, has gold for its dominant color. In this room, a gold rug and handsome, handwoven draperies of a beautiful golden tone set the color note, which is contrasted by upholstery and accessories in tones of light and dark peach and blue-green. Beautiful mirrors of Spanish design reflect the coloring of the room and a rare old Italian cabinet, the gift of Mrs. A. S. Darlington of La Jolla, an antique Mexican chest, and a pair of Mexican “Portero de Hostea,” used as lamps, set the atmosphere of the room. This is a formal yet comfortable room.

As In Mexico

The large reception room upstairs has a pleasant color scheme of blue-green, gold and old faded reds, set by the beautiful handwoven drapes and the painted chairs and cabinets. Plants growing in glazed pottery jars give the loggia the effect of the typical Mexican outdoor living room. From the loggia open two spacious decks, furnished in outdoor furniture and colorful umbrellas.

In addition to these large rooms is a tower committee room, a men’s lounge, which is decorated in a rich color scheme of browns, tans and lacquer red, and a women’s lounge, whose dominant note is a cool restful green.

All appointments of decoration, including linens, dishes and furniture, have been especially ordered for the building and are in harmony of color, texture and design.

Section D

2:7. Two Hostesses Daily Provided Sala de Oro – Miss Mary Marston, member of the Women’s Executive Board, is chairman of the Hostess Committee, which will serve under the Board. Miss Marston’s committee will provide two hostesses each day in the Sala de Oro, attractive lounge of

Hospitality House.

` Members of the committee include

Clinton Abbott Paul Jennings

Robert Frazee E. D. Miller

T Hale Sam Sherman

Mary G. Hatch W. L. Van Schaick

E Holoway

Anne Halliday Mary Vivian Conway

Portrait: Offices of the Women’s Executive Board are Mrs. Frank Frye Jr., secretary; Mrs. John

Ward, first vice president; Mrs. Lorens Barney, second vice president; and Mrs. Clark Cavanee, third vice-president.

7:1. $50,000 home featured on Exposition grounds; 12-room Monterey colonial dwelling open to public.

10:1-6. San Diego women saved former Exposition palaces.

Section E

2:1-8. Balboa Park beauties all man-made, by Richard Pourade.

11:1-4. Hard workers made Exposition.

San Diego Union, May 21, 1935, 1:7, 2:4. Construction of major Exposition projects nears completion.

San Diego Union, May 21, 1935, II, 1:5. Mrs. Paul Maiss, general chairman of the Women’s Civic Hospitality Committee, will operate the model house in the Plaza as the Hospitality House for Exposition visitors.

San Diego Union, May 22, 1935, 1:7-8, 2:5. Exposition hits homestretch as opening looms week ahead.

San Diego Union, May 22, 1935, 1:4-5. Zoo is host to two Bactrian camels brought from Kansas City.

San Diego Sun, May 23, 1935, 1:5-6. Exhibit palaces sold out, Exposition finances good, all bills paid.

San Diego Sun, May 23, 1935, 5:6-7. “Fix-it” brigade smooths path for Exposition officials; David N. Millan heads Public Relations Committee.

San Diego Union, May 23, 1935, 12:1. Ford by-product plant miniature arrives for Exposition.

San Diego Union, May 23, 1935, 12:7-8. Gigantic map nearing completion as part of Ford exhibit.

New York Times, May 24, 1935, 23:5. Ford Building appears in the center of the Fair stamp.

San Diego Sun, May 24, 1935, 1:6-7. 10,000 workers speeding Exposition for opening.

San Diego Sun, May 24, 1935, II, 13:1. Exposition parking plans strike legal snag; Byers rules against lots in parks; Commission is split.

San Diego Union, May 24, 1935, 12:2-3. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Sun, May 25, 1935, 1:6-7, 2:6-7. Two million tickets sold in advance for Exposition.

San Diego Union, May 25, 1935, 1:3-6, 2:4-5. Plans for Exposition opening announced.

San Diego Union, May 25, 1935, 12:1-3. Standard Oil Tower to the Sun will be dedicated today.

San Diego Union, May 25, 1935, 12:5-6. Village of 52 historic buildings in miniature added to Ford exhibit.

Los Angeles Times, May 26, 1935, III, 10:1. Film History Exhibit to Be in Spotlight; cinema folk to hold many parties on first night, by Sylva Weaver.

San Diego Union, May 26, 1935, 1:1, 2:5. Exposition opening will be broadcast to 75 million; two national chains book four programs.

San Diego Union, May 26, 1935, 4:5-7. Acres of beautiful flowers, lighting effect on foliage, constitute one of Exposition’s dazzling spectacles, by Ada Perry.

San Diego Union, May 26, 1935, 11:1. Ford Bowl gets most powerful organ in world.

San Diego Union, May 26, 1935, II, 1:2. Art decorations tell vivid story of California State.

San Diego Union, May 26, 1935, II, 12:1. Cast to enact plays of Shakespeare at replica of Globe theater.

San Diego Union, May 26, 1935, II, 12:3. Model Infantry Unit to set up Exposition camp; to be situated on Midway adjoining Indian Village.

New York Times, May 27, 1935, 6:5. Mexican president Cardenas has invited Luis Rodriguez to represent him at the San Diego Fair; he leaves tomorrow; Monte Alban jewels leave tomorrow night.

San Diego Union, May 27, 1935, 1:2. Skeleton found on Exposition ground with bullet in skull.

San Diego Union, May 27, 1935, 1:6-7, 2:3. 4,000 racing against time as Exposition’s deadline nears.

San Diego Union, May 27, 1935, 1:6-7, 2:3. Exposition clean-up crew ready; builders leave, last nail pounded in; crowd due.

San Diego Sun, May 28, 1935, 1:8, 3:2-3. Exposition ready; dress rehearsal set for tonight.

San Diego Sun, May 28, 1935, 3:1-4. Nudists frolic for laws OK.

San Diego Union, May 28, 1935, 4:1. EDITORIAL: A Proud City – These visitors of 1935 will see a great Exposition. Those who look beyond it can see a proud city, secure in its pride.



of the





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American Autochrome Co.

300 West Grand Avenue


The Exposition grounds occupy 300 acres in Balboa Park, famous as one of the five most beautiful parks in the world. The park is the center-point of San Diego and covers an area of 1,400 acres of mesa broken by canyons. It is bounded on the east by 28th Street, on the West by Sixth Street, on the South by Date Street, and on the North by Upas Street.

In 1915, the Panama-California Exposition was held in Balboa Park.

All of the permanent buildings of that Exposition, which are of Spanish Renaissance and Spanish Colonial design, are utilized as exhibit palaces in the California-Pacific International Exposition. Added to these are many new structures, bringing the number of buildings to more than 100.

The architecture of the Exposition has its origin in Mexico which developed a type of Spanish-Colonial adapted to the climate and temperament of Mexico. A wonderful architecture exists in Mexico of cathedrals, public buildings and palaces of the great families. This architecture shows Aztec and Mayan influences most noticeably in its Baroque ornamentation. Indian artisans were capable of most intricate and luxuriant carvings which they lavished on the surfaces of blank walls. The polychrome tile, rich fabrics, and the painting and gilding of statues are products of their skill and artistic taste. It was this combined Mexican, Aztec and Mayan versatility that inspired the architecture of the San Diego Exposition.

The new buildings of the Exposition are located mainly on the Palisades and include the Palaces of Electricity, Transportation, California State, Federal Building and Hollywood Hall of Fame. These buildings are a combination of the two oldest and most typically American schools of architecture, the ancient Mayan and Indian Pueblo. Planes, heavy overhanging cornices and a rounded treatment of all corners are featured throughout. The buildings present a picture of startling simplicity. Vast, unbroken surfaces and sparsity of detail and of right angles give a picture that is close to that found in native-American villages.

The Exposition section of the park is laid out in the form of the letter “S.” An Amusement Zone provides the top of the “S,” exhibit palaces occupy the middle portion, and the lower portion is devoted to recently-constructed exhibit palaces and to industrial buildings.

To accomplish color and decoration architects allowed plants and flowers to grow on the exteriors of the newer buildings. They achieved decorative effects through the contrasting shadings of plants as they climb or cluster across the faces of buildings or trail from cornices and from troughs on the roofs.

Thus the Palace of Electricity takes its color scheme from the compensating greens and lavenders of trailing Lantana and the Palace of Transportation is adorned by the brilliant yellow and green of the climbing ice plant.


The western approach to the Exposition grounds is over the Cabrillo Bridge to the arched gateway of Science Tower. Cabrillo Bridge crosses Cabrillo Canyon, one of the canyons that cut deep gashes into Balboa Park. The bridge with its approaches is 1,505 feet long and has a span of 450 feet and a height above Laguna del Puente of 110 feet. In the lagoon are water lilies, rushes, pampas grass and bamboo. Beautiful lawns, trees, shrubs, and luxuriant foliage characterize the park west of the bridge. Slender Italian cypresses mark the approach to the bridge and groves of Acacia Baileyana, clothed in spring with aromatic plumes of golden yellow, embower the entrance to Tower of the Science of Man.


The Palace of the Science of Man was the California building at the Exposition of 1915-16 and is considered to be one of the finest examples in the United States of Spanish-Colonial architecture. The approach to Science Tower over Cabrillo bridge has been compared to the approach to Toledo, over the river Tagus. The Tower is the outstanding architectural feature of the Exposition, its warm gray belfry stories rise 200 feet to a tiled dome with a wrought-iron weather vane. The tower gleams in glazed and colored tile, its walls of warm gray reflecting the sun.

Science Hall has a facade rich with broken moldings and crowded with ornaments like the cathedral fronts of old Mexico. The sculpture of the frontispiece is the work of Furio and Piccirillo [sic] and constitutes an historical hall of fame. The rich, exotic Churrigueresque carvings frame figures of the discoverers and founders of San Diego and California and their sponsors. The figures are those of Father Junipero Serra, Cabrillo, Vizcaino, Father Jayme, first martyr of the San Diego mission, Father de la Ascension, who accompanied Viscaino, Vancouver, first English navigator to enter San Diego Bay, Portola, the first Spanish governor, and Charles V and Philip II of Spain. In the design of the frontispiece are incorporated the coats of arms of Spain, Mexico, Portugal and the United States and the conventionalized state seal.

The Hall of Science is in the form of a Greek cross and suggests a cathedral. The dome is embellished with a rich mosaic of tile in gold, blue, green, yellow, jet black and white. Surmounting the done is a lantern of rare beauty. In many respects the building suggests the historical cathedral of Oaxaca, Mexico. The late Bertram Goodhue was the architect.

Viewed from the gardens in the rear are seen low domed pavilions in the angles of the transepts and the half dome of the apse covered with colored tile.

Saint Francis Chapel is in the Hall of Science and many blushing brides and bridegrooms have been married before the beautiful altar and reredos. Elaborately modeled, gilded and colored, the reredos extends from the crown of the barrel vault of the shallow chancel. A carved statue of Our Lady and Child, brought from Mexico, occupies a place of honor. On the right is a statue of San Diego de Alcala. 


The western entrance to the Exposition is through an archway in the walls that suggests the gates of a Spanish fortress and opens into the California Quadrangle. This quadrangle was made up of the California and the Fine Arts Buildings in 1915-16 and now houses the permanent collection of the San Diego Museum

The main floor of the Palace of Science (former California Building) is devoted to Mexican and Central American archaeology. Here are seen replicas of the Mayan monuments, cast from the originals in the thick jungles of Guatemala and Yucatan. These monuments, often weighing several tons, are elaborately carved with hieroglyphics and portraits of important personages. They are especially fine examples of the stone-cutting art, and were made by a people who possessed neither steel nor bronze. Among the reproductions are a model of the palace of Uxmal, Yucatan, and another of the Temple of Sacrifice in Chichen Itza, Yucatan. Here Maya priests performed rites of human sacrifice. Here too is a copy of the ancient Aztec calendar stone and the very newest type of calendar produced by a San Francisco firm: the Eternal Calendar Corporation, 57 Post St.

Small clay and stone figurines, pottery and other ethnological collections from the same region are also found here. On the main floor are also life-sized models of Indians in various occupations, mining and working copper, quarrying obsidian and stone, making arrowheads.

Jessop Archery

In the upper galleries is the Jessop archery collection, probably the finest of its kind in the world, numbering 5,000 pieces and containing comparative types of bows and arrows and other weapons used in the far corners of the earth.

The collection offers bows, arrows, armor and shields from such widely separated places as China, Burma, Korea, Japan, Guinea, Africa, New Zealand, Australia, Germany and the American Indian villages.

The tiny poisoned darts of the African pygmy tribes contrast with the mighty cross bows of German warriors of medieval times.

One of the outstanding weapons in this collection is a bow used by the giant Mongols who were ruled by Genghis Kahn. Of the reflex type, it requires a pull of 100 pounds and can send an arrow 500 feet, or through a three-inch plank.

Second floor exhibits are devoted to North America. The balcony shows the Indians of Southern California. This collection is the most representative, authoritative and complete one covering this territory and was made possible through the receipt of government grants, in 1929 and 1930. Other second floor exhibits represent Egypt, Greece, Asia and the South Seas.


The southern end of the quadrangle contains the Museum of Anthropology. Here are shown, in casts from living subjects, the various races of mankind, also the development of individuals from childhood to old age. Life masks and busts are of males and females of American Indian, Eskimo, Mongolian, Maori, Malay, Australian, bushman, Negrito, Pygmy and Zulu origin.

An important section consists of plaster portraits and skeletal casts of extinct prehistoric peoples.

Peruvian Trephining

The skill of ancient Peruvian surgeons is revealed in an intriguing display of the operative surgery known as trephining, which consists of removing a piece of bone from the skull. Aboriginal surgeons performed this operation successfully.

A comparison between the Peruvian skulls on display here, and the medical records of the Civil war, indicates that ancient Peruvian surgeons were more successful in trephining than army surgeons during the Civil war.

Included among the skull exhibits is one with a bandage in position, as left by a primitive surgeon. The roll is cotton gauze and resembles modern surgical gauze in texture.

More than 60,000 specimens of stone tools are housed in the anthropology wing of the museum, adjacent to the exhibit on the evolution of man.

More than 100 stone tools, some of which are 200,000 years old, were recently added to the permanent collections. Included are those of Cro-Magnon, Neanderthal, Piltdown and Neolithic species. They were obtained from the Field museum, Chicago.


Science Hall, on the north side of Avenida de los Palacios, fronts on Plaza del Pacifico. The frontispiece of this tower is taken from the Church of San Francisco in Puebla, Mexico. This wing has two flanking bays projecting over the portales and enclosing a patio. From one corner rises a stair turret, Moorish in characters, its top bright with black and yellow tiles. At each end of the patio a faun spurts water from his mouth into a pool of feathery bamboos and magnolias. At the southeast corner of the patio is a picturesque balcony high up on the bare expanse of wall with iron grills and rich sculpture.

Bell Telephone

In a specially constructed section of the Palace of Science is a series of exhibits of the American Telephone and Telegraphy Company, brought here from the Bell Telephone laboratories.

These include the “speech invertor” by means of which the speaker’s voice is “scrambled” into a meaningless jumble, applying the general principle of telegraphic and radio code to the spoken word, and then delivering the speech, after “unscrambling: it, in proper manner to the receiver.

Another of these telephonic wonders is the oscilloscope, a device that reproduces sound in light waves across a darkened screen, affording each visitor an opportunity to “see” his own voice.

A third interesting device is the magnetic recorder, whereby telephonic conversation is recorded on ordinary telephone wire instead of employing records or sound films.

Monte Alban Jewels

One of the most valuable exhibits in the entire Exposition is that of the Monte Alban jewel treasures, presented by the Mexican government. Archaeologists fount these heavy gold rings and necklaces and crystal cups in an ancient tomb near Oaxaca, Mexico.

Palace of Photography

The eastern end of this hall is called the Palace of Photography. Here is held the Fifth International Salon of Photography, staged under the auspices of the Camera Enthusiasts and Pictorialists of San Diego.

Distinguished boards of judges will make awards in the various groups, which include pictorial, scientific, natural color, transparencies, professional portraiture and commercial photography.

The salon is regarded as the most important event of its kind to be held in the United States this year. Gold and silver medals and ribbons will be awarded in all classes by John Sirigo, official photographer of the Exposition.


These gardens are between San Diego Museum and the House of Charm with a Mission-style campanile facing the Avenue of Palaces. They are a reproduction of a section of the gardens of the Alcazar in Seville, Spain, and are ablaze with beautiful blooms. From the Gardens, a rustic bridge leads to the million-dollar Spreckels outdoor organ, the Ford Palace and the Music Bowl. Sightseers find this rustic bridge affords easy access to every part of the Exposition grounds.


The House of Charm adjoins the Tower of Science and is joined to it by a delightful pergola. This was the Russia and Brazil building in 1915-16 [sic]. Its main facade is on Plaza de los Estados [sic] and consists of a central arch flanked by two bell gables resembling the Sanctuario de Guadalajara in Mexico, Between the Children’s Palace [sic] and Science Tower are the beautiful Alcazar Gardens. The entrance to these gardens is at the north east corner. Here is a Mission-style belfry and beyond it is the tile domed tower of the building in yellow and blue. The gardens overlook Palm Canyon.

In the field of fashion and beauty aids, women will discover a wealth of exhibits in the House of Charm. They will want to see the demonstrations of cosmetics, coiffeurs; study the latest in gowns, furs, shoes, novelties; and view the animated pictures that are offered daily in the auditorium. The parades of beautiful girls, adorned in the latest frocks, and the moving picture shows will attract both sexes.


Facing on the Plaza del Pacifico is the beautiful Palace of Fine Arts, which first opened its doors on February 28, 1926. William Templeton Johnson, architect, designed the palace. Ornamentation of the building belongs to the Plateresque period of Spanish renaissance, many of its main features finding antecedents in the University of Salamanca, Spain.

From the facades of the palace, the stone faces of Cabrillo, Vizcaino and Vancouver [sic], doughty explorers of bygone centuries, gaze over Balboa Park. [sic] Just above the doorway is a shell, designed to honor the memory of Saint James (San Diego) [sic], whose body, according to legend, was deposited by the sea on the shores of Spain.

On one side of the shell is a figure modeled after Michelangelo’s statue of David; while on the other side is a reproduction of Donatello’s statue of Saint George, who slew the dragon.

Above are two small ships representing vessels in which Columbus sailed from Europe to discover the New World. In circles above the ships are the busts of Ribera and El Greco, , Velazquez, Zurburan and Murillo are represented by full-size statues in three niches.

In the next panel above are the coat-of-arms of the United States, flanked by those of the Kingdom of Spain and the State of California. Above is the head of Father Junipero Serra.

In the first room of the building the visitor will find a combination of laces and fabrics of all sorts, and glass and ceramic ware. The central feature is a glorious Flemish Renaissance tapestry, wherein the Queen of Sheba and her retinue arrive to meet King Solomon.

One of the unique treasures consists of four panels of lace specimens: Venetian rose point; French point d’Alencon, Flemish Mechlin work, Irish crochet, Buckingham all pillow-made lace, and several of the best types from old Spain.

An assemblage of medieval and other decorative furniture and artistic furnishings comprise a magnificent arrangement in gallery No. 2. It might be called the room of the Spanish Retable of Saint John.

The Oriental room contains an almost unique group of some 35 objects of glazed pottery from old Korea.

In the Palace of Fine Arts, special stress is laid on the best work of the great Spanish artists. Paintings by El Greco, whose best work was done in Spain after his successive emigrations for Greece and Italy; by the de Zubiaurres, deaf and dumb Basque brothers, whose work will live long as art endures; by Sorolla, Zuloago and other great Spanish artists attest the appreciation of the Exposition art directorate for Spanish painting. Beautifully painted is the Spanish scene called “Daughter Maria in the Gardens of La Granja” by Sorolla.

Another Spanish painting of international fame is Zuloaga’s full-length portrait of “Antonio La Galega” in her dress of violet-black and silver and of deep rose red. Other well-known masterpieces by the Basque, Valentin de Zubiaurre, are of the old “Golden Wedding” couple and “Abuelos” (Grandparents).

The great art of Spain, Flanders, Germany, France, Italy, Holland and England awaits the visitor in the second of the two largest galleries in the building. There are saints, members of royalty and other secular figures by El Greco, Coello, Rubens and Zurburan of Spain [sic]; “The Holy Family,” by Rubens, and a “Mystic Marriage of Saint Catherine,” by an unknown Fleming; a colorful Saxon courtier by Cranach of Germany; landscapes by Corot and Courbet, religious altarpieces from Old Italy, and figures by Maes, the Dutch friend of Rembrandt, and by Sir William Beechey of England. 


In this group will be found the work of Albert Bierstadt, Toby Rosenthal, Thomas Hill, Maurice Braun and William Keith. The German-born Bierstadt’s “In the Yosemite Valley” has been borrowed from the New York Public Library for the duration of the Exposition. Rosenthal’s “Cardinal’s Portrait,” subject of much critical acclaim, is also hung in the Palace of Fine Arts. Maurice Braun has made the Southern California scene the locale for many of his impressive landscapes. A number of these are the property of the San Diego Gallery. William Keith, best known for his “Golden California,” is also well represented. Modern Americans, in addition to the Western artists already mentioned, include George Luks, Winslow Homer, George Bellows and Robert Henri.


The Café of World is at the northeast corner of Plaza del Pacifico and was the Pan-Pacific building in 1915-16. Its ornate architecture suggests the urban palaces of the City of Mexico and recalls the house of the Counts of Heras in that city. The two symmetrical corner towers of the Café of the World and House of Hospitality, facing each other across the Avenue of Palaces, are modeled after that of the Palace of Monterey at Salamanca [sic]. The arcades of the Café are beautifully adorned with trailing brilliant bougainvillea and other vines.


The House of Hospitality resembles the Hospital of Santa Cruz at Toledo, Spain. Emblazoned on its exterior walls, its corner tower and arcades are the coats of arms of the countries of the Pan-American Union. This was the Foreign Arts building in 1915-16.

Visiting dignitaries will be received and entertained in the House of Hospitality, one of the most sumptuously furnished buildings in the Exposition grounds. The building houses studios of the interior decorators and artists who created displays and exhibits for the Exposition. In this building, too, there is an auditorium of 600 capacity for movies, music and plays.

Visitors will find pleasant spots in which to rest in the several lounges and on the roof garden, and there are banquet halls, private dining rooms and a bar.

There is a public café and outdoor dining terraces in and around the building. This building serves as headquarters for the federation of state societies.

Important rooms in the House of Hospitality, on both the first and second floors, open onto an arcade overlooking the inner court, which was copied after the famous convent patio of Guadalajara, Mexico. The centerpiece of the central fountain of this patio is a statue cut from a 1600-pound block of limestone by Donal Hord. The figure is that of an Indian girl, seated, with an olla in her lap from which water falls into the pool below.

Through the frescoed arches in the rear of the House of Hospitality appear the terraced paths and verdure of a replica of the famous Casa del Rey Moro gardens of Ronda, Spain. This is the finest garden in all of Spain, with its alabaster fountain, grotto, lily pond, quaint old well, seats and pergolas.


One of the most popular attractions of the Exposition is the Botanical Building and the Lagoon, variously called Laguna de las Flores and Laguna del Espejo, but, whether you call if the Lagoon of the Flowers or of the Mirror, it is a Lagoon of Beauty. It lies between the Café of the World and the Palace of Foods, and leads to the Botanical Palace. From the Café and the Food Palace, little corner pavilions in a Spanish-Renaissance style, with Baroque sculpture, border the lagoon. In the lagoon, the vegetation increases in density to a tropical luxuriance at the upper end. Around the pool are grouped Blackwood acacia, Grevillea, camphor, araucaria, eucalyptus, and lotus.

The botanical palace is a high-arched structure of steel aches and redwood lath covering. In the rear is a glass house. It contains a great number of specimens of tropical and semi-tropical plants, palms, bamboo, banana and ferns, vines, tree ferns, crotons and dracaenas from South America. 


The Palace of Better Housing is connected with the House of Hospitality by a tile-covered corridor that joins the arcades of both buildings. The architecture of the palace is reminiscent of the Casa Consistorial at Palma, Majorca, Spain. In the cornices of the roof is the brilliance of bright blue, red, green and gold in a soffit frieze. This building was the Canadian building in 1915-16 [sic]. Along the west side of the palace is a walk that skirts the edge of a deep canyon lined with eucalyptus and Pepper trees.

In the 36,200 square feet of floor space of the Palace of Better Housing are gathered hundreds of exhibits having to do with real estate development, home ownership, home building, with types of architecture, and with construction and building supplies.

One of the most interesting exhibits is that of the F. J. Hansen Co., Ltd., Real Estate and Land Developers of La Mesa and San Diego, California. This Company shows a motion picture that tells the story of building in California since the day when Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo first landed in San Diego.

The movie indicates how Father Junipero Serra struggled to found a chain of missions in California, the first of which was Mission San Diego de Alcala — the ruins of which can still be seen — and contrasts an irrigation ditch built by Indians under the direction of the Spanish padres with San Diego’s present, vast water-delivery systems. In a similar manner, the crooked burro trails of the early days are compared to modern broad highways.

Another interesting feature of the F. J. Hansen Co. exhibit is an animated display showing the operation of a modern avocado farm.

Other exhibitors in the building are: Bowers Manufacturing Co, Inc.; Naomi E. Cleaves; Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints; F. E. Compton & Co., Encyclopedia Britannica, Pacific Coast Division, Goodwill Industries; Anna Ketonen, Nassau Pen and Pencil Co., W. F. Quarrie & Co., Rosicrucian Fellowship, Salvation Army, Mrs. J. Ware; Western Union; Foreign Antique & Art Co., Bowen Unique Handicraft; Bookhouse for Children; Gefroj Studio; I. Jacobson; Pacific Union Conference Seventh Day Adventists; Standard Sanitary Manufacturing Co.; Ganna Walska-Jules Riviere Parfum; Morbeck of London, England.

The Radio building is adjacent to the Palace of Better Housing and Exposition news items are broadcast from there. 


In the beautiful glade south of the Palace of Better Housing, the federal government has a visual exhibit showing the great benefits and opportunities offered by the FHA (Federal Housing Administration).

Modernization Magic

The first phase of the FHA exhibit is described as “Modernization Magic,” a dramatization of improving of buildings under maximum loans of $2,000.

This presentation consists of a community of about 30 poorly designed, antiquated buildings in need of repairs.

In the space of ten minutes by means of a dramatic, mechanical operation, the scene changes from that of a dilapidated old town into an improved, modern community.

Model Town

Another phase is the presentation of “Model Town,” a community of fifty six miniature model homes, designed to show the newest and best types of residential construction.

There are twenty four one-story houses and twenty four two-story houses of varied architectural styles and plans, ranging in construction costs from $300 to $7,000. There are several steel houses and a group of modern-type houses. Side walls are of wood siding, shingles, stucco, brick, concrete and steel. Roofs are of shingle, tile and other materials.

Suggested floor plans for all the houses are presented for visitors to study.

This is the largest and most comprehensive exhibit ever conceived and executed by the Better Housing Program of the Federal Housing Administration.


The Palace of Foods and Beverages is one of the largest buildings of the Exposition. Its facade on the Avenue of Palaces is a two-story arcade between flanking pavilions suggesting 18th century architecture at Queretaro, Mexico. The east front on the Avenue of Nations has a chapel facade with two flanking bell towers with domes and tile and iron finials and an elaborate frontispiece. The building is polygonal, like a great convent, with the apse projecting toward the Botanical gardens. At the south side of the choir, a little patio is recessed into the building. A sanctuary entrance is at the apse end, with a choir and bell turret above. A memorial to Father Junipero Serra is in the chapel.

The building is a one-story structure with three floor levels that are connected by ramps.

The greatest assemblage of food and beverage exhibits ever shown under one roof is displayed inside the building. Everything having to do with foods and beverages — from the newest patented can opening gadget to the marvels of operations in bottling companies are demonstrated here.

A complete cake baking exhibition occupies one corner. In another, the whirring machinery of a Coca Cola bottling plant produces a filled and ready-to-market product every second. The latest methods for canning and packing foods are shown. In fact, everything pertaining to foods and drink — the principal necessities of human life – are attractively shown in this building.

Coca Cola

Placed at the main entrance so as to be visible upon entering is a “Fountain of Light.” “Water” falls in graceful curves through successive silver basins until four silver dolphins spray the water into urns set for it at the corners of the service bar, where bottled Coca Cola is sold. The “water” is formed by a mesh, set with multitudinous crystals, and is illuminated by incandescent lamps so placed that they reproduce the illusion of flowing water.

Standard Brands

Dioramas and models carry the story of Standard Brands products to housewives and, simultaneously, show grocers and bakers the most effective way to present them to the public. In addition, the Company furnishes stage entertainment. Among the brands are Fleischmanns’ Yeast, Chase and Sanborn’s Dated Coffee, Tenderleaf Tea, Royal Baking Powder and Royal Deserts.


The Avenue of Palaces is the main boulevard of the Exposition and extends from the east entrance on Park Boulevard to the west entrance at Cabrillo Bridge, nearly 700 yards long. Lining it are the Palace of ScienceHouse of Charm, House of Hospitality, Café of the World, Food and Beverages, Modern Homes, and Natural History. It is a broad esplanade with rows of pleached Blackwood acacias set in formal order. Banked against the arcades and faces of buildings are shrubs, vines and flowering plants. Arcades, or portales, in Spanish-Colonial style, adorn the facades of the palaces and vine-covered pergolas that connect the buildings. These provide sightseers with places to promenade and to rest.


The first building encountered at the east plaza entrance is the Palace of Natural History. This building is of reinforced concrete construction with “restricted” (?) Baroque ornamentation and of Spanish-Colonial design. It contains two floors, a basement and a large laboratory.

This splendid museum was thrown open to the public in January, 1933. The San Diego Society of Natural History, which operates the museum, is the oldest scientific organization in Southern California and the second oldest in the West, having been incorporated on October 9, 1874.

Once inside the door, visitors find themselves in a bower of living beauty; for, right at the entrance, the museum has placed a display of California wild flowers. Tables bearing fresh, blooming flowers, on either side of the doorway, are replaced continually.

The ground floor contains representations from the earth and from “waters under the earth.” Here are minerals, fossils, fishes, whales and creeping things like reptiles and amphibians.

The floor above, or main floor, is devoted to birds and mammals, two groups the public esteems most.

Top floor displays include botanical exhibits and many varieties of butterflies and insects, as well as other features.

While there are 876 specimens of mounted birds on exhibit, there are 11,500 birds in the research collection. The ratio for mammals is 277 to 9,250; for insects 1,700 to 165,000; for plants 1,559 to 14,500, for reptiles 181 to 5,458; and for shells 4,700 to 115,000.

Civilian Conservation Corps

The important work of the Civilian Conservation Corps is presented in the Palace of Natural History. It occupies 5,000 square feet. Forestry and other outdoor aspects of CCC work are illustrated by the exhibits that have been installed in the palace.

Lost Continent of Mu

A hydrographic relief map, a feature of the museum, spurs the interests of seekers of hidden knowledge regarding the mystery and romance of the lost continent of Mu. Four years were required to gather data and to make this map, the only one of its kind in existence.

Under the direction of Captain Claude Banks Mayo, the scientific staff and crew of the U. S. S. Ramapo made 17,239 sonic soundings to ascertain the topographical features of the ocean bed. To do this, from 1929 to 1933, they sailed over a 7,000 mile stretch of the Pacific Ocean from California to Manila. In doing so, they discovered two deep spots, where Mount Everest — the world’s highest peak — could be submerged and still have thousands of feet of water above before touching the ocean’s surface. These were Nero Deep and Ramapo Deep, the latter named for the U. S. S. Ramapo.

The map shows the presence of a continental shelf off the coasts of North America and Asia. The ocean floor near North America is comparatively smooth while, in the part closest to Asia, it is broken by ravine-like formations and by mountains.

The hypothesis that once there was a bridge of land from China to Mexico is partially strengthened by oceanic contours in this topographical reproduction.

According to some scientists, the lost continent of Mu — which presumably existed 13,000 years ago and covered a great portion of the South Pacific Ocean — had its northern boundary near what is now the Hawaiian Islands. The southern boundary was north of New Zealand and northeast of Australia. It measured about 3,000 miles from north to south and 5,000 miles, east to west.

The “sonic sounding” hydrographic process is an outgrowth of World War experiments. As contrasted to earlier methods of sounding by cables, “sonic sounding” is obtained by measuring sound impulses projected to oceanic depths by oscillators.


An Indian pueblo at the north border of the Exposition consists of reproductions in stone [sic] of Zuni and Taos pueblo habitations that rise, tier upon tier, above one another. Rooms are accessible only by ladders that lie on outer walls.

Southwestern Indians weave baskets and rugs, fashion pottery, jewelry and weapons and carry on the business of their daily lives within the pueblo.

Visitors can see some of the Indian’s religious rites and ceremonial dances. One of the buildings in the pueblo is a kiva, or underground chamber, where solemn celebrations and councils are held. Indian women may not enter the kiva, but white visitors may. The entrance to the dark chamber is by a ladder that leads down from an opening in the roof.

Representatives of Hopi, Moqui, Ute, Navajo, Apache, Mission and other tribes and groups perform centuries-old dances and ceremonials of a religious, or nearly religious character. Matrimonial and burial rites and other aspects of Indian culture are depicted vividly and faithfully.

Since 1920, the San Diego Area Council of the Boy Scouts of America has used the Indian Village as its headquarters. The San Diego Council had a membership in 1934 of over 3,500. During the Exposition, camping facilities have been set aside for the 70 Scout troops of San Diego City and County and for visiting scouts from the United States and from all over the world.


North of the Avenue of the Palaces and on the Avenue of Nations lies Spanish Village, the largest village of its kind ever built for an American Exposition. More than 40,000 mission tiles were used to roof its buildings, which cover about 90,000 square feet.

The cheerfully picturesque and informal architecture of Spain — squat aches, antique wood beams, sturdy buttresses and corbels — predominates. Wishing wells, backed by olive trees, are scattered about, surrounded by a riot of blooms. Flowers in pots hang from walls.

Brilliantly hued awnings, lamps of wrought-iron, and hand-made tiles add to the color scheme.

Open-faced stalls in inviting courts offer interesting bits of old and new merchandise.

In the spacious patio restaurant is a wishing well copied from one in the house of Conde Rule at Valencia, Spain. The restaurant serves appetizing Spanish dishes.

The north portal in Spanish Village was inspired by the Puerta del Castillo de Siguenza in Spain. Clustered around the base of the tower and bordering a small plaza with seats and a central fountain are a few shops, such as might grow outside the city gates of Spanish towns. Olive trees and potted flowers add color to the scene.

The art and culture of Old Spain and Mexico, the commodities, interests, methods and customs of the people are presented. Senoritas perform dances from their native regions and sombreroed senors demonstrate their skill in crafts.

Japanese Tea Room

Quaintly garbed Japanese girls serve delicious brews, stimulating tea and rice cakes in a location set back to the north between the Botanical and Food Products building.


The Midway is a kaleidoscopic city of merrymaking. It is 1,200 feet long and 350 feet deep, has a 40-foot pavement and a frontage of 2,400 feet. Concession buildings comprise a medley of architectural shapes and styles. Taken altogether, attractions on the Midway have an estimated value of $1,500,000.

Midget City and Midget Farm

Gulliver’s travels never led him to a more bizarre land than Midget City and Midget Farm where the inhabitants are more than 100 Lilliputians.

Built to doll-house scale, the bungalows, hotel, restaurant, telegraph office, gas station, grocery store, butcher shop, and the office of “Midget City News” accommodate the reach and stride of the little people, whose ages range from 18 to 60 years. Many of the midgets weigh less than 20 pounds and the smallest is 18 inches tall.

One of the world’s most famous couples resides in Midget City. They are Captain Werner from Berlin, Germany, who is 18 inches in height, 29 pounds in weight, and 22 years of age, and Margaret Ann Robinson from California, who is one inch taller than the Captain, weighs 18 pounds and is 18 years of age. Their betrothal was announced in Chicago last year and they will be married with pomp and ceremony in Midget City.

Midget Farm, designed along Spanish-Colonial lines, is a novel creation. A midget farmer, his wife and farm hands operate this establishment. Midget cows, chickens, hogs and horses move about the grounds while planted lots produce midget corn and grain. A parade of

tiny wagons and a buggy, once owned by the famous Tom Thumb, are housed in a midget shed.

Midget City is in the center of the Midway and Midget Farm is about one block north.

“Days of Saladin,” is an equine display that features 14 blooded Arabian horses from the W. K. Kellogg ranch at Pomona, California. Frank Binninger produces this show.

Venetian Glass Blowers

Opposite Midget City, the atmosphere of Venice, Italy — city of canals — is transplanted to the Exposition. Here Royal Glass Blowers demonstrate the skill that has won them acclaim. The workmen learned their trade at the Venice and Murano Company, located in the Barbarigo Palace on the Grand Canal in Venice. Aside from the art work produced by its glass blowers, the Royal Factory presents a priceless collection of modern and medieval glassware.

Other Midway attractions include: Miss America, Flea Circus, Sensations, Crime Does Not Pay, Life, Two-Headed Baby, Snake Farm, Darkest Africa, Freak Animal Show, Ripley’s Believe-It-Or-Not, Globe of Death, Laff in the Dark, Toyland, Lens Wonders of the World starring “Stella,” Loop-O-Plane, and Swooper Ride.

The Nudist Colony is located at the head of Gold Gulch on the southeast side of El Prado.


The Hollywood Potteries of Los Angeles constructed its exhibit building opposite Spanish Village on the Avenue of Nations. Here the company shows early and new methods of making clay pottery.


Housing more than 2,500 specimens, the Zoological Gardens, opposite the Midget Farm, is second in importance to the Bronx Zoo in New York. And the Bronx Zoo leads only in number of animals. Mrs. Belle Benchley, the curator of the Zoo, is the only woman zoo keeper in the world.

Visitors find the open grottos for bears and cats and the artificial mounds for sheep and goats to be the most remarkable of all the animal enclosures.

In descending order from the top of a canyon, the open grottos house American brown and black bears, grizzly bears, Galapagos fur seals, Kodiak bears, polar bears, a Pribilof fur seal, Alaska black bears, Siberian bears, a harbor seal, African lions, California sea lions, tigers and elephant seals from Guadalupe.

Animal Kingdom

This year the Zoo is displaying many baby animals. These include two families of baby lions, a pair of baby Bengal tigers, a trio of Siberian bear cubs, a young ocelot, and a number of baby deer, antelope, buffalo, goats and sheep.

Animals recently added to the Zoo include a tapir, a sloth, a pair of Pacific coast land otters, three Siberian bears, a striped hyena, a Nubian ostrich, and a male orangutan.

Highest Bird Cage in the World

The Zoo has the highest bird cage in the world with a height of 95 feet. Eucalyptus trees, Australian pines and acacias, growing inside the bird cage, offer high-flying birds shelter and nesting places, while low-flying or ground birds find accommodations in caves and crevices in the cement walls or in low-growing shrubs. Birds within the cage who breed and raise their young include anhingas, Australian brush turkeys, cranes, egrets, flamingoes, frigate birds, gallinules, green pea fowl, herons, ibises, rails, tree ducks, and Victorian-crowned pigeons.

The floor of the cage drops with the side of the hill and takes the shape of a series of ledges containing pools that are connected by a rivulet. Man-O’-War birds with a five or six-feet wing-spread and egrets and roseate spoonbills circle overhead, the large cage having sufficient space to allow soaring.

About 50 species of water turtle inhabit the pools. They range from the small-neck turtles of Australia to mud turtles of Europe and Africa. The group also includes several kinds of American turtles.

Vying in number of specimens with the water turtles and surpassing them in size, land tortoises at the Zoo range from box turtles [sic], weighing a few ounces, to a 500-pound Galapagos tortoise.

Mountain Gorillas

Brought back from the Belgian Congo by Martin and Osa Johnson, two mountain gorillas at the Zoo are the only mountain gorillas in captivity. They are six years old , weigh about 250 pounds each, and have yet to reach their maximum weight. Before they sold them to the San Diego Zoo for $11,000, because of better climatic conditions here, the Johnsons turned down an offer of $17,000.


Located on the Avenue of Nations, south of Spanish Village, the Shell Oil Building where travel information is dispensed. An exhibit sets before visitors a huge map with vari-colored neon tubes that form the principal highways of the United States..


On the Avenue of Nations a $50,000 Model Home, opposite the southern end of the Amusement Zone, is surrounded by beautiful plants. The home is completely furnished and will be given away as first prize in a contest when the Exposition closes. Companies that made this exhibit possible include Washington Elger Company (plumbing supplies); Masonite Corporation (floor and wall boards); El Rey Roofing Company (roofing); Price Pfister Company and Rheem Manufacturing Company (builders’ supplies); and Barker Brothers (home furnishings).


An outdoor organ faces the Plaza de los Estados at the south end of the Exposition’s main cross axis.

The organ and colonnades are the gift of John D. and Adolph B. Spreckels. Harrison Albright, an architect, designed the pavilion in which the organ is located. The organ itself was built by the Austin Brothers of Hartford, Connecticut. It is the first outdoor organ to be built anywhere as scoffers thought that an outdoor organ was impractical.

The even-tempered climate in San Diego has made it possible for the outdoor organ to be played year round. Carefully-kept records from 1915 to the present show that there have been about 10 days a year when the organ could not be played because of unfavorable weather.

The organ has a pedal manual and four complete keyboards. A peristyle on both sides of the central organ pavilion is of Neo-Classical design with many decorative features suggestive of ancient Greece.

A garden wall, some distance from the organ stage, separates the Plaza de los Estados from the esplanade leading down from the Plaza del Pacifico. A fountain in the center of the wall was inspired by a fountain in Chapultepec Park, Mexico City.

Concerts are played at the organ daily by the San Diego civic organist and visiting organists.


The House of Pacific Relations is not a single house. Instead it consists of 15 cottages in a Spanish-Mediterranean style that are arranged around an open meadow. They are located southwest of the Spreckels Organ. Small enclosed gardens, patios, courts, covered porches, fountains and a wishing well, copied from one in Ronda, Spain, convey an informal atmosphere. A lily pond surrounded by a rock garden in the central court is an attractive feature.

The fifteen cottages, dubbed “haciendas,” are occupied by people from foreign lands such as the British Empire, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Jugoslavia, Norway, Portugal, Cuba, Mexico, Japan and China.

The Exposition constructed the buildings and then turned them over to the participants on the condition that they present programs typical of their home countries on two days during the Exposition. The programs will consist of dances and folk songs.


The Standard Oil Building is located on the large plaza in the Palisades opposite and northeast of the Ford Building. It has the shape of a “L” and is surmounted by a circular tower divided into four sections. The tower is about 110 ft. tall and carries on three faces vertical “Standard Oil” signs. Decorative relief on the outside of the building is derived from Maya and Aztec prototypes.

The building is an important link in the pageant of architecture around the great open plaza in the Palisades. Its irregular shape, tall tower, and fascinating designs mark it as one of the most beautiful — if not the most beautiful building in the Palisades. Seven large murals, depicting western scenery, on the lower level enhance the building’s beauty and indicate the themes of some of the exhibits inside.

The finely-finished interior houses exhibits devoted to Standard Oil products and illustrates the uses they perform. The main exhibit, not directly related to Standard Oil, depicts dramatic scenery in the western National Parks of the United States.


Four important groups have animated or static exhibits in the Palace of Education. They are American Association of University Women, California Teachers’ Association, congress of Parents and Teachers, and National Education Association.

The Palace of Education was the New Mexico Building in 1915-16. It shares the rough-beam protrusions and irregular walls that are hallmarks of Indian Pueblo buildings in New Mexico. Two belfry towers flank the portal of a church-like annex on the left. A second-story loggia, or tribunal, is over the ground-floor entrance. An enclosed court in the main building on the right and fine wood carving and ziggurat-type outlines around a fireplace are derived from similar features on Indian Pueblo churches and pottery at Acoma and Isleta, New Mexico.

The building contains large and small auditoriums, exhibit rooms and smaller utility rooms. These are arranged around a center hall, or theme room, that is dedicated to the progress of education. The enclosed center hall — an open-air patio in 1915-16 — contains models and dioramas that portray in a vigorous manner how education fosters art, history, science, beauty, culture and play. A mural across the west wall and a pool and fountain on the floor in front are intended to illustrate aspects of education.

Mrs. Vesta C.Muehleisen is responsible for the organization and presentation of exhibits. She has provided space for exhibits demonstrating the following specialized areas of education: special, rural, vocational, continuation, adult, college and university, homemaking, art, music, visual, and handicapped.

A nursery school in the basement of the Palace of Education, managed by Dr. Gertrude Laws, from the Bureau of Parent Education, is intended to aid parents in the care and training of babies. This project is sponsored by the federal government and is under the overall direction of Mrs. Rebekah Earle, supervisor of nursery school education in California, who is assisted by Mrs. Ethel D. Mintser, a San Diego expert in child care.


An exhibit of hobbies in the Palace of Education shows how the wise use of leisure time develops character and ability. Realizing the benefits of hobbies, many school principals in California have conducted hobby contests in their schools.

As a stimulus thereto, winners of these contests have been chosen to represent their schools by showing samples of their work in the Palace of Education. They will be awarded additional prizes and medals for the most unusual hobbies in all classes and according to age and types of projects.


The combined Palace of Water and Transportation Building is located southwest of the Organ Pavilion and northeast of the House of Pacific Relations. The Palace of Water, or northeast section of the building faces a garden distinguished by the plants and flowers of California.

The jointly-occupied building is rectangular in plan, is spanned by 96-feet trusses, and provides 27,000 square feet of exhibition space. Great, prow-shaped pylons suggestive of adventure and travel establish themes to be dealt with inside the Palace.

A panel in terrazzo of a Viking ship on the pavement is in front of the Palace of Transportation while a mural above the main door depicts phases of transportation.

Inside, the story of transportation in California from the Spanish ships that arrived in San Diego Bay in 1542 to streamlined automobiles of today is presented. There are miniature models of toiling oxen next to the newest automobiles, of clipper ships next to ocean liners, and of snail-paced “wood-burners” next to trains, such as the Burlington’s “Zephyr” and The Union Pacific’s flyers. All aspects of transportation including airplanes, automobiles, buses, ships, and trains are on display.

The exhibit showing progress in aviation travel is noteworthy. Here the early flying machines are compared to the latest streamlined sky cruisers. As might be expected, the display pays tribute to San Diego’s role in developing aircraft from the infancy of the industry to the present.

In the Palace of Water section huge building programs, such as Boulder Dam, the Grand Coulee power and irrigation project, the San Francisco bay bridges, the All-American Canal and other public and private works, are illustrated and explained.

Exhibits on both sides of the building express the idea of progress, which the California-Pacific International Exposition has chosen as its theme. Here are presented four centuries of development in the West leading up to the present when mankind appears to be on the edge of a new era of prosperity, the like of which has never been seen before.


The Christian Science Building is located a few steps to the east of the Palace of Water and Transportation. Building and exhibit represent an investment of more than $20,000. The building houses a Christian Science reading room, a display of the history of Christian Science that features the writings of its founder, Mary Baker Eddy, and an exhibit of the “Christian Science Monitor.”


Located south of the Palace of Water and Transportation, the Federal Building contains the exhibits of over 20 departments of the federal government. The building’s exterior has Mayan-type frets. It is said to be one of the finest Maya-Revival style buildings ever executed. Details on the principal facade were adapted from the Palace of the Governors in Uxmal, Mexico. Dimensions are 150 by 170 feet and walls are of reinforced concrete. As there are no windows on the walls, lighting comes from transoms on the roof or from within.

Displays inside the building illustrate governmental operations and show how these operations have changed since the establishment of the U.S. Government in 1789, upon the adoption of the U.S. Constitution by the states of the union. A post office display depicts the progress of mail service from the days of Pony Express. The National Museum, also known as the Smithsonian Institution, shows artifacts relating to the pioneer history of the Southwest. A coin machine, part of a U.S. Treasury exhibit, demonstrates how money is made.

Facing the entrance on the northwest, a free-standing portico of Mayan design leads to a garden with semi-tropical plants, laid out as a parterre.


The California State Building, built as a SERA project, is located between the Ford Building and the Hollywood Hall of Fame and west of the Firestone Singing Fountain. It has four large panels in low relief around the concave walls at the entrance and terrazzo panels below. An exhibit, “California’s Government at Work,” previews exhibits within the building. Dioramas show the two houses of the State Legislature in session, the Governor’s office, the work of highway maintenance, financial activities, and other state functions. Practical exhibits shows how the State responds to citizens’ concerns. For example, an exhibit explains the need for natural resource conservation.

The State has allotted space to its 58 counties without cost. The county exhibits emphasize the commercial, industrial, social and tourist advantages of the counties for, business people and for visitors.


The Firestone Singing Color Fountain is located on the lower or south end of the plaza in the Palisades, The fountain is unlike any other in the world as jets of water rise and fall with the notes of music and colors in the water change from blue on bass notes to sparkling hues on high notes. Some of the world’s greatest electrical engineers labored long to produce this effect. The fountain’s base is 100 feet long and 15 feet wide. In tune with music, a diamond-like spray shoots 20 feet in the air as powerful light rays penetrate its misty waters. The varying velocity of the sprays and the changing colors add a visual dimension to the music that comes, as if by magic, from hidden loudspeakers.

The concerts are given daily and include instrumental and vocal music.


Large, comfortable, tractor-drawn, semi-trailers, painted in brilliant colors, and each designed to accommodate 100 passengers, furnish transportation within the grounds. Each of the buses is named in Spanish for a bird and painted in a color scheme to correspond to its plumage. The names are “La Golondrina” (swallow); “El Loro” (parrot); “El Canario” (canary): “El Cardinal” (cardinal), and “La Paloma” (dove).


Floyd Gibbons, a noted war correspondent, christened the House of Magic, a section in the Palace of Electricity. While on a visit to the General Electric Company research laboratory at Schenectady, New York, Gibbons was so amazed by the electrical experiments he saw there the he alluded to them in a radio broadcast as “The House of Magic.”

The House of Magic is part of a larger electrical display sponsored by the San Diego Gas and Electric Company, the Southern California Edison Company, the Los Angeles Bureau of Power and Light, and the California General Electric distributors. R. L. Smallman, General Electric Company engineer from Schenectady, is in charge of the General Electric exhibit.

Thirty-minute stage presentations are given in a theater that seats 300. Lecturers explain how the spectacular effects in the House of Magic were obtained and a motion picture titled “Interesting Highlights on the Science of Seeing” shows the proper lighting fixtures to use for reading.

In a five-minute program in the “Talking Kitchen,” a refrigerator, range and dishwasher talk to one another.

Other exhibits show how light transmitted over a beam can be used in place of radio waves; how corn can be popped by radio waves without the use of heat; how a “stroboscope” can make a propeller rotating at 1800 revolutions a minute look as if it is standing still; and how a cathode ray oscillograph can transform sounds into visual waves. 


Ford Motor Company exhibits are housed in a large, building in the shape of a Figure 8 that rises high over the city and is visible from Point Loma, on the far side of the harbor of San Diego. The building is so prominent, that pilots use it as a landmark. After the Exposition is over, the Ford Buildingwill remain as a monument to the part the Ford Motor Company has played in transforming appearances and life in Southern California.

Court of the Pacific Nations

The “Court of the Pacific Nations” forms the small circle or top of the Figure 8. Visitors enter this court through the front entrance to the Ford Building. In the center are 12 dioramas that depict the use of motor cars in each of 12 Pacific nations. Flanking these, on the sides of the court, are 12 more dioramas, six on each side, that represent how the principal raw materials use in motor cars — iron, aluminum, zinc, lead, copper, sillimanite, cotton, wool, soy beans, asbestos, and cork — are produced or extracted from the earth.

Beyond the court, towering above six high glass doors opening into the industrial halls, are a pair of giant murals, 40 feet high, depicting the development of civilizations on lands bordering the Pacific Ocean.

The main building is divided into three industrial halls. In one of these halls, processes in the making of car parts from iron and steel are demonstrated; the manufacture and functioning of spark plugs and ignition wiring is explained; and the making from soy beans of oils used in motors and in paints is illustrated. It is from his successful conversion of soy beans into parts that Henry Ford got his idea of an “Industrialized Farm,” that could produce and, in some cases, process parts needed by industries.

Magic of Science

A second hall houses displays of by-products manufactured by the Ford Motor Company, modern industrial devices, and a dark room with a stroboscope, X-ray photos, and an electric eye. Also in the section, mechanics and technicians tear down and build up a Ford V-8 engine, show how master gages are kept accurate to within two-millionths of an inch, demonstrate are various body designs for cars are tested, and explain the principle of the “rollover” chassis.

In a commanding position in the center of the hall are three historic Ford cars: the first car built by Henry Ford in 1893; the first Model A built in 1903; and the first Model T built in 1908. Sometime in June of this year (1935) the two millionth Ford V-8 made will be driven from the Red River Rouge Plant in Dearborn, Michigan to San Diego and put on display.

The third hall houses laboratory exhibits demonstrating the ends to which technicians go to assure the quality of Ford parts and exhibits of rubber parts, safety glass, and enamels that are used on car bodies.

The building has restrooms for men and women and four lounges. In the large patio, or open area within the larger of the two circles that make up the Figure 8, are two circular pools that are joined to form another Figure 8 with a flowered “V” running through both pools , thus completing the familiar “V-8” symbol.

At night concealed lights and flood lights illuminate the exterior of the building highlighting its concave surfaces while colored fights in the center patio paint the fountain and other patio lights focus on Ford cars.


In addition to the Ford Building, visitors to the Ford exhibits will find a 3000-seat amphitheater called the Ford Bowl that has been cut into the western slope of a hill. An orchestral shell covers the stage of the amphitheater. During the Exposition, the symphony orchestras of San Diego, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Portland and Seattle will perform in the Bowl.

So sharp is the slope of the hill that the top of the orchestra shell is on a level with the entrance to the Ford Building.

Verne O. Knudsen, who designed the Ford Bowl, claims it is acoustically perfect. He planned his design so that echoes would be eliminated, a condition common to outdoor amphitheaters.

The shell is 80 feet wide, 40 feet deep and 40 feet high. It acts as a sounding-board and a canopy for a stage that is 100 feet wide and 71 feet deep. A hedge grows in front of the stage, behind which are lights that are used to create color effects on the stage. The shell is also lighted.


The Ford Building and Ford Bowl are located on the southern end of a promontory that is skirted on three sides by canyons. The irregular topography and contours of the canyons have been utilized as a site for “Roads of the Pacific,” still another major Ford Motor Company attraction at the California-Pacific International Exposition.

Fourteen historic roads are reproduced in 200-foot sections, making, in all, a continuous route more than a half-mile in length along the sides of the canyons. Visitors may ride over the roads in new Ford V-8 cars. Each section has been landscaped to suggest the county in which the real road runs.

El Camino Real (the King’s Highway), between San Diego and San Francisco, was traversed by early Spanish and Mexican colonists. The Santa Fe Trail, between Independence, Missouri and Santa Fe, New Mexico, was opened by American traders. Both roads were reproduced with packed and oiled soil and with plants and shrubs reminiscent of those on the original roads.

Appropriate landscapes were also created for the following simulations: the Oregon Trail, from Independence, Missouri to Portland, Oregon; the Yuma Road, from Yuma, Arizona to El Centro, California; the Cariboo Highway in Canada, from Yale to Barkersville; the Richardson Highway in Alaska, from Valdez to Fairbanks; the Gold Road in Panama, from Porto Bello to Old Panama; the Old Spanish Road in Mexico, from Mexico City to San Blas; the Inca Highway from Quito, Ecuador to Chile; the Benguet Road in the Philippines, from Manila to Baguio; the Ballarat Road in China, from Peking to the Summer Palace; the Tokaido Road in Japan, from Tokyo to Kyoto, and the Great North Road in New Zealand, from Aukland to Wellington.


Gold Gulch occupies a shallow, twisting canyon south of the Federal Housing Administration exhibits. It is reach by burros and stage coaches. The atmosphere and decor is that of a gold-mining camp going full blast.

Beneath a canopy of trees, shacks of miners and their hangers-on are made from old timbers, some of which were taken from decrepit mining towns. An old wooden door, warped by wind and rains, adds authenticity to the scene. A Chinese laundry, iron-barred bank, blacksmith shop, sheriff’s office, jail, hitching posts, and shacks line the streets of the camp.

Men and machines throughout the camp perform tasks similar to those of free-lance gold prospectors. Recordings of western music, cowboy songs and sheet music are sold in an ramshackle building. Books are sold on Jackass Hill in a replica of a cabin used by Mark Twain Workers in a rustic Navajo shop make jewelry and weave rugs and blankets.. Visitors ride 1,000 feet into the earth by means of a mine-shaft elevator that offers a vertical panorama and a five-foot drop. The visitors emerge from a hole in the side of a canyon at the bottom of the drop.

Stage-coach hold-ups, athletic tourneys, whip-cracking contests, and other lively events are staged twice daily.

The memory of General John A. Sutter will be honored in the Gulch on Sutter Day. Other famous Californians will also be recognized on their special days.


The Old Globe Theater is situated behind the Palace of Science. It is a reproduction of the Old Globe Theater of London in which Shakespeare’s plays were performed during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. A similar reproduction had been built for the 1934 Century of Progress Exposition in Chicago, from which the idea and the actors in Balboa Park came.

Director Thomas Wood Stevens, who directed the theater at the Chicago Exposition, has rehearsed and staged condensed versions of eight of Shakespeare’s works. These are: “Julius Caesar,” “A Midsummer Night’s Dream,” “All’s Well That Ends Well,” “King Lear,” “Macbeth,” “As You Like It,” and “The Comedy of Errors.” Stevens also prepared “Doctor Faustus” by Christopher Marlowe as a supplement to the Shakespeare plays.

Except for the Marlowe play, the plays are presented without scenery and as close to the conditions of the original performances as today’s scholarship will allow.


The California-Pacific International Exposition offers a night scene not seen at other Expositions. Screens on concealed floodlights cast colors against buildings in that accent their architectural features. By way of contrast, other floodlights bathe trees and shrubs in soft colors.

Buildings and rides on the Amusement Zone are outlined by bright incandescent and sparkling lights.

In June and again in August, when the United States Fleet concentrates in San Diego, it is expected that the brilliant searchlights on the ships will make an illumination show, the like of which has never been seen before on the Pacific Coast.


Balboa Park, inside and outside the Exposition, contains over 300 species of trees, including rare as well as common specimens. Among these are rubber trees from Australian; cork trees from Spain, oaks from Japan, and palms from sub-tropical and tropical countries. The park has 40 kinds of eucalyptus, 35 kinds of acacia, and 15 kinds of pine trees, including a rare specimen from the Canary Islands.

Broad lawns stretch in all directions. Eucalyptus trees line walks and paths. Flower gardens add their special notes of joy in locations where they can do the most good.

The west side and central portions of Balboa Park abound with sub-tropical and tropical growths. Plants, which in many parts of the world grow only in hothouses, bloom openly in Balboa Park.


[NOTE: The above guide was so poorly written and contained so many errors that I felt myself obliged to edit and correct passages while typing the guide for this collection.

Richard W. Amero]


Los Angeles Times, May 29, 1935, 1:2-3, 2:1-3. San Diego Exposition’s Gates to Open Today; grounds ready for flag raising at 11 a.m., with Roosevelt talk scheduled for 8 p.m.; cabinet members on hand to air initiation ceremony; air show tonight.

Los Angeles Times, May 29, 1935, 12:1. Exposition opening one of two signal world events to be broadcast; ship whistle across seas to be heard; liner’s blast off France will ring San Diego bell atop an ancient San Diego mission, by Carroll Nye; maiden voyage of S. S. Normandie.

Los Angeles Times, May 29, 1935, II, 4:1. EDITORIAL: San Diego’s Exposition: The difference from, not the similarity to other expositions will at once stir the imagination and quicken the feelings of these visitors to Balboa Park to whom the romance of history, the delicacy of art, the charm of environment, the touch of nature and glimpses of the unknown have power to penetrate.

Los Angeles Times, May 29, 1935, II, 7:1. San Diego’s most important season opens with Exposition tomorrow; introductory dinner honors official pair, wives of prominent participators to be feted also.

San Diego Sun, May 29, 1935, 1:8. 25,000 throng Exposition opening; Governor Merriam says State of California grateful.

San Diego Sun, May 29, 1935, 2:1. San Diego Symphony to dedicate Ford Bowl; first concert this afternoon.

San Diego Sun, May 29, 1935, 3:1. Night lights lend “magic” to Exposition.

San Diego Sun, May 29, 1935, II, 11:2. Exposition speeds through ten months work.

San Diego Sun, May 29, 1935, II, 11:3-4. Exposition Sidelights.

San Diego Union, May 29, 1935, 1:3-4. Official Program Opening Day.

San Diego Union, May 29, 1935, 1:7, 2:4-5. Ford machinery is started for preview at Exposition.

San Diego Union, May 29, 1935, 1:5, 2:1. Exposition welcomes world today at 11:00 a.m.

San Diego Union, May 29, 1935, 2:7-8. Governor Merriam officiates at California State Building dedication.

San Diego Union, May 29, 1935, 3:8. Workmen praised for coordination on Globe Theater.

San Diego Union, May 29, 1935, 4:1. EDITORIAL: “World Capital” – Today’s invitation to this world capital is a great event, and a spectacular one. The tenure of the capital itself is a greater event, and a greater spectacle.

San Diego Union, May 29, 1935, 5:1. Fletcher drives first car on Roads of Pacific.


11:55 – 12:00 New York and Normandie

IMR N.Y. – San Diego

12:00 – 12:00-1/2 Mission Bell

12:00-1/2 – 12:01-1/2 Mixed Chorus “The Old Mission Bell”

12:01-1/2 – 12:04 California Tower – Panoramic Description

12:04 – 12:08 Spanish Village – Announcer & Jose Manzineras

12:08 – 12:09 California Tower

12:09 – 12:13 Gold Gulch – Announcer – Man-in-the-street – Music

12:13 – 12:15 California Tower – Describe north of Exposition grounds

12:15 – 12:22 Ford Symphony – Announcer

12:22 – 12:23 California Tower

12:23 – 12:26 Café of the World – Announcer & Del White Orch.

12:26 – 12:26-1/2 California Tower – Announce Roberts Band

12:26-1/2 – 12:28-1/2 Organ Pavilion – Harold Roberts Band

12:28-1/2 – 12:29-1/2 California Tower – Closing Announcement & Sign Off

Announcers will be at following spots:

California Tower

Spanish Village

Gold Gulch

Ford Symphony

Café of the World

. . .

11:55 – 12:00 From New York and Normandie

12:00 Whistle from Normandie


12:00 – 12:00-1/2 Ringing of Old Mission Bell

12:00-1/2 – 12:01-1/2 Mission Choir singing “The Old Mission Bell”

12:01-1/2 – 12:04 To the California Tower

BRECKNER: Good afternoon, Ladies and Gentlemen. In the twinkling of an eye, the magic of radio has spanned an ocean and a continent. The mellow tones of the old Mission Bell afforded a striking contrast to the sonorous blast of the Normandie’s whistle and took you back to that day in 1769 when Fra Junipero Serra, venerable founder of California’s historic missions, hung that same bell from a convenient tree and sent its first call ringing out into the stillness of the valley.

At the moment we are located high up in the Tower of the California Building, right in the heart of Balboa Park in San Diego, where the magnificent California-Pacific International Exposition is all set to swing open its gates to a waiting world. Incidentally, this tower, designed by the late Bertram Goodhue, is considered to be the finest example of Spanish-Renaissance architecture in these United States. From our vantage point, we are looking out over a vast panoramic scene of rare charm and beauty. Out across the waters of the Pacific, the Coronado Islands form a protective bulwark for the famous “Roads” where Uncle Sam’s mighty battle force will drop anchor about ten days from now, to take part in the greatest Fleet concentrations in the history of the U.S. Navy. What a tremendous spectacle that will be.

Sweeping out from the shore in a wide graceful curve is Point Loma, sheltering Silver Gate. It might interest you to know that it was almost 400 years ago that the intrepid Don Rodriguez Cabrillo sailed his tiny Spanish galleon, the San Salvador, past Point Loma, thru Silver Gate and on into the Bay. This little act marked the discovery of California, and to you are historically minded, that event took place several decades before the founding of America’s first colony at Jamestown.

But enough of history. Let’s see what’s here today. There’s North Island, home of the army and navy air-force, on the outer edge of the harbor; right down in front of us, the towering buildings of San Diego’s business district; and just a step across the street brings us into Balboa Park — across spacious lawns, up and down dozens of winding trails, through many flowering gardens and shaded lanes — and here we are at the entrance gates of America’s Exposition – 1935. Books will be written about the sheer beauty of the setting, so it would be futile for use to attempt any descriptive fireworks.

But let’s look at some of the buildings. Rising to a dominating height down at the Palisades is the circular Ford building with its 118,000 sq. ft. of floor space, down the hill and to the left is the Ford Music Bowl, where symphonic concerts will be presented twice daily; across the way is the California State building, the Motion Picture Hall of Fame, Palace of Education, House of Pacific Relations, Palace of Electricity and Varied Industries, Palace of Travel, Transportation and Water, the Federal Building, and many other buildings too numerous to mention. Swinging away from the Palisades and over to the East is the colorful Spanish Village. The streets are filled with gaily caparisoned natives of Spain — surely there must be music down there. Let’s transfer controls to the village for a few minutes.

12:04 – 12:08 Spanish Village. Jose Manzineras and Announcer.

Orchestra: Early Spanish Music (Very low background – slow buildup)

GOODWIN: (Talks over music) Here we are at the Spanish Village near the Eastern Entrance to the grounds. Those of you who have been in Spain will be instantly taken back to that sunny land when you see this bright spot. It was designed and built under the personal supervision of Juan Larrinaga, famous Spanish artist, and so you may know that it is authentic and correct to the minutest detail.

But there seems to be music in the distance. Let’s stroll down this little street and pick up some of the atmospheric highlights. Nice smooth walking along this flagstone paving and the street’s as clean as a whistle so we wont’ be stumbling over things. Fine substantial looking buildings — heavy adobe walls — tile covered roofs — and would you believe it — well, well. There’s something that all the money in the world couldn’t have installed. A whole flock of those pesky little mud-swallows have recognized home atmosphere and have moved in, taking complete possession of the under sides of the eaves. Well, these little fellows have picked themselves a good spot, because they are right next door to a very inviting looking Spanish café.

In a place of this sort you would naturally expect a lot of riotous coloring, and here it is in abundance, in these quaint little shops that display all kinds, sizes and shapes of pottery, rugs, drapes and tapestries. In fact, it seems that everything has been done to make this a real visit to a foreign land

But the rhythm of the music intrigues me. Let’s slip thru this arcade over into the next street and see if we can’t bring it in a little more clearly for you. (Music swells up to nearly full.) There they are, a group of young caballeros and senoritas in their native costumes, seemingly having the time of their lives. I’ll try to get their leader over here and introduce him. (calls) Hi there, Jose! Would you come over here a minute?

Ladies and Gentlemen, allow me to present Jose Manzineras.

JOSE: (Greetings in Spanish)

ANNCR: And now say that in English.

JOSE: (Translates greetings)

ANNCR: Thank you, Jose. Now do you mind if we listen to your music for a minute


12:08 – (Fade out orch. & switch to Tower)

12:08 – 12:08 TOWER

BRECKNER: Back here at our focal point in the California Tower and while you were listening to Jose Manzineras, we were watching an interesting sight. Right down below us is a building that, from here, looks like a huge doughnut. Closer inspection showed it to be a two-story building with open balconies facing the inner court — little costumed puppets moved about in lively animation and then it suddenly dawned on me that it is that exact replica of the old Shakespearean theater in London, known as The Globe. A nice tie-in because that gives us a bit of Old England as well as Old Spain.

There is another phase of California history that is well portrayed here in the grounds, and that is the Days of ’49. We can’t see it from here because it is completely hidden in one of the many canyons that nature has cut in this big park. But to give you a close-up picture of that unique spot, let’s switch down to the Gold Gulch.

12:09 – 12:13 to GOLD GULCH

Sound: Hillbilly Music – crowd music – blank shots.

LINKLETTER: Good afternoon, pardners, I’m speaking to you from the Old Stamp Mill, right in the heart of the Gold Gulch, the rip-roarin’st mining camp since the days of ’49. Here, located in a genuine canon, heavily wooded and a quarter-mile long, are all the activities of the early mining days of California. This Old Stamp Mill is a ramblin’, crudely built replica of the original mills, with hard-rock miners, dance-hall girls, and poker-faced gamblers busy entertaining the huge crowd of Exposition visitors who are flooding the camp. The canon at this point, and the main buildings of Gold Gulch are scattered around a sort of square or plaza, right in front of me. To the right is the weather-beaten Trading Post, Ike’s Pawn Shop, and some Injun camps.

Across from them is the Marble Mine, and a real old time blacksmithing shop, where a black-bearded, mighty-muscled smithy pounds out the day’s quota of horseshoes and chains. Farther on, I can make out the cockfight pit, the Cider Mill, and the Half-way House, where the prospectors stop for a drink and a free feed for their horses.

This whole Gold Gulch is a hilarious mining camp . . . the answer to a 49-er’s prayer, and it’s only three minutes on the hoof, jackass or burro from the main diggins of the Exposition. But the real feature of the place is that Gold Gulch is not a show — it’s real! You rub shoulders with characters like Gopher Joe, Screw Bean Benny, Liminatin’ Lim, and Sheriff Lucky Oliver, whose badge reads: “You can do as you like . . . almost!” (Chuckle)

The whole atmosphere makes you want to discard flannels and necktie for a pair of boots and a Stetson sombrero. There is plenty to do with duels, holdups, lynchings, and gold panning for nuggets in the stream which runs right down the canon through the heart of Gold Gulch . . . and when someone hits the bull’s eye at the shootin’ gallery, all the lights of the town go out of a moment. This is a real prospector’s Paradise on a perpetual holiday. Right in front of me, making its way through the crowd, is an old dog crawling down the dusty road on its belly . . . Say . . . Sheriff . . . Sheriff Lucky Oliver . . . will you come over a minute and help me out on this . . .

OLIVER: Sure thing, Pard . . . what’ll it be?

ANNCR: Ladies and gentlemen, here’s one of the most colorful of all our Western characters . . . Two-Gun Lucky Oliver, the Sheriff of Gold Gulch. Say, Sheriff, what’s that old dog crawling down the road for? Wild bronco kick it?

OLIVER: Naw, why that’s jest a candidate on his way to enter the laziest dog contest.

ANNCR: (Chuckle) Another one of your eternal contests, eh?

OLIVER: Sure . . . we have mule-swearin’ contests, one-arm cigarette rollin’, ropin’, ridin’, gold pannin’, and shootin” competitions every day.

ANNCR: Do you expect any trouble from the bad hombres and tin-horn gamblers around here?

OLIVER: Wal, now, there might be a few lynchin’s needed to quiet the boys down . . . but outside of a stagecoach holdup every couple of hours, we don’t expect more than a few killin’s here and there.

ANNCR: Thank you, Sheriff Oliver. Before I have to sign off, I’d like to get a woman’s viewpoint of this bewhiskered wilderness. And let’s see now . . . here’s one coming up the stops . . . Pardon me, Miss, but would you assist me in this broadcast by telling the radio audience your impression of Gold Gulch?

WOMAN: I don’t know what to say . . . everything is so different . . . I mean these old buildings, and all the bearded miners and . . . well, just the spirit of the place is so utterly unlike anything I’ve ever seen before.

ANNCR: You aren’t scared by all these rough characters?

WOMAN: Oh, don’t be silly . . . I think they’re just divine. I’m going to spend the rest of the day here and see the Exposition tomorrow.

ANCR: Thank you, Miss. And now, our time’s almost up, and we’ll listen awhile to our Hill-Billies before you take your next hop away from us here in historic old Gold Gulch. So-Long.

MUSIC . . . . . . .

12:13 – 12:15 to California Tower

BRECKNER: Here we are in the California Tower again. We have changed our position to see what’s doing on the north side of the Exposition grounds. Looking down the Avenida de los Palacios, lined from east to west with fragrant black acacias, are the permanent structures of Balboa Park. These truly beautiful exhibit palaces of Spanish-Renaissance and Colonial architecture are the House of Hospitality, Hall of Science, Palace of Fine Arts, Café of the World, Palace of Foods and Beverages, House of Charm,, and Better Housing.

Just beyond is a new enclosure that is the most peacefully serene spot on the grounds — it is the home of the Nudist Colony. Bet let’s not linger there just now. A hurried swing to the extreme north edge of the Exposition grounds discloses the justly famous Balboa Park Zoo, with its cageless type open grottoes where the wild animals have homes that closely approach their native habitats. The Zoo covers a total of 180 acres, which is approximately the same amount of territory the Exposition proper embraces.

And right there, skirting the outer edge of the Zoo is the Zocalo, that’s just a Spanish word of Aztec origin meaning “gathering place” and that’s what it will be, for that ¾ mile stretch of odd-shaped buildings is the fun zone or midway, or whatever you may choose to call it. Would you like to hear the barkers and the other ballyhoo artists? O.K., let’s try it. Here they are!

GOODWIN: (Ad lib introduction to barkers.)

(Fade in barkers who will be out in front of the studio, but leave the tower mike open so that announcer can pick up at any spot.)

Well, those leather-lugged lads certainly know how to sling their patter. But on thru the midway, or rather the Zocalo, and out to Indian Village, which is an exact replica of the well-known Taos Pueblo in New Mexico, that in the minds of many ranks as the original American apartment house. There is a wild mob of almost 200 native Americans over there representing 30 different tribes — and will those Redskins make “Big Medicine: during this summer and fall?

Now, let’s swing down to one of the real highlights of the Exposition; from the Taos Village at the northern edge, to the Palisades at the southern tip of the grounds; from the oldest building to the most modern structure.

12:15 – 12:21-1/2 FORD MUSIC BOWL

BULOTTI: We are now broadcasting from the Ford Music Bowl, where an audience of thousands is gathered to hear the opening concert of the San Diego Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Nino Marcelli. The Bowl is an outdoor amphitheater on the sloping side of a canyon with is white orchestra shell framed by a green background of rolling hills. As his contribution to this international broadcast, Mr. Marcelli has chosen the brilliant fantastic “Rhapsody Espana” by Charbrier. Mr. Marcelli and the San Diego Symphony Orchestra . . .


BULOTTI: That was just a sample of some of the fine symphonic concerts that will be broadcast this summer from the Ford Music Bowl. Programs have been arranged for each afternoon and evening during the entire summer when symphony groups from San Diego, Los Angeles, Seattle, Portland and San Francisco will be heard. And during the week of July 19- 25 the famous Mormon Tabernacle Choir from Salt Lake City will be here to entertain.

But there’s one spot right in the center of the grounds that we haven’t even mentioned —- it’s the Plaza del Pacifico.

12:22 – 12:23 CALIFORNIA TOWER

BRECKNER: The cynosure of all eyes is the Arco de Provenir, or Arch of the Future, from which colored lights will play on buildings surrounding the Plaza. These lights in turn will be reflected in the two huge lagoons that flank the tower. I leave the resulting picture to your imagination. All around the edge of the Plaza is a heart-warming sight . . . little flower booths with gay awnings and a perfect riot of colored blossoms; each booth tended by a dark-eyed Mexican senorita in native costume.

Further along is the big out-of-doors Organ Amphitheater, with its hundreds of comfortable benches. And, speaking of benches, all over these grounds, in every nook and cranny, under shade trees, along cool arcades, in all the exhibition palaces, hundreds of chairs, seats and benches have been placed, affording ample opportunity for resting and visiting.

And now away to one of the brightest spots on the grounds, where joy will reign supreme at all times, and where a dull moment will never be able to creep in. Ladies and Gentlemen, the Café of the World!

12:23 – 12:26 CAFÉ OF THE WORLD

MUSIC: Del White Orchestra

STEIN: And here we are right in the middle of one of the brightest spots of the entire Exposition — not only from the point of view of gay, pleasure-seeking throngs, but because of the unusual decorative scheme that has achieved something distinctive. As you step inside the Café of the World, you are instantly transported to the central Plaza of a Spanish village. Your attention immediately focuses on the huge stone arch that marks the entrance to the village and, under the arch, Del White and his orchestra are enjoying the spotlight and giving us a bit of musical background for this descriptive persiflage. Cleverly-lighted scenes along the walls, and the huge blue, dome-like ceiling give the impression of Sunny Spain at its best. It has the appearance of a Fiesta and everywhere color upon color in a riotous pattern of systematic confusion, from the pastel shades of the china and glassware on the tables, up to the pink and green vine-covered walls of buildings around this Plaza, thru a shower of many-hued silken draperies from a score of balconies, all blended into an exhilarating effect. Opposite the orchestra a series of arches lead to a cocktail room, which, if appearances affect behavior, many a party will make merry in the Café of the World.

But, now on with the music. Let’s listen to the pulsating rhythms of Amapola, played by Del White and his orchestra, and sung by Eben Coe, famous baritone soloist.

12:26 – 12:26 ½ CALIF ORNIA TOWER

BRECKNER: Slightly dizzy from the fast tempo of that last number, but still able to carry on, we are back here in the California Tower for a brief moment. Far down at the Organ Amphitheater a young army of musicians have assembled who have been organized as the Official Exposition Junior band. They’re standing at attention, they’re alert, they’re ready for that downbeat from the baton of Hal Roberts, their leader. And there they go!

12:26 ½ – 12:28 ½ EXPOSITION BAND (Music to be selected)

(Music fades down and is background for closing announcement.)

12:28 ½ – 12:29 ½ CALIFORNIA TOWER

BRECKNER: (Roberts Band background music) And so we conclude the final chapter of this kaleidoscopic swing through the grounds of America’s Exposition. A preview of some of the highlights that will be on display during the coming months for the thousands who will make this bright spot the mecca of their vacation trips. Exposition builders had but one thought in planning this project for the world to view —- “This will be a better Exposition, must as 1935 is a better year”. The shades of Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, discoverer of this glorious country, and Fra Junipero Serra, founder of California’s missions, looking down on this work in the land they found and settled, will see much to fill them with pride. This program, originating on the great liner Normandie, just off the coast of France, and concluding in San Diego, on the grounds of America’s Exposition – 1935, was arranged by Special Features and Public Events Department of the Columbia Network. Your announcer is Gary Breckner. This is Columbia Broadcasting System.

(Box File 27, Folder 11, California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego Public Library.)

Los Angeles Times, May 30, 1935, 1:5-8, 5:6-8, 6:2. Booming guns hail officials as San Diego Exposition opens; spectacular event launched with a crowd of 25,000 at ceremonies.

Los Angeles Times, May 30, 1935, 1:6-7, 6:5. Confidence in future hailed by President Roosevelt.

Los Angeles Times, May 30, 1935, 4:1-5. Progress of west coast typified in miracle city; visitors stand in awe as they view wonders of colossal spectacle reflecting genius of man, by Kenneth O’Hara.

Los Angeles Times, May 30, 1935, 4:1-4. New science marvels at San Diego Fair eclipse those of Alladin’s lamp; robot, capering electrons and Magic House among array of wonders, by William S. Barton.

Los Angeles Times, May 30, 1935, 4:2-3. Midway’s barkers offer wide array of features.

Los Angeles Times, May 30, 1935, 4:4. Catholics plan parade; five thousand to march in special ceremony at Exposition Sunday.

New York Times, May 30, 1935, 3:3. President Roosevelt hails San Diego’s Fair; telephone speech given.

New York Times, May 31, 1935, 14:4. EDITORIAL: The Coast Celebrates: It is . . . in order to point out that San Diego’s four centuries of progress are not a continuous four centuries. . . . The town is younger by more than 150 years than Santa Fe.

San Diego Herald, May 30, 1935, 1:7-8. Exposition gates open.

San Diego Sun, May 30, 1935, 1:3, 2:2-3. Holiday crowds jam Exposition; Memorial Day fete draws new throngs; 60,000 attend opening day.

San Diego Sun, May 30, 1935, 3:1. President Roosevelt opens Exposition; orphans turn on lights.

San Diego Union, May 30, 1935, 1:8, 2:1-2. 60,000 enter Exposition gates; praise high as success is assured; President Roosevelt dedicates Exposition by telephone hookup from capital; pageant shows progress of 400 years.

San Diego Union, May 30, 1935, 1:5-7, 2:1. “Confidence in prospects,” keynote of President Roosevelt’s talk opening Exposition.

San Diego Union, May 30, 1935, 2:4-5. Governor Merriam says “San Diego is example to world,” as $90,000 California State Building is presented to Exposition.

San Diego Union, May 30, 1935, 2:7-8. Secretary Roper dedicates Federal Building.

San Diego Union, May 30, 1935, 3:8. Redwood, steel houses attract interest in Palace of Better Housing.


San Diego Union, May 30, 1935, 3:8. Peepers’ Paradise found in Nudists’ camp fence holes.

San Diego Union, May 30, 1935, 5:1. Globe Theater troupe thrills first audience, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, May 30, 1935, 5:2-3. “Here is California” tells story of State’s exhibits.

San Diego Union, May 30, 1935, 6:3-4. San Diego Symphony scores great triumph with first concerts in Ford Bowl, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, May 30, 1935, 8:1-4. Brilliant tea and dinners open festive Exposition, by Eileen Jackson.

San Diego Union, May 30, 1935, II, 5:1. Model building contest popular with thousands.

San Diego Union, May 30, 1935, II, 5:7-8. Thrills, chills, skills are seen on Midway as carnival barkers bellow wares in ‘come-on” chorus.

San Diego Union, May 30, 1935, II, 7:5. Fletcher first on Ford roads.

Los Angeles Times, May 31, 1935, 1:6-7, 3:2-3. Huge holiday throngs storm into Exposition, by Chapin Hall.

Los Angeles Times, May 31, 1935, 3:1. Fair crowd honors dead; Memorial Day observed; Secretary Roper, Merriam and Phillips speak before throng in Proscenium.

Los Angeles Times, May 31, 1935, 3:5-6. Exposition Gold Gulch arouses ghosts of ’49, by Kenneth O’Hara.

San Diego Sun, May 31, 1935, 18:1. Palace of Foods and Beverages draws crowds.

San Diego Union, May 31, 1935, 1:8, 3:1. 200,000 people converging on Exposition; attendance hits 116,741 for two days.

San Diego Union, May 31, 1935, 2:3-4. Exposition visitors pause for tribute to nation’s war dead; dignitaries participate in rites at Organ Amphitheater.

Scrapbook 20 – Ruth Norton, June 1, 1935. Colored lights on each side of fountain in Palace of Water designed by G. Everett Farmer, electrical engineer. San Diego History Center Research Library.

Los Angeles Times, June 1, 1935, 1:5, 2:5. Youth rules Exposition; thousands of Orange County school children see San Diego wonders.

San Diego Sun, June 1, 1935, 1:2-3, 2:1-8. 10,000 Catholics to march in Exposition grounds Sunday; 35,000 to witness solemn ceremony; ranking members of church arrives.

San Diego Union, June 1, 1935, 1:3. Shrine thousands at Exposition today; Orange County children visit Fair; 10,000 students swarm grounds; schools closed to allow trip; concerts, parades mark day; 40,000 Catholics due tomorrow; Lieutenant Governor to arrive at 11 a.m.

San Diego Union, June 1, 1935, 1:4-5. Today – Shrine Day, Fresno Day, School Library Association Day; Scottish Rites Women’s Day; Palace of Travel and Transportation dedication at 12 p.m.; San Diego Symphony orchestra concert in Ford Museum Bowl, Nino Marcelli, conductor, at 2:30 p.m.

San Diego Union, June 1, 1935, 1:6, 2:1. Red fez-shrine clan converges here for ceremonial, colorful parade; special train will bring throng; film actor members will join in gala frolic; side trips planned.

San Diego Union, June 1, 1935, 2:5. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, June 1, 1935, 2:6-7. Exposition Information.

San Diego Union, June 1, 1935, 2:8. Elks rulers here to plan special Exposition day.

San Diego Union, June 1, 1935, 3:6-7. First concerts in Ford Bowl attest popularity of symphony orchestra, by Wallace Moody.

Los Angeles Times, June 2, 1935, 3:2. Shrine sees Exposition; Fezzed nobles in parade; officials expect 40,000 Catholics to attend ceremonies today.

Los Angeles Times, June 2, 1935, III, 6:2. Hollywood film folk see the sights at the Fair; celebrities gathered in the Motion Picture Hall of Fame to open their building to the public.

San Diego Union, June 1, 1935, 4:1. EDITORIAL: BIG SMASH – The Exposition is on its way. Every bit of advance faith and civic optimism is justified, the Exposition is “going over.”

Scrapbook 20 – Ruth Norton, July 2, 1935. Ford exhibit: Weatherometer testing resistance of paints and enamels to all kinds of weather conditions; Fadeometer testing upholstery fabrics to their resistance to the sun; Shelton looms exhibit showing how upholstery fabrics are woven; Friction device administering 10,000 strokes every 90 minutes to find out wearing qualities of fabrics. San Diego History Center Research Library.

Letter, July 2, 1935, R. E. Craig, Comptroller, Barker Bros., Inc., to J. David Larson, Executive Manager, California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego, Calif.

Dear Sir:

We regret very much that we are obliged to register a very definite protest to you as executive manager of the San Diego Exposition regarding the manner in which the leasing of space in the Palace of Better Housing has been handled.

If we had known that this building would be used for any other type of exhibits than its title indicates we would not have leased space for exhibit purposes. The building as it now stands is, in our opinion, a palace of religious sciences and costume jewelry concessions rather than a Palace of Better Housing. We have had innumerable criticisms for exhibiting along with this class of concession, and feel that the Exposition management certainly has not been mindful of our best interests since the lease was signed.

From the standpoint of traffic we believe that the building is perhaps the poorest one in the Exposition. Traffic that does get into the building is quickly dissipated by the type of concession housed therein.

We feel that our investment in the Exposition in the Palace of Better Housing and the Casa de Tempo house merit your utmost cooperation and consideration. If you will remember, we also furnished without cost to you the radio broadcasting quarters and the Press Club.

We are hopeful that you will accept our criticism in the spirit in which it is given, and that you will tell us frankly what we may look forward to for the balance of the Exposition.

Very truly yours,


(Copy of letter taken from Box File 15 Folder 38, California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Union, June 2, 1935, 1:2-3. Exposition receipts soar beyond estimates according to treasurer Emil Klicka.

San Diego Union, June 2, 1935, 1:2, 3:1. Titles conferred on neophytes in Exposition Shrine Day.

San Diego Union, June 2, 1935, 1:5, 8:5-6. Two bishops to lead field mass; 60,000 Southland Catholics, choir of 300, uniformed bodies, dignitaries to participate in Ceremony at Organ Amphitheater.

San Diego Union, June 2, 1935, 8:1. Lieutenant Governor Hatfield is thrilled by beauty of Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 2, 1935, 8:2. Fourteen nations pick Exposition committee, welcome chiefs.

San Diego Union, June 2, 1935, 8:3-4. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, June 2, 1935, 9:1. Palace of Transportation is last to be dedicated.

San Diego Union, June 2, 1935, 4:4-6. Relief details on Food and Beverage Building.

Scrapbook 20 – Ruth Norton, June 3, 1935. El Paso Troupers included Tipica Orchestra of the Paso del Norte Arts & Crafts Guild. San Diego Historical Society Research Library.

Los Angeles Times, June 3, 1935, 3:1. Catholics visit Fair; day marked by great parade; Bishop Cantwell speaks and military field mass features program.

San Diego Sun, June 3, 1935, 1:4, 3:1-3. Splendor of field mass yesterday at high noon holds 50,000 spellbound.

San Diego Sun, June 3, 1935, 8:2-4. “Original” Jesse James featured in Gold Gulch.

San Diego Sun, June 3, 1935, 14:2-3. Travel and Transportation Building doors are opened.

San Diego Union, June 3, 1935, 1:3, 3:1. Reverence marks Exposition throng at pontifical mass; many prelates, priests aid in impressive ceremony featuring Catholic Day.

San Diego Union, June 3, 1935, 1:6. Exposition attendance 218,349 for five days; throngs due.

San Diego Union, June 3, 1935, 3:6-7. What they think of Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 3, 1935, 8:8. Boy Scouts retain part of Indian Village.

San Diego Sun, June 4, 1935, 1:2-3, 7:2. Texans whirl into city for El Paso day at Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 4, 1935, 1:7-8. 92 stations to release Fleet salute from Exposition, June 10.

San Diego Union, June 4, 1935, 5:4. Townsend group plans big mass meeting at Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 4, 1935, II, 2:1. “True Vow” group will gather for Exposition fete.

San Diego Sun, June 5, 1935, 1:5-6, 7:3. Exposition board voices praise for management.

San Diego Union, June 5, 1935, 1:1-2. Today’s program; Golden Wedding Day.

San Diego Union, June 5, 1935, 1:6-7, 2:5. Texas “Whynots” invade Fair Grounds.

San Diego Union, June 5, 1935, 2:3-4. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Sun, June 6, 1935, 1:3-4. 175 Army officers, men to make home at Exposition; 50 trucks bring San Francisco soldiers to be quartered inEl Zocalo.

San Diego Union, June 6, 1935, 1:1-2. Program; Ladies of the GAR Day.

San Diego Union, June 6, 1935, 1:7, 2:5. 250 aged pairs pledge troth again; mass nuptials held for True Vow folk; ceremony repeated in House of Hospitality; gold book is installed.

San Diego Union, June 6, 1935, 1:6-8, 2:6. Exposition will surrender to U.S. Infantry today; sheriffs’ air forces plan invasion from sky.

San Diego Union, June 6, 1935, 5:1. Program is set for war mothers for Exposition this Sunday.

San Diego Union, June 6, 1935, 5:3-5. Vast educational exhibit in Palace of Education; built around cultural development in state.

June 7, 1935 (date rec’d.) DUN & BRADSTREET, Inc. . . . The Mercantile Agency

The following report is furnished in STRICT CONFIDENCE, at your request, by Dun & Bradstreet, Inc. as your agents and employees, for your exclusive use as an aid in determining the advisability of granting credit and for no other purpose. Please note whether name, business and street address correspond with your inquiry.

KETONEN, Anna Concessionaire San Diego, Calif.

(Balboa Park)

OR 48 53 June 6, ,1935


She is report single, is aged in the 50’s, American born of German lineage, and came here recently from Washington, D.C., where claims to be operating in the antique and modern jewelry line, under the trade style of “LaFayette Gift Shop”. Antecedent history has been requested.

She recently obtained a concession at the California Pacific International Exposition.


Located in Booth No. 50, Palace of Better Housing Building, at the California-Pacific International Exposition, she is retailing imported and domestic antiques, costume jewelry, silver filigree, tapestries and rugs.


Interviewed this date she refused detailed information, asserting that she had been established over a period of 20 years at Washington, D.C.

Merchandise at the concession would inventory between $6,000 and $7,000, fixtures of the establishment represent a cost of $800 to $1,000. Extent of liabilities is not known locally.

She has not as yet established banking connections locally, and pending receipt of antecedent information from Washington, D.C., quarters consulted withhold an expression pertaining to her worth or responsibility. However, it is known that at Washington, D.C., she is credited with a conservative worth of $10,000 to $20,000, for credit purposes, and has a satisfactory debt paying reputation.

6 7 35 (KS) N.Q.

(Copy of report taken from Box File 24, Folder 45, California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego Public Library.)

Los Angeles Times, June 7, 1935, 3:1. Army force enters Fair; troops in camp at Exposition; crack detail from Bay City passes in review before ladies of the GAR; the company is called the Provisional Company because it is made up of picked men from each company of the 30th; it will do parade and escort duty.

San Diego Sun, June 7, 1935, 1:2-3. Exposition “pop” shows get warning from Police Chief George Sears.

San Diego Union, June 7, 1935, 1:1-2. Program.

San Diego Union, June 7, 1935, 1:5, 2:7. Exposition surrenders unconditionally to U.S. Infantry; soldiers arrive from north in 44 big trucks; go into camp at end of Midway.

San Diego Union, June 7, 1935, 3:4. Major O. F. J. Keatinge, in charge of Globe Theater, tells Rotarians that Exposition success is assured.

San Diego Union, June 8, 1935, 1:2-3. Program – Registered Graduate Nurses’ Day; Hotel Greeters’ Day; Apartment Owners and Managers’ Day; Ventura County Day.

San Diego Union, June 8, 1935, 1:3, 2:4. Palace of Education formally presented by Dr. L. B. Crutcher, president of the state board, yesterday.

San Diego Union, June 8, 1935, 3:5-6. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, June 8, 1935, 3:6. Navy book pays tribute to Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 9, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – American War Mothers’ Day; San Diego Union Model Yacht Club Regatta Day, Los Angeles Sheriff’s Aero-Squadron Day; California Optometrists Association Day; United Commercial Travelers’ Day.

Scrapbook 20 – Ruth Norton, June 9, 1935. Murals on facade of California State Building depicted various periods of California’s growth; each panel 6 ft. wide and 18 ft. high.

San Diego Union, June 9, 1935, 1:2, 2:4. Varied programs to keep visitors on jump at Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 9, 1935, II, 1:1, 3:2-3. Exposition Chorus invites Mme. Schumann-Heink to appear with 500-voice group in “Elijah”.

San Diego Union, June 9, 1935, World-Wide Features, 6:4-6. Photography of main entrance to California State Building, showing 18-ft. murals; four units in group, each 6 ft. wide by 18 ft. high

June 10, 1935. Program – Navy Week (first day).

Scrapbook 20 – Ruth Norton, June 10, 1935. “Breathing House” behind Palace of Better Housing; a model home designed by Richard J. Neutra, built entirely of steel with exposed portions coated with aluminum; air channels run through walls and when the heat of the sun warms them, it automatically starts a cooling draft; low-temperature electric heating element underneath the floors for warmth. San Diego History Center Research Library.

June 10, 1935. Time Magazine, “National Affairs” – CALIFORNIA: “Miracle of 1935”

When Chicago’s Century of Progress opened two years ago, two enterprising Midwesterners of 19 sat up all night for the distinction of being the fair’s first sightseers. Midwesterners, when they age and retire, make their way by thousands to Southern California. Hence last week bent, grey-headed Howard Jackson, a one-time publisher of Oshkosh, Wis., was the first man to hand his ticket to a sombreroed gatekeeper and pass though the turnstile at San Diego’s California-Pacific International Exposition.

Situated on the brink of the Pacific, ten miles from the Mexican border, San Diego is a bustling city of 150,000 whose chief assets are one of the world’s finest harbors, the adjacent rich resort colony of Coronado, the biggest West Coast naval station and Army, Navy and Marine air bases. From Chicago the city’s resourceful businessmen borrowed their reason for having a fair this year. It was to represent approximately “four centuries of progress” dating from 1542 when Portuguese Navigator Cabrillo’s ships entered the harbor. More realistic were San Diego’s two main inducements to hold a fair: 1) to bait ten million tourists into the city before Armistice Day; 2) to put to some practical use 1,400-acre Balboa Park and the many permanent Neo-Hispanic buildings by the late Bertram Goodhue left over from the Panama-California Exposition of 1915-16.* Accordingly, the citizenry passed the hat to collection $500,000 for organization expenses, concessionaires were invited to participate, the U.S. Government appropriated $125,000 for a building, Henry Ford and Standard Oil erected two more, 32 foreign governments are represented in the House of Pacific Relations, and “a city of magic in a land of dreams” became California’s latest attraction last week.

Notable was the official opening fanfare. Secretary of Commerce Roper was on hand to hope that the Federal exhibit would be “of educational value to the country.” Undersecretary of State Phillips assured California that out of Japan’s commercial invasion of the U.S. would come “a cooperative solution.” Postmaster General Farley struck off a big 3 cent commemorative stamp which was sure to get him into more philatelic hot water because the most prominent feature was the Ford Building. And a 8 p.m. on opening day, President Roosevelt from Washington radioed that he hoped to get out to San Diego’s show this summer. Following the President’s address, the lights went on. “Chicago went in for brilliant glitter,” San Diego’s newshawks had observed, “San Diego will aim at soft glow.”

Under the soft glow of colored lights playing on bowers of palm and eucalyptus trees, a comfortable but by no means spectacular crowd of 25,000 began to see the fair sights in earnest. In the Palace of Science was many a 20th century industrial gadget and the original gold spike with which Leland Stanford joined the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads in 1869. In the Ford Bowl was playing the San Diego Symphony, to be followed throughout the summer by orchestras from Portland, Seattle, San Francisco, Los Angeles and the 250-voiced Mormon Tabernacle Choir from Salt Lake City. Mexico had again sent north its Monte Alban Mayan treasures. But the real fun was, as usual, to be had on the Midway.

Smuggled in a ravine was the “Gold Gulch Mining Camp,” complete with an old-time saloon, ogling dance hall girls and some bearded characters in hickory shirts splashing in a muddy wallow with pans. Tabloid versions of Shakespearean drama were playing at “Shakespeare’s Old Globe Theater,” an old-time Chicago attraction. A concession called “The Hollywood Parade” exhibited Mary Pickford’s curls, Charlie Chaplin’s shoes, some old cinema sets, and bogus picture-making. A horseshow called “The Days of Saladin” was featuring a grey stallion said to have been ridden by Rudolph Valentino, and in the Indian Village Chief Big Tree, supposed to have posed for The End of the Trail, went on view. Climax of the whole brummagem business was the “Zoro Gardens.” There a bearded oldster in a G-string and a chorus of gauzy young female exhibitionists were conducting a “nudist colony.” For 25 cents a spectator could stare at them, then go off among the trees, take off his own clothes, join the colony. A crow of thrifty peeping-toms took in the whole show though the knot-holes of the surrounding fence.

All this was billed as “The Miracle of 1935” and San Diego was enthusiastically determined to make its fair a success. So eager was Mayor Percy James Benbough that all ranks of the citizenry should profit from the exposition, and all kinds of visitors should fine the city hospitable, that last fortnight he called into the Chamber of Commerce Auditorium 225 local saloonkeepers, gamblers, bookmakers and dive-operators. In an hour’s speech notable for its frankness, the one time police chief who also runs an undertaking establishment on the side, warned his listeners: “Don’t let your money go to anyone who claims he can fix you at City Hall. We are going to get rid of the chiseler and the rat and we need your help . . . . If you insist on doing an illegal business — and mind you, I am not telling you it’s all right — take your chances. . . . It will break you if you have to pay protection money and fines too.”

Said President Martin Healy of the San Diego Liberal Businessmen’s Association (bars, night clubs) “It’s just what I wanted to hear.”

Said Johnny Niehl of the Hercules Club, “I don’t see anything wrong with the Mayor at all.”

Said Herman (“The Jew Kid”) Hetzel of the Gold Club: “It was a very sensible talk. He’ll make a good Mayor. Bookmaking isn’t really a crime.”

*In competition with the great Panama-Pacific International Exposition held the same year at San Francisco to commemorate the opening of the Panama Canal. True to the tradition of Northern and Southern California rivalry, San Francisco will stage a world’s fair in 1937 to mark the completion of its two new bay bridges.

San Diego Sun, June 10, 1935, 1:4, 11:5. Exposition throws gates open to Navy men.

San Diego Sun, June 10, 1935, 1:5-7. Amateur nudists demand probe of Zoro gardens “pros”; Whalen, Sears shake heads.

San Diego Sun, June 10, 1935, 2:2-4. New police censor on job; he frowns at brassieres; smiles at full-length gowns.

San Diego Union, June 10, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – First day of Navy Week.

San Diego Union, June 10, 1935, 1:4-5. Fuse burns out as Mae West meets Old West in Exposition’s Gold Gulch.

San Diego Union, June 10, 1935, 1:6-7, 2:2. 63,000 men, officers to “hit beach” today as 114 ships return.

San Diego Union, June 10, 1935, 1:7-8, 3:8. Flying deputies circle Exposition; throng here for Fleet return; attendance reaches 350,757.

San Diego Union, June 10, 1935, 9:4. Richard J. Neutra’s design for “breathing home” placed on exhibit in the Better Housing display at the Exposition yesterday; won prize in Better Homes in America national contest.

San Diego Union, June 10, 1935. SPORTS, 1:8. Honor model yacht owners’ contest at Exposition; boys receive awards beside the Arch of the Future at the north lagoon.

San Diego Sun, June 11, 1935, 4:5. Zoro “nudies” annoyed at slur on nudism.

San Diego Union, June 11, 1935, 1:1. Navy parades might as 114 war craft make port; host waits ashore with big welcome; some 63,000 officers and men returning to their homes after two months of intensive exercises.

San Diego Union, June 11, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Second Day Navy Week, San Diego Army and Navy Academy Day, Detail Furniture Dealers’ Day.

San Diego Union, June 11, 1935, 1:6, 2:7. B. A. Lechner, manager of the travel department of the Pacific Coast Division of the American Express Co., aid the Exposition is going to be a success.

San Diego Union, June 11, 1935, 1:7, 2:4. Exposition gates open free as sailors rush to the Midway.

San Diego Union, June 11, 1935, II, 1:2. 12,269 have paid admission to see Shakespeare at Globe.

San Diego Union, June 11, 1935, II, 1:8. San Diego County exhibit almost finished in California State Building; worth $15,000.

San Diego Union, June 12, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Third day Navy Week.

San Diego Union, June 12, 1935, 1:3-4, 2:4. Rank officers of Navy, aides guest at big dinner, dance reception at Exposition; gold braid dominates brilliant scene as leaders of Fleet, wives entertained by Fair, city, county officials, Chamber of Commerce; Belcher toasts distinguished visitors, President Roosevelt; no speeches offered.

San Diego Union, June 12, 1935, 3:1-3. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, June 12, 1935, 3:2. Oregon prepares to send exhibit; excursion to San Diego.

San Diego Union, June 12, 1935, 6:3-4. City to eliminate dangerous auto parking near Exposition grounds.

Scrapbook 20 – Ruth Norton, June 13, 1935. Television in Palace of Electricity and Varied Industries.

San Diego Sun, June 13, 1935, 2:1. Exposition Sidelights.

San Diego Union, June 13, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Fourth Day Fleet Week, Pacific Coast Bowling Congress Day, San Diego County Elementary Schools Day.

San Diego Union, June 13, 1935, 1:6, 2:6. Sailor from prairie elated at Exposition visit here; set for more.

San Diego Union, June 13, 1935, 3:4. Wealth of varied music features at Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 13, 1935. 5:1. Crowd witness first television exhibit at Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 13, 1935, 5:3. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, June 13, 1935, 5:3. Concessionaires sue Exposition for $28,465.

San Diego Union, June 13, 1935, 9:1-8. Brilliant navy fete makes glamorous social history; garden tea at Court of Honor in Balboa Park; ball at Hotel del Coronado.

Scrapbook 20 – Ruth Norton, June 14, 1935. 108 ft. high Standard Oil “Tower of the Sun” with powerful neon light at top.

San Diego Sun, June 14, 1935, II, 11:2-3. San Diego High keeps tradition; will graduate 510 seniors at Balboa Park Organ Amphitheater today.

San Diego Union, June 14, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Fifth Day Fleet Week, Daughters of American Revolution Day, San Diego High School Commencement.

San Diego Union, June 14, 1935, 1:7-8. First relay will leave Exposition today on 2,500 mile crest hike.

San Diego Union, June 14, 1935, 2:5-6. Organ recitals and vocal programs make Exposition mecca of music lovers, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, June 14, 1935, 5:4. Alpha the Robot, who hears, speaks, rises, sits, shoots a pistol and makes a speech of thanks on display in the Palace of Science at the Exposition; activated by vibrations of the human voice.

San Diego Union, June 14, 1935, 7:1. Exposition ceremony to dedicate U.S. Housing exhibit tomorrow.

San Diego Union, June 14, 1935, 14:7-8. DAR Day program at Exposition today lists interesting activity.

San Diego Union, June 14, 1935, II, 1:5. 28 Indian children from Warner Hot Springs took part in program in House of Hospitality auditorium and toured Exposition grounds yesterday.

San Diego Union, June 14, 1935, II, 14:1. Professor Frederick W. Schweigardt lauded for sculpture he donated to the Palace of Education at the Exposition; group represents “The Cornerstones of Democracy”.

San Diego Union, June 14, 1935, II, 14:4. False rumors on Exposition rapped; attendance has not “flopped”; J. Clark Chamberlain of the Exposition speakers’ bureau said yesterday that dishonest attendance figures are not being released; paid admissions average about 27,000 daily; no truths to rumor that Henry Ford will close his exhibit if Gold Gulch is not close.

June 15, 1935. Colliers. “Tomorrow Comes to San Diego,” by W. B. Courtney . . . excerpt

. . . You quit the Tower, to meet the living men whose enterprise and dreams of beauty made this holiday possible for you. There are many, of course, whose services are fully as devoted and valuable as those who are sung. It is our misfortune to have time only for power heads.

Juan B. Larrinaga, the artist, who spilled colors and floodlights and buildings with abandon over the 300 acres of Balboa Park that were set aside for the Exposition, scrambled them with mad joy, and then said presto and stepped aside and you saw by day a fairyland of ordered genius, and by night a quaking aurora. Larrinaga is a Mexican, who left home in Lower California at seventeen aboard a donkey and starved and fought his way from painting murals in Texas saloons and sets in border honky-tonks to a foremost place in western American stage and movie design.

Richard Requa, the architect of the Exposition, has added to the Spanish Colonial and Spanish Renaissance of the old fair, the American prehistoric ingredients of Aztec, Maya and Pueblo architecture. In his conception, he has patterned the steps along which architecture has developed from the most ancient expressions, to the most modern in our Southwest. He has had the witty courage to take advantage of the climate and gain adornment and coloring for his buildings by the use of living plants. Foliage not only binds the foundations to the ground setting; but flowers stream down from boxes hidden along the parapets so that the walls of every palazzo are vivid cataracts.

The Man Behind the Idea

Zack J. Farmer gathered the Exposition into his strong hands and hurled it over the deadline. He is the managing director. He is one of the extraordinary men of the Pacific Coast. You may not consider it a favor, but Farmer is responsible for your heaving heard so much about Los Angeles in the last decade. He organized community development thought up there; and persuaded the town’s editors to declare truce in that one field — a miracle when you reflect that in Los Angeles American journalism has reached its Bowery. Alone, he put over the Olympic Games — which everybody said would be 1932’s outstanding failure — and turned a profit of nearly two million.

For the Coast, the San Diego’s Exposition’s success as a show and spectacle if nothing else — was guaranteed when Los Angeles gave him leave of absence to come down here. Farmer is from Colorado. He is lean as an ear of Indian maize, dusty as a tumbleweed, with a homespun face. He likes to sit on a rock in the desert and mope. He has known the hatred and rancor of ranch-fencing warfare; he has known the peace that comes to a man who looks up from the desert floor to where sunset breaks on range peaks and spills down the slopes and fades there. He is a boy, a zealot, a visionary, a poet. He is brown enough to be a Hindu, and you think there must be something of the snake charmer in him; for he has blown on the flutes of grit and imagination and out of the green jungle of Balboa Park white spires have writhed, opalescent domes have swelled.

It will cost you fifty cents for each general admission to the Exposition grounds — although I might rent you my pass for two bits a day. All the major “palacios” are free; while private concessions on the Midway and elsewhere will make you fork over ten cents or more each. You cannot take your car inside the grounds. Parking space will be available outside. Inside, busses patrol the main stems; but you won’t need them unless you are infirm. The Exposition layout is in the shape of a letter “S” and you can take shortcuts through cool, shaded woods. Indeed, the principal assets of this fair are, first, its lush setting; and second, the completeness of its buildings.

Unlike Chicago and other fairs — where, if you walked to the rear of the trim buildings, you found yourself looking into the unpainted innards; studding, cardboard, sawdust — the San Diego Exposition is as callipygian as she is refined and elegant in profile. You will not have to roast on vast sun-griddled pavements. You will never be more than a pace length from shade. A hundred feet from walls that enclose the latest gadgets of science, you may lose yourself in primitive canyons; pick wild flowers with no cops to say boo; glimpse coyotes, or scare up wild bunnies. Take your camera; wherever you point it here an unforgettable picture will be framed. Remember to judge your exposures for Latitude 30 degrees.

This hardened old collector of world’s fairs believes you gain from them in proportion to what you bring to them; and San Diego’s Exposition, more than any other in my opinion, will reward you abundantly as you come with heart or mind open, or merely on pleasure bent. If you want a Midway — there is one. Exposition midways change with morals and with the advance of entertainment science. This one will have familiar things, including peep shows that are just educational, mind you. It will have thrills, and rides and fakes; but it will also have Boulder Dam and Crime Never Pays, and lion and snake farms, and Alfy the homeless Mechanical Man.

If I were to tell you all the wonders and beauties, natural and feminine, that you will find you would not have to come to the fair and that would not be good for American business. One nobly thoughtful feature: you can sit your way down all through the Exposition. There will be 1,500 benches — each large enough for eight Westerners, or six Easterners. There will be splendid gardens; faithful copies of the noted Casa del Rey Moro backyard of Ronda, Spain, and of the Alcazar in Seville. There will be a Japanese tea garden and a Japanese school ship down in the harbor on a mission of friendliness.

In the Café of the World, which you will only think is al fresco, you may order the dish you liked best in Shepheard’s in Cairo or in the Foreign Club in Shanghai. There will be terrace and garden dining. Music, too. The Spreckels Organ, facing the Plaza del Pacifico, is unique, famous throughout the world. In the Ford Bowl you may sit on moonlit nights and see the hunched ridges of the Inkopah Mountains holding up the sky to the south; catch the sheen of the ocean on the west; and inhale the fragrance of the intervale carried to you by trade winds, as you listen to concerts by symphony orchestras.

A Trip Through the Fair

There will be special fiestas for each of the fair’s 167 days. And there is no end of beautiful and imposing palaces — “palacios,” we call them out here, and the streets are avenidas. No doubt you, too, will pick up a few Spanish words. In the palacios you will find the usual demonstrations of homemaking, exhibits of travel and industry, and of art and science. In the Motion Picture Hall of Fame, you will see actual movies in the making, by Hollywood squads. In the $350,000 Federal Building you will find more than twenty government department exhibits, including a post office in actual operation; and a Model Town in which you are instructed by the Housing Bureau in ten minutes how with a loan of $2,000 from your government, you may convert a down-at-the-heels community into a fit subject for anybody’s picture postcards.

Along the “Pacific Roads,” with typical Exposition informality, you will travel in half a mile, through China, Japan, Hawaii, and the old Mexican treasure trail from San Blas to Veracruz. The Republic of Mexico, by the way, has one of the outstanding exhibits; including the priceless Monte Alban jewels, Maya antiquities sent in an armored car under the guard of Mexican soldiery; a show-off team of charros, trick horsemen; and the famous Tipica orchestra.

The House of Pacific Relations, a group of fifteen haciendas around a green plaza, will always remain for me the most seraphic picture the Exposition affords. These casitas are like patrician thoughts, given substance, and dropped to jell in emerald arbors. You might not appreciate what Cuba and Jugoslavia have to do with Pacific Relations, until you learn Pacific is used in the meaning of peace, not of geography. There is a suspicion the Nudist Colony might not be so pacific with holy men and police to pacify. The idea was to get genuine Nudists from their lairs in Germany and Indiana; but they would have nothing to do with commercialized exhibitionism. So these Exposition nudists are hirelings from the stage; but the result is the same.

The Exposition says it is all in the interests of good health, clean living, right thinking, and that the colony is really a semi-religious affair. Well, even though your worshipful faculties may be deficient, it will be worth your while to enter this amphitheater, deep in a sylvan glen, to see what Nudists do with their time besides play. I know a spot — the top of the frontier express company blockhouse in Gold Gulch — from which you can peep into the Nudist Colony.

In the Days of Forty-nine

Gold Gulch, by the way, is the most distinctive and truly authentic of the concessions. In it you may share the ribald fund of the Forty-niners. It covers twenty-one acres, close to the main gate of the Exposition, yet lost in a winding arroyo from which you may see, try though you will, no sign of modern life, no pole or wire; not even a corner of the rest of the fair. From the moment you board the ramshackle old stagecoach, or the pack burro, and rattle down the rough trail shouting, “Yip-pee!”, you may have a very real illusion of moving down three-quarters of a century in time. Gold Gulch is a reproduction of a mining camp of ’49; not just a set, but a living, actual lode-country post, where bearded miners are at work and you might see Bret Harte or Mark Twain any moment. Down here you can uncork all your suppressed desires to be mean and tough and ornery.

San Diego’s California-Pacific International Exposition is not the largest the nation has ever known; but it is the most glamorous. You will not find here the most colossal this, the most stupendous that; your soul will be touched, rather than your muscles. You will not perceive in this fair the bounce of Saint Louis’, the ambition of Philadelphia’s, the gusto of San Francisco’s, the vastness of Chicago’s; but you will be aware of the spunkiest fist the Far West has yet shaken at national economic bogeymen. You will discover the pioneer lilt of the Forty-niners and the homeyness of Middle West state fairs astonishing and strangely blended and translated for the first time into an International Exposition. You will be vastly entertained, mildly educated, wholly charmed. San Diego, convinced that exquisite Balboa Park, justifies all her claims as an international exposition city, has Browning I her backbone: “If you get simple beauty and naught else, you get about the best thing God invents.”

Release, California-Pacific International Exposition, 1935: MAYA ARCHITECTURE, author unknown.

Data taken from the book of this title by George Oakley Totten (Maya Press, 1926)

Long have we sought to be inspired in this country by ancient Greek and Roman architecture, the heritage of Europe, little realizing that buried deep in the dark jungles of the southern lands of the North American continent lie vestiges of an almost forgotten race — a race that ran its course and died — remains in temples, pyramids and palaces of a cultural civilization worthy of the highest consideration.

At the time Imperial Rome was dazzling the ancient world with the brilliance of its entertainments and the magnificence of its architecture there flourished on this side of the Atlantic a nation with an architecture so fine and a civilization so brilliant as to even rive Rome in its barbaric splendor.

This people, the Mayas, aptly called the Greeks of the New World, founded their civilization in Guatemala and Honduras and later, during what might be termed the Renaissance period, moved to Yucatan, where they built magnificent cities: Uxmal, Mayapan and Chichen Itza. Then death claimed its toil and Maya art was dead. No, not dead, but only slumbering, because art eternal never dies. It slumbered to be awakened at some distant date by the young and vigorous people of the north, whose privilege is [or] should be to take the work up where Maya left off and carry on. May we now experience the beginning of the second Renaissance of this great classical American architecture.

While we have no date as to when this remarkable people migrated to lands where they produced their architectural masterpieces, the earliest recorded date found on their structures was about 96 BC However, it was not until the Renaissance period, from the tenth to the thirteenth century, A.D., that their finest monuments were built.

It was during this period that the cities of Mayapan and Uxmal were founded. It was an age of revival of classical learning and the rebirth of the arts. The naturalistic styles of architectural decorations became more conventional than in the earlier period. Characteristic features of this new decorative are masked panels, faces reduced to rectangular panels, the use of geometric diaper backgrounds, fret meanders and banded columns were common motives of decorations.

Many undeveloped ideas from the Valley of Mexico were grasped by the architects of the period and developed into masterful works, an outstanding example of which was the “Palace of the Governor” in Uxmal.

The Federal Building in the California Pacific International Exposition in San Diego is a free interpretation of this magnificent example of Maya architecture. Necessarily, modifications had to be made and the structure adapted to modern Exposition purposes, but the main features have been retained, such as the great triangular entrance portal with its pylons and broad frieze treatment supported on plain walls of rectangular blocks.

The design and treatment of the great glass panels over the main entrance was suggested by decorative figures done in stucco on the interior walls of a building in Mayapan. By means of back lighting this panel it was endeavored to reproduce the effect of glowing colors which are still in evidence in these monuments of antiquity.

The stone used for the exterior facing and decorations of the Maya buildings was of a rich brown color, very beautifully and harmoniously polychromed, and it has been the endeavor to reproduce these colors as nearly as possible to conform to the original.

Mr. Juan Larrinaga, a Mexican artist of great ability, had charge of the detailed design and execution of this ornamentation. He has spent much time in Yucatan and has made a close study of Maya art. His knowledge, experience and skill has a decorative artist is evidenced in the execution of this work.

San Diego Sun, June 15, 1935, 1:1-2, 2:4. Municipality Day at Exposition; FHA “Model Town” dedicated.

San Diego Union, June 15, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Last Day Fleet Week, League of California Municipalities Day, Turnverein Day, Nautical Club Day, California County Planners Association Day, National Housing Day.

San Diego Union, June 15, 1935, 1:7, 2:6. Schumann-Heink, 74, today.

San Diego Union, June 15, 1935, 5:5. Bonham Brothers Boy’s Band and Pasadena’s Boys’ Choir to present two concerts at Organ Pavilion today.

San Diego Union, June 15, 1935, 10:1. Federal Housing Authority to sponsor exposition ceremonies at Model Town today.

Scrapbook 20 – Ruth Norton, June 16, 1935. Reception for California Garden Club Federation in House of Hospitality between 4 and 5 p.m.;Modeltown consisted of 56 complete modern homes in miniature. San Diego Historical Society Research Library.

San Diego Union, June 16, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Fleet Week extended to July 1; California Garden Club Federation Day, Natural Congress of Naturopaths Day, International Typographical Union Day, National A. A. U., Volley Ball Championship Day, Los Angeles Mineralogical Society Day.

San Diego Union, June 16, 1935, 1:7, 2:4. Federal Housing Authority Model Town is dedicated with parade led by SERA band; ceremony; 3,000 persons attended dedication; 56 complete house in miniature exhibited.

San Diego Union, June 16, 1935, 1:7-8. Herbert Hoover, Lyman Wilbur due here tomorrow for Exposition event.

San Diego Union, June 16, 1935, 2:1. Film celebrities make Exposition round; attend barbecue at Indian Village.

San Diego Union, June 16, 1935, Gymnasts held stage at Organ Amphitheater yesterday.

San Diego Union, June 16, 1935, 9:1. Pomona singers warmly praised for Exposition concert, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, June 16, 1935, II, 1:8. Exposition attendance tops half-million mark in 18 days.

San Diego Union, June 16, 1935, II, 2:1. Canadian Legion parley to open July 1 at Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 16, 1935, II, 12:1. Palace of Water to be dedicated at Exposition today.

San Diego Union, June 17, 1935. 1:1-2. Program – Eastern Colleges’ Day.

Scrapbook 20 – Ruth Norton, June 17, 1935. Children’s Theater just opened in Spanish Village. 90 ft. long and 56 ft. wide; Meglin Kiddies to appear in six shows daily.

San Diego Union, June 17, 1935, 1:3, 2:5. International Typographical Union conference ended yesterday with a rally at Organ Amphitheater.

San Diego Union, June 17, 1935, 1:5, 2:3. Ceremonies mark dedication of Palace of Water today.

San Diego Union, June 17, 1935, 1:7-8. Exposition has record attendance in start on second half million.

San Diego Union, June 17, 1935, 1:6-7, 2:5. Reception ready for Herbert Hoover, Lyman Wilbur, wives on Exposition visit.

San Diego Union, June 17, 1935, 2:8. Officers of Salvation Army held a vespers service at Organ Amphitheater yesterday afternoon.

San Diego Union, June 17, 1935, 3:2. Mexico’s exhibit to be installed at Exposition next week.

San Diego Union, June 17, 1935, 3:4-5. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, June 17, 1935, II, 1:2. Music program highlighted by Exposition Chorus, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Sun, June 18, 1935, 1:6-7, 10:1. Herbert Hoover greeted in Exposition ceremonies.

San Diego Union, June 18, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Herbert Hoover Day, San Diego County Federation Day, Army and Navy Day.

Scrapbook 20 – Ruth Norton. June 18, 1935. Colorado River aqueduct exhibit in Palace of Water; Women’s Executive Committee entertains Mrs. Hoover and Mrs. Wilbur at luncheon in House of Hospitality. San Diego Historical Society Research Library.

San Diego Union, June 18, 1935, 1:6. Camp Fire Girls cabin to be built in Balboa Park at Pershing Drive and Upas Street; labor will be supplied by SERA; material will be obtained by donations; plans drawn by Frank Hope, Jr.

San Diego Union, June 18, 1935, 10:4. Globe Players speed up Shakespeare’s “The Comedy of Errors”.

Scrapbook 20 – Ruth Norton, June 19, 1935. Charles Ludwig, chief of police at Midget Village, 40 years, 41 lbs.; Joseph de Luca, bandmaster of 40-piece Exposition Band. San Diego History Center Research Library.

San Diego Sun, June 19, 1935, 1:2-3, 2:7. Exposition visitors “target” for airplane attacks today.

San Diego Sun, June 19, 1935, 2:8. Parking row to be solved by ordinance.

San Diego Union, June 19, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Veterinarians’ Day, “An Attack on Exposition City”.

San Diego Union, June 19, 1935, 1:5, 3:2. 80 Army planes will stage two “attacks” on city.

San Diego Union, June 19, 1935, 1:6, 2:4. San Diego standards set up mark for nation, Herbert Hoover opines at luncheon at U. S. Grant Hotel; leading citizens pay tribute to guest.

San Diego Union, June 19, 1935, 2:5-6. Herbert Hoover pays surprise visit to 10 palaces at Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 19, 1935, II, 1:3. Exposition announces band concerts under Joseph O. De Luca.

San Diego Union, June 19,1935, II, 1:3. Exposition musicians devote talents to popular airs, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Herald, June 20, 1935, 1:1-2. Concessionaires unite against alien control of Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – National Women’s Christian Temperance Union Day, Building and Loan Association Day, California Spiritualists Association Day, Orange County Day.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1935, 1:3, 3:4. Exposition “bombarded”; fliers to arrive at “ruins” today; two attacks made at high altitudes during maneuvers; busy schedule is planned.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1935, 3:2. Los Angeles Philharmonic will being Exposition series tomorrow at Ford Bowl.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1935, 5:2. Aztec Symphony wins acclaim in concert at Exposition, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, June 20, 1935, 5:5-6. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Sun, June 21, 1935, 1:2-3, 9:2-3. Agua Caliente birthday celebrated at Exposition.

San Diego Sun, June 21, 1935, 22:2-3. Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra starts daily concerts here.

San Diego Union, June 21, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Agua Caliente Day, Photo Engravers’ Day.

San Diego Union, June 21, 1935, 2:3. Weekend crowd may swell Exposition total to 750,000.

San Diego Union, June 21, 1935, 11:1. Orange County band, chorus win acclaim at Exposition, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, June 21, 1935, 12:1. Los Angeles orchestra to open second week concert session, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, June 21, 1935, 12:3. Free cantaloupes feature of Exposition Imperial Valley program next Sunday.

San Diego Union, June 21, 1935, 12:4-5. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, June 21, 1935, 14:1. Tourist influx into California up; Exposition factor.

Scrapbook 20 – Ruth Norton, June 22, 1935. “Modernization Magic” installed by FHA behind Palace of Better Housing; old-fashioned city succeeded by a modern city.

San Diego Sun, June 22, 1935, 1:8, 2:2. Police Chief Sears orders lid clamped on Exposition gambling.

San Diego Sun, June 22, 1935, 13:3-5. “Spirits of Asia and of America,” two murals painted for Ford exhibit at Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 22, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Bell Telephone Employee’s Day, 20-30 Club Day, Metropolitan Water District of Southern California Day, County Treasurers of California Day.

San Diego Union, June 22, 1935, 2:2. Ford Bowl debut of Los Angeles Philharmonic is well received, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, June 22, 1935, 2:5. A $1 million U.S. Treasury bill will be on item in an exhibit of $2,194,796 in currency, stamps and bonds to be displayed in the Federal Building at the Exposition tomorrow.

San Diego Union, June 22, 1935, 3:6-7. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, June 22, 1935, 5:1. Crowd applauded burros who joined in program of Agua Caliente entertainers at Organ Amphitheater yesterday.

San Diego Union, June 23, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Lion’s Club Day, Imperial Valley Day, San Gabriel Day, Banning-Beaumont Day, Music Makers Day.

San Diego Union, June 23, 1935, 1:1, 2:2-3. Fourfold triumph of Exposition stressed by J. David Larsen, executive manager; all hopes surpassed by result, by Ben Lemmon.

San Diego Union, June 23, 1935, 6:4. Metropolitan Water District officials attend dedication ceremonies in the Palace of Water today.

San Diego Union, June 23, 1935, 7:1. Imperial Valley host to invade Exposition today.

San Diego Union, June 23, 1935, 8:1. Telephone group celebrates day on Exposition grounds.

San Diego Union, June 23, 1935, 8:4. Choral societies of three cities perform at Exposition, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, June 23, 1935, II, 1:8, 2:2-3. Pacific Coast Convention of Western Advertising World to open today at Exposition program.

San Diego Union, June 23, 1935, II, 6:1. U.S. Army contingent has Model Camp on view at Exposition.

Scrapbook 20 – Ruth Norton, June 24, 1935. Federation of Women’s Clubs honored with a tea in House of Hospitality at 3 p.m.

June 24, 1935. Time Magazine. Letters:

Sirs: What a nasty and disagreeable article your correspondent wrote about the fair in San Diego [Time, June 10]. Well aware are we all that every exposition must contend with midways and sideshows. But that your representative should overlook the glorious beauty of the fairgrounds, which alone would warrant a visit from millions of visitors, is hard to forgive. Many subscriptions will you lose on the West Coast from this article, but not mine. . . .

San Diego, Calif. Orrel P. Reed

Sirs: Important people from the world over have seen San Diego’s Exposition and have said it is the most lovely, most beautiful one that has ever been. SHAME ON TIME! . . . My feelings are very much hurt. From now on until our subscription runs out, I shall put Time in the wastebasket as soon as it comes, and I will tear it, too, so the janitor won’t get any pleasure from it. . . .

San Diego, Calif. Mrs. Grace Trevey

Sirs: . . . You fail to report the buildings are beautiful, the architecture authentic, the setting unique and exotic. The trees, flowers and the climate are perfect. It may not be the largest exposition, but what there is of it is all there and with no false fronts. . . .

San Diego Calif. Frank A. Gazlay, Attorney at Law

Letter, June 24, 1935, A. H. Hill to Victor M. Clark; Subject: Log Rollers on Midway

Last evening, Sunday, June 23rd, my mother and I were passing the Log Rollers concession on the Midway at about ten o’clock.

There was a big sign by the entrance reading “FREE ADMISSION, etc.” The ballyhoo barker shouted in this manner: “Free Admission – come on everybody, just come right in. We are doing this to advertise this show, and are letting everybody in free.” We went in, as did about 150 other people.

When the audience was seated, the inside man made a talk to the people. He said the show would last about 12 minutes, and requested that no one leave during the performance. Then he said they were selling souvenir buttons reading, I believe, “We Have Seen the Log Rollers at the San Diego Fair.” He said that he hoped that everybody who enjoyed the performance would buy one of these souvenir buttons. He suggested that the show was worth 25 cents, but that a smaller sum would also be acceptable. Then about three men, I believe, passed among the audience with the buttons and contacted everyone individually. Nearly everybody paid something.

While, of course, there was no compulsion to buy, the atmosphere created was such as to “high-pressure” the majority into buying a button by creating the impression that those not buying were “cheap skates.”

While I am on this subject, I might mention the following:

I visited the Midget Village Saturday evening, June 22nd, at about eight o’clock. About 100 people were seated, waiting for the stage show. Then a man called for attention and gave a spiel on the wonderful Hawaiian Candy he was selling. This continued for about ten minutes, during which time several men went among the audience selling this candy. The first attempt was not very successful, so he played the candy up stronger, emphasizing the free prizes contained in every package, etc. The whole thing bored me, and it seemed that people with only a limited time at the Exposition might resent wasting all this time when the thing had absolutely no connection with a Midget Village.

All of this is just for your information.


cc – Ed Brown, Tupper.

(Copy of letter in Box File 10 Folder 28, California-Pacific International Exposition, kept by San Diego Public Library.)

Letter, June 24, 1935, Elinor Hutchings, Secy., Concessionaires of Spanish Village, to Mr. Tupper, C.P.I.E., San Diego, Calif.

Dear Mr. Tupper:

We of the Spanish Village feel that we are in a bad way, especially the group in that section from one to fifteen, which should be called the Deserted Village. However, the suggestions we are making cannot fail to be of benefit to the Village as a whole.

In the first place, we rented out places in the Village with the understanding that it was a place of small shops and the space occupied by El Diego Bingo game was composed of four separate spaces thru which passers by could either look or cut thru to this section. In fact, we commented on the fact that any of these shops could be very easily seen. As it is, it has the same effect as a high fence and that fact that it does not open until evening except on Saturday and Sunday adds still more to the effect of still life. We feel that these conditions are the direct fault of the Fair Association and we need assistance to work out our problems.

Secondly, the especially bad spot from four to ten is called to your attention. Certainly none of use would have knowingly rented space beside dressing rooms and offices. The fact that one of our concessionaires moved is an illustration of its effect. Further, we feel that owing to poor signs or lack of them, designating the Spanish Village as such, many people cannot find it or do not recognize it as such.

We feel that this second aisle does not get anything near a fair percentage of the people coming into this Village. We are in a bad spot and suggest the following things, most of which were promised to use when we rented our spaces.

First of all, Arches over every entrance saying “Spanish Village.”

Some form of adequate lighting such as flood lights and also strings of festive lights to take away from the air of gloom and darkness.

Also, to take away from the glare in the daytime and to get people to stop and look around, we suggest that benches be placed everywhere there is a place suitable and many more plants be places wherever possible.

Also, as we were certainly promised, we request our own troupe of musicians to be in the Village at all times.

We also suggest some directory system whereby the visitors will find the concessions by number. We suggest uniform numbers and corresponding numbers and names be painted on the walls at suitable places.

Lastly, to come back to the worst spot in the Village, namely, spaces 6-7-8, we suggest that something like a trellis be built to hide the fact that it is a vacant spot and that vines and plants be placed in front of the trellis, also seats, as an inducement for people to stop.

You can well see that with the El Diego closed until 6 o’clock and three blank spaces here, there is not much to attract people of this spot.

We understand that most of these requests have been made already and cannot understand the delay in getting action, and earnestly recommend that they receive your immediate attention.

Very truly yours,

(Sgd.) Elinor Hutchings

(Copy of letter taken from Box File 8, Folder 12, California-Pacific International Exposition, kept by San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Sun, June 24, 1935, 1:2. Sears’ men halt gambling in Gold Gulch; alert for more; tables idled in five games operated at “Days of ‘49” feature.

San Diego Union, June 24, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Federation of Women’s Clubs Day.

San Diego Union, June 24, 1935, 1:7-8. 12,000 valley boosters throng Exposition, present lively program.

San Diego Union, June 24, 1935, 3:6-7. Exposition Excerpts.

Scrapbook 20 – Ruth Norton, June 25, 1935. Naval Training Station to hold retreat services each Monday at 5 p.m. in Plaza de Pacifico; Marines will hold similar services every Wednesday night; 30th U.S. Infantry will be in charge of flag-lowering ceremonies on other evenings. San Diego Historical Society Research Library.

Scrapbook 20 – Ruth Norton, June 25 1935. Robots added to General Electric and Westinghouse exhibits; “Just imitations,” Alpha sneered as long green sparks snapped from his eyes.

San Diego Union, June 25, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Federation of Women’s Clubs Day, San Diego Electric Railway Co. Day.

San Diego Union, June 25, 1935, 3:3. Exposition Infantry Camp is named after Lieutenant George Horatio Derby (1823-1861).

San Diego Union, June 25-1935, 5:1. Globe theater exceeds record made in Chicago.

San Diego Union, June 25-1935, 5:4. U. S. cash exhibit in Federal Building valued at $2,194,796.

San Diego Union, June 25-1935, II, 1:3. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, wife planning summer trip to San Diego Fair.

San Diego Union, June 26-1935, 1:1-2. Program – Christian Endeavor Day, Daughters of Saint George Day.

etter, June 26, 1935, P. E. Smith, Libby, McNeill & Libby Food Products, 60 California St., San Francisco, Calif. to F. M. Sandusky, Director of Exhibits, California-Pacific International Exposition.

Dear Mr. Sandusky:

As the representative of this company at the California Pacific International Exposition, I wish to go on record as being vigorously opposed to several types of exhibits that have been granted space in the Palace of Foods and Beverages.

At the opening of the Exposition, this building was considered one of the finest, if not the finest exhibit building on the grounds, with such outstanding exhibits as our own, Kraft Cheese, Standard Brands, Sea Island Sugar, Owens Illinois and many others. Since that time, however, there have been other exhibits added, which could be more properly called concessions, that have materially detracted from the appearance of the Palace of Foods and Beverages.

The writer cannot see, by any possible stretch of the imagination, how such displays as jewelry counters, perfume stands, fountain pen stands, art galleries, silhouette artists and others of this type can be housed in this building and still have the building classed as a Food and Beverage Building.

It does not seem to me that very much consideration has been given the exhibitors who represent genuine food and beverage companies; also, there does not seem to have been a great deal of consistency displayed in the leasing of space. Believe you will agree that the proper place for these displays would be in the House of Charm and several of them would not be out of place on the Midway.

I sincerely hope that you will use your good offices to see that there will be no more of this type of exhibit allowed in the Palace of Foods and Beverages and also, if possible, have the present ones removed to their proper locations.

Respectfully yours,

(Sgd) P. E. Smith, Libby McNeill & Libby.

Written notation at bottom of letter: We have discontinued.

(Transcription taken from letter in Box Files of California-Pacific International Exposition kept by San Diego Public Library.)

Letter, June 27, 1935, F. M. Sandusky, Manager of Operations, Director of Exhibits, California-Pacific International Exposition, to Mr. Phelps, Hollywood Motion Picturescope, Space #30 – Spanish Village.

Dear Mr. Phelps:

We have your recent request to allow you to take 16 mm motion picture films of visitors to the Exposition and to have these films shown in your exhibit Space 30 – Spanish Village – the following day. The management will permit you to do this from a designated spot on the grounds to be mutually agreed upon. However, this is not to be considered as a “walk-around” privilege. It is understood that you are to pay the Exposition $25 per week for this privilege.

You further request permission to amend your contract to permit the sale of perfume from your exhibit booth in the Spanish Village. After due consideration, this request we are not able to grant. However, the management will permit you to amend your contract to include the sale of photographic supplies and novelties from your booth #30, Spanish Village, provided however that we have an approval in writing of this privilege from Jr. John Sirigo, the Official Photographer.

If this is in accordance with your understanding, would you kindly sign this letter where indicated below, and as soon as written permission is secured from Mr. Sirigo you may proceed along the lines outlined in this letter.

Yours very truly,



(Transcription taken from Box Files of California-Pacific International Exposition kept by San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Herald, June 27, 1935, 1:1-4. Exposition comedy gets hilarious; between alien Exposition authority and pro-Casey City Hall, John Citizen sees Mexican allegiance as only hope.

San Diego Union, June 27-1935, 1:1-2. Program – Ad Clubs Day, California Pharmaceutical Association Day, San Fernando Valley Day.

San Diego Union, June 27, 1935, 10:3-4. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, June 28, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – National Troopers Day, Aetna Life Insurance Co. Day, San Diego High School Alumni Day.

San Diego Union, June 28, 1935, 6:2-3. Exposition Excerpts.

Scrapbook 20 – Ruth Norton, June 29, 1935. Rabbi Edgar Magnin of the Wilshire Boulevard Temple, Los Angeles, spoke at vespers service at Organ Amphitheater.

San Diego Union, June 29, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Sciots’ Day, Federation of Natural Sciences Day, Neighbors of Woodcraft Day, Pot and Kettle Clubs of America Day, California Association of Collection Agencies Day.

San Diego Union, June 29, 1935, 5:1-2. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, June 30, 1935, 1:3-6. Program – Sciot’s Day, De Molay Day; Federation of Natural Sciences Day, Pot and Kettle Clubs of America Day, California Association of Collection Agencies Day.

San Diego Union, June 30, 1935, 1:4-5. Ceremony dedicates Camp George H. Derby at Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 30, 1935, 3:2-5. Name of Derby is approved for Army’s camp at Exposition grounds as tribute to officer, writer, humorist.

San Diego Union, June 30, 1935, 6:1. California Association of Collection Agencies men end parley here; plan Exposition party.

San Diego Union, June 30, 1935, 6:4. Los Angeles orchestra wins praise for “Scherazade suite” in Ford Bowl concert, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, June 30, 1935, 10:4. Champion orange flare blooming in Palisades square garden.

San Diego Union, June 30, 1935, II, 2:2-3. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, June 30, 1935, II, 2:4. Honors to await millionth one to enter Exposition.

San Diego Union, June 30, 1935, II, 2:8. Exposition sideshows warned against vulgar display.

July 1935, American Architect: “San Diego after Twenty Years . . . a study in contrasts

The picture on the facing page [aerial view of Plaza de America and Palisades] is more than an excellent air view of the San Diego Exposition. It is a pointed commentary upon the changes that have come upon architecture during the last two decades. Also it suggests, though indirectly, perhaps, some of the causes for these changes. This is food for professional thought, entirely aside from any consideration of esthetics involved.

In the background of the picture are some permanent reminders of a former exposition held in San Diego in 1915. Among them is the Panama-California Building, which, with its bridge approach, was designed by Cram, Goodhue and Ferguson, architects. Dominating the foreground and conceived by the industrial designer, Walter Dorwin Teague, is the structure that houses the Ford exhibit of mass production marvels.

Both buildings were erected primarily for exhibition purposes. But the former has been made into a permanent show place, preserved finally for its picturesque and romantic beauty. The Ford Building will, probably, be removed at the close of the present Exposition.

To many this may be significant from an esthetic point of view, for the contrast between the design of the two buildings is glaring. But the contrast itself is important also. For practical exhibition purposes, the Ford structure is, probably, vastly more efficient. It appears to have been developed from a well-defined plan for the exhibition which it houses. It contains no windows, thereby providing the maximum amount of wall space. The shape is conducive to almost perfect circulation within the building. Its equipment includes all the mechanical innovations which make possible the execution of such an unorthodox design.

Herein lies the really significant point in this study of contrasts. During the last twenty years, science and industry have wrought miracles which soon will become commonplace. As adoption of the telephone and radio changed our habits of communication so can utilization of present-day equipment and materials change our habits of building. And as better methods of transportation altered the pattern of our social structure, so also can the widest application of building elements now at hand change the aspect of the buildings we conceive.

No brief is held here for the “modern” design of the Ford Building as opposed to the “traditional” characteristics of Goodhue’s older structure. Many will stamp the former as hard and too mechanical. Perhaps the same criticism could be leveled at any structure which utilized to the fullest extent all the modern possibilities of structure and equipment. It is a difficult thing to know. It is still to rare an occurrence when such a building is produced.

“The Pacific International Exposition Opens in a Blaze of Glory,” by Leo J. Martin, Agent’s Office, Los Angeles, Calif., July, 1935, Santa Fe Magazine, Vol. 29, No. 8, illus., pp. 7-15..

New Thrills, New Things of Beauty, Are Presented to An Appreciative World

On July 16, 1769, Fray Junipero Serra, Franciscan, the Order of Friars Minor, planted a wooden cross and founded the first of the California missions, San Diego de Alcala.

The day was clear, warmed by a bright sun. Against the northern bluffs, for the spot was not far removed from the Pacific shoreline, white-foamed breakers broke the stillness. To the south, the placid bay waters rippled about the Spanish brigantine, the San Carlos. The hills which drew away from the sandy beach had turned brown under the summer’s sun.

Not more than forty Spaniards and Lower California neophytes, weary and ill, witnessed the founding. Each knee, however, was bent and each head was bowed as Father Serra planted the cross and raised his eyes. He invoked Divine aid in the undertaking. He prayed that the seeds he was sowing would take root: that it would flourish through the years for the glory of God and the honor of the Spanish crown.

On May 29 last, one hundred and sixty-six years later, special trains steamed into the railway terminal of the city of San Diego. The sun shone brightly. In the bay countless craft rode at anchor. The bluffs to the north retained a touch of their winter’s green.

The hundreds who disembarked from the trains found, embedded in the undulating hills, a cross. It was not a cross of wood or of iron. Not a thing of humility nor faith. It was a broad sweep of gray, smooth stone-like. It lay flat in the soil.

At the head of the cross stood a great white building, dedicated the Palace of Fine Arts. At the foot, its tower and circular body framed in green woodland, rose the impressive Ford building, dedicated to progress and to the genius of an American industrialist. On the right arm of the stone sweep stood a beautiful arroyo bridge, flanked by a great tower, the Palace of the Science of Man. On the left, broad arches rose to meet the sun. Beneath these, people passed to tread the great cross.

Superimposed upon and converging on the flat sweep were countless buildings and countless people; innumerable flowers and displays; items of food, clothing and utility; innovations, relics, old world treasures and bewildering revelations of science and the arts; a seemingly inexhaustible array of industrial, textile, automotive, railway, laboratory and clinical exhibits; expositions baffling in their ingenuity; discoveries profound in their wonder and beauty — all beyond the realm of Father Serra’s dreams. Almost, the assembled wonders blotted out the loveliness of the hills, on which they stood.

In Fray Serra’s day, since time immemorial, man has been infused with an urge to build. His victories, his every progress have been expressed in terms of brick and concrete and stone, fashioned into monuments to his liking.

This great flat cross, with its embellishments, was something of a modern Babylon. It was history — the progress of one hundred and sixty-six years. It was a resume of the conquests and victories of science, the accomplishments of business. It was, in a sense, the millennium. It mocked Father Serra’s humility. It glorified his vision. It exemplified the fervency of his prayers.

The Pacific International Exposition had opened its doors. California, its flowers, sun and natural wonders were combined with the attractions of many nations and the sciences of an entire world. It has been a great task. Now it was something of a dream come true. The heads of several nations would be present during the months to come. World dignitaries would be in attendance. The men who had directed the Olympic games, the genius which had aided the Chicago World’s Fair, the agencies which long had emphasized California’s place under the sun — all had joined in the motivation of the undertaking.

Joined, that is, with the city of San Diego. For many months this city of 150,000 has pursued the myriad tasks pertinent to entertaining an estimated 5,000,000 souls, and to exhibiting the properties of an exhibition which they hoped would surpass all those which had gone before. The task, however, had not been too difficult, because it was not new. Back in 1915, San Diego, with a small population, less available resources and a highly competitive field, had opened and for two years had successfully conducted the Panama-California Exposition.

At that time the city had a tract of land, 1,400 acres, called Balboa Park, a mesa with canons, dells and woods, situated in the heart of the city. These acres had been landscaped and had become a thing of beauty. Through the years that beauty had been retained. Numerous buildings had been erected, beautiful structures of stone, steel and cement. They still were as beautiful — the San Diego Museum and Archaeological Institution, Indian Arts Building, Botanical Building, Montezuma Gardens and lesser structures and plots, housing in all a worthy exhibit of flora, fauna and the arts. In this setting, revamped to a modern tone and enlarged on an international scale, the California-Pacific International Exposition had sprung into being. And with it a patronage which bid fair to exceed this border community’s expectations.

All Aboard for San Diego

We boarded the train at Los Angeles — and that meant the Santa Fe, the only Los Angeles-Dan Diego rail connective.

We hurried beyond the Los Angeles River bed, into the suburbs, and in a few miles entered the orange groves. Riding through the waves of green never was a difficult pastime, while beyond the green indenture there were towering palisades and a blue sea to parallel the track.

The crowd was a holiday one, with many nations represented. The majority, however, were from our own middle west and east. All lacked the strain which sometimes takes hold of travelers bound for an important objective. The important objective was there; but San Diego stood for palms and flowers and touches of Old Mexico – life with fiestas in the ascendancy and siestas just around the corner. The train sped past San Juan Capistrano Mission, Spanish San Clemente, pastoral Torrey Pines, and emerged above San Diego Bay.

Every manner of craft seemed to be anchored in the placid waters. There were many units of Uncle Sam’s Pacific guardians, countless small boats and pleasure craft — as if Santa Barbara and Santa Monica enthusiasts suddenly had converged on this former berth of the brigantine San Carlos. There were schooners, packets, yachts, launches, sail boats, tankers, coaster passenger and great liners from all the seas, with as many more of the latter destined to arrive each week. There were flags and steamers and gay sails’ aeroplanes and innumerable dots, which, no doubt, were bathers.

We were back on the observation platform by that time. Aircraft zoomed over the water. From the bluffs to the far southern horizon the planes were visible. The easterners were a bit awed by the sea and air spectacle; but they should have expected it. Colonel Lindbergh and the Spirit of St. Louis started that history-making flight from San Diego. (We were at that moment passing the great aviation field dedicated to Colonel Lindbergh.) And San Diego Bay early was declared by navy men to be among the first ten natural harbors of the world. Hundreds of embryo middies, bound for the San Diego training school, had ridden over these same rails.

The station platform was crowded. Not a jam; rather a good-natured crowd, having a lot of fun trying to find the rest of the folk. A band blared and a lot of good people got together. There were delegations versus delegations; and it ended something akin to the irresistible force and the immovable body.

There were Spanish senoritas and dons. Perhaps those laces and frills were not so precise after a few weeks; but they were more than appealing then. There were navy men and marines, soldiers and policemen. More bands, more delegates, more friendly groups. The unattached traveler, however, was not neglected as the facilities were all-inclusive. There was a wealth of beautiful girls, official hostesses and others — so many in fact that the sprinkling of celebrities, Hollywood and other points, were relieved of the customary spotlight. And the entire area leading from the terminal was profuse with flags, steamers, and flowers — depicting and representing all nations and all peoples.

A Beautiful Setting Unfolds

On the ten-minute ride through the business district to Balboa Park we found San Diego clean, bright and gaily decorated. We wondered if anywhere in the world there was a setting like the one unfolding before us — the ocean, Mexican border, favored coast climate and a city essentially residential and bubbling over with diversion possibilities. And one with a central woodland like Balboa Park, ranking as it did among the first five city parks in the world. Add all that to a year’s dress-up campaign, and a blending of the old world with the new, and you have the San Diego of today.

At the east entrance of the Exposition were flags, flowers and banners of every conceivable color and in greater abundance, particularly in the vicinity of the arches, the eastern gateway to the Exposition. There was a great crowd traversing the boulevard, the Avenue of Nations, which led past El Zocalo, housing counter attractions and novelties, but the thoroughfare was pleasantly broad.

We passed beneath the arches to tread the great white cross and to view what undoubtedly was California’s most ambitious undertaking. The international flavor of the Exposition was becoming more pronounced. This was any nation’s affair. Looming largest before us, having remained anti-lunch as it were, was the Café of the World, where, they assured you, the food required to meet your latitudinal and longitudinal needs, hemispheres notwithstanding, could be provided.

The eastern entrance and Cabrillo Bridge, the western gateway, encompass a broad clearance called the Avenida de Los Palacios, the horizontal beam of the great cross. The vertical plot, from the Palace of Fine Arts to the south, merges with the Avenida de los Palacios at the broad Plaza de Pacifico, the heart of the Exposition. The latter gives way to diverging avenues, which circle on a southward sweep to the Ford rotunda.

The ground plan is excellent. There is no confusion and no unnecessary steps. Nothing overlaps, and one is assured that nothing is inadvertently passed by.

Converging on that set-up from the north is the Indian Village. On the southeast, Gold Gulch. On the southwest, the Villages of the World and the Palace of Education. Tree-lined walks lead from El Zocalo or Fun Zone to the zoological gardens on the north, to the botanical gardens and then back to the great flat cross.

All that is set down in a broad acreage of flowers, green grass and trees. It is outdoor California at its best. And it should be. They have been cultivating and landscaping Balboa Park since the Panama Exposition. And during the past six months, that beauty has been augmented by numerous reproductions of world-famed gardens. We shall, however, forego further discussion of Balboa Park’s horticultural attractions and start our tour of the Exposition proper.

International is the House of Pacific Relations, emphasizing the union of nations in peace and amity. Great Britain, Japan, Mexico, Denmark, China, Sweden, Italy, Portugal, Jugoslavia, Germany, Czechoslovakia, and other nations are housed in hacienda type cottages, which stand side by side, with floral patios, surrounding an inner court and garden. The attendants are arrayed in the costumes of their homeland. The buildings themselves form a beautiful homelike cluster.

The Federal Exhibit Palace, erected by our government, completes the international aspect. It is a huge building in Maya design, bordering an arroyo and fronted by a great lawn. You cannot fail to have a better understanding of the functions of the Washington government departments after spending a few hours viewing these exhibits. The departments of agriculture, commerce and labor; the navy, Tennessee Valley Association, Smithsonian Institution, Library of Congress and committee on aeronautics; the marine corps, printing office, veterans’ administration and post office — all have commanding displays of their activities. For popular appeal there are samples of dead letters, parcels and nefarious schemes to defraud by use of the mails.

A Miniature Tour of California

It doesn’t seem possible that the wonders of California’s eight hundred mile length could be brought together; but the California State Building holds a miniature tour that is remarkable in its completeness. The industries and pursuits of counties are displayed; and then the state in general completes the tour. The frontal landscaping reproduces every climatic condition within the state. That includes timberline pines and Death Valley cacti — bare rocks and below sea level sand and gravel.

The Palace of Science displays are representative of the abstract and pure sciences, also the latest innovations in the applied sciences. Among other things you can hear your own telephone voice and make Alpha, the ten-foot robot, roll his eyes and shake his head. The robot’s inventor puts the steel man through a variety of paces. There are exhibits showing the history of man and his cultural growth. There is a Mexican collection that is worthy. Mayan, Yucatan, the Philippines and the Orient come into the historical spotlight.

You are quite thoroughly into the Exposition by the time you meet up with the sciences. All that time has been spent walking along wide thoroughfares, in and out of what apparently are mellowed buildings, and always in the midst of flowers.

Missing are the unpainted sandwich stands with their flag coverings. Miniature replicas of the larger buildings, fresh and clean, in Mayan, Aztec and Spanish, cater to the not-to-be-denied hot-dog and soft-drink demand. Little Spanish orchestras and dancers mingle with the crowds. Flower vendors are everywhere. There are special buses and innumerable roller chairs for those who desire a “parlor car” method of sightseeing.

The Palace of Photography covers every branch of its subject and it also houses the fifth annual Salon of Photography in which photographers from all over the world are competing.

The Motion Picture Hall of Fame presents a history of the industry and oddities and mementos of the stars and productions of yesterday. Movies are made and, during the summer, most of the stars will come down from Hollywood.

The Palace of Travel, Transportation and Water houses exhibits of inordinary [sic] interest. The subject of travel is covered from ox-carts to the present time; and into the future. There is the story of aqueducts and canals constructed in conjunction with the Boulder Dam project. Of great interest is Minton Cronkhite’s $50,000 miniature Santa Fe Railway System, with ten trains operating on a 2,000 foot track from Chicago to San Diego via the Grand Canon, if you please.

An impressive facade with a bas-relief in bronze above the entrance marks the Palace of Electricity and Varied Industries; while around the cornice near the roof are continuous flower boxes with green vines and scarlet bougainvillea trailing over the edges. Inside, electricity does everything you thought it could do and things you scarcely believe it does do. There is the House of Wonders and a replica of Boulder Dam and its power line that for sheer artistry is something worth viewing.

In the Palace of Fine Arts are paintings, sculpture, furniture, craftwork, lace, glass and other exhibits of international art. There is El Greco’s “Agony in the Garden,” Brancusi’s controversial “Bird in Flight,” Bierdstadt’s famous “Yosemite” and works of Whistler, Tayer, Picasso and Solano; also Rubens’ “The Holy Family” and works of Murillo, Granach, Goya and other Old Masters. There are landscapes, murals, portraits and tapestries by the score.

Fronting the Plaza de Pacifico is the mammoth Spreckels Organ with its semicircular colonnade. A permanent feature of Balboa Park. Music plays an important part in the Exposition. Harold W. Roberts, musical director of U. S. C. fame, has drilled an orchestra of several hundred pieces and a chorus of 1,000. The great Spreckels Organ, numerous Ford orchestras and organ, and the public address system flood the grounds with music at all times. Throughout the summer there will be many visiting artists and guest conductors. A library of 3,000 records insures a continuous flow of music at odd ours over the loud speakers.

The Arch of the Future

Near the Spreckels Organ rises the towering Arch of the Future, with beautiful pools at its base. This is a key sot, the central control of the public address hookup. This amplification system is one of the most elaborate and the first of its kind ever installed. It as a radius of ten square miles and sufficient power to drown out any sound within that sphere. Released through 156 sound units or horns a variety of music floods Balboa Park — dance tunes on the lively El Zocalo; symphonic and operatic selections in the Park’s quieter retreats. Important announcements are rapidly dispatched with insured listener contact. President Roosevelt’s voice was amplified last May 29.

The Palace of Food [sic] and Beverages is a fine example of Spanish Colonial architecture. Needless to say that a complete resume of edibles and liquids is unfolded within this structure. You’ll discover ways of eating you never thought of; foods you didn’t know existed; and you may gain the idea that you haven’t been doing yourself justice in the matter of tasty edibles.

The Palace of Better Housing and Modeltown and Modernization Magic disclose man’s inventive genius in making the home an easier and more attractive place in which to live; modern household utilities and kindred things; examples of landscaping and planting; and pools, gardens, lawns, flower beds, walls and somewhat gloried driveways. This is an important exhibit and a profitable one for those who take their time and see it in its entirety.

The Palace of Education is a resume of California’s progress in education. And that reflects the progress for most of the states. The subject is thoroughly covered. Social, abstract, vocational and health needs; arts, crafts, agriculture, house planning, and exceptional child training; Indian education, nautical, physical, science, home making, visual and training of the blind, are a few of the branches touched. Adjacent to the Palace is a grotesquely beautiful collection of desert plants.

The House of Charm is something of a no man’s land. It emphasizes beauty and loveliness; and everything pertaining to femininity.

Southwest of the House of Charm is a reproduction of the world-famed Alcazar Garden of Seville. It is breathtaking at first glance and is one of the Exposition’s most beautiful offerings.

Dedicated to Henry Ford, the Ford Building, a circular white-surfaced structure fronted by a high tower, stands on a promontory bordered on three sides by arroyos. In one of the latter lies the Ford Music Bowl, where concerts by notable symphony orchestras are given. In another arroyo, fourteen historic travel lanes are reproduced, including El Camino Real, the Santa Fe Trail, the old planked highway from Imperial Valley to Yuma, and others of Peru, Australia, Japan, Canada, Panama, China and Mexico.

The Ford Building is fronted by the beautiful Plaza de America and the Plaza de las Aguas Cantantes. The latter surrounds the Firestone Singing Fountains, where a subdued lighting creates the illusion of rising and falling water attuned to music. In addition to viewing the field-and-mine-to-consumer program in the making of a Ford car, one may see industrial dioramas or moving histories of the modern age. The Ford exhibit is profoundly impressive. Both Henry Ford and Edsel Ford will be Exposition visitors during the summer. They deserve a warm welcome.

Gold Gulch is a twenty-two acre reproduction of an 1849 California mining camp. You may enter this exhibit on a burro or in a stagecoach; and going down into the arroyo, you’ll have a lot of mining-town realism shook into you.

The town is a page of history. There’s an old newspaper office, the Gold Nugget, and it’s published on Wednesdays “if the editor ain’t drunk.” Also, sourdough shacks, mining operations, sheriff’s office and jail, saloons, dance halls and quite a few bad characters hanging around. Gold Gulch will rival other popular attractions because there is a lot of genuine fun involved.

The Shell Oil Building is a giant shell and deserves a token of appreciation. Inside is a great map with national highways electrically outlined.

We saw Governor Merriam and offices of the army and navy with other civic leaders at the House of Hospitality. This is the focal point of the Exposition, where visiting dignitaries are entertained. The patio of the building reproduces the famed convent courtyard of Guadalajara, Mexico. In the rear is a reproduction, yellow, red, green and pink of El Casa del Rey Moro at Ronda, Spain’s renowned garden.

Someone deserves a great deal of credit for the Standard Oil Company’s great Tower of the Sun. This building catches the eye. It is red with numerous sculptured symbols in bas-relief. It ranks with the finest on the grounds. Inside is portrayed the story of the benefits of petroleum to the human race. The national parks are parades in the unusual “Illuvision.”

The Old Globe Theater, patterned after the London playhouse of that name founded in 1599, presents versions of Shakespearean plays. The theater has a novel setting near the Cabrillo Bridge, and the territory has become Old English for the occasion.

The botanical gardens, museum of natural history and zoological gardens cover many acres of beautiful landscape. The gardens are a welcome retreat. Nature never fails us. The museum contains 397,088 specimens of birds, fish, animals, reptiles and plants. The zoo covers many acres, all wooded and houses more than two thousand specimens. These worthy things are permanent features of Balboa Park.

The Spanish Village, fronted by a Moorish wall, is a reproduction of a village in Spain. There are numerous buildings, olive trees, flowers, shrubs and a rather lively patio,

We liked the Indian Village. It is set apart, has ample ground space, and there is much of genuine worth to be seen. Indians from various tribes, the Navajos, Pawnees, Hopis, Cherokees, Iroquois, Mohawks and others are in residence. There are ceremonials and craft work, also athletic contests. The Indians are courteous and friendly. They mingle with the crowd and help to make one’s visit instructive and enjoyable. The government has made good strides toward the betterment of the Indian and it is reflected here. The Boy Scouts of San Diego are playing an important part in the direction of the Village.

The Fun Maker Perform

Ladies and gentlemen! Step into El Zocalo!

Here are dare-devil motorcycle riders, a midget farm, including humans, animals and crops; Zoro Gardens; Ripley’s “Believe It Or Not”, “Crime Never Pays” (but it does on El Zocalo); Snake Farm with reptiles from all over the world; Gay’s Lion Farm (down from El Monte and worth seeing); Days of Saladin, the Arabian horses of Kellogg’s ranch; rides for the children; Boulder Dam, map and models of operations; log rollers, and numerous other worth while attractions.

El Zocalo is the home of raucous voices, leather throats and stupendous adjectives. Its 2,400 feet of frontage is packed tight and represents a heterogeneous array of architecture. There are numerous attractions billed to follow: where they will put them is a problem for the committee. Right now El Zocalo is noting if not international

It is an expansive thing — this California-Pacific International Exposition. And Balboa Park truly is beautiful. The surprising thing is the appearance of age, which seems to hover over gardens and buildings alike. By day it is a bright and lovely sight.

At night flood and colored lights glow over the acres which encompass the great flat cross. Soft, hushed strains of music float upon the air. The Chicago Fair, it seems, went for brilliancy. Here everything is softened. The Exposition is a great flowering garden, bathed in subdued rainbow light; while Balboa Park’s remaining acres of woods, arroyos and bridges are flooded with moonlight. It may be an international exposition but Spanish gardens seem to have the upper hand.

From the social angle, San Diego and the Exposition committees in general are all aflutter. Notable are everywhere. One wonders how the exacting functions of society can be carried through.

There is much to look forward to. President Roosevelt has signaled his intention of visiting the grounds during the summer. Social editors advise that the Prince of Wales also will be an Exposition visitor. Then there will be former King Alfonso of Spain, Herbert Hoover, the premier of Great Britain, almost all the ambassadors to the United States, and many consuls and titled foreigners and prominent men in all professions throughout the world. San Diego is destined to have a busy summer.

. . . .

Back down the valley along the coast Father Serra raised his wooden cross, blessed it and prayed for Divine Air. Scurvy had weakened his followers, the Indians were unfriendly. But aid came. The men regained their health, the Indians, one by one, were baptized, the mission grew and prospered.

Back in San Diego and in the heart of Balboa Park are assembled today the great things as humans appraise great things on the earth, representing one hundred and sixty-six years of ceaseless progress. Millions of persons are converging on this city — millions replacing that faithful band of yesterday. For events shape themselves and time moves on.

If you possibly can arrange it, treat the great white cross of the California-Pacific International Exposition during the present summer. It is an important journey. It is America’s Exposition for this year, 1935, and, for that matter, for any year.

(Box 33, California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Union, July 1, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Canadians’ Day, Canadian Legionnaire’s’ Day, American Association of University Women Day.

San Diego Union, July 1, 1935, 3:3-4. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, July 1, 1935, II, 1:2. Exposition attendance succeeds as five programs staged Sunday.

San Diego Union, July 1, 1935, II, 8:1-2. Musical program at Exposition marked by wide variety, by Wallace Moody.

Scrapbook 20 – Ruth Norton, July 2, 1935. Official prize medal for “millionth” visitor: California Tower and gate on front. San Diego Historical Society Research Library.

San Diego Sun, July 2, 1935, 7:1. ‘Drunkard” gives Exposition’s crowds big laugh; musical hall in Gold Gulch features old comedy.

San Diego Union, July 2, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Mazdaznan’s Day.

San Diego Union, July 2, 1935, 1:4, 3:8. Canadian Legion has celebration of Dominion Day: Highlight of the day-long celebration was a long parade of marching veterans, which ended in a veteran’s assembly at the organ amphitheater.

San Diego Union, July 2, 1935, 8:2-4. All writings of Mary Baker Eddy seen in Christian Science Building at Exposition; churches of southwest finance investment of $20,000.

San Diego Union, July 2, 1935, 8:1-2. AAU (Amateur Athletic Union?) convention visitors entertained on Exposition day.

San Diego Union, July 2, 1935, II, 1:3-4. Exposition gates to be guarded closely as time of millionth visitor nears.

San Diego Union, July 2, 1935, II, 3:2-3. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, July 2, 1935, II, 3:4. Hard of Hearing Day set at Exposition.

San Diego Union, July 2, 1935, II, 12:4. National Negro Day to be held at Exposition August 24.

San Diego Sun, July 3, 1935, 7:2-4. President Belcher outlines story of Exposition before Board.

San Diego Union, July 3, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – B’nai B’rith Day.

San Diego Union, July 3, 1935, 1:3. Fireworks taboo on Exposition grounds

San Diego Union, July 3, 1935, 1:4, 2:6. Exposition officials reelected at annual meeting; Belcher delivers optimistic report on first year; committeemen selected.

San Diego Union, July 3, 1935, 5:2-3. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, July 3, 1935, 8:1-2. Ford officials to give dinner in honor of Exposition officials in salon of Ford Building.


Scrapbook No. 20 – Ruth Norton, July 4, 1935. Replica of Dicken’s “Old Curiosity Shop” opens next to Old Globe Theater; sells old prints, old English silver, brass and curios; Edward C. Jeffers, millionth visitor, and wife given luncheon at Casa del Rey Moro Café; dinner in evening at Café of the World; “Jigglers”, mechanical oscillators on which visitors may rest there feet in Palace of Electricity and Varied Industries; frieze onMormon Building symbolizes hardships endured by Mormon pioneers in wintertime when they established their church in the state of Utah. San Diego Historical Society Research Library.


San Diego Sun, July 4, 1935, 1:2. Edward C. Jeffers of Chicago was the millionth visitor.

San Diego Sun, July 4, 1935, 1:4, 2:5. Biggest 4th opens in San Diego; Exposition crowded.

San Diego Union, July 4, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Independence Day, Grand Army of Republic Day, Affiliated Organizations’ Day.

San Diego Union, July 4, 1935, 1:5, 2:4. Exposition cities linked as Edward C. Jeffers of Chicago became millionth visitor yesterday.

San Diego Union, July 4, 1935, 3:4. Los Angeles Symphony nearing close of Ford Bowl series, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, July 4, 1935, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Julius Wangenheim . . . should feel pride at his reelection by the Exposition directors to the difficult job of chairman of the finance committee.

San Diego Union, July 4, 1935, II, 1:3-4. Exposition aids Mayor Benbough in issuing tickets to old persons unable to pay fee.

San Diego Union, July 4, 1935, II, 8:2-3. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, July 4, 1935, II, 8:4. Art Guild sponsor of outdoor marts at Court of Honor at Exposition.

San Diego Union, July 4, 1935, II, 8:2-4. Ford Building as viewed from the sky.

San Diego Union, July 4, 1935, II, 8:5. Seven central coast counties present display in California State Building.

San Diego Sun, July 5, 1935, 1:3. Naval Hospital asks city land; lease sought to provide recreation site.

San Diego Sun, July 5, 1935, 1:3. Gold Gulch gambling raid nets one.

San Diego Union, July 5, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Arizona Day, Legislature Day, Santa Barbara Day.

San Diego Union, July 5, 1935, 1:4. 51,444 visitors enter gates of Exposition; big parade is feature of program; attendance nears record of opening day.

San Diego Union, July 5, 1935, 1:5-7. Days of ’49 march with Days of Crusades at Exposition.

San Diego Union, July 5, 1935, 3:4-5. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, July 5, 1935, 5:8. Heber J. Grant, president of Mormons, to visit Exposition.

San Diego Union, July 5, 1935, 7:2-3. Los Angeles Philharmonic ends Ford Bowl term; Portland Symphony to play today, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, July 5, 1935, II, 1:2. Police chief Sears hits back in Exposition gambling charge by City Attorney Byers; says he has had all possible men on the job and that there is no gambling at Exposition and elsewhere.

San Diego Union, July 5, 1935, II, 1:2. Dr. A. H. Gianninni, banker of San Francisco, amazed at Exposition beauty.

San Diego Union, July 5, 1935, II, 1:2-5. Canadian, American veterans join in San Diego parade.

San Diego Union, July 5, 1935, II, 8:1. Program today at Exposition Organ.

Scrapbook 20 – Ruth Norton, July 6, 1935. Commemorative half-dollars to be issued in honor of Exposition; one side will show the central figure of the state’s official seal and the other side will show California woman with “San Diego” on one side and “1935” on the other. San Diego History Center Research Library.

San Diego Sun, July 6, 1935, 1:7-8. 2-millionth Ford car escorted into Exposition.

San Diego Union, July 6, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Danish Day, Toastmasters’ Club Day.

San Diego Union, July 6, 1935, 1:5-6, 2:3. Legislators attend meeting at Exposition; thanked for California State Building; 125 delegates at parley.

San Diego Union, July 6, 1935, 2:2. Portland group wins praise in opening series, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, July 6, 1935, 3:2-3. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, July 6, 1935, 3:1. Music today and tonight at Ford Bowl.

San Diego Union, July 6, 1935, 8:4. Teachers’ guild to offer music program in House of Hospitality tomorrow.

San Diego Union, July 6, 1935, II, 1:3. Captain F. E. Porter, hospital commandant, asks 50-year lease of park lands between the Naval Hospital and the street car tracks west of the hospital; area will be used for recreation for patients.

San Diego Union, July 7, 1935, 1:1-2. Program (Sunday) – San Diego Municipal Employees’ Association Day, American Society of Mechanical Engineers’ Day, American Society of Civil Engineer’s Day, Santa Barbara Day.

San Diego Union, July 7, 1935, 1:1-2. Santa Barbarans will hold big fete at Exposition today.

San Diego Union, July 7, 1935, 8:3. Young musicians give concert at Exposition, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, July 7, 1935, II, 2:2-3. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, July 7, 1935, II, 2:4. Model of Bay City built to scale is exhibited at Exposition.

San Diego Union, July 7, 1935, II, 2:5. Toastmasters’ oratory contests Exposition feature.

San Diego Union, July 7, 1935, Society-Club, 1:1-3. Art world to stage five July functions at Exposition.

Letter, July 8, 1935, Waldo T. Tupper to Farmer & Larson; Subject: SPANISH VILLAGE.

I understand that the exhibitors and concessionaires in the Spanish Village held an indignation meeting today and are up in arms because the Village is not attracting as many people as it should. As you know I went over this situation with Mr. Requa and Mr. Barter and we made a number of recommendations which have been passed on to Mr. Barter to figures costs on. In addition to the recommendation submitted to Mr. Barter I would suggest that we run a series of pennants or streamers from the decorative banner poles leading from the Avenue of Palaces up to the Shell Oil Building and at that point put a sign made of cut-out letters – painted in black and orange with a silver flitter center. This sign should read “VISIT THESPANISH VILLAGE AND MIDWAY.”

I think we should go to the expense of keeping at least two or three musicians in the Spanish Village at all times. If we allow the exhibitors in theSpanish Village to hire this orchestra they can get three pieces for around 60 to $75.00; whereas, if we do the hiring we will have to pay Union rates, which would cost us about $58.00 per musician.

If it meets your approval I would like to sell the exhibitors and concessionaires in this Village on taking the Olvera Street Puppeteers to put on continuous free performances in that area in the southeast corner of the Village — spaces 3-A, 3-B and 3-C — the large open space which adjoins the fire station. I can get this puppet show — four people, all the equipment, costumes, etc. — for $100.00 per week and this prorated among the exhibitors would only stand each of them about 50 to 75 cents a day.

My thought would be to have an announcer — just before presenting the final puppet show — take the stand and tell the audience that they were the guests of the exhibitors and concessionaires in the Spanish Village — that this is the same show which played for three years in Olvera Street, which packed houses at a $1.00 per seat — that everyone here will want to send some gift or souvenir of the Fair to friends or relatives and that the stores in the Spanish Village carry a complete line of gifts and souvenirs at the right prices, etc. etc.

I would also suggest that we put some benches in and around the Spanish Village and all of the exhibitors and concessionaires in the Village are in accord that the extra lighting should be much brighter. They are not interested in maintaining the dim, colored light effects which we tell them is typical of a Spanish Village of this kind — they say it is dismal and like a morgue, so I recommend that we give them more light.

(Transcription made from letter in Box Files of the California-Pacific Exposition kept by the San Diego Public Library.)

Letter, July 8, 1935, Waldo T. Tupper to Farmer & Larson; Subject: SPANISH VILLAGE.

I understand that the exhibitors and concessionaires in the Spanish Village held an indignation meeting today and are up in arms because the Village is not attracting as many people as it should. As you know I went over this situation with Mr. Requa and Mr. Barter and we made a number of recommendations which have been passed on to Mr. Barter to figures costs on. In addition to the recommendation submitted to Mr. Barter I would suggest that we run a series of pennants or streamers from the decorative banner poles leading from the Avenue of Palaces up to the Shell Oil Building and at that point put a sign made of cut-out letters – painted in black and orange with a silver flitter center. This sign should read “VISIT THESPANISH VILLAGE AND MIDWAY.”

I think we should go to the expense of keeping at least two or three musicians in the Spanish Village at all times. If we allow the exhibitors in theSpanish Village to hire this orchestra they can get three pieces for around 60 to $75.00; whereas, if we do the hiring we will have to pay Union rates, which would cost us about $58.00 per musician.

If it meets your approval I would like to sell the exhibitors and concessionaires in this Village on taking the Olvera Street Puppeteers to put on continuous free performances in that area in the southeast corner of the Village — spaces 3-A, 3-B and 3-C — the large open space which adjoins the fire station. I can get this puppet show — four people, all the equipment, costumes, etc. — for $100.00 per week and this prorated among the exhibitors would only stand each of them about 50 to 75 cents a day.

My thought would be to have an announcer — just before presenting the final puppet show — take the stand and tell the audience that they were the guests of the exhibitors and concessionaires in the Spanish Village — that this is the same show which played for three years in Olvera Street, which packed houses at a $1.00 per seat — that everyone here will want to send some gift or souvenir of the Fair to friends or relatives and that the stores in the Spanish Village carry a complete line of gifts and souvenirs at the right prices, etc. etc.

I would also suggest that we put some benches in and around the Spanish Village and all of the exhibitors and concessionaires in the Village are in accord that the extra lighting should be much brighter. They are not interested in maintaining the dim, colored light effects which we tell them is typical of a Spanish Village of this kind — they say it is dismal and like a morgue, so I recommend that we give them more light.

(Transcription made from letter in Box Files17 Folder 21 of the California-Pacific Exposition kept by the San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Sun, July 8, 1935, 1:1-2, 2:1. Exposition in red, $676 a day in June; economy demanded.

San Diego Union, July 8, 1935, 1:1-2. Program.

San Diego Union, July 8, 1935, 5:1-2. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, July 8, 1935, 7:5. “Macbeth” wins plaudits from Globe audiences, by Wallace Moody.

Letter, July 9, 1935, J. David Larson, Executive Manager, California-Pacific International Exposition, to R. E. Craig, Comptroller, Barker Bros., Seventh St., Flower & Figueroa, Los Angles, Calif.

Dear Mr. Craig:

In reply to your letter of the 2nd inst.

There is something to what you say, although I feel that you are naturally more sensitive to the situation than the vast majority of visitors to the Better Housing Building.

One reason for the situation is that large interests in Los Angeles, who had pledged us their support in the Better Housing Building, abandoned us at the last minute and went into the so-called Housing Show in Los Angeles. Many of them have since told us that they now regret exceedingly that they did this because their show did not turn out so well, we understand, and the greater opportunities were here.

The F.H.A. and others will support the facts about what happened here in the closing weeks when we were rather precipitately abandoned by many firms whose best interests obviously were to exhibit here. We worked until the last minute to prevent this, and finally decided that the worst thing we could have would be empty space. It them being close to the opening of the Exposition, we did the best we could under the circumstances in the interest of those who had taken space, such as yourselves and numerous other substantial exhibitors.

We have plans for improving the situation in that building and are watching the questionable spaces that you refer to very carefully for the first opportunity to change them. It is entirely possible that the situation will be improved from time to time.

We certainly do accept your letter in the spirit in which it was written. We have endeavored, heretofore, to express our deep appreciation of your participation in the Exposition, and of your generosity and helpfulness in respect to the press and radio buildings.

Your exhibit should remain where it is, and we are sure that its presence there will yield constructive results to you as the vast majority of the public is not having, and will not have, the impression that you, who are so close to it, are sensitive to. On top of this, because of our feeling toward Barker Bros, we have held ourselves, and do so no, in a position of welcoming any suggestions that you may have now or later regarding anything that we, as the Exposition, can do toward assisting you in any additional plans you may devise for your participation here, or any way that we can promote your best interests in the Exposition.

Please be assured that you have in us a friendly understanding, and a desire to be of assistance whenever possible. If you have any ideas or suggestions we shall be mighty glad to receive them from you.

Sincerely and cordially yours,

(Sgd.) J. David Larson

Executive Manager

(Copy of letter taken from Box File 15 Folder 38, California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Sun, July 9, 1935, 1:2-3. Exposition expenses cut to $2,000 a day; “red ink” out.

San Diego Sun, July 9, 1935, 1:7. Lady Godiva won’t ride in Gold Gulch again.

San Diego Union, July 9, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – West Virginians’ Day.

San Diego Union, July 9, 1935, 1:7-8, 3:5. Wangenheim says Exposition shows profit now, urges economy.

San Diego Union, July 9, 1935, 6:2. Adolph Muehleisen, commissioner of California State Building, says state executives praise display.

San Diego Union, July 9, 1935, 6:6-7. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, July 9, 1935, 8:1. West Virginians will celebrate Exposition Day today.

San Diego Union, July 9, 1935, II, 10:1. Junior Symphony to present third program at Exposition.

San Diego Union, July 9, 1935, II, 10:3. A. C. Rogers, secretary of Federated Trades Labor Council, deplores Exposition work conditions.

Scrapbook 20 – Ruth Norton, July 10, 1935. Optometry exhibit in Hall of Science.

Letter, Filed July 10, 1935, E. M. Edwards, Operating Concessions & Exhibits, San Diego, Calif. to C.I.P.E, Attn: Mr. Tupper.


Your rules are very plain regarding the matter of signs, the placing of them, etc. I have followed those rules rather than doing a job and then allowing your Exposition to blister as has been done by others. For days I have urged someone with authority to issue a permit to place two or three signs in positions that will assist in pulling me out of a position that is soon to force me entirely out of the Exposition. Mr. Barter refuses to allow this concession notwithstanding the fact that everyone in this area has signs, some of which are of the “box-car” type. Almost every patron of the place express themselves as having difficulty in locating the café. I know that any do not find it at all. The fact that I am isolated is not of my making. It must be yours. To arbitrarily refuse to let me try and save my position is just unadulterated poor treatment extended to a person who has played the “game” since coming into this show.

By all means I should close since my place tonight inasmuch as I have finally been told that NO SIGNS are to be allowed. My business has run as low for days as $75.00. It should be running $600.00. It is the outstanding show place of the Village. I cannot operate at a further loss just to maintain a fine looking place in this area. I shall work out my food the best way possible and close Tuesday evening. This will not for the moment effect the operation of the Jenny Wren.

Just this one more thought. I am taking a loss of about $10,000.00 in this deal. You will assume a loss of perhaps $5,000.00 in commissions. All of this due to the refusal to allow me the right to place some insignificant signs directing the public to my establishment while others have the right to sign as they please.

Yours truly,

(Sgd.) E. M. Edwards

Handwritten note in margin: Note – Mr. Tupper today had a meeting and the things contained in this communication – see his departmental “Spanish Village” to Farmer and Larson dated July 9, 1935.

Initial is indecipherable.

(Copy of letter taken from Box 8 Folder 12, California-Pacific International Exposition, kept by San Diego Public Library.)


San Diego Sun, July 10, 1935, 7:4. Falstaff’s Tavern opens tomorrow.

San Diego Sun, July 10, 1935, 12:1. EDITORIAL: Take Lady Godiva.

San Diego Union, July 10, 1935, 1:1-2. Program.

San Diego Union, July 10, 1935, 3:1. Orchestra rises to new heights in Ford Bowl concert; Willen von Hoogstraten, conducting, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, July 10, 1935, 3:2. Spectacles part of Optometry Exhibit in Hall of Science.

San Diego Union, July 10, 1935, 5:1. Councilman Bennett attacks parking at Exposition.

San Diego Sun, July 11, 1935, 3:3. Aimee McPherson and Queen Zorina to clasp hands if evangelist accepts nudist’s invitation.

San Diego Union, July 11, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – California School Employee’s Association Day.

San Diego Union, July 11, 1935, 6:2-3. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, July 11, 1935, 6:4. Parking contract rights conceded to Exposition manager.

San Diego Union, July 12, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Kansas Day.

San Diego Union, July 12, 1935, 1:7-8, 3:2-3. Hog Callers will compete at Exposition today; colorful parade, program to mark Kansas event; movie cameras will record fun.

San Diego Union, July 12, 1935, 1:3, 2:4. Heber J. Grant, Mormon leader, here for brief visit to Exposition.

San Diego Union, July 12, 1935, 5:4-5. Three-day Exposition art mart sponsored by San Diego Guild has record of 38 sales at initial showing inCourt of Honor.

San Diego Union, July 12, 1935, 7:2-3. Classic compositions to find favor with audiences at Ford Bowl concerts, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, July 12, 1935, 13:1-2. Exposition Excerpts.

Scrapbook 20 – Ruth Norton, July 13, 1935. “Illuvision” show in Standard Oil Tower of the Sun; changes are imperceptible as one scene gives way to another.

San Diego Sun, July 13, 1935, 1:1. Harry Oliver, man who made Gold Gulch, quits; says it has been sacrificed to “money-making interests”.

San Diego Sun, July 13, 1935, 5:1-2. Real wedding on horseback to take place in the areas of “The Days of Saladin” at Exposition tomorrow night.

San Diego Union, July 13, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Long Beach Day, Nevada Day, Federal Employee’s Association Day.

San Diego Union, July 13, 1935, 1:4-5. Two spectacular weddings at Exposition to be climax of colorful romances; Indian ceremony at Indian Village; horseback riding in arena of “The Days of Saladin.”

San Diego Union, July 13, 1935, 2:1-4. Hog Callers sound keynote of Kansas Day program.

San Diego Union, July 13, 1935, 10:1-5. Rosecrans dons Exposition dress; open daily to visitors; history of fort given.

San Diego Union, July 13, 1935. Expo Excerpts . . . President Heber J. Grant and his party of Mormon church celebrities were guests at the Ford Motor Co, at the Exposition Thursday, because, it is said, the Mormons feel that the Ford company has been more than considerate of their organization on many occasions and particularly in engaging the Mormon choir of Salt Lake City to take a prominent part in Ford Music Bowl activities.

The popularity of Negro spirituals was well attested when a capacity crowd of visitors in the House of Hospitality auditorium applauded the excellent work of the 116 singers in the George Gardner Negro Chorus. The program, which was repeated at night, included such numbers as “It’s Me Standing in Need of Prayer,” “O Mary Don’t You Weep: and “Every Time I Feel the Spirit.”

Of the 500,000 persons who have viewed the National Parks “Illuvison ” show in the Standard Oil Tower of the Sun, it is said that less than a score have been able to figure out how the imperceptible changes from scenes of one park to another are effected. The officials in charge of the exhibit keep the secret closely guarded.

Alpha the Robot is drawing larger crowds daily in the Palace of Science where he talks, smokes, fires a pistol and obeys all sorts of oral commands. Prof. May, the inventor, explains it is all done through vibrations of the human voice with the harmonics or overtones filtered out and eliminated. Which leaves the average Robot admirer as much mystified as before. Alpha does about everything but walk, and Prof. May says a walking robot who is good for anything else is out of the question. “Too much mechanism required inside to permit him to walk,” the professor explains. “If he walks he can’t seem to have brains enough to do anything else.”

“Tiny Annie,” the huge woman character of the Gold Gulch section, who weighs 260 pounds and stands taller than most men, is well known in the Evergreen country as Helen L. Bushnell, radio performer.

This is Nevada day at the Exposition and it is expected thousands of visitors from the state made famous by the Boulder dam project will be in attendance. Utah comes next on July 24, and Michigan on July 31. Harry Morgan, special days and events managers, has succeeded in lining up all the states in the Union with the assistance of Harry Hunter of the Federated State Societies of Southern California. He figures that these state celebrations alone will increase Exposition attendance by nearly a quarter million.

Mayor P. B. Benbough proved himself the chief “cut-up” yesterday at the Kansas day celebration. At the west gate he grabbed one of the rickshaws from its operator, piled Mrs. Ed Sample and Mrs. Forrest Warren in it, and set off at a gallop for the organ amphitheater. When he arrived, his honor was dropping wet with perspiration.

Mrs. Ruth Beewall sang two solos, “Come to Me” and “Ecstasy” with Neil Cave as accompanist. Douglas Peace and Dean Nauman sang to duets. Mrs. Nauman accompanied them.

San Diego Union, July 14, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Pacific Coast Dental Conference Day, Southern California Laundry Owners and Employee’s Day, National County Employee’s Association Day.

San Diego Union, July 14, 1935, 2:5-6. Zoo buses prove popular feature.

San Diego Union, July 14, 1935, 2:7. Exposition awes congressmen of two committees.

San Diego Union, July 14, 1935, 4:4. Lotus is holding yearly festival under Cabrillo Bridge.

San Diego Union, July 14, 1935, 4:4. Music “ship” added in pool at Exposition Arch of the Future, 16 ft. long and 5 ft. wide; constructed under supervision of architect Richard Requa; visitors will be serenaded from the water by troubadours every day and night from now on.

San Diego Union, July 14, 1935, 9:1. Thousands come from Long Beach for day at Exposition.

San Diego Union, July 14, 1935, 15:1-2. Portland symphony scores again in concert at Exposition.

San Diego Union, July 14, 1935, 15:1. Winners of Southern California Festival of Allied Arts presented at Organ Amphitheater yesterday afternoon.

San Diego Union, July 14, 1935, II, 6:1-2. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, July 14, 1935, II, 12:1-4. Kenneth Messenger and Antonio Ruocco, San Diegans, win high praise for models of homes at Exposition.

San Diego Sun, July 15, 1935, 1:8, 2:3-6. Zack Farmer, J. David Larsen, three others quit at Exposition.

San Diego Sun, July 15, 1935, 5:5-6. Indian couple, “knight and slave girl” marry at Exposition.

San Diego Sun, July 15, 1935, 9:6. CCC camp construction at Exposition begun today.

San Diego Union, July 15, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – League of Women Voters Day, Women’s Relief Corps Day, For “H” Agricultural Club Day.

San Diego Union, July 15, 1935, 1:6. King Richard, slave girl say “Yes” while horses voice “neigh” as Midway couple led to halter – er altar.

San Diego Union, July 15, 1935, 3:1. Cherimoya draws attention at Exposition fruits display.

San Diego Union, July 15, 1935, 6:6-7. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, July 15, 1935, Sports, 8:4. Dr. Campbell conducts vespers service at Organ Amphitheater.

Minutes of Special Joint Meeting of Executive Committee and Finance Committee of the California-Pacific International Exposition Company, July 16, 1935.

A special joint meeting of the Executive Committee and Finance Committee of California-Pacific International Exposition, Company, a non-profit California corporation, was held in the Cuyamaca Club, Union Building in the City of San Diego, California, on the 16th day of July, 1935, pursuant to a call of the President and the Chairman of the Finance Committee.

The following members of the Executive Committee were present’

Frank G. Belcher W. F. Raber

Emil Klicka Samuel E. Mason

B George

Oscar W. Cotton

Samuel I. Fox Edward Bernard

Walter Ames

There was absent:

John Lawrence Fox

The following members of the Finance Committee were present:

Julius W. Wangenheim Douglas Young

Frank G. Belcher Armistead B. Carter

Emil Klicka John F. Forward, Jr.

Jerry Sullivan, Jr. Hal G. Hotchkiss

Edward Bernard G. H. Whitney

There was absent:

Asher E. Holloway

There was also present at this meeting Frank Drugan, Executive Secretary.

The President, Jr. Belcher, reported details of a meeting of the Finance Committee under date of July 15th, at which meeting the resignations of Messrs. Zack Farmer, J. David Larson, Waldo T. Tupper, Harold W. Roberts and Eyre Powell were presented and action concerning them deferred for 24 hours.

Mr. Raper inquired if it were possible to consider going ahead with the present Management. The President, Mr. Belcher, replied affirmatively. Mr. Raper inquired if there were any possible exceptions among the five who had offered their resignations. The President, Mr. Belcher, replied that possibly Messrs. Robert and Powell would be exceptions.

Mr. Bernard reminded the Committees that certain Management activities, including contracts would require the attention of present members of the Management and suggested acceptance of the resignations with regret, and with the request that those resigning should remain for a period of approximately 10 days during the period of reorganization.

Mr. Wangenheim recommended immediate acceptance of the resignations.

The President, Mr. Belcher, announced that Mr. Farmer intended to remain near San Diego on vacation. HE did not know where Mr. Tupper or where Mr. Larson would be.

Mr. Samuel I. Fox inquired concerning the cause which apparently suddenly precipitated the resignations. The President, Mr. Belcher, suggested that the Management was unable to meet the requirements of the Finance Committee, and referred to complications in the Spanish Village and in the Midway.

Mr. Bernard expressed the opinion that the sudden resignations were due to “conditions,” rather than to “personal feelings.” It was Mr. Bernard’s view that the resignations were suddenly precipitated by dealings that were held directly with representatives of the Midway and the Spanish Village, rather than through Management.

Mr. Walter Ames expressed the opinion that those who had resigned had acted irregularly in sending their own publicity men to Los Angeles to release their resignations to the press.

Mr. Whitney suggested that the resignations be accepted and compensation be provided to those resigning up to the end of the month, and with the request that the members of the Management remain until the end of the month to be of assistance, if required.

Following discussion, upon motion duly made by Mr. Hal G. Hotchkiss, seconded by Mr. Samuel I. Fox and carried, it was decided to recommend to the Board of Directors that it accept the resignations of Messrs. Zack J. Farmer, J. David Larson, Waldo T. Tupper, Harold W. Roberts and Eyre Powell as of July 15th, when filed, with regrets; and that the President be authorized to give to Messrs. Farmer, Larson Tupper, Roberts and Powell such letters of commendation of their work as he may see fit to provide; and that the President, together with two members of the Board of Directors selected by him, be authorized as a committee to take temporary control of the Exposition pending its reorganization. Those voting affirmatively included the President, Mr. Belcher, and Messrs. Julius Wangenheim, Samuel I. Fox, Emil Klicka, W. B. George, Walter Ames, W. F. Raber, Jerry Sullivan, Jr., Oscar W. Cotton, Douglas Young, Armistead B. Carter, Samuel E. Mason, John F. Forward, Jr., Hal G. Hotchkiss, and G. H. Whitney. Mr. Edward Bernard voted negatively. Messrs. John Lawrence Fox and Asher E. Holloway were absent.

Mr. Carter inquired who would be the two members of the Board of Directors to be appointed to the President’s committee of temporary control of the Exposition. The President, Mr. Belcher, replied that he had not yet selected them.

Upon motion duly made by Mr. Mason, seconded by Mr. Forward and unanimously carried, it was decided to authorize the President to appoint a commission of three to go to Los Angeles to confer with the Chamber of Commerce to insure proper appreciation of the value of the Exposition to Los Angeles, with a view toward insuring continued support.

Mr. Bernard inquired concerning the status of Mr. Waldo T. Tupper’s override commission. The Chairman of the Finance Committee, Mr. Wangenheim, explained that the override agreement with Mr. Tupper had expired on February 1, 19135, but that since then three or four additional contracts were possibly involved, entailing a commission of about $1200, whose adjustment and settlement had been entrusted to the committee comprising Mr. Larson, Mr. Folda and Mr. Dailard.

There being no further business, the meeting adjourned.

Frank Drugan, Executive Secretary.

(Box 27, Folder 33, California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego Public Library.)

Scrapbook No. 20 – Ruth Norton, July 16, 1935. Three glass tanks of tropical fish in Japanese bungalow in House of Pacific Relations, Miss. Misao Kawamura, hostess; motion picture showing activities of Transamerica Corporation at Palace of Travel and Transportation.

San Diego Sun, July 16, 1935, 1:5. Control body to rule Exposition is considered.

San Diego Sun, July 16, 1935, 12:2-3. EDITORIAL: A “New Deal” at Exposition.

San Diego Sun, July 16, 1935, 13:5. A second request for a conference on labor conditions at the Exposition was sent to Frank G. Belcher and G. A. Davidson today by A. C. Rogers, secretary of the San Diego Federated Trades and Labor Council.

San Diego Union, July 16, 1935, 1:8. Belcher takes over Exposition task; new boss as Zack Farmer quits post; quick action follows resignation of manager and his Los Angeles aids; no hitch in Exposition plans.

San Diego Union, July 16, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Catholic Daughters of America Day, Women’s Civic Center Day.

San Diego Union, July 16, 1935, II, 1:2-3. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, July 16, 1935, II, 5:2-3. Belle Baranceanu, mural artist, busy on Exposition fresco at the Palace of Fine Arts.

San Diego Union, July 16, 1935, II, 5:4. Bicycle squad to patrol at Exposition.

Scrapbook No. 20 – Ruth Norton, July 17, 1935. Aimee said she would “be pleased to visit the Nudists’ camp to obtain material for sermons”; declined invitation to take tea.

Letter, July 17, 1935, C. M. Vandeburg, Dir. Radio & Public Address, to Frank G. Belcher, President; SUBJECT: Radio Department and General Suggestions:

On the heels of our fine conference last night, I am encouraged to submit a number of suggestions and ideas from this department having to do with our operation and other departments in the Exposition. In line with our discussion concerning outside radio talent, I can say definitely that such programs as Jack Benny, Ben Bernie, California Melodies, Hollywood Hotel and Ed Wynn’s program are obtainable if charges for stand-by orchestras can be absorbed or eliminated by the local musicians’ union.

The matter of the stand-by orchestra varies as follows: For any visiting radio orchestra, it will be necessary to hire an equal number of local musicians at union wages, plus a $1.50 per man, for broadcast time, for the duration of the program as played by the visiting orchestra. Should the visiting orchestra desire a rehearsal, they are permitted two hours for this purpose without the stand-by orchestra. For any such rehearsal, there is a charge of $1.50 per man.

At the opening of the Exposition there were a half dozen such programs lined up for presentation at the Studios of the Exposition. It was necessary to cancel all such programs because the visiting groups were unwilling to play the stand-by fee, the local musicians would not waive it and there was no allotment in our Exposition budget to carry the expenses. Even at this late day, if a fund were created for stand-by charges, I think it would be possible to bring in a number of outstanding radio programs for presentation here.

A budget of two or three hundred dollars a month would help materially in attracting radio talent worth many thousands of dollars in gate receipts to the Exposition. While on the subject of radio charges, I would also like to mention a condition that has made it rather difficult for this department to encourage the release of sustaining programs by the radio net works, CBS and NBC. Because our radio equipment was owned, installed and operated by a private concern, it has been necessary to make a charge against the radio net works for any programs taken from remote pickup points within the grounds. Such charges are quite in order, but since we do not have a budget to meet them, it has been necessary to call on the net works to pay these pickup charges, ranging from $20.00 to $35.00 per broadcast, when remote field equipment was used.

At the present time, we can secure a number of additional programs on the networks each week, were we in a position to waive remote charges now billed to the net works. This is another matter I would like to discuss with you whenever convenient.

Immediately following is a list of suggestions that I think would improve the operation of the radio department and at the same time increase our coverage and effectiveness to a very large degree.

  1. A workable budget to employ radio talent for radio broadcast.
  2. A determined drive to encourage dramatic talent from the Exposition, with a small fund to defray expenses and pay talent in such dramatic shows.
  3. Greater variety in the program presentation at the Organ Amphitheatre.
  4. The net works are becoming reluctant to taking large bands, large choruses, and heavy music of the type released over the past month,

Specialty shows, vaudeville programs, minstrel shows, variety programs, athletic contests and small vocal and instrumental groups are needed to add color to our radio menu.

I am also submitting a list of general suggestions from members of this department and offered with the sincere desire of improving and adding color to the promotional and entertainment side of the Exposition.

  1. More free entertainment on the grounds.
  2. A well organized, consistent effort to encourage radio visitors to visit the Midway, Gold Gulch and Café of the World.
  3. An Exposition circus or its equivalent in the dead spot at the northern end of the Midway.
  4. Smokers, athletic contests, rifle drills and mock war games in the army camp. This is to attract crowds to the Army Camp.
  5. Beauty contests, baby shows and fashion parades at the Central Plaza or the gardens near the Botanical Building.
  6. A Log Rolling show daily in one of the reflection pools by the Arch.
  7. Model yacht regattas and other aquatic feats that could be adapted to the pools at the Arch.
  8. A daily 30 minute variety show featuring legitimate concessionaires at the Organ Amphitheatre or the radio studios. Each concessionaire to be on 5 minutes and with prizes offered for the outstanding act.
  9. The addition of one of more dancing girls to the band of strolling troubadours.
  10. Unusual races to cover and encompass the entire grounds of the Exposition, example: Bicycle, balancing, walking, ricksha, peanut pushing, push wagons, etc.
  11. Daily airplane stunts over the grounds to be climaxed with the release of a number of balloons to which are attached tickets to Midway concessions.

Many of these suggestions may be without value. We offer them with a sincere desire to be helpful and in the hope that some of them may be used in the general betterment of the Exposition.

Also attached to this report will be found a complete summary of radio activities since the inception of this department, including total number of programs released, type, time and date of release, whether local, coast or transcontinental, and the value of such radio programs, figured on a commercial basis.

The fact that we did not have a budget until two weeks ago, makes it impossible for me to submit an absolute accurate report on the cost of this department to date. However, we have kept a detailed record since the inception of the department and our total expenditures, including construction and furnishing of the studios, maintenance, salaries and overhead, will not exceed $8,000.00 up to and including July 1. In return for this expenditure, we have presented a total of 232 radio programs with a commercial value of $800,000.00. We have no funds for radio talent and to date have expended exactly $8.00 for radio talent.

I take considerable pride in submitting our report and will add that it will be possible only through the fine cooperation of the Exposition Music Department and my own loyal, energetic and enterprising staff. They have become masters in the promotional art and have operated on the theory that what is good is free.

Very sincerely,

C M Vandeburg

Director of Radio and Public Address

San Diego Sun, July 17, 1935, 1:1-2, 2:5-6. Aime McPherson will lead two-mile parade to Exposition tomorrow.

San Diego Sun, July 17, 1935, 1:2, 2:2-3. Belcher, two others will control Exposition.

San Diego Sun, July 17, 1935, 2:8. Exposition parking dispute ends.

San Diego Sun, July 17, 1935, 3:2-3. Lady Godiva to ride again! (with police help).

San Diego Sun, July 17, 1935, 3:6. Billy West was “buried” in Gold Gulch last night; enclosed in a casket with speaking tube running up through the ground.

San Diego Sun, July 17, 1935, 13:2-4. Marston dedicates Franciscan Gardens in Presidio Park at City founding ceremony.

San Diego Union, July 17, 1935, 1:1-2. Program.

San Diego Union, July 17, 1935, 1:4-5, 2:4. Aimee McPherson to arrive at Exposition tomorrow with retinue to preach, see sights.

San Diego Union, July 17, 1935, 1:6. Belcher announces changes at Exposition as appointment okayed; names new heads of departments; outlines policy to eliminate overlapping and friction.

San Diego Union, July 17, 1935, 3:5. Marston dedicates Franciscan gardens at Presidio on City’s birthday.

San Diego Union, July 17, 1935, 5:3. Councilman Albert W. Bennett opposes Exposition oil station by Walter Casey, who also has a parking concession.

Scrapbook No. 20 – Ruth Norton, July 18, 1935. Between afternoon and evening programs, Mrs. McPherson scheduled to call on Queen Zorine atNudist Colony. San Diego History Center Research Library.

Letter, July 18, 1935, Robert E. Callahan, To the Board of Directors of the California Pacific International Exposition, San Diego, Calif..



I came to San Diego intent upon producing authentic Indian shows, designed to educate as well as to entertain — to create and maintain programs which would leave pleasant thoughts in the mind . . . But when more interest is manifested in trying to place side-shows, bull fights, white men with feathers, monkey acts and goats at the entrance to this beautiful village; when Boy Scouts are ignored and their parents charged admission to enter their own village the night of their monthly Court of Honor; when all these things are made a part of the village activity for the sake of a few extra dollars, I can no longer give sincere attention to the enterprise — and have on this day transferred my interest to other endeavor.

I am surprised that our sponsors have no consideration of what the public thinks after they have paid 25 cents to enter these grounds. Announcers have been allowed to exaggerate beyond all reason —

even insist that people come to see Sitting Bull in person, the Sioux Indian who was killed over sixty years ago. Every child knows that! People come here to see how Indians lived in the early days, but authentic ceremonials cannot be given with the present setup — and I do not care to be a part of such shows.

To me, this setting — costing over $200,000 — with its fascinating pueblos, ladders, strings of peppers, feathered flags, Sun Temple, and other atmosphere, is impressive — and I have assembled some of the most colorful Indian artists in America. But when Beer Garden publicity is allowed inside these grounds, and other selfish moves to numerous to mention, I can only say — may the Exposition continue and may the powers that be rise at dawn with new thoughts to keep the Boy Scouts’ Indian Village free from anything which might leave a dark spot on the map of San Diego’s Exposition —- tomorrow I go forth with pity for those whose God is gold, and who are ruining the most beautiful Exposition the West has ever seen, if such tactics are continued.

Cordially and sincerely.

Robert E. Callahan (signed)

(Transcription taken from Box Files of California-Pacific International Exposition kept by San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Herald, July 18, 1935, 1:4, 5:1. A new Exposition.

San Diego Sun, July 18, 1935, 1:6-7. Aimee McPherson spurns nudists on visit to Exposition today.

San Diego Union, July 18, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Aimee Semple McPherson Day, San Diego Women’s Club Day, Bungalow Literary Hostess Society Day.

Sam Diego Union, July 18, 1935, Ford exhibit lures plastic experts as soybean products displayed, by Ben Lemmon.

San Diego Union, July 18, 1935, 12:1. Harry Oliver, builder of Gold Gulch, has plan to boost Tijuana.

San Diego Union, July 18, 1935, II, 1:3. Exposition will admit children at five cents on Mondays.

San Diego Union, July 18, 1935, II, 1:5. Portland group ends symphony series tonight.

Scrapbook No. 20 – Ruth Norton, July 19, 1935. Two millionth Ford car on display in patio of Ford Building; model of a wharf showing mile long Rouge River force fleet of ships, barges and tugs.

Letter, July 19, 1935, Waldo T. Tupper to J. David Larson, SUBJECT: Television Theater.

At one time in the negotiations for a Television Theater in spaces Nos. 25, 26, 27, 28, 30, 31 and 32 in the Palace of Electricity and Varied Industries, we had apparently completed arrangements with Mr. Gurinian and he was to furnish television and operate same providing I could secure a party with $4,000.00 to underwrite the cost of transportation of television equipment, engineers, construction of theater, etc.

I got Mr. Cusack and Mr. Bolger to agree to put up $1,500.00 a piece and told him if couldn’t get a private individual to put up another $1,000.00 I would get the Exposition to contribute that amount in construction work on the theater, the same to entitle them to a 25 percent interest in the share held by Cusack and Bolger. Upon the definite assurance of Jimmy Bolger, a man whom I have known for a number of years and who is secretary to Chief of Police Davis in Los Angeles, I got you to guarantee for the Exposition the payment of $2,000.00 – construction cost for the theater and which was the bid submitted by the Los Angeles Scenic Studios.

Our construction department was in no position to perform the work at that time as the were literally swamped and you guaranteed this account with the understanding that Cusack and Bolger would put up their money as soon as the equipment and all arrived from the East.

Shortly after you guaranteed this account and when the theater was about half completed, I discovered that Gurinian was crooked and had falsified certain statements which he had made to Cusack and Bolger as well as myself, so I refused to have anything further to do with him.

However, at this time, through our Chicago office, I was able to contact Mr. Procunier, who was the television engineer whom Mr. Gurinian intended to use. Procunier was working for the firm who owned the television equipment and, as you know, came on bringing the equipment and engineers with him.

After this theater was built, Cusack and Bolger took the stand that it was not a $2,000.00 job, although both of them had personally assured me that we would not lose a penny if you guaranteed the construction account and that they would play it as soon as they perfected their partnership.

I did tell them that I was confident I would be able to get a third party to put up $1,000.000 and if I couldn’t. the Exposition would contribute $1,000.000 toward the cost. I felt this would be a very good deal for the Exposition, as, first of all it would fill the space, which if I left vacant would have been a terrible thing for that particular building and secondly it would not only be an asset to the Exposition but would make some money for them as well.

About that time my sister-in-law, Mrs. Scott, wanted to get employment in the Exposition and had a little money to invest, so she agreed to put up the $1,000.00, but wanted me to look after it for her. When Cusack and Bolger took the attitude they did about repudiating a contract that had already been made, I advised her not to go in with them. By repudiating the contract, I mean simply this: They knew we had a contract to build the theater for $2,000.00 and after it was built they contended it was only a 13 or $1,400.00 job. This contract was made in good faith and at a time when labor was at a premium, when all exhibit organizations had their hands full and if anything it was an accommodation job on the part of the Los Angeles Scenic Studios who built this theater.

I have just talked to Mr. Procunier and he says Cusack and Bolger will be down tomorrow and he feels that a satisfactory settlement can be made at that time. If a satisfactory settlement is not made and inasmuch as the Exposition had a contract with the Los Angeles Scenic Studios for the payment of the theater, there is only one recourse for the Exposition and that is to shut down or take over the Television Theater. They are making money and I personally know that they have accumulated close to $2,000.00 in net profits since they opened.

I am leaving today for Ensenada and expect to be back on Tuesday or Wednesday of next week and you may definitely count on me going over to the Exposition, if need be, and help straighten this matter out.

(Copy of letter in Box File 8 Folder 34, California-Pacific International Exposition, kept by San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Sun, July 19, 1935, 3:4. Aimee McPherson pleads for “old time religion” spirit.

San Diego Sun, July 19, 1935, II, 11:2. Mormon Tabernacle Choir arrives today, 335 members.

San Diego Union, July 19, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Braille Club Day, United Daughters of Confederacy Day.

San Diego Union, July 19, 1935, 1:7, 2:4. Aimee McPherson draws huge crowds to programs at Exposition; evangelist speaks twice in afternoon, once at night; fails to see nudist camp.

San Diego Union, July 19, 1935, 5:5-6. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, July 19, 1935, 11:1. Gardens at Exposition require constant effort, expense.

Scrapbook No. 20 – Ruth Norton, July 20, 1935. Tea in House of Hospitality between 5 and 5:30 p.m. for national and state representatives of Junior Chamber of Commerce. San Diego History Center Research Library.

San Diego Sun, July 20, 1935, 1:2, 2:7. Hal G. Hotchkiss and Douglas Young Exposition chiefs.

San Diego Sun, July 20, 1935, 2:2. Thousands see TVA exhibit at Exposition; model and lectures explain gigantic U.S. conservation project.

San Diego Union, July 20, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Swedish Day, Standard Oil Company Employee’s Day, National League of District Postmasters’ Day, Harvard Alumni Day, American Bar Association Day, Southeast Chamber of Commerce Day, San Joaquin Valley Day.

San Diego Union, July 20, 1935, 1:3, 2:5. Seven big “days” combine to bring throng to Exposition; Standard Oil, Mormon group arrange special trains to bring 14,000 visitors.

San Diego Union, July 20, 1935, 1:5-6, 2:5. General Plutarco Calles arrives in San Diego for two-week visit.

San Diego Union, July 20, 1935, 5:4. Blind “see” Exposition on Braille Club Day.

San Diego Union, July 20, 1935, 5:6-7. Many in audience moved to song at Mormon choir’s opening program, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, July 20, 1935, 6:2-3. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, July 20, 1935, II, 2:1. World activity of Adventists is show in exhibit in the Palace of Better Housing.

Scrapbook No. 20 – Ruth Norton, July 21, 1935. American Red Cross exhibit in Palace of Electricity and Varied Industries.

San Diego Union, July 21, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Radio Fiesta Day, Swedish Day.

San Diego Union, July 21, 1935, 1:4, 2:3. Seven special “days” bring vast crowds to see Exposition; Standard Oilers, Swedes, Bar Group, Postmasters, Harvard Men, Radio Amateurs, San Joaquin Folk mingle.

San Diego Union, July 21, 1935, 1:6, 2:8. Philip L. Gildred named managing director of Exposition; Hal G. HotchkissDouglas Young made associates; duties assumed at once.

San Diego Union, July 21, 1935, 3:1. Three arrested at Exposition games.

San Diego Union, July 21, 1935, 3:2-3. State Society activities.

San Diego Union, July 21, 1935, 8:1. Red Cross shows varied activities in Palace of Electricity exhibit.

San Diego Union, July 21, 1935, 10:2-3. Music reigns supreme at Exposition as varied organizations provide program at Organ Amphitheater, Ford Bowl.

San Diego Union, July 21, 1935, 10:2-3. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, July 21, 1935, II, 1:2, 2:3. San Diego’s own to offer gala music event today; Schumann-Heink honored; Mendelssohn’s “Elijah” to feature program at Exposition; 700 will participate, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, July 21, 1935, II, 1:7-8. Uncle Sam’s activities graphically depicted in Federal Building display.

San Diego Sun, July 22, 1935, 1:1-2, 2:5-6. 10,000 children drawn to “Nickel Day” at Exposition.

San Diego Sun, July 22, 1935, 3:2. Philip L. Gildred new Exposition director.

San Diego Union, July 22, 1935, 1:1-2. U.S. Marines Day, National Automotive Day.

San Diego Union, July 22, 1935, 1:2, 2:5. Sunday record of 50,208 at Exposition; Radio and Swedish Days lift attendance to 1,567,539;Schumann-Heink honored; five cents child fee starts today.

San Diego Union, July 22, 1935, 2:4. Audiences pack Organ Amphitheater for music program, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, July 22, 1935, 1:2. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Sun, July 23, 1935, 1:7. Six concessions padlocked; four closed as “old army game” in Gold Gulch.

San Diego Sun, July 23, 1935, 8:2-5. Elizabeth Sowersby cleverly interprets conduct of Queen’s court at Globe Theater.

San Diego Union, July 23, 1935, 1:1-2. Program.

San Diego Union, July 23, 1935, 1:6, 3:5. Children storm Exposition as nickel passport to joy, by Ben Lemmon.

San Diego Union, July 23, 1935, 2:7-8. Globe players are honored at art gallery reception, by Eileen Jackson.

San Diego Union, July 23, 1935, 3:4. Oratorio singing shows abundance of talent here, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, July 23, 1935, 5:3-4. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, July 23, 1935, 5:5. Philip Klein, expert, praises display of gems at Exposition.

San Diego Union, July 23, 1935, 5:6. Orchestra group to leave Seattle for Exposition today.

San Diego Union, July 23, 1935, II, 2:3-4. Fifteen junior bands in county join to form Exposition music group.

San Diego Union, July 23, 1935, II, 2:6. Mormon Tabernacle Choir scores hit with selections from oratorios at Ford Bowl Saturday and Sunday, by Wallace Moody.

Scrapbook No. 20 – Ruth Norton, July 24, 1935. “Jerusalem” exhibit in Palace of Better Housing: “The Last Supper,” 26 by 26 inches, made of 3,000 pieces of mother-of-pearl; 205 water colors of Holy Land; etchings, photographs, maps and visualizations of New Testament incidents; Los Angeles aqueduct system in Palace of Water. San Diego History Center Research Library.

San Diego Union, July 24, 1935, Program – Utah Day, Spiritual Scientists’ Day.

San Diego Union, July 24, 1935, 5:6. People at the next election will be asked to grant park lands to the San Diego High School and the U.S. Navy.

San Diego Union, July 24, 1935, 12:1-2. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Herald, July 25, 1935, 1:1-4. Exposition still nears cleansing; good work done by new direction of San Diego’s lovely Fair will be bettered by further deportation of aliens.

San Diego Union, July 25, 1935, 1:1-2. San Diego County Elementary Schools Day, Organist Guild Day.

San Diego Union, July 25, 1935, 1:5, 3:5. Mormons gather at Exposition; pioneer day fete; bishop tells of great westward hegira, Tabernacle Choir heard.

San Diego Union, July 25, 1935, 5:4-5. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, July 25, 1935, II, 7:1. Gold Gulch program lists free show.

San Diego Sun, July 26, 1935, 1:6-7. Hotels, Chamber of Commerce, Oil Companies unite to tell world San Diego has ample rooms at reasonable rates.

San Diego Union, July 26, 1935, 1:4-5. Program – Utah National Guard Day, Real Estate Dealers’ Day.

San Diego Union, July 26, 1935, II, 1:3-4. Exposition Excerpts.

Letter, July 27, 1935, Victor M. Clark, Director of Events and Attractions to All Exhibitors.

Friday, August 16th, will be SOUVENIR DAY.

Souvenir Days have always proven big attendance builders in other Expositions. The idea is that Exhibitors give a souvenir to everyone attending their booths. With the full cooperation of all Exhibitors and the wide publicity which will be given we can make this a big day for the Exposition and for You — “Something for Nothing” always attracts throngs.

Many Exhibitors already have indicated their desire to cooperate and have given to us for publicity purposes the name of the item to be given away.

May we have an expression from you at the earliest possible date, and the extent to which you may participate, so that we may govern our publicity accordingly.

Handwritten Note: Mrs. Kline #15 Electrical will give away Turquoise Nuggets. (Sgd.) Sandy 8/3.

(Transcription taken from Box Files of California-Pacific International Exposition kept by San Diego Public Library.)

No Date. Ford Exposition: Souvenir Coins

The first shipment of 10,500 souvenir coins arrived in San Diego today from the Ford Motor Company’s River Rouge Plant at Dearborn, Mich. The coins were designed by Walter Teague of New York and made in the die room of the Ford plant.

At the Ford Motor Company’s plant there are approximately 925 different metal alloys from which was chosen a German silver alloy to be uses in these coins, which are a trifle larger than a twenty-five cent piece. The souvenirs are obtainable at the Ford Exposition building.

San Diego Sun, July 27, 1935, 8:1. “Crime” exhibit at Exposition seen by 65,000.

San Diego Sun, July 27, 1935, 8:8. Fifty nature men and women in nudist groups.

San Diego Sun, July 27, 1935, 11:5-6. Visitors thrill to “Saladin” horsemanship.

San Diego Union, July 27, 1935, 1:2-5. Program – Spanish War Veterans Day, California Association of the Deaf Day, Delta Zeta Sorority Day, Beverly Hills Day, California Embalmers’ Association Day.

San Diego Union, July 27, 1935, 1:5, 2:4. Governor Frank F. Merriam pays third visit to Exposition.

San Diego Union, July 27, 1935, 5:2-3. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, July 28, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Spanish War Veterans Day, Exchange Clubs’ Day; Gamma Eta Kappa Day, Business and Professional Women’s Day, Ohio State Day, Pacific Coast Association of Magicians’ Day, German Day.

San Diego Union, July 28, 1935, 1:2-5, 6:6. Belcher sees greater Exposition goal as new management takes hold.

San Diego Union, July 28, 1935, 6:3-4. 125-ft. steel tower at the Midway ready for parachute jumping.

San Diego Union, July 28, 1935, II, 2:4-5. Exposition Excerpts.

Scrapbook No. 20 – Ruth Norton, July 29, 1935. First coin to commemorate California-Pacific International Exposition to be struck at San Francisco mint this week. San Diego History Center Research Library.

San Diego Sun, July 29, 1935, 1:2-4. Stunt man dies in Gold Gulch leap, wife and long-separated brother broken by tragedy.

San Diego Sun, July 29, 1935, 1:2, 2:5. Exposition contests lure children.

San Diego Sun, June 29, 1935, 1:3, 2:4. Tourist figures rocket because of Exposition.

San Diego Union, July 29, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Children’s Day, U.S. Army Day.

San Diego Union, July 29, 1935, II, 1:2. German program highlight of varied Exposition events; bands, parades.

San Diego Union, July 29, 1935, II, 1:3. Dr. Richard Hollington, professor in the Garrett Biblical Institute of Northwestern University, will lecture tomorrow on American architecture at the House of Hospitality, under auspices of the Fine Arts Society.

San Diego Union, July 29, 1935, II, 1:3-4. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, July 29, 1935, II, 1:5. Yugoslavs, Irish fraternized at House of Pacific Relations event yesterday afternoon.

San Diego Union, July 30, 1935, 1:1-2. Program.

San Diego Union, July 30, 1935, 6:3-4. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, July 30, 1935, II, 1:2-4. 15,000 children do Exposition on second “Nickel Day”; skates, scooters facilitate sightseeing.

Letter, July 31, 1935, Marian B. D’ave, Exposition Secretary, Palace of Fine Arts, to W. J. Behan, House of Hospitality, Balboa Park, San Diego, Calif.

My dear Mr. Behan:

Confirming my telephone conversation of even date, will you kindly see that the auditorium of Hospitality House is made available for the exhibition of 25 paintings by negro artists, on August 24th, which has been designated “NEGRO DAY” at the C.P.I.E. The auditorium should also be made available to the negro committee for purposes of a reception, lecture, or any other feature they may have in mind.

Mrs. Leslie Parker is in charge of arrangements in this regard, and I have told her that you have agreed to make the auditorium clear for her use on that day, and suggested that she contact you direct concerning further negotiations relative thereto. Her telephone number is M. 1516.

Thanking you for your cooperation with us in this regard, I am,

Sincerely yours,

(Sgd.) Marian B. D’ave.

(Transcription taken from Box Files of California-Pacific International Exposition kept by San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Union, July 31, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Michigan Day.

San Diego Union, July 31, 1935, 1:5, 2:3. U.S. Army Camp, pride of Exposition, in daily action, by William G. Cayce.

San Diego Union, July 31, 1935, 1:7. 2:7. Exposition sends Henry Ford congratulations on his 72nd birthday.

San Diego Union, July 31, 1935, 5:1. Japanese plan two full days of celebration, August 17 and 18, at Exposition.

San Diego Union, July 31, 1935, 5:2. State Societies provide useful adjunct to Exposition.

San Diego Union, July 31, 1935, 5:4-5. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, August 1, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Colorado Day, Composers’ Day.

San Diego Union, August 2, 1935, 1:4-5. Program.

Scrapbook No. 20 – Ruth Norton, August 3 and August 19, 1935. Miniature palace of 35 tiny rooms in Spanish Village; collection of Mrs. Elizabeth W. Larke.

San Diego Union, August 3, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Chiropractors’ Day, Los Angeles Fall Market Day, Public Workers’ Day, Peace Officers’ Day, Power Engineers’ Day.

San Diego Union, August 3, 1935, 5:2-3. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, August 3, 1935, 5:8. Exposition finance committee lauds activities of Frank Drugan.

Scrapbook No. 20 – Ruth Norton, August 4, 1935. Night-blooming cereus on display on Plaza del Pacifico. San Diego History Center Research Library.

San Diego Union, August 4, 1935, 1:7-8. Program – Antlers’ Day, Alhambra Day, Beauty Operators’ Day, Championship Regatta Day.

San Diego Union, August 4, 1935, 1:2, 2:1. Hearty support for Exposition won by Belcher during trip to Los Angeles, San Francisco.

San Diego Union, August 4, 1935, II, 1:2. Van of CCC Exposition group assigned to new duties.

San Diego Union, August 4, 1935, II, 4:2-3. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, August 4, 1935, 5:1. Ford will use parts made at Ford Building.

Scrapbook No. 20 – Ruth Norton, August 5, 1935. George Liable, and his wife, Annie Nelson, 71, Exposition midgets married 40 years.

San Diego Union, August 5, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Championship Regatta Day, Rainbow Division Day, California Teachers’ Association Day.

San Diego Union, August 5, 1935, 1:7, 2:2. Bags of money ready for boy, girl at Exposition; luckiest kid to get cash prizes for Nickel Day contest; roller-skaters will be made welcome.

San Diego Union, August 5, 1935, 5:5-6. Exposition Excerpts.

Scrapbook No. 20 – Ruth Norton, August 6, 1935. Reception in honor of yacht regatta in House of Hospitality. San Diego History Center Research Library.

San Diego Sun, August 6, 1935, 5:1-2. Boulder Dam exhibits win public favor.

San Diego Union, August 6, 1935, 1:1-3. Los Angeles girl crowned two millionth at Exposition; Miss Goodwin accorded honor for lucky entrance; entertained at dinner by Belcher.

San Diego Union, August 6, 1935, 1:4-5. Program – Maryland-Delaware Day, CCC Day.

San Diego Union, August 6, 1935, 1:5, 2:5. Jack Dempsey is idol of child throng on visit to Exposition.

San Diego Union, August 6, 1935, 5:2-3. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, August 7, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – National Methodist Youth Day, Junior Birdmen of America Day.

San Diego Union, August 7, 1935, 1:4, 2:2. Champ barker acclaimed at Exposition contest; spielers of Midget Village take first, third honors; second won by Old Globe man; thousands present.

San Diego Herald, August 8, 1935. Exposition success is now certain; new deal at Fair grounds gives unexpected results as admissions increase and concessionaires grow pleased.

San Diego Union, August 8, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – New England States Day.

San Diego Union, August 8, 1935, 2:2. Exposition band is praised for concert playing.

San Diego Union, August 8, 1935, 3:6-7. Exposition Excerpts.

Scrapbook No. 20 – Ruth Norton, August 9, 1935. Slow motion pictures of Stanford-Alabama football game shown free at Eastman theater in Palace of Photography.

San Diego Union, August 9, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Western Regional Conference of Civil Service Day

San Diego Union, August 9, 1935, 5:3-4. Exposition Excerpts.

New York Times, August 10, 1935, 4:4. Facilities of the California-Pacific International Exposition were offered today to the Boy Scouts of America for their 1935 national camboree.

San Diego Union, August 10, 1935, 1:4-5. Program – Beech Nut Day, Inglewood Day, Missouri Day, Job’s Daughters’ Day, Kiwanis’ Club Day, Food Brokers and Manufacturers’ Day.

San Diego Union, August 10, 1935, 1:7-8, 2:3. Busy weekend starts with six special Exposition events.

San Diego Union, August 11, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Beech Nut Day, York Rite Day, Food Industries Day.

San Diego Union, August 11, 1935, 7:1. National Park chiefs inspect Exposition CCC Camp.

San Diego Union, August 11, 1935, 9:6-7. Exposition Excerpts.

Letter, August 12, ,1935, Gary C. Breckner, Director, Radio & Public Address, to Harry Witt, Manager, Radio Station KGB, 1012 First St., San Diego, Calif.

Dear Harry:

I have the following broadcasts to submit which I think CBS would be interested in:

  1. August 24th. The combined Negro Choruses from Pasadena, Los Angeles and San Diego under the direction of George M. Garner and Frieta Shaw. The latter’s group has already appeared on CBS and received much favorable comment. In addition to this group, there will also be present a number of nationally prominent Negroes from the educational and literary field. It goes without saying that CBS has a large listening audience among the Negroes, and since this is National Negro Day at the Exposition, they could do much to build good will by producing this program.
  2. August 31st. Our big 500 Voice Chorus with guest soloists in a specially arranged program at the Ford

Music Bowl. Under Dr. Rosenberg, this group has achieved excellent voice production and a wide variety of songs.

  1. The same group as in No. 2 will appear on September 7that the Organ Amphitheater with an entirely

new program plus the Exposition Band and Royal Brown at the Organ.

  1. September 17this known as Constitution Day all over the United States. Harry Chandler of the Los

Angeles Times has succeeded in interesting the Honorable James M. Beck of Philadelphia, world-famous speaker and acknowledged authority on the Constitution, to address the Nation on that day. As you know, the biggest newspapers in the country sponsor Constitution Day, and hundreds of thousands of school children participate in various contests. It has been suggested that Mr. Beck address the Nation from Philadelphia and that the prize-winning orator address the Nation from the Exposition where entire Constitution Day contests will culminate in the awarding of prizes. It strikes me that this would be a splendid educational feature for Columbia as it particularly is of interest to the younger generation.

The time on any of these programs can be set to meet the convenience of a broadcast. I would suggest the 3:30 to 4:30 spot which is now being used by the Symphonies. For your information, I am trying to arrange with the Exposition that they assume the cost on all remote equipment after August 22nd.

I hope you will give these programs your serious consideration and send the information along through the usual channels.

Sincerely yours,


(Box 27 Folder 18, California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Union, August 12, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Children’s Day, American-Japan Student Conference Day.

Scrapbook No. 20 – Ruth Norton, August 13, 1935. Salvation Army exhibit in Palace of Better Housing: models and colored slides illustrating how the Army “salvaged humanity” through “salvaged material”. San Diego Historical Society Research Library.

San Diego Union, August 13, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – National Society Daughters of 1812 Day.

San Diego Sun, August 14, 1935, 3:3-4. Aimee McPherson says she draws bigger crowd than nudist camp.

San Diego Sun, August 14, 1935, 3:2. Girl leaps in Exposition’s chute.

San Diego Union, August 14, 1935, 1:1-2. Program.

San Diego Union, August 14, 1935, 1:3-4. Representative Philip Goodwin feted by G. A. Davidson on visit to Exposition.

San Diego Herald, August 15, 1935, 1:2. Casey finds new way to get two-bit pieces at Exposition.

San Diego Sun, August 15, 1935, 1:5, 2:2. Exposition presents new features; Fanchon and Marco offer free shows daily.

San Diego Union, August 15, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Dixie Day.

San Diego Union, August 15, 1935, 1:4. Four charged with theft of flags from Exposition poles.

San Diego Union, August 15, 1935, 5:1-2. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, August 15, 1935, 5:3. Free shows start tonight at Organ Amphitheater.

Scrapbook No. 20 – Ruth Norton, August 16, 1935. Hudson-Metzger octet appearing at Café of the World featuring Cuban rumba, Mexican hat dance and Mexican peasant dance.

New York Times, August 16, 1935, 17:1. A brown derby autographed by Alfred E. Smith is en route here to be given to someone at the New York celebration of the California-Pacific International Exposition on August 20.

San Diego Union, August 16, 1935, 1:1-2. Program.

San Diego Union, August 16, 1935, 1:3, 2:2. Huge crowd packs Organ Amphitheater as free variety show scores immense hit; Fanchon-Marcospare no expense as talent’s creams brought to opening performance; daily schedule.

San Diego Union, August 16, 1935, 1:4, 2:3. Dixie Day brings throngs from many states.

San Diego Union, August 16, 1935, 1:6. Scores of souvenirs to be given away at Exposition today.

San Diego Union, August 17, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Los Angeles City and County Day, Los Angeles City Department of Water Day, Power Day, Montana Day, Pythian Day, Arden Dairy Farms Day, Pacific Mutual Day, Japanese Day.

San Diego Union, August 17, 1935, 1:3. Crowds pay silent tribute to Will Rogers.

Scrapbook No. 20 – Ruth Norton. 10,500 Exposition coins distributed free to visitors by Ford Motor Company; thousands of sticks of Beech-nut gum given away in Palace of Food and Beverages.

San Diego Union, August 18, 1935, 1:7-8. Program – Japan Day, Delta Sigma Theta Sorority Day, National Association of Postal Supervisors’ Day, American Motorcycle Day.

San Diego Union, August 18, 1935, 1:4, 5:1. Governor Frank Merriam host with San Diego to Los Angeles crowds at Exposition; parade, luncheon, Organ Amphitheater program.

San Diego Union, August 18, 1935, 3:1. Buddhist rites at Exposition attracted large audience to Organ Amphitheater last evening.

San Diego Union, August 18, 1935, II, 8:2-3. U.S. Navy holds retreat ceremony at Exposition every Monday.

San Diego Union, August 19, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Royal Neighbors of America Day, National League of American Pen Women Day.

San Diego Union, August 19, 1935, 1:7, 2:6. Edsel Ford, wife, visit Exposition incognito.

San Diego Union, August 19, 1935, 5:1. Japanese honor Washington, Lincoln in Exposition ceremony; sports-dancing feature all-day program.

San Diego Union, August 19, 1935, 5:2-3. Three more days of Fanchon-Marco shows remain for Exposition visitors.

San Diego Union, August 20, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – New York Day, Ellen Beech Yaw Day.

San Diego Union, August 20, 1935, 1:5, 2:3. Edsel Ford says prosperity near, by Ben Lemmon.

Scrapbook No. 20 – Ruth Norton, August 21, 1934, Sound film at Palace of Water showing story of water in Southern California.

Letter, August 21, 1935, Mr. Foster to Mr. Gildred; SUBJECT: S.E.R.A. OPERATIONS

I have received definite instructions to close down on S.E.R.A. operations tomorrow night regardless of the status of the work which might be incompleted. This shut-down will of course affect the Exposition financially to a great extent because of the necessity of completing and carrying on some of the work which is very essential.

I am making every effort to secure at least a very small crew for a period of another week in order to finish up some of the odds and ends which have been under way. However, I doubt very much whether or not this will be done, but will learn more about it this afternoon.

In the meantime, Mr. Barter and I are working up a complete report on just how we will be affected and will submit this to you immediately. As you know, we have a project under the new program, namely W.P.A., which will give us sufficient money to carry on our complete program. This new project has already been approved insofar as the local and district offices are concerned and is now in San Francisco awaiting the authorization from Washington to put under way the W.P.A. program in California.

It is very hard to say just when the new program will go into effect. It might be three or four days — a week — or it might not go into effect for a month. However, we have very definite assurance that this program will be under way not later than the middle of September.

Of course, the major program for the S.E.R.A. is landscaping, and as the new landscaping and replanting program was done entirely by S.E.R.A. forces an enormous amount of money was saved. We have also maintained a crew of fifteen or sixteen mechanics, who have been able to take care of numerous repairs and remodeling to the buildings. These problems come up from day to day and without S.E.R.A. forces, if the work is essential, it would have to be done with Exposition forces.

As soon as I have any further information, I shall immediately notify you.

(Transcription from letter in Box Files of California-Pacific International Exposition kept by San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Union, August 21, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Texas Day, Music Teachers’ Association Day.

San Diego Union, August 21, 1935, 5:2-3. Council hears plans to use Palisades buildings for San Diego Civic Center; proposal by Martin Healy, head of Liberal Businessmen’s League; Frank L. Hope, architect, submitted drawings; plenty of space for parking automobiles.

San Diego Union, August 21, 1935, 6:1. San Francisco Symphony will play closing concert at Ford Bowl tomorrow, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Herald, August 22, 1935, 1:1-4. Civic Center site in park outlined in beautiful picture.

San Diego Herald, August 22, 1935, 1:2-3. Exposition Townsend Day, by Ray Sauer.

San Diego Sun, August 22, 1935, 4:6-7. 555 performances without break is record of Old Globe players.

San Diego Union, August 22, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Wisconsin Day, Occidental Life Insurance Day.

Interdepartmental Correspondence, California-Pacific International Exposition; August 23, 1935.

To: Messrs. Dailard, Drugan, Crandall, Eckhart, Gildred, Hotchkiss, Smith, Wangenheim, Wood.

From: L. R. Folda

Subject: Minutes of the Adjustment Committee Meeting held August 21, 1935

The Committee is to meet with Mr. Muller of the Muller Catering Co., who is now operating the stand and at which time this matter will be settled.

The Committee finds that the Manuel Goodman contract has never been approved and will endeavor to push this through

Mr. J. S. Kerley is not operating on the grounds and no approval by the Committee will be given for him to sell his books.

The Committee did not have sufficient information for use to pass on the Lockwood-Shakleford Co. situation covering space 8A in the Palace of Food and Beverages, and, when we have gone further into this, we will advise Mr. Novak of our findings.

The Committee authorized the charge-off of $190.34, being a portion of the Coca Cola account on our books. This amount represents labor and material furnished 6/30/35 in the amount of $14.34; work as per agreement 4/30/35 in the amount of $176.00. The Exposition entered into an agreement with Coca Cola Co. to reinforce the floor under their Exhibit which amount has been paid and the above amount is a further charge made for the same work over and above the contract entered into with them.

The Committee, on recommendation of the Finance Committee, has made an assignment of the Ted Goldstein account on our books, filing suit and attaching his account at the Exposition branch of the Bank of America. Mr. Goldstein owes us $357.15 for back rental. We are authorizing Mr. Eckhart to make a check for $50.00 to Gray, Cary, Ames & Driscoll to cover a bond for which they have given their check.

The Committee has requested that Mr. Brown endeavor to remove as quickly as he can the stands between Spanish Village and the main thoroughfare. Also, that he notify the different parties to clear away all unnecessary card tables used by Mr. Wolcott in the sale of the Official Guide Book.

The Committee authorized Mr. Wood to contact Mr. Williams of the Coast Catering Co. for the removal of his stands opposite the Nudist Colon7 and tender in lieu of this stand the warehouse rental.

The Committee has received two checks in settlement of percentage on the Race Horse machines as agreed with Mr. Dunas in the amount of $53.08, which we are forwarding to Mr. Eckhart for entry. This will bring the account up to the week of August 17. We are also forwarding to Mr. Eckhart a check for $546.84, covering the percentage of the International Drug Co. for the same period, covering food and drugs.

The Committee discussed with Mr. Sirigo the photo machine in the Pass Division and agreed that Mr. Sirigo put in an attendant to maintain this machine during the hours that the Pass Division is open. Mr. Sirigo, from this date on, is to receive a total of twenty-five cents for each photo made in that this will take care of his expense. Heretofore, people have had to go to the Gulch or on the Midway to have their pictures taken, which did not prove very satisfactory.

The Committee also discussed with Mr. Sirigo his expense account in organizing and constructing the Fifth International Salon of Photography. According to Mr. Sirigo, the Exposition was at one time going to put up a building to house the Photography Exhibit, but was later decided to use the Hall of Science. Mr. Sirigo went to considerable expense, and he now requests that we take care of this amount. This matter is held in abeyance until such time as further data can be accumulated.

Mr. Foster’s memo to Mr. Gildred was discussed, and it was deemed advisable that Mr. Foster contact Television and the Robot, arriving at some definite rental for the chairs furnished by the Legion. The Committee will cooperate with Mr. Foster in securing some agreement, should he need their aid.

The Committee approved the rebate of $14.21 per day for twenty-eight days to Mr. Cayre, but did not approve the $50.00 requested by him for building the doors for his Exhibit. This refund of $14.21 per day covers the period from the opening date of the Exposition to the opening date of the Exhibit.

The Committee has made an offer of $200.00 to Mr. Slavik for the shoe shine stands which we had removed from the different rest rooms. The check will be authorized in this amount when Mr. Slavik has accepted this amount in full settlement.

The Committee does not feel it advisable for us to request Bufour and Rogers Can Stands to be placed on a weekly rental basis in that shortly after the opening of the Exposition, this request was made by Mr. Dufour and declined by the Exposition.

The Committee did not accept Mr. Barnet’s offer of fifty percent of the gross sales to the Exposition for the privilege of selling cushions at the Organ.

The Committee has allowed a reduction of $21.00 on the amount of Marie Svaboda, Space 33, Spanish Village, known as the Peasant Art Shop in that she offered to pay the balance of $79.00 provided we make the adjustment. Upon investigation we fine that the space was not evenly divided when the partition was put in. According to our books, Mrs. Svaboda owes us $100.00.

The Committee approved Mr. Brown’s request that Mr. Joachim be allowed to sublease his space in the Spanish Village to Mr. S. H. Nadoff. Mr. Nadoff is to sell the same merchandise that he is now selling in the Spanish Village in Booth 31.

The Committee declined the reduction Mr. Casey has taken in the amount of $113.75 for parking ticket credit given in the month of July. We find no authorization in the files for Mr. Casey to take advantage of this credit, and, therefore, are requesting Mr. Eckhart to make collection of this amount. We are also notifying Mr. Eckhart that Mr. Casey had made a practice to keep the lower portion near the Fire Station, as well as the space near the Yorick Theater, open until such time as he has filled the balance of his parking space, after which time he charges fifty cents for parking in these two zones. If Mr. Casey desires to follow this procedure, it will be necessary for him, according to the terms of contract, to pay 65-35 and not 55-45.

The Committee received a further request from George E. Coblentz for $300.00. In view of the fact that he cannot furnish us with any definite commitment by the Exposition, we decline to make any settlement.

The Committee has declined the transfer of Mrs. Verdugo to the space formerly occupied by Mr. Briggs in the Spanish Village, in that we do not feel obligated to pay $200.00 for this space so that we could accommodate Mrs. Verdugo. Mrs. Verdugo has been a source of trouble since the opening of the Exposition, and if she is willing to pay $200.00 for this corner, we will approve the transfer. The Committee also recommends that this space be put in the hands of Mr. Sandusky with the intention of locating some Concessionaire to take the space.

In the matter of Mrs. Herman Rudick, operating the Midget City Bazaar, on which we receive ten percent, we find that the contract is to come through when the necessary changes have been made. The Committee recommended that Mr. C. Peters and Mr. A. M. Livermore be allowed to operate without a contract on a week to week verbal basis and that the amounts now in suspense be transferred to a revenue account.

The Beechnut Packing Co. contract is still under discussion in that they are objecting to pay five percent for the privilege of operating a lunch stand.

San Diego Union, August 23, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – League of Hard of Hearing Day.

San Diego Union, August 23, 1935, 1:5, 5:1. Local symphony will play again at Ford Bowl concerts; second series of programs to begin August 31, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, August 23, 1935, 1:2. Fleet steams home in 15-mile parade; 400 planes will soar over ships; gigantic review to honor children; Admiral Reeves’ flagship will lead vessels past Ballast Point at 2:00 p.m.

San Diego Union, August 23, 1935, 3:3-4. Ten thousand Exposition visitors stand at attention for Will Rogers services; 30th Infantry, U.S. Army provisional rifle company conducted modified funeral services at 5:00 p.m. yesterday in Plaza del Pacifico.

San Diego Union, August 23, 1935, 5:2. Mrs. Albert Lytle Deane, world press advocate, declares Exposition a “Symphony”.

San Diego Union, August 23, 1935, 6:1. Carrie Jacobs Bond, composer, honored at Exposition Wisconsin event.

San Diego Union, August 23, 1935, 6:1. Children win Admission Fight; protest announcement that Labor Day would not be a “Nickel Day” for children.

San Diego Union, August 23, 1935, 6:2. Music program at Exposition today.

San Diego Union, August 23, 1935, 6:3. Visitors to Exposition warned to care for dogs in automobiles.

San Diego Union, August 23, 1935, 6:4. Southern cities to have special Exposition day.

San Diego Union, August 23, 1935, 6:4. Model CCC Camp dedication fixed for next Monday.

San Diego Union, August 23, 1935, 6:4. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, August 23, 1935, 6:6. National Negro Day is featured event tomorrow.

San Diego Union, August 23, 1935, 7:1. Exposition welcomes guests in unique Casa del Rey Moro Café.

San Diego Union, August 23, 1935, II, 4:1. Sargent Johnson’s terra cotta sculpture of head of “Esther” in Palace of Fine Arts has wide appeal, by Reginald Poland.

San Diego Union, August 23, 1935, II, 12:1. “Daddy” Rango, radio philosopher, celebrates his 47th birthday with a picnic Sunday on 6th street side of Balboa Park.

San Diego Union, August 24, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Navy Day, National Negro Day.

San Diego Union, August 24, 1935, 9:2-3. Joe E. Brown, film comedian, to visit Exposition Monday; many Nickel Day events planned.

San Diego Union, August 24, 1935, 9:3-4. Old Globe players honor hard-of-hearing visitors; appliances installed by management at seats occupied by special guests.

San Diego Union, August 24, 1935, 9:2. Acrobats in free show at Gold Gulch last night.

San Diego Union, August 24, 1935, 9:4-5. Dr. Francis E. Townsend will speak at Exposition tomorrow; big crowd due.

San Diego Union, August 24, 1935, 9:5. National Negro Day attracting thousands here.

San Diego Union, August 25, 1935, 1:7-8. Program – Townsend Day, Delta Chi-Sigma Day, Yugoslav Day, Young Ladies’ Institute Day, National Association of Purchasing Agents’ Day, Navy Day.

San Diego Union, August 25, 1935, 1:6. Dr. Francis E. Townsend to make address at Exposition today; originator of old-age pension plan will be guest of honor at Ford Bowl.

San Diego Union, August 25, 1935, 1:2, 2:4. National Negro Day offers rare musical numbers.

San Diego Union, August 25, 1935, 5:1. Music feature by Welsh groups planned at Exposition.

San Diego Union, August 25, 1935, 5:7. Yugoslav event today expected to attract 5,000.

San Diego Union, August 25, 1935, 14:1. Exposition band, chorus praised for fine work, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, August 25, 1935, II, 7:6-7. John Morley discusses park planting; praises citizens and specialists at August meeting of Floral Association; 100 pounds of selected nasturtium seed were planted this year in Balboa Park; park absorbed nearly 600,000 plants for ornamental purposes between January and June; at present 70,000 petunias and 50,000 other sets are going in for winter bloom; plumy maze of Palm Canyon is causing a slight case of green eyes among Florida visitors; azure border of ageratum around lily pond taking the place of a wire fence; put in to prevent “kids” from falling in.

San Diego Union, August 25, 1935, Society-Club, 1:1-2, 2:1-2. Court of Honor reception will be held as welcome courtesy to Navy officers Tuesday.

San Diego Union, August 26, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – CCC Day, Navy and Marine Mothers’ Day, Children’s Day, Bicycle Day, Navy Day.

San Diego Union, August 26, 1935, 1:2, 5:1. Thousands cheer Townsend in Exposition talks; rains fail to bar big attendance; old-age pension leader hits Congress; make stirring appeal for abolishment of poverty; sees victory.

San Diego Union, August 26, 1935, 1:4. Needy children to be guests at Exposition tomorrow.

San Diego Union, August 26, 1935, 3:2-3. San Diego Symphony will close Ford Bowl season, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, August 26, 1935, 5:6-7. Joe E. Brown, bicycle events on “Nickel Day”.

San Diego Union, August 26, 1935, 5:8. 5,000 Yugoslavs celebrate their day despite rain.

San Diego Union, August 27, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Marine Day, Orphans’ Day, Underprivileged Boys’ Day, National Locksmith Association Day, Navy Day.

San Diego Union, August 27, 1935, 1:6-7, 2:1. Boys, bikes and freckles greet Joe E. Brown at Exposition; children crowd around film comedian on Nickel Day; wheels and shapes of many sizes are displayed.

San Diego Union, August 27, 1935, 5:1. CCC Model Camp at Exposition dedicated; 2,000 workers gather.

San Diego Union, August 27, 1935, 5:2-3. Many Orphan Homes will send children to see Exposition today.

San Diego Union, August 28, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – National Sojourner’s Day.

San Diego Union, August 28, 1935, 1:1-2, 2:2. Orphans’ Day makes 2,000 little ones happy at Exposition.

San Diego Union, August 28, 1935, 5:1. Huge Naval Band presented at Ford Bowl.

San Diego Union, August 28, 1935, 5:1. Master Barbers will have Exposition day next Sunday.

San Diego Union, August 28, 1935, 5:6. Farm Bureau Day announced for Friday.

San Diego Union, August 28, 1935, 5:6. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Herald, August 29, 1935, 1:1-4. Exposition has banner week of its history as reports are collected from every section of San Diego Fair.

NOTE; SAN DIEGO UNION is missing from San Diego Public Library microfilm for August 29, 30 and 31. SAN DIEGO EVENING TRIBUNE is substituted.

San Diego Sun, August 29, 1935, 5:2-5. Chet Johnson, San Francisco newspaperman, writes of San Diego Exposition.

San Diego Evening Tribune, August 29, 1935, 1:2-3. Program.

San Diego Evening Tribune, August 29, 1935, 3:1. Three young cow fur seals and two bachelors here for Zoo after 4,000 trip from Bering Sea.

San Diego Sun, August 30, 1935, 11:3-4. Seeing the Exposition: Indian Village.

San Diego Evening Tribune, August 30, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Farm Bureau Day.

San Diego Evening Tribune, August 30, 1935, 1:1-2. Seventy-two hours of revelry as Exposition plans Labor Day celebration.

San Diego Evening Tribune, August 30, 1935, 1:1. No crimes during 90 days of Exposition.

San Diego Evening Tribune, August 30, 1935, 7:4-6. Exposition Briefs.

San Diego Sun, August 31, 1935, 13:3-7. Exposition lighting thrills, by Chet Johnson.

San Diego Sun, August 31, 1935, 13:3-5. Portrait of Kate Sessions.

San Diego Evening Tribune, August 31, 1935, 1:6-7. Program – National Inter-Fraternity Council Day, Grape and Wine Industries’ Day, Richfield Oil Company Day, Pan-Hellenic Day, Osteopathic Day, Modern Woodsmen of America Day.

San Diego Evening Tribune, August 31, 1935, 1:3. City prepared to house big Exposition Crowds.

FOR TO ADMIRE AN’ TO BUY, September 1935, Western Advertising, pp. 12-23, 26-30.

Nearly three million admissions have been clicked through the turnstiles at Balboa Park, San Diego. Visitors from every state and nation have turned gaily into the Avenida, singing with Kipling:

For to admire an’ for to see,

For to be ‘old this world so wide –

It never done no good to me,

But I can’t drop it if I tried

Here is purchasing humanity in the mass, on the one hand; and on the other, a multitude of commercial exhibits in which vendors of tracts and tractors, jewelry and chewing gum, compete to ensnare their interest. What has each group learned about the other?

The best place to start looking for this information is where other inquirers go — Shell Oil Company’s information service, housed in a great shell 60 feet high, set in the midst of gardens on the Calle de Colon, and in two smaller shells elsewhere on the exposition grounds. What is the commonest question asked of Shell attendants, who have satisfied the curiosity of 150,000 persons?

The question most frequently asked is not “Where is the nudist colony?”

It is not “Where can I get something to eat?” — although this ranks next to the top.

The most frequent question is: “Where is the Ford building?” The Ford display, most expensive, ambitious and widely publicized of all, is easily the outstanding feature of the exposition for the average visitor both as he enters and as he leaves. And, after the topic of food, questions about other commercial exhibits come next in frequency. There are as many inquiries about them as about all the purely entertainment features combined.

Shell’s service was established to stimulate western travel, and includes complete travel information, but it also extends to almost every conceivable subject. Almost a million people have entered Shell’s doors (actual count in mid-August was 722,000); Shell’s proportion of the total gate has been consistently about one-third; and 6 percent of all visitors have been given information, in addition to seeing Shell’s display. In answering 100 questions an hour since May 29, Shell attendants have been able to learn a good deal about the fair-going public.

Shell’s observations indicate that the typical visitor wants, first of all, to see the Ford display; second, to think about eating. He likes the exhibits that are scientific, mechanical and colorful. If there is no movement, he quickly tires and goes on; if there is movement, he will stay through the entire performance and listen to the sales talk. If he is an easterner, his special interest is local color — Spanish and early western atmosphere.

The Visitors’ Whims

He is a collector; willing to load himself with free samples and literature. He objects to paying even a few cents for anything which he considers a sample; but he will pay readily enough for food or entertainment that offers obvious value. His is patronizing restaurants on the exposition grounds generously since they reduced their prices. He is pretty childish in his choice of things to see and do. He wants someone else to plan his tour of the exposition.

He is particularly delighted with exhibits which, like Ford and Coca Cola, show actual manufacturing processes of products with which he is familiar. His most frequent source of dissatisfaction is in failing to find some exhibit which was announced in pre-exposition days but which did not materialize. And he insists on losing someone in his party and asking Shell to help in the finding.

Another exhibit that will have probably checked off its millionth visitor by the time this story appears is that of Standard Oil Company of California. Early last month, when the exposition was only 70 days old, attendance at Standard’s Tower to the Sun had totaled 674,000 — or 33.1 percent of exposition admissions.

Standard has made its bid for favor with the striking architecture (Modern-Mayan-Aztec) and the proportions (110 feet in height) of its building and with an entertainment feature which wears an air of mystery. Forty-five to fifty times each day Standard presents its “illuvision” show, portraying the national parks in color and in three dimensions, by a secret process, developed in its own organization.

That the color and movement of this display are what the public likes is evidenced by the rarity with which anyone turns away before the 12-minute show is over. Many see the illuvison several times.

This advertiser is working to promote western travel, choosing the national parks as a specific objective. No results from this effort were expected to be visible until next year, but already the superintendents of some of the parks have reported increased traffic directly traceable to Standard’s missionary work in San Diego.

Attendants distribute a handbook, “Adventuring through the National Parks of the West” at the Sun Tower; of the thousands given out, only a handful have been thrown away on the exposition ground, to be picked up by the caretakers.

Sea Island Plays to Children

Mr. Ford’s display, reputed to have cost over $2,000,000 (and looking it) gets nearly 100 percent of the gate. Perhaps next in attendance is the display of Sea Island Sugar, largest in the Palace of Foods and Beverages. Here the child is the special objective and the selling burden is thrown on Sea Island dolls, which just now are an important part of every phase of the Sea Island sales program. The exhibit includes a puppet show circus, a parade and a color moving picture in which is told the story of sugar and of the dolls on the sugar bags.

This exhibit pulls them in; it is consistently drawing between 38 and 45 percent of the gate, partly because of its entertainment value and partly because of its strategic location. Many visitors, attracted to the display because it is large and restful, stay for a half-hour program with evident enjoyment.

In an adjoining “refreshment hut” Sea Island carries on a different sort of selling. Lemonade is sold at 10 cents a glass, including cookies or cake. But the lemonade is unsweetened. The consumer sweetens to his own taste, using the surprising instant-dissolving sugar. Attendants point out the superiorities of this sugar, and also suggest that the housewife can make equally appetizing cookies and cake from recipes given on Sea Island packages.

In the Palace of Foods and Beverages there are a dozen or so lunch counter, maintained by exhibitors, which are thronged at almost any hour of the day by hungry men, women and children. These paid-for meals go down on top of innumerable free food samples, and help many of the exhibitors pay for costly displays. Kraft Cheese, Standard Brands, Fisher’s Blend Flour and Coca Cola are a few of the comestible products represented by a display and dispensed at the same time, at a price.

Questions About Wine

An exhibit which is making special note of questions asked and answered is that of the Wine Institute. Ten leading California wineries, members of the institute, are representing their industry through the Wine Temple in the Palace of Foods and Beverages.

The Wine Temple is not a selling exhibit; its gives away no samples; its chief purpose is to impart information. Especially common are inquiries about the right kind of wine to serve with a given food, and the relative merit of California and imported wines. Older people often ask what has become of a brand which they knew well before prohibition. “Are any real champagnes made in California?” is frequently asked. “Can you make wine out of oranges?” is another common question, as is “Can you buy direct from wineries?” And a multitude of specific points about the processing of wines and their use, especially of dry wines, are cleared up.

Each day’s grist of inquiries is reported together with facts about those who visited the exhibit. Analysis of a week’s report shows that 66.6 percent of those who asked questions were residents of California, 33.4 percent from other states; 71.2 percent were middle-aged; 21.6 percent were young and 7.2 percent were elderly; 85.5 percent appeared to be American and 14.5 percent foreign; attendants classified 15 percent as persons of wealth and the rest as of moderate income. Sweet wines are preferred by 54.6 percent of the questioners, 36.1 percent expressed a preference for dry wines, and 9.3 percent had no preference. But practically everyone knew something about wine — its taste, if not its full effects.

Associated Oil Company can make no check of its “percentage of the gate,” beyond the gross total reported by the exposition management, for to the exposition visitor, Associated is a friendly voice. The company operates the public address system on the grounds — two studios, seven pickup stations, and 156 loudspeakers making up a concentrated network for public announcements and for broadcasting entertainment. Since it is almost impossible for any visitor to miss hearing and identifying this Associated Service, the company believes it can claim 100 percent of the gate. Some observers have reported their opinion that Associated is “stealing the show”; on the other hand, exhibitors who offer entertainment or expository displays are convinced that they have something that Associated cannot get through the air.

Wells Fargo Instructs

Two big financial institutions are offering exhibits which are interesting contrasts in showmanship. Wells Fargo Bank & Union Trust Company of San Francisco has on display its famous collection of Western Americana — an 80-year old Wells Fargo stagecoach, veteran of the Overland Trail; the renowned Golden Spike, on public view for the first time since 1869 when the first transcontinental railroad joined East and West; with it, the original painting, “Driving the Last Spike”; the Menendez collection of rare golden nuggets; an interesting display of early firearms; James Marshall’s gold-mining tools; and a variety of rare and curious items, authentically portraying the glamorous story of the early West. This display, on account of its nature and its location, attracts a selected group. Nevertheless, there are about 5,000 visitors a day, or about 20 percent of the total admissions. And, nevertheless, visitors who pause before the precious Golden Spike, protected by a beam of light striking a photoelectric cell, persist in thrusting hat or paper through the light ray and sounding a general alarm, bringing the police posthaste.

Transamerica Corporation maintains a small theater, seating 80 persons, in which is presented a moving picture telling a factual story about the organization. No attempt has been made to add popular or dramatic appeal, but from 2,000 to 2,500 see the picture daily, and many who arrive late for one showing stay to see the next performance. There is no attempt at selling; but stockholders of Transamerica and depositors in its subsidiaries have been enthusiastic in their comments on the character of the exhibit.

Most readers of Western Advertising, if they have not seen the Ford building and exhibits at San Diego, have at least heard about them — the modern main structure looped in a Figure-8; the elaborate dioramas showing how Ford draws upon the natural resources of the world; and other dioramas showing the use of Ford cars and trucks in countries bordering the Pacific; the 27 exhibits of manufacturing and testing machinery; the “Roads of the Pacific” on which visitors are carried in Fords, getting a demonstration of the car simultaneously with a lecture on 14 historic trails and highways; the Ford Bowl, presenting concerts and recitals to exposition crowds.

Donald H. Long of Ford Motor Company, San Diego, gives the following indication of what his organization is realizing from the fair:

“To date (August 22) 1,425,456 persons have visited the Ford Exposition Building. It is reasonably expected that 2,750,000 will have gone through the exhibit halls before the Exposition closes on November 11.

“For the most part, people come to an Exposition, we have found, to be entertained and amused. They will not stand for being gypped. They are willing to spend their money, but they insist on value received for each dollar expended. It is evident that the visitors coming now are more liberal with their expenditures than those who came earlier.

“The three best drawing exhibits on the grounds are, in order, Ford Exposition Building, Midway and Gold Gulch (Days of ‘49’ers) and the Globe Theater (tabloid Shakespeare).

“Visitors to the Exposition are orderly, good humored and generally in a Mardi Gras mood. They are intent on seeing as much of the Fair as the can with the least effort, in the shortest time, and at the smallest expense.

“In the Ford Exposition Building, which requires two and one-half hours to make the round of the exhibits if the lectures are followed one after another, a larger majority stay with the lectures one after the other than did so at Chicago last year.

“It is our opinion that a higher percentage of Fair visitors here are prospects for Ford V-8 cars than was the case last year at Chicago. This is partly because of the type of persons coming to this Fair and partly because of the slightly improved national economic condition.”

Fisher Flouring Mills Company is a Pacific Coast concern that had a sentimental as well as a practical interest in exhibiting at San Diego. Those who can remember the San Francisco fair of 1915 remember Fisher’s scones. Fisher has tried, in its first California advertising venture in 20 years, to make scones as important a part of the San Diego exposition. The booth, which advertises Family Flour while doing a land-office business in toothsome scones (with raspberry jam and butter), is only part of Fisher’s exhibit, third largest in the Food [sic] and Beverage Palace. One-third of the space is allotted to the bakery trade, and more than 800 persons directly connected with the bakery industry have stepped up and introduced themselves.

According to E. G. Lawrence of Fisher’s Los Angeles office, it took time for the San Diego exposition to swing into its stride — “for the first few weeks the crowds seemed to lack fair atmosphere. Attempting to go through the whole fair in four of five hours gave the early visitors a poor conception of the quality of the exhibits. In the last few weeks this has changed; people seem to go around in a more friendly mood, with the idea of learning and seeing things. Good prospects are more numerous, and we are making sales in goodly numbers . . .”

Still a different value is sought by A. Sensenbrenner Sons, Los Angeles manufacturers of Santa Fe cigars. The chief feature of this company’s display is a realistic mechanical wax figure smoking a Santa Fe. His appearance and lifelike movements deceive many onlookers. Spanish-costumed attendants sell an attractive box of ten Santa Fe’s at a reasonable price, and mail it free to any point in the United States. Sensenbrenner Sons say: “Very often this helps to get a brand started in a community in which there is no present sale. Since the opening of the exposition we have received a great many letters from eastern retailers, undoubtedly due directly and indirectly to gifts of Santa Fe cigars sent by people from the exposition.”

But a fair is primarily a place of institutional effort, and for long-circuit rather than short-circuit selling. Institutions that seek to do a general educational job are therefore prominent in San Diego.

The California Redwood Association has a two-room structure in the Palace of Better Housing, showing interior and exterior uses of redwood. Attendance in this Palace (somewhat off the beaten track) is relatively poor, but since those who come are usually definitely interested in housing, the percentage of live prospects is high. Many who see the redwood exhibit are builders and architects. The Association is answering questions for about one-half of one percent of all who see the exhibit, and one-fifth of this number are actually building or remodeling. Of those requesting information, 85 percent are from Southern California, 10 percent from Northern California, 5 percent from other states. Everybody seems to like the two-room house of redwood; in fact twenty persons have offered to buy it and live in it.

Challenge Cream and Butter Association has a huge relief map of the Pacific slope, on which are indicated in colored lights the Association’s producing and distributing points. The story told by display and attendants is whole institutional — the growth of the Challenge organization to its present size (20,000 Pacific Coast producers) as one of the world’s great marketing associations. Challenge has been able to trace several new deal customers to the fair display, and perhaps a dozen wholesale customers from outside California.

The Southern California-Arizona Association of Ice Industries has found that it is doing a job not only for its own market but also for ice throughout the country. Its modern black-and-chromium display sets off gleaming white ice refrigerators and gives many fairgoers a new conception of these appliances. Ice companies from many states have written in to report sales directly attributable to the exposition. Few visitors from the East, reports the Association, had realized that today’s ice refrigerators are thoroughly modern in appearance and in efficiency of operation. Features that have opened eastern eyes are the freezing units (for desserts, etc.) in the ice refrigerator, the air-conditioning units using ice, a device for cutting ice cubes from a block of ice. The display, of course, emphasizes the advantages of “ice-man’s ice” over ice made in a power-refrigerator from domestic drinking water.

Institutional endeavor of a different kind is represented by the display of Owens-Illinois Pacific Coast Company, a modernistic 85-foot long exhibit of glass and glass containers. This company has two displays. One is directed to the general consumer; it shows many types of products in glass, strives to create a thorough-going confidence into action by giving her recipe booklets and guides to preserving foods. Results have already been reported in the form of increases in sales of glass-packed coffee, for example, to people who have been to San Diego. The industrial exhibit makes a different appeal; it has elicited hundreds of questions on industrial application of glass. In connection with the Owens-Illinois exhibit, there is small but complete stage, on which appears a magician, to gather and entertain the crowd at regular intervals.


San Diego Union, September 1, 1935, 1:2, 3:2. Wine Industries program starts holiday at Exposition; Modern Woodmen and other organizations celebrate “days” during weekend.

San Diego Union, September 1, 1935, 1:4-5. Program – Cactus and Succulent Society of America Day; Richfield Oil Co. Day, Modern Woodmen of America Day, Lutheran Day, Welsh Day, Barbers’ Day, Delta Omega Day.

San Diego Union, September 1, 1935, 3:4. Charles Cadmen Day Wednesday.

San Diego Union, September 1, 1935, 4:1. Musical variety features week’s programs, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, September 1, 1935, 10:2. Marston tells history of Junipero Serra Museum.

San Diego Union, September 1, 1935, II, 1:1, 2:4. California State exhibit shows resources of the state; 23 counties present display acclaimed for its educational value.

San Diego Union, September 1, 1935, II, 1:4-5, 2:3. “Four Cornerstones of American Democracy,” in Palace of Education considered sculptor Schweigardt’s masterpiece.

San Diego Union, September 1, 1935, II, 1:7. Municipal golf course is $7,107 in red for fiscal year 1934-35; course turned in revenues of $31,425.75; hopes of paying off the bonds issued to build the course with revenues from the course have failed.

San Diego Sun, September 2, 1935, 1:1, 2:3. Visitors break attendance records at Exposition; a total of 74,019 persons passed through the gates yesterday, exceeding the previous high Sunday mark by 24,000. . . . Topping the day’s program were events for 5,000 Welsh people assembled for celebration of Welsh Day.

San Diego Sun, September 2, 1935: 2:2-3, San Diego Symphony thrills big audiences in Ford Bowl concerts, by Arthur Henderson.

San Diego Sun, September 2, 1935, 3:3-4. Seeing the Exposition, by Magner White.

San Diego Sun, September 2, 1935, 4:5-6. Midgets, “Macbeth” top nudists as popular Exposition features, by Charles Moore.

San Diego Sun, September 2, 1935, 5:2-3. Rare Exposition art, including “Stella,” Zoro and Gold Gulch, lauded.

San Diego Union, September 2, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Western Public Golf Championship Day; Modern Woodmen of America Day; Welsh Society Day; Escondido Day.

San Diego Union, September 2, 1935, 3:4. Guns will roar in Exposition air “raids” on three Army days.

San Diego Union, September 2, 1935, 3:5. Cactus growers convene at Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 2, 1935, 3:6. Welshman plan celebration at Exposition today.

San Diego Union, September 2, 1935, 3:6. Barbers gather at Exposition for “day”.

San Diego Union, September 2, 1935, 3:7. Joe (Kid) Egan, veteran sports follower, “plugs” San Diego Exposition.

San Diego Sun, September 3, 1935, 1:4, 2:6. Three-day 170,000 total gate at Exposition; grand total of 3 million expected tomorrow.

San Diego Sun, September 3, 1935, 2:5. Betty Jean George of Houston Texas, “Gal Mayor” of Gold Gulch, in office twice.

San Diego Sun, September 3, 1935, 3:1-2. Three Cadman appearances on Exposition day honoring him; San Diego composer to be made chief of Sioux tomorrow at Indian Village.

San Diego Sun, September 3, 1935, 9:1. “Enemy” ready to “take” Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 3, 1935, 1:1-2. Program.

San Diego Union, September 3, 1935, 1:1-2, 8:6. Ford General Sales Manager arrives for special events.

San Diego Union, September 3, 1935, 1:3-5. Concessionaires gleeful as crowds pack Midway.

San Diego Union, September 3, 1935, 1:3-6. 170,301 see Exposition show in three days: Monday, September 2 – 60,081; shatters opening day attendance of 59,365 and Monday, August 26 attendance of 37,557.

San Diego Union, September 3, 1935, 8:1. Welsh Festival at Organ Amphitheater highly enjoyed, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, September 3, 1935, 8:5. Army planes assembling for attack on Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 3, 1935, 8:6. Marcelli wins ovation from Ford Bowl audience, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, September 3, 1935, 8:7. Admission Day pageant planned for Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 3, 1935, 8:8. Gold Gulch has another wedding.

San Diego Sun, September 4, 1935, 1:2, 2:4. 3 million mark to be reached at Exposition today; 3-day Army celebration has given attendance a boost.

San Diego Sun, September 4, 1935, 2:2-3. Seeing the Exposition: San Francisco at San Diego Exposition, by Magner White.

San Diego Sun, September 4, 1935,, 4:1. Cadman on KFSD tonight in premiere of “Trail Picture Suite”, composer to play during Exposition concert, by Willie Werner.

San Diego Sun, September 4, 1935, 5:1. Hostile Army attacks by land and air in realistic offensive.

San Diego Sun, September 4, 1935, 5:4. Russian music heard at Exposition, by Arthur Henderson.

San Diego Sun, September 4, 1935, 5:8. Exposition stresses Admission Day.

San Diego Sun, September 4, 1935, 8:6-7. Tea for Saint George Daughters to be give in House of Hospitality; dinner and reception this evening will climax program arranged for Cadman Day at the Exposition.

San Diego Sun, September 4, 1935, 8:8. Associated Art Group to have “day”; luncheon in the Casa del Rey Moro Café at noon.

San Diego Sun, September 4, 1935, 10:7. 548,000 see Ford exhibit in one month.

San Diego Sun, September 4, 1935, 11:6. 1,000 Ford men visit Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 4, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Army Day, Charles Wakefield Cadman Day.

San Diego Union, September 4, 1935, 1:7, 8:1. Army moves in to start three-day show; day and night air attacks and defense to be part of demonstration.

San Diego Union, September 4, 1935, 8:3. Admission Day parade, pageant being planned.

San Diego Union, September 4, 1935, 8:4-5. Cadman music to feature composer’s Exposition “day”.

San Diego Union, September 4, 1935, 11:4. “Cornerstones of American Democracy” fountain in Palace of Education to be dedicated tomorrow night.

San Diego Herald, September 5, 1935, 3:1-4. Exposition breaks all records.

San Diego Herald, September 5, 1935, 3:2-5. Exposition nights with Monte – Café of the World, created though the interest of J.S. Madill, president of operating company, in San Diego’s Exposition; Madill also entrusted John Gage with supervision of Casa del Rey Moro Café.

San Diego Herald, September 5, 1935, 4:2-7. Romantic days of ’49 culminate in Gold Gulch weddings.

San Diego Herald, September 5, 1935, 5:1-2. On the Midway – the Exposition’s fun zone.

San Diego Sun, September 5, 1935, 1:5, 2:5. Three millionth Exposition visitor is honored; Mrs. J. A. Richards of San Diego, “Queen Mother,” feted until ten last night.

San Diego Sun, September 5, 1935, 2:6-7. Roses of al l hues and from various lands shown at Exposition.

San Diego Sun, September 5, 1935, 4:1. Machine guns, Mozart mixes in KGB releases from Exposition tonight, by Willie Werner.

San Diego Sun, September 5, 1935, 6:4-5. Many “mayors,” alive or “dead” echo brief reign in Gold Gulch.

San Diego Sun, September 5, 1935, 6:7. Notables here for “Peace Day”.

San Diego Sun, September 5, 1935, 8:1. Socialites honor Army officers at Garden Tea; Major General and Mrs. Malone complimented at reception in Court of Honor.

San Diego Sun, September 5, 1935k 8:7. “The Four Cornerstones of American Democracy” to be dedicated in Palace of Education tonight.

San Diego Sun, September 5, 1935, 9:1. Night raid on Exposition, Army’s climax of day; Crowds see inside “Fighting machines” as war rages.

San Diego Sun, September 5, 1935, 9:6-7. 500 voices to be heard on choral program in Organ Amphitheater Saturday afternoon and evening.

San Diego Sun, September 5, 1935, 12:1-2. Motorcade to boost “Legion Days” at Exposition, by Wilfred M. Clark.

San Diego Sun, 13:5. Western Association of Art Museum Directors to meet at Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 5, 1935, 1:4-5. Program – Army Day, Ford Day.

San Diego Union, September 5, 1935, 1:7-8, 3:8. Ford “Victory” special to bring 1,000 for today’s Exposition program.

San Diego Union, September 5, 1935, 1:5-7. True Vow club member is “Queen Mother” of Exposition as turnstile clicks 3 million; Mrs. A. J. Richmond greeted by officials; escorted with husband on special tour; honored at dinner.

San Diego Union, September 5, 1935, 3:2-3. San Diego Symphony Orchestra strikes popular vein in Viennese night concert at Ford Bowl, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, September 5, 1935, 3:4. Music features Charles Cadman Exposition Day.

San Diego Union, September 5, 1935, 5:1. Crowds watch local artists working at Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 5, 1935, II, 1:2. Fliers plan Exposition “attacks”; night maneuver main feature of three Army days.

San Diego Union, September 5, 1935, II, 1:3. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, September 5, 1935, II, 1:6. Sculptor Frederick William Schweigardt will be honored at Exposition tonight.

Minutes of the Adjustment Committee of the California-Pacific International Exposition, September 6, 1935.

L R Folda to Messrs. Dailard, Drugan, Crandall, Eckhart, Gildred, Hotchkiss, Smith Wangeheim, Wood.

The Adjustment Committee met with Mr. Wangenheim this morning and approved the reduction of percentage now paid by the Café of the World by two and one-half percent on the main dining room and the service bar. There was granted no reduction on the Coffee Shop and the two bars adjoining the Café. This percentage is retroactive to July 14, only as to the amount now owing and not effecting the money paid to us on the present balances.

The Adjustment Committee reviewed the bill rendered by Mr. Sirigo with Mr. Wangenheim and it was decided that the Exposition stand the expense of building the walls for displaying the photographs selected as prize winners, which bill amounts to $589.00.

The Committee reviewed Mr. Funk’s letter relative to Century Sensations in which he requested a refund of $200.00 to cover his overdraft on our books and asks that no further demolition be deducted from his settlements. The Committee recommended that this $200.00 be allowed and transferred on our books and that an additional $75.00 be allowed to take care of the insurance which our Insurance Committee has been unable to secure and that we continue deducting the regular weekly deduction from his settlements for the duration of the Exposition until an amount has been accumulated as called for in the contract.

The Committee has again interviewed Mr. Black and secured from him a check for $500.00 to be deposited with the Exposition for demolition and transportation of sets and equipment. Also, we are informed that the settlement checks for the two previous weeks are being mailed today from Los Angeles.

The Committee approved the charge-off of small electric bills charged against the various Exhibitors for lighting during the time their booth was under construction. The total amount of these 28 bills is $28.11. In each case, the party has refused to pay, claiming that such service was to be furnished before meters were installed or that they received no such service, and others said that they were not open as stated on the bills.

San Diego Sun, September 6, 1935, 1:7-8. Army makes final air raid on Exposition – closing maneuvers.

San Diego Sun, September 6, 1935, 1:6, 2:3. Five British flags at Exposition; 10,000 British subjects in celebration.

San Diego Sun, September 6, 1935, 2:3-4. Exposition groups fete crew of British cruiser Danae during its rest in San Diego port.

San Diego Sun, September 6, 1935, 4:1. Gold Gulch “opera” to get NBC airing from Exposition tonight, by Willie Werner.

San Diego Sun, September 6, 1935, 10:1. Western artists will be feted at “Bohemian” affair in park; Donal Hord will give demonstration of his work.

San Diego Sun, September 6, 1935, 13:6-7. “Cadman Day” climaxed by rare Exposition program.

San Diego Union, September 6, 1935, 1:4-5. Program – Army Day, Ford Day, New Mexico Day, National Funeral Directors’ Day, British Empire Day.

San Diego Union, September 6, 1935, 1:4, 3:1. Optimism is Ford Day keynote; gathering at Café of the World is feature of program as nearly 1,000 employees have first day at Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 6, 1935, 1:6, 2:7. Army planes show speed in Exposition “attack”.

San Diego Union, September 6, 1935, 3:4. Sculptor Schweigardt gets Exposition gold medal.

San Diego Union, September 6, 1935, 5:1. Exposition café manager Victor J. Wolff quits.

San Diego Union, September 6, 1935, 7:7-8. Lure of San Diego Exposition regarded as biggest single factor in record 1935 traffic.

San Diego Union, September 6, 1935, 8:8. Mission Bay park plans approved; to cost $400,000.

San Diego Sun, September 7, 1935, 1:6, 2:8. Thousands to Exposition program; Firemen, Czechoslovakians share honors.

San Diego Sun, September 7, 1935, 2:4. Army planes finish raids.

San Diego Sun, September 7, 1935, 3:3-5. Large, appreciative audience lauds final Ford Bowl symphony, by Arthur Henderson.

San Diego Sun, September 7, 1935, 13:3-5. Art and Artists, by Katharine Morrison Kahle.

San Diego Union, September 7, 1935, 1:4-5. Program – Steuben Day, National Firemens’ Day, British Empire Day, Native Daughters of Golden West Day, Equitable Life Insurance Day, Art Guild Day, Western Association of Art Museum Directors’ Day.

San Diego Union, September 7, 1935, 1:7-8, 2:4. Historical parade to move through streets to Exposition gates Monday.

San Diego Union, September 7, 1935, 8:1. “1812 Overture” closes concert season at Exposition, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, September 7, 1935, II, 1:2. Britons throng Exposition for celebration; Empire’s glory sets theme for two-day program.

San Diego Union, September 7, 1935, II, 8:1. Native costumes to grace program on Czechoslovakia Day.

San Diego Sun, September 8, 1935, 1:4, 10:1. Exposition’s pageant fetes birth of Golden State; Governor and Native Sons attend Admission Day session.

San Diego Sun, September 8, 1935, 6:1-2. Balloon tag, jumping featured in horse show; Crabtree children take honors in two classes; annual event staged in ring of Balboa Park Riding Stables.

San Diego Union, September 8, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Frances Lederer Peace Day; Czechoslovakia Day.

San Diego Union, September 8, 1935, 1:5, 5:1. Firemen thrill crowd at Exposition by daring feats.

San Diego Union, September 8, 1935, 5:4-5. “Doll Houses” in Midget Village; tiny occupants charm visitors.

San Diego Union, September 8, 1935, 9:1. Builders’ Week at Exposition to draw thousands.

San Diego Union, September 8, 1935, 12:1. Art Mart ends at reception in Court of Honor.

San Diego Union, September 8, 1935, 16:1. Governor Frank Merriam chief speaker at Exposition today.

San Diego Union, September 8, 1935, II, 1:3. Exposition to provide final “fling” for school children.

San Diego Union, September 8, 1935, II, 1:6-7, 2:3. Exposition musical program for week widely diversified, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, September 8, 1935, Building Section, 3:4. National rose show is planned in Ford Building.

San Diego Union, September 9, 1935, 1:1-3, 5:1. Exposition audience shouts disapproval of war as orators plead in peace-day observance; wounded veterans join appeal by Governor Merriam, Rufus von Klein Smid, Frances Lederer for world amity.

San Diego Union, September 9, 1935, 1:6, 2:3. Last “Nickel Day” as Exposition marks end of school vacation.

San Diego Union, September 9, 1935, 1:6, 2:2. Pageant-parade, speech by Judge Albert Lee Stephens, Admission Day highspots; celebration will start downtown at ten a.m. and move to Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 9, 1935, 1:7-8. Program – Kids’ Day, Bankers’ Day, Admission Day, Associated Arts Day, Native Sons and Daughters’ Day.

San Diego Union, September 9, 1935, 5:6. Czechoslovakian Day lends color to Exposition program.

San Diego Union, September 9, 1935, 5:7-8. “Pick of the Army” at Exposition shows perfection in military precision.

San Diego Sun, September 10, 1935, 1:5, 2:4-5. Exposition show day offers thrills, circus today, vaudeville tonight.

San Diego Union, September 10, 1935, 1:3, 5:1, 6:2-3. Pageantry, music at celebration of Admission Day; President Roosevelt wires greetings to those fortunate ones living in “20th century fairyland”.

San Diego Union, September 10, 1935, 1:6-7. Program.

San Diego Union, September 10, 1935, 1:6-7. Ex-President Herbert Hoover to talk at Exposition September 17; Representative Beck will speak from East.

San Diego Union, September 10, 1935, 4:7-8. State Days, Norway Event – Exposition features this week.

San Diego Union, September 10, 1935, 5:2. Exposition exhibitors to hold hi-jinx party tonight.

San Diego Union, September 10, 1935, 11:1-8. Ford dealers from 15 states meet at Exposition; Ford Building requires a staff of 411 men and women for its operation and maintenance; of this number 361 are residents of San Diego; 27 exhibits in building.

San Diego Union, September 10, 1935, II, 1:2. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Sun, September 11, 1935, 1:3. President Roosevelt to visit Exposition on September 28.

San Diego Sun, September 11, 1935, 9:5-6. Exposition band to honor Joseph de Luca, leader; he leaves Friday for the University of Arizona.

San Diego Sun, September 11, 1935, 9:5-6. Fanchon and Marco show to return to Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 11, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Wyoming Day, Electrical Inspectors’ Day.

San Diego Union, September 11, 1935, 3:2-4. Ford dealers attended a luncheon yesterday at the Café of the World to hear W. C. Cowling, Fordgeneral sales manager.

San Diego Union, September 11, 1935, 5:1. Fanchon and Marco review to be back at Exposition tomorrow; troupe returns for free shows at Organ Amphitheater.

San Diego Union, September 11, 1935, 5:2. Article in September issue of Santa Fe Magazine by Esther Mugan Bush telling of Exposition museum activities.

San Diego Union, September 11, 1935, 5:3. Joseph De Luca, director of Exposition band, will be honored at program today before he leaves for the University of Arizona.

San Diego Union, September 11, 1935, 6:7. Three-day celebration at Exposition Sunday, Monday and Tuesday to honor Constitution of the United States and the 125th anniversary of Mexico’s Independence.

San Diego Union, September 11, 1935, 9:3-4. Streamlined Shakespeare at Old Globe makes audiences come back, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, September 11, 1935, 9:6. Winners named in snake contest arranged by Zoo.

San Diego Sun, September 12, 1935, 1:1. Hoosiers hold sway at Exposition; special train to bring weekend throng.

San Diego Sun, September 12, 1935, 1:6. Cabrillo Bridge leap is fatal; Frank Westrick of San Diego is 33rd victim.

San Diego Sun, September 12, 1935, 13:7-8. Exposition “Dog Days” set October 5-6; fancy canines will parade.

San Diego Herald, September 12, 1935, 1:1-3. San Diegans demand continuance of Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 12, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Indiana Day.

San Diego Union, September 12, 1935, 1:3, 2:3. Exposition will observe seven special days Saturday.

San Diego Union, September 12, 1935, 1:3, 2:2. George Oiler, war-decorated sergeant, member of 20th Infantry, based at Camp Derby.

San Diego Union, September 12, 1935, II, 1:3. Herbert Hoover’s Exposition speech to be broadcast Tuesday; nation to hear ex-President on Constitution Day.

San Diego Union, September 12, 1935, II, 1:5 Japan veterans on visit to San Diego lunch at Exposition.

San Diego Sun, September 13, 1935, 2:2. Lucky Friday Exposition’s motif; concessionaires will award new Ford car to lucky visitor.

San Diego Sun, September 13, 1935, 13:4. Hoosiers laud day at Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 13, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Concessionaires and Exhibitors’ Day.

San Diego Union, September 13, 1935, 1:3, 5:1. San Francisco to be “annexed” to San Diego for Exposition celebration tomorrow.

San Diego Union, September 13, 1935, 3:5 Fanchon and Marco cast scores at free Exposition shows.

San Diego Union, September 13, 1935, 5:1. Rally will open Mexican fiesta at Exposition Sunday.

San Diego Union, September 13, 1935, 5:3. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, September 13, 1935, 5:5, “Our U.S.” theme of Exposition on November 11 closing night.

San Diego Union, September 13, 1935, 5:6. Junior dancers present program in House of Hospitality.

San Diego Union, September 13, 1935, 5:8. Hollywood Glee Club will sing twice at Exposition tomorrow.

San Diego Sun, September 14, 1935, 1:3, 2:6. Many “Days” in Exposition weekend; San Francisco, Norway, Mexico among celebrants.

San Diego Sun, September 14, 1935, 1:5-7, 2:2-3. City greets Mayor Rossi and San Francisco visitors.

San Diego Sun, September 14, 1935, 11:5. President Roosevelt approves $847,988 WPA fund for San Diego; Zoo wins $242,000.

San Diego Union, September 14, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – San Francisco Day, Kids’ Day, Norway Day, Redwood Empire Day, South Dakota Day, San Bernardino County Day, Women’s Benefit Association Day.

San Diego Union, September 14, 1935, 1:5, 5:1. San Francisco to celebrate at Exposition today; Bay City officials to head parade on arrival by train; “Queen” will rule.

San Diego Union, September 15, 1935, 1:4-5. Program – Construction Industries Day, San Francisco Day, Norway Day, Mexico Day.

San Diego Union, September 15, 1935, 1:5, 2:1. San Francisco crowds invade Exposition; varied events; informal entertainment set today.

San Diego Union, September 15, 1935, 4:1. Cabrillo Park dedication to be held September 28.

San Diego Union, September 15, 1935, 10:5-6. No let down as character of Exposition music changes, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, September 15, 1935, II, 6:1-2. Secretary, California Association of Nursery men, relates early history of San Diego horticulture.

San Diego Union, September 15, 1935, Development, 3:5-6. Noted San Diego gardener should be honored by vine planting on Kate Sessions Day, September 24, by Ada Perry.

San Diego Sun, September 16, 1935, 1:4, 2:5. State heads in talk at Exposition.

San Diego Sun, September 16, 1935, 3:7-8. Flood of Exposition arrests loom, declares Stanley M. Gue, deputy labor commissioner.

San Diego Sun, September 16, 1935, 7:5. Mexico holds sway at Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 16, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Construction Industries’ Day, Mexico Day, Mexican Independence Day.

San Diego Union, September 16, 1935, 3:3. Paulino Rodriguez, Stanley R. Graham and Nate Eagle, officials of Midget Village, arrested on charge of violating California child labor law.

San Diego Union, September 16, 1935, 5:7. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, September 16, 1935, II, 8:1. Saint Jerome, a painting by Francisco de Zurbaran, on view at the Palace of Fine Arts.

San Diego Sun, September 17, 1935, 1:1. San Diego Sun amateur boxing championships tourney at Exposition free.

San Diego Sun, September 17, 1935, 1:5. Flag pageant day’s feature; Dr. Woellner to speak at Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 17, 1935, 1:4-5. Program – Constitution Day, Organized Labor Day, Construction Industries’ Week.

San Diego Union, September 17, 1935, 1:1, 2:8. Herbert Hoover here, heads Constitution program today; former President expected to sound keynote of Republican campaign; band to greet party at gates.

San Diego Union, September 17, 1935, 2:2. Aimee McPherson to attend Exposition for three days.

San Diego Union, September 17, 1935, 4:4. A drop in Police fines has been attributed to Exposition duties.

San Diego Union, September 17, 1935, 9:2-4. Mexican Independence Day fiesta features music week-end at Exposition, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, September 17, 1935, II, 1:2. San Diego Zoo gets WPA grant of $242,869 to construct buildings and enclosures and to beautify grounds; Zoo will contribute $47,403.

San Diego Sun, September 18, 1935, 1:3. Exposition to fete P.E.O. Women; secret organization holds state conclave here; public program inHouse of Hospitality auditorium in afternoon.

San Diego Union, September 18, 1935, 8:6. Pen Women plan second program at Exposition Saturday afternoon in House of Hospitalityauditorium.

Page one of San Diego Union, September 18, 1935 is missing, San Diego Public Library microfilm)

September 18, 1935. Program – Construction Industries Week; PEO Day.

San Diego Union, September 18, 1935, 3:1. Herbert Hoover urges defense of principles of Constitution; federal centralization of power will sap American liberty.

San Diego Union, September 18, 1935, 5:1. Associated Contractors study federal competition; flay relief building in Exposition program.

San Diego Union, September 18, 1935, 5:5. Pageantry, music mark Constitution Day.

San Diego Herald, September 19, 1935, 1:4, 6:4-5. Exposition – The Herald also suggested that the Exposition directors announce free days for all the public at suitable intervals, that men in uniform be admitted free, that the Fair should be free to school children on Friday afternoon and evenings, that special attractions be provided free, and that accumulated cash prizes be awarded about twice a week

San Diego Herald, September 19, 1935, 6:1-4. Exposition nights with Monte – Nate Eagle and Stanley Graham manage Zoro Gardens; Jack Madill boss of Gold Gulch, Café of the World; Louis Albers director of cuisine in Café of the World..

San Diego Sun, September 19, 1935, 1:2-4. Amateur boxers swing gloves tonight in finals of Sun-Exposition tourney, by Nelson Fisher.

San Diego Sun, September 19, 1935, 19:3. Races of World feted at Exposition; State, national figures on program.

San Diego Sun, September 19, 1935, 10:6. P.E.O. Day is celebrated at Exposition, by Kathryn Zeiss.

San Diego Sun, September 19, 1935, 13:2. Governor Merriam greets racial groups.

San Diego Union, September 19, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Race Relations Day, Construction Industries Week.

San Diego Union, September 19, 1935, 1:3. “Our Gang” will visit Exposition; will be honored guests at “Nickel Day”, Saturday; Errol and Devine also to be here.

San Diego Union, September 19, 1935, II, 1:4. Thomas Wood Stevens tells of Globe’s success.

San Diego Sun, September 20, 1935, 1:2. “Marvelous” is Senator Robert Wagner of New York view of Exposition.

San Diego Sun, September 20, 1935, 1:5, 2:4. Santa Monica invades Exposition; “Miss Boston” and Irish are Exposition’s guests.

San Diego Sun, September 20, 1935, 15:1. Governor Merriam speaks to crowds on race relations; more than 7,000 persons in Organ Amphitheater.

San Diego Union, September 20, 1935, 1:7-8. Program – Ben Hur Life Association Day, Santa Monica Bay District Day, Construction Industries Week.

San Diego Union, September 20, 1935, II, 1:2. Exposition schedules ten special days for weekend.

San Diego Union, September 20, 1935, II, 1:3. Palace of Education may be used for permanent display of educational exhibits of the city and country schools.

San Diego Union, September 20, 1935, II, 1:5. Los Angeles Firestone plant closing for day at Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 20, 1935, II, 2:1. Kate Sessions’ Day plans announced.

San Diego Union, September 20, 1935, II, 9:1. Irish to open two-day dance festival.

San Diego Union, September 20, 1935, II, 9:1-2. Governor Merriam gives speech on Race Relations Day program.

San Diego Sun, September 21, 1935, 1:3, 2:7. Movies stars, air attacks in Exposition specials; weekend program for youths, grownups.

San Diego Sun, September 21, 1935, 2:3. Exposition to fete Irish leaders.

San Diego Sun, September 21, 1935, 3:2. Exposition to fete Kate Sessions.

San Diego Sun, September 21, 1935, 5:3-4. Jack Nestle “Most Cuffed” Player of Old Globe Theater Co.; Dromio of “Comedy of Errors” always comes up smiling.

San Diego Sun, September 21, 1935, 5:5. British tars of H.M.S. Danae think Zorine “just divine”.

San Diego Union, September 21, 1935, 1:4-5. Program – Irish Day, Children’s Day, Firestone Day, Gas Appliance Day, Daughters of Scotia Day; Hal Roach “Our Gang” Day; California League of American Women Penwomen Day; Composers’ Day.

San Diego Union, September 21, 1935, 1:6-7. “Our Gang” main Exposition Nickel Day attraction; Leon Errol and Andy Divine will act as judges of homemade autos in parade.

San Diego Union, September 21, 1935, 3:1. Coastal artillery to defend against air attach tonight as part of National Guard show.

San Diego Union, September 21, 1935, 3:5. Irish dances feature Exposition program.

San Diego Union, September 21, 1935, 3:7. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, September 21, 1935, 8:1. Cooking school at Ford Bowl tonight.

San Diego Union, September 21, 1935, II, 1:2-3. Notables urge resumption of Exposition next year.

San Diego Union, September 22, 1935, 1:4-5. Program – National Guard Day, Metaphysical Day, Irish Day.

San Diego Union, September 22, 1935, 1:6-7. “Our Gang” leads happy day for children at Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 22, 1935, II, 1:5, 2:1. Kate Sessions earned title of “Mother of Balboa Park”, by Ada Perry.

San Diego Union, September 22, 1935, II, 12:1. Penwomen hold Composers’ Day program at Exposition.

San Diego Sun, September 23, 1935, 1:6, 2:3. Franklin Roosevelt plans change with new date.

San Diego Sun, September 23, 1935, 1:6. General Hugh Johnson to start speech tour in San Diego.

San Diego Sun, September 23, 1935, 1:8. Exposition seeking best speller, contest on tonight.

San Diego Sun, September 23, 1935, 10:1-2. Exposition symphony band begins Ford Bowl concert season.

San Diego Sun, September 23, 1935, 11:3-4. Exposition to honor Kate Sessions in day at park tomorrow.

San Diego Union, September 23, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – All States Spelling Contest Day.

San Diego Union, September 23, 1935, 1:3, 2:3. President Roosevelt due to arrive here within two weeks; warship ready.

San Diego Union, September 23, 1935, 5:1. National Guard concludes two-day celebration.

San Diego Union, September 23, 1935, 5:2. Exposition will hear 105-piece Women’s Symphony Orchestra of Long Beach.

San Diego Union, September 23, 1935, 5:4. Aimee McPherson announces Exposition program.

San Diego Union, September 23, 1935, 8:1-3. Kate Sessions Day will be climaxed by informal party at Balboa Park.

San Diego Sun, September 24, 1935, 1:6-7, 2:1. Mrs. Kate L. Arch, 72, from Colorado, wins Exposition spelling bee.

San Diego Sun, September 24, 1935, 1:8, 2:8. It’s Hawkeye Day at Exposition; former Iowans share honor with Miss Sessions.

San Diego Sun, September 24, 1935, 3:5. Keeping Exposition open studied by officials.

San Diego Sun, September 24, 1935, 12:2. EDITORIAL: Kate Sessions Day.

San Diego Union, September 24, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Iowa Day, Kate Sessions Day.

San Diego Union, September 24, 1935, 1:5-6. Exposition will close November 11; benefits to city cited.

San Diego Union, September 24, 1935, 4:1. EDITORIAL: This One Day.

San Diego Union, September 24, 1935, 5:1. Hamlin Garland finds Exposition an inspiration.

San Diego Union, September 24, 1935, 5:2. Mrs. Kate Arch, 72, is Exposition’s champion speller.

San Diego Union, September 25, 1935, 1:4, 2:1. Zorine leaves Exposition nudists.

San Diego Sun, September 25, 1935, 1:1. Exposition to hold second hi-jinks; Delphians follow Iowans in celebrating.

San Diego Sun, September 25, 1935, 1:4, 2:1. Zorine leaves Exposition nudists.

San Diego Sun, September 25, 1935, 8:2-3. Friends pay loving tribute to Miss Kate at Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 25, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Delphian Day.

San Diego Union, September 25, 1935, 4:1. EDITORIAL: This Is Right.

San Diego Union, September 25, 1935, 5:2. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, September 25, 1935, 5:3. Nursery men session here tomorrow.

San Diego Union, September 25, 1935, 9:1. Exposition honors Kate Sessions.

San Diego Herald, September 26, 1935, 6:5-6. Civic disapproval meets action of Exposition directors in deciding November 11 as closing date of Exposition.

San Diego Sun, September 26, 1935, 1:3, 2:8. President Roosevelt entrains for San Diego tonight.

San Diego Sun, September 26, 1935, 1:4. Aimee McPherson to Exposition for weekend.

San Diego Sun, September 26, 1935, 7:5. Exposition creates travel growth in California.

San Diego Sun, September 26, 1935, 7:6-7. Applies greet Oregon folks in reunion at Exposition.

San Diego Sun, September 26, 1935, 12:1. EDITORIAL: Making It Permanent . . . we could have here a semi-permanent Exposition. We could not only have one, but perhaps we should have.

San Diego Union, September 26, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Oregon Day.

San Diego Union, September 26, 1935, 5:1. Transportation Day program outlined.

San Diego Union, September 26, 1935, 5:2-3. Aimee Semple McPherson to conduct special service at Organ Amphitheater.

San Diego Union, September 26, 1935, 5:2-3. George Albert Smith, Mormon apostle, extols Exposition’s beauty.

San Diego Union, September 26, 1935, 5:4. Portuguese-Americans and San Diego will unite to honor Cabrillo.

San Diego Union, September 26, 1935, 5:4. Harold A. Taylor will lecture on “The Pictorial Story of the 1915 Exposition” tomorrow evening in theHouse of Hospitality.

San Diego Union, September 26, 1935, 5:4. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Sun, September 27, 1935, 1:2, 2:2. Aimee McPherson begins Exposition campaign; healing session opens her second San Diego visit.

San Diego Sun, September 27, 1935, 1:5, 2:1. 36 Exposition labor charges filed; Concessionaires named by Work Report.

San Diego Sun, September 27, 1935, 1:4. $8,548,729 approved for San Francisco Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 27, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Hardware Retailers’ Day, Aimee Semple McPherson Day.

San Diego Union, September 27, 1935, 1:2, 2:5. Aimee McPherson to begin three-day religious pageant this afternoon.

San Diego Union, September 27, 1935, 5:2-3. Cabrillo National Monument will be dedicated tomorrow.

San Diego Union, September 27, 1935, 6:7. Indian band sets concert at Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 27, 1935, 6:7. Exposition Excerpts.

San Diego Union, September 27, 1935, 6:8. Pageant to mark Camp Fire Girls’ Exposition program.

San Diego Sun, September 28, 1935, 1:6-7, 3:2-3. Crowds hear Aimee McPherson’s plea for “awakened America”.

San Diego Sun, September 28, 1935, 1:6, 2:8. Crowds flock to Exposition.

San Diego Sun, September 28, 1935, 8:1. Dr. Reinhardt to be feted on Mills College Day next Saturday.

San Diego Union, September 28, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Kids’ Day, Transportation Day, Camp Fire Girls’ Day, Portugal-Cabrillo Day, Hardware Retailers’ Day, Aimee Semple McPherson Day, Almeda and Contra Costa Counties Day.

San Diego Union, September 28, 1935, 1:5, 5:2. Thousands here Mrs. McPherson in services; America must lead way to higher standards for all peoples, say evangelist.

San Diego Union, September 28, 1935, 3:2. Portugal and United States will unite in dedicating Cabrillo Monument.

San Diego Union, September 28, 1935, 5:1. Eight special events scheduled today; children, adults join to attract throngs to Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 29, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Aimee Semple McPherson Day, Alameda and Contra Costa Counties Day.

San Diego Union, September 29, 1935, 1:3, 2:3. City ready to receive President Roosevelt.

San Diego Union, September 29, 1935, 1:7, 6:1. Portuguese envoy dedicates Cabrillo tablet.

San Diego Union, September 29, 1935, 2:1-2. Exposition’s music programs are crowed with talent, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, September 29, 1935, II, 1:4. Two-day rose show to open in Ford patio October 12; $5,000 in prizes.

San Diego Union, September 29, 1935, II, 3:2. Million persons visit Model Town; sets of plans given away.

San Diego Union, September 29, 1935, World-Wide Features, 3:1. “Much Ado About Nothing” added to Globe Theater’s current repertoire.

San Diego Union, September 29, 1935, World-Wide Features, 3:7-8. Midgets, nudists are in race for quarter-million attendance.

San Diego Sun, September 30, 1935, 1:5. Exposition ready for largest day of year; Dr. Fisher Day precedes President Roosevelt welcome as attendance record grows.

San Diego Sun, September 30, 1935, 1:1, 2:4-5. San Diego ready to be U.S. “capital” for a day; Roosevelt party to arrive here late Tuesday.

San Diego Sun, September 30, 1935, 3:2. Cabrillo tablet set on California Building today.

San Diego Sun, September 30, 1935, 4:6-7. Globe players triumph again in “Much Ado About Nothing”; Callaway, Reid, Tedrow excellent in new production.

San Diego Union, September 30, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Dr. Frederick Vining Fisher Day.

San Diego Union, September 30, 1935, 1:2, 3:1. Nation’s eyes on San Diego for President Roosevelt’s visit.

San Diego Union, September 30, 1935, 5:1. General Hugh S. Johnson to speak here on same day as President Roosevelt; former NRA head to discuss New Deal over radio from Organ Amphitheater.

San Diego Union, September 30, 1935, 5:3. Aimee McPherson ends three-day service at Exposition.

San Diego Union, September 30, 1935, 5:4. Nursery men from all over state survey Pandanus utilis in bloom; has lived for twenty years on Exposition grounds and grown to a height of twenty-five feet.

San Diego Union, September 30, 1925, 5:4. Top prize will be $250 at rose show.

San Diego Union, September 30, 1935, II, 8:4. Negro Festival Chorus presented program at Organ Amphitheater yesterday afternoon.

October 1, 1935. Program – Amateur Radio Broadcast Day.

(San Diego Union, February 11, 1980, D-1, D-3. Poetic Touch in Murals by Belle Baranceanu, by James Britton, II.)

Los Angeles Times, October 1, 1935. San Diego Exposition plans gala events; fireworks display will end tomorrow’s Roosevelt celebration.

Los Angeles Times, October 1, 1935, 6:6-7. Statue of C.C.C. to be unveiled today in Griffith Park.

Los Angeles Times, October 1, 1935, 6:5. Giant redwood key will be presented to President Roosevelt on visit to San Diego Exposition.

FDR, The New Deal Years, 1933-37, Kenneth S. Davis, Random House, NY, 1979, pp. 581-583.

San Diego Sun, October 1, 1935, 1:4-6, 2:6. Flowers brought, stadium ready, whole town awaits Franklin Delano Roosevelt today, by Magner White.

San Diego Sun, October 1, 1935, 8:1. Parties set for prominent Exposition visitors.

San Diego Sun, October 1, 1935, 11:2-3. Exposition half dollars to increase in value as supply shrinks; coin of Panama-Pacific Exposition worth $10.

October 2, 1935. Program – President Roosevelt’s Day, General Hugh Johnson Day.

Los Angeles Times, October 2, 1935, 4:3-4. C.C.C. extolled on visit to park camp.

San Diego Sun, October 2, 1935, 1:2. Exposition sees its greatest day.

San Diego Sun, October 2, 1935, 1:4, 2:3-4. Triumphant tour adds to President’s cheer; nation-wide audience “listens in” with throng at stadium, by L. E. Claypool.

San Diego Sun, October 2, 1935, 1:5-6, 2:8. 10,000 San Diegans welcome President Roosevelt on his arrival in city.

San Diego Sun, October 2, 1935, 1:8, 2:5. 50,000 give Roosevelt ovation; cites recovery under “New Deal”; wants U.S. to keep free of foreign foes, by Magner White.

San Diego Sun, October 2, 1935, 3:2-4. 60 San Diegans in group on President Roosevelt’s platform at Stadium.

San Diego Sun, October 2, 1935, 5:1. Presidential party to be honor guests; California fruits to grace luncheon table in Sala de Oro.

San Diego Sun, October 2, 1935, 14:4-7. EDITORIAL: San Diego Welcomes You, Mr. President.

San Diego Union, October 2, 1935, 1:8, 3:1. President Roosevelt and party arrive; San Diego crowds meet, cheer Roosevelt’s; greetings extended entire way from station to Hotel del Coronado; chief executive plans details of speech.

San Diego Union, October 2, 1935, 1:3, 2:4-5. “First Lady” smiles “no interviews”.

(San Diego Tribune, September 11, 1986, E-1. Eleanor Roosevelt was tireless, by Eileen Jackson.)

San Diego Union, October 2, 1935, 1:2-3, 3:2. Aerial review will precede Navy maneuvers for executive.

PRESS BULLETIN #7 – Page 3, October 2, 1935.

The President placed the roses on his lap, smiled at Mrs. Trapnell and spoke a few words of appreciation for the tribute to him. Also, he waved his hat in greeting to groups of girls from foreign bungalows in the House of Pacific Relations who were assembled on the steps of the tower edifice behind Mrs. Trapnell.

The girls, clad in colorful costumes of their native lands, roundly applauded the President with shuts and hand-clapping. When the din subsided, Frank G. Belcher waved a hand and Tomokazu Hori, Japanese consul for the entire Southern California district, stepped forward from the ranks of his costumed nationals. Conspicuous on the platform beside the consul was a handsome and large Cloisonne vase.

“Mr. President, in honor of the Japanese residents of San Diego, I give you this vase as a tribute of their esteem and affection,” the consul said, in part.

President Roosevelt, seemingly deeply affected by the goodwill compliment, took a few moments before replaying, then said:

“I will treasure this gift all my life, and I hope for many generations to come this vase (he pronounced the “a” like “ah”) will stand to all as a symbol of peace and amity between countries bordering the Pacific.”

The vase itself, a pigeon-blood colored one, was said to be highly valuable.

Following his official greeting and the presentation of the vase to him, President Roosevelt settled back in his seat and his fellow-passengers took places around him. Cameramen, newsreel workers, newspapermen and wielders of microphones for radio broadcasting fell back and the presidential car then began to move slowly along the Avenida de los Palacios in the direction of the House of Hospitality, where the President was entertained at a luncheon given in his honor by exposition officials.

All along the palm-lined thoroughfare, dense throngs packed behind rope barriers cheered the Chief Executive and the latter, with a happy smile on his face, waved his hat constantly. The Plaza de Mexico still teemed with visitors after President Roosevelt passed by, however, because in the wake of his car was a parade of other cars and marching groups.

This procession was featured by a band from the San Diego American Legion Post #6 which led contingents of Boy and Girl Scouts. Also in the line of march was the red-uniformed Merkley’s Musical Maids Band. When this parade swung past the plaza, whistles sounded and the 30th Infantry company and band wheeled into line and quitted the district also. Most of the spectators then moved in the direction of the House of Hospitality, hoping for another glimpse of the President before he left for his scheduled address in the San Diego Stadium.

(Press Bulletin #7 taken from Box Files of California-Pacific International Exposition kept by San Diego Public Library.)

October 3, 1935. Program – Concessionaires & Exhibitors’ Auto Day.

Los Angeles Times, October 3, 1935, 1:4. President Roosevelt vows he will shun war, by Cleaves Jones.

Los Angeles Times, October 3, 1935, 1;2-3. Fleet gives President thrilling show, by Waldo Drake.

Los Angeles Times, October 3, 1935, 4:1. The President’s San Diego address.

Los Angeles Times, October 3, 1935, 6:1. President Roosevelt stresses American desire to remain at peace with world.

Los Angeles Times, October 3, 1935, 7:1. Roosevelt sees bases; National Defense Inspected and Exposition Visited on Busy Day, by Warren B. Francis.

New York Times, October 3, 1935, 1:5, 14:2-8. Big Italian Force Invades Ethiopia; Mussolini Rallies 20,000,000 Fascisti; Roosevelt To Keep US “Unentangled’; President warns nation; foreign war a potent peril he tells 45,000 at San Diego Fair; conquest is deplored; but our feelings must not drag us into conflict, he declares; sees big naval “battle”, by Charles W. Hurd. . . . excerpt . . .

Mr. Roosevelt awoke early after enjoying a good night’s rest in a suite at the Hotel del Coronado to which he went from his train on arriving here last night.

While Mrs. Roosevelt went for a swim in the hotel pool, Mr. Roosevelt spent an hour conferring with Keith Morgan, director of the Warm Springs Foundation, and a group of others interested in extending the fight against infantile paralysis.

At 11 a.m., he set out for a round of activities which ended only when he boarded the Houston.

The President first visited the army and navy bases on North Island. Then, accompanied by his party, he inspected the Marine Base and the Naval Training Station before proceeding to the exposition. At the training station he paused to watch difficult exercises by the sailors, carried out to a musical accompaniment.

Greeted by Foreign Nations

The beautiful California Tower was the scene of the first official greeting by the exposition to the President. Soon after his party had entered the grounds via the west gate and had crossed the Cabrillo Bridge, the President’s car was halted in front of the spire.

There Mrs. Mary Belcher Trapnell, sister of Frank G. Belcher, exposition president, presented Mr. and Mrs. Roosevelt with a large bouquet of flowers on behalf of the thirty-five foreign nations represented in the picturesque House of Pacific Relations, located in the Palisades area of the fair grounds.

Tomokasu Hori, Japanese Consul for the Southern California district, completed the good-will expression of foreign groups by presenting to President Roosevelt on behalf of Japanese residents of San Diego, a pigeon-blood cloisonné vase.

The President’s car next was drive along the palm-lined Avenida de los Palacios, the main east-west thoroughfare through the fair area, to theHouse of Hospitality, where he and Mrs. Roosevelt were guests of exposition officials at separate luncheons. The President was entertained in the Sala de Oro.

Mr. Roosevelt was the third President to appear in San Diego, the others having been Benjamin Harrison and Woodrow Wilson.

New York Times, October 3, 1935, 14:1. Roosevelt as “foe” sees Navy fight.

New York Times, October 3, 1935, 14:2-8. Roosevelt’s address on home and foreign problems.

New York Times, October 3, 1935, 15:4. General Hugh S. Johnson for idle census; former NRA administrator asserted efforts to solve the problem of unemployment through the PWA and the WPA have not been effective.

San Diego Herald, October 3, 1935, 1:4. San Diego’s greatest honor, by Ray Stauer.

San Diego Herald, October 3, 1935, 2:1-4. Exposition News – Who shall be queen at Zoro Gardens? Mary PickFord’s ringlets stolen at Hollywood Motion Picture Hall of Fame.

San Diego Sun, October 3, 1935, 3:5. General Hugh Johnson raps President Roosevelt’s setup for recovery.

San Diego Sun, October 3, 1935, 8:1-2. Hospitality keynote of luncheon for Mrs. Roosevelt, by Anita Lee Utt.

San Diego Sun, October 3, 1935, 9:1-2. Sightseeing, luncheon on day’s program of busy First Lady before departure by plane, by Oriole Evans.

San Diego Sun, October 3, 1935, 13:4-5. One man’s opinion about our Exposition by J. E. Dryer, president Standard Furniture Co., “I believe it would be dangerous to continue the Exposition beyond November 11”; wants Fair next year and thereafter from May 31 to about September 12.

San Diego Sun, October 3, 1935, 15:5. New artists seen in Café of the World; Charles Craft, master of ceremonies brought here from Chicago; personnel of the floor show numbers 25 artists; new to the Exposition are Stearns and Dean, dance team from the Coconut Grove, Los Angeles.

San Diego Union, October 3, 1935, 1:8, 3:8. Ovation given President Roosevelt; he expresses gratitude; mighty cheers in Stadium as he delivers address; close to 200,000 San Diegans and visitors; took 30-mile drive through military and naval establishments, the Exposition, the Stadiumand city streets; headed southward on cruise back to Washington last night; Mrs. Roosevelt left by airplane after circling over the fleet off Point Loma.

San Diego Union, October 3, 1935, 2:1. “Good Neighbor” policy pledged in Stadium talk.

San Diego Union, October 3, 1935, 2:5. Happy to be here, says President Roosevelt on visit to Exposition; crowds line bridge to see President pass; first lady arrives at Exposition early.

Intensely dramatic it is simplicity was the welcome extended to the President of the United States when he arrived at the west gate of the Exposition at 12:00 p.m. yesterday.

Since early morning, thousands of persons had stood in a long line extending across Cabrillo Bridge to the House of Hospitality where President and Mrs. Roosevelt were to have luncheon at two separate functions. For hours soldiers, sailors and marines had stood guard, keeping clear the lane over which the Presidential party would pass. An American Legion color guard was massed outside the gate.

Then, preceded by a cordon of motorcycle police, Franklin D. Roosevelt arrived in a touring car that stopped just inside the gate. Frank G. Belcher, president of the exposition, was waiting. There was a quick exchange of smiles, and Belcher’s two-work greeting, “Welcome, Sir.”

“Happy to Be Here”

“I am happy to be here,” said the President.

In the car with Roosevelt were Mayor P. J. Benbough, Rear Admiral William T. Tarrant and Governor Frank Merriam. Admiral Tarrant left the car to surrender his place to Belcher. It took only a moment and the car sped away, followed by 18 others.

The President was a visitor at the Exposition.

Mrs. Roosevelt, who had entered the grounds almost unnoticed through the east gate, had been sightseeing at the Exposition for three hours and did not join the President until after the luncheon parties.

Accorded an ovation every foot of the way, the President was greeted warmly by the cheering throng that awaited him in the plaza before theCalifornia Building, the first stop for the entourage. Equally cordial was the greeting of smiles and hat-waving which the President returned to the assemblage.

Appearing vigorously well and happy, Roosevelt held his hat to his breast as the 30th Infantry Band swung into the National Anthem.

Flowers, Vase Presented

Several presentation ceremonies were enacted in front of the California Building steps on which stood girls of many nationalities dressed in native costumes of their countries. Mrs. Mary Belcher Trapnell, official hostess for President Roosevelt’s visit to the Exposition, was presented to the distinguished guest by Frank Drugan, executive secretary of the Exposition. Mrs. Trapnell stood on the ramp platform beside the Presidential car and handed the chief executive a large bouquet of American Beauty roses.

“As hostess and representing the 34 nations identified with the House of Pacific Relations, I present to you these flowers as an expression of our love and gratitude,” she said.

The President accepted the flowers with a few words of appreciation, and waved a greeting to the girls on the steps behind Mrs. Trapnell. A tall red Cloisonné vase was presented to President Roosevelt by Tomokazu Hori, Japanese Consul for southern California, who said, “Mr. President, on behalf of the Japanese residents of San Diego, I give to you this vase as a tribute of their esteem and affection.”

President Roosevelt, obviously deeply touched by the international goodwill compliment, did not reply for a moment. Finally he looked up quickly into the face of the donor and said, “I will treasure this gift all of my life and I hope for many generations to come this vase will stand to all as a symbol of peace and amity between countries bordering the Pacific.”

Three Separate Luncheons

Newsreel and other cameramen , who had been taking advantage of the ceremonies to obtain pictures, fell back after the presentation of the vase and the car moved slowly along the Avenida de los Palacios to the House of Hospitality where Exposition officials were hosts at a luncheon for the President in the Sala de Oro. About 100 newspaper men and women were luncheon guests of the Exposition in an adjoining room.

Besides the guest of honor, those present at the Presidential luncheon were his secretaries, Marvin H. McIntyre and Stephen Early, J. F. T. O’Connor, Colonel E. N. Watson, Captain Wilson Brown, Secretary Harold Ickes and Harold Ickes, Jr., Doctor McIntire, Keith Morgan, Harry L. Hopkins, Turner Battle, Oscar Chapman, Frank Walker, Mayor Benbough, Frank Belcher, G. Aubrey Davidson, Representative George Burnham, Philip L. Gildred, Hal Hotchkiss, Adolph Miller, Douglas Young, John L. Fox, Governor Merriam, Mayor Angelo J. Rossi, San Francisco; Admiral Joseph M. Reeves, Rear Admiral T. J. Senn and Julius Wangenheim.

Thanks Entertainers

At. Mrs. Roosevelt’s luncheon, held in the loggia at the House of Hospitality, hosts and hostesses were members of the Exposition board of directors and their wives. Spanish music and dancing in the patio entertained all three luncheon parties simultaneously and when the President crossed the patio after the luncheon, he paused for a smiling, “Thank you,” for the entertainers.

The Presidential party left the Exposition at 1:45 p.m. for the stadium. Mrs. Roosevelt was in the car with her husband when they left the fair.

San Diego Union, October 3, 1935, 2:6-7. Commander-in-Chief views local navy, marine bases.

San Diego Union, October 3, 1935, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Yesterday.

San Diego Union, October 3, 1935, 8:1-2. First Lady leads strenuous life like typical Roosevelt; early swim at Coronado; gay Exposition shopping tour crowd stay in San Diego, by Eileen Jackson.

San Diego Union, October 3, 1935, 9:1. General Hugh S. Johnson flays WPA; offered jobless aid program in a nation-wide address from Exposition last night.

October 4, 1935. Program – State Chamber of Commerce Day, Daughters of Nile Day.

New York Times, October 4, 1935, 20:1-2. EDITORIAL – Yesterday: The President at San Diego In his address yesterday at San Diego, the past of the speeches of the present tour, the President made the fullest statement and defense of the New Deal policies which he has as yet offered.

San Diego Union, October 4, 1935, 1:4, 2:5-6. San Diego set fine record in reception plan for President Roosevelt; every cog in well-built machine was right; high praise for all local workers.

San Diego Union, October 4, 1935, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The General Suggests – “Don’t cook up anymore invented work.”

October 5, 1935. Program – American Legion Day, Mills College Day, Boy Scouts’ Day, Kids’ Day, World’s Ex-Champion Boxers’ Day, National All-Breed Dog Show.

San Diego Sun, October 5, 1935, 2:5. Legion posts enliven Exposition.

San Diego Sun, October 5, 1935, 3:3-5. James Hervey Johnson, assessor, tells Exposition crowd that Oriental Importation Co. in Spanish Villagemay call it an “auction,” but it’s really a “come-on.”

G S Gurley, manager of the Better Business Bureau, said, “It’s not an auction really. The fake auction is a come-on for the $5 merchandise sales.”

San Diego Sun, October 5, 1935, 5:4-5. Boris Aplon, Globe player, once toured in Gilbert & Sullivan repertory with the late De Wolf Hopper.

October 6, 1935. Program – Filipino Day, Minnesota Day, Boy Scouts’ Day, American Legion Day, Alianza Hispano-American Day, National All-Breed Dog Show Day, San Diego Council of Religious Education Day, California Public School Superintendents’ Day.

San Diego Union, October 6, 1935, 1:4-5, 2:1. 5,000 southland Boy Scouts hold Indian Village camporee

San Diego Union, October 6, 1935, 1:5, 2:1 Exposition surrenders as American Legion force starts invasion; parades feature first day of celebration; program continues until tomorrow.

San Diego Union, October 6, 1935, 5:3-4. Major O. J. F. Keatinge, manager of the English concessions, has had a colorful career.

San Diego Union, October 6, 1935, 6:2-4. Exposition entertainment for shut-ins tomorrow; Organ Amphitheater will be scene of program.

San Diego Union, October 6, 1935, 13:1. Celebration of 400th anniversary of printing of the Bible in English will be held at 3:00 p.m. today in theFord Bowl.

October 7, 1935. Program – Shut-ins’ Day, California Public School Superintendents’ Day.

New York Times, October 7, 1935, 4:2-3. Dr. Millikan, president of California Institute of Technology, links circulation of Bible with “the future progress of mankind”.

San Diego Sun, October 7, 1935, 2:2. City asks Exposition to close November 11.

San Diego Sun, October 7, 1935, 3:1. Legion, Scouts, Bible divide honors at Exposition; Minnesotans hold grand weekend fete on Exposition grounds.

San Diego Sun, October 7, 1935, 5:4-5. “Shut-ins” dream realized in today’s visit to Exposition.

San Diego Sun, October 7, 1935, 6:1. Spectator sports: Exposition teas weekend entertainment for society, by Anita Lee Utt.

San Diego Sun, October 7, 1935, 6:4. Nile Daughters greet “Queen” at Exposition; Spanish costumes, music by troubadours add atmosphere.

San Diego Sun, October 7, 1935, 7:1. Irish terrier topped Silver Bay Kennel National All-Breed Dog Show at Exposition yesterday.

San Diego Union, October 7, 1935, 1:6, 2:4. Display of old Bibles features Exposition event; Superintendent of Schools Crawford lauds Bible for inspirational value.

October 8, 1935. Program – Showmen’s Day, California Public School Superintendents’ Day.

San Diego Sun, October 8, 1935, 3:3. Exposition host to U.S. showmen; J. Ed Brown, director of shows and concessions at the Exposition, program manager for the day.

San Diego Sun, October 8, 1935, 3:4. Special Exposition day brings joy to “shut-ins”.

San Diego Sun, October 8, 1935, 5:2-5. Sunday program at Exposition features Cadman sonata, by Arthur Anderson.

San Diego Union, October 8, 1935, 1:1. Council confers over future of Exposition.

San Diego Union, October 8, 1935, 9:1. All-day program for shut-ins; Rin Tin-Tin, Exposition entertainers join in varied events.

October 9, 1935. Program – Leif Ericson Day, California Public School Superintendents’ Day.

San Diego Sun, October 9, 1935, 4:7. Miss Ruth Cobitt new queen of Zoro Garden nudists.

San Diego Sun, October 9, 1935, 10:3. Italians of San Diego will present two full days program of talented artists Saturday and Sunday in Ford Bowl; Italian opera stars billed.

San Diego Sun, October 9, 1935, 10:6. Café of the World bills Autumn festival; Bobbie Mayorena, master of ceremonies.

San Diego Union, October 9, 1935, 1:2. President Roosevelt approves San Diego Civic Center; $989,528 in federal aid is awaited.

October 10, 1935. Program – Pasadena Day, Light Opera Day, Technocracy Day, Bungalow Literary Hostess Day.

San Diego Herald, October 10, 1935, 1:1-4. Sentiment to continue Exposition is growing daily.

San Diego Herald, October 10, 1935, 2:1-4. Exposition News.

Source?, October 10, 1935. Robert Aitken of New York designed half-dollar Exposition coins.

San Diego Sun, October 10, 1935, 1:1, 2:2. Pasadena folk at Exposition today; technocrat Howard Scott, Light Opera also on program.

San Diego Sun, October 10, 1935, 4:6. Globe passes 250,000 mark.

San Diego Sun, October 10, 1935, 5:1. Program for Italian Days given.

San Diego Sun, October 10, 1935, 5:2. Ford exhibit assured to end of Exposition.

San Diego Sun, October 10, 1935, 18:1. Roses on display in Ford Building patio Saturday and Sunday.

San Diego Union, October 10, 1935, 2:2. Cabrillo Bridge scene of suicide.

San Diego Union, October 10, 1935, 5:1. Light opera series to open at Ford Bowl today.

San Diego Union, October 10, 1935, 10:3-4. Ford exhibit will remain open until November 11 Exposition closing.

October 11, 1935. Program – Light Opera Day, Gay Nineties’ Day, Scottish Clans Day.

San Diego Sun, October 11, 1935, 4:1. Baby Le Roy, candy kid, to be Exposition king tomorrow.

San Diego Sun, October 11, 1935, 8:6-7. E. C. Edison, Globe Theater Press representative, bans high Pressure, gets results, by Willis Werner.

San Diego Sun, October 11, 1935, 10:1. Tea for American Association of Social Workers tomorrow in loggia of House of Hospitality.

October 12, 1935. Program – Italian Day, National Candy Day, Knights of Columbus Day, Latin America Day, Light Opera Day, Columbus Day, Glendale Day, National Rose Day, Illinois Day, Kids’ Day, Paramount Day, Transmo Club Day, Federation of Legal Secretaries’ Day, Girl Scouts’ National Delegates Day, Women’s Overseas Service League Day.

San Diego Sun, October 12, 1935, 1:4, 2:6. Many groups celebrate at Exposition today; 12 days on program.

San Diego Sun, October 12, 1935, 3:2. Globe “Hamlet” starts October 26.

San Diego Sun, October 12, 1935, 6:4-5. Women’s Board to entertain for honorary Exposition committee next Tuesday afternoon in loggia ofHouse of Hospitality.

October 13, 1935. Program – Italian Day, China Day, Light Opera Day, Izaak Walton League of America & Associated Sport Fishermen’s Club Day, National Rose Day, New Jersey Day, Latin America Day.

October 14, 1935. Program – Eastern Star Day.

San Diego Sun, October 14, 1935, 5:1. Nations pledge friendship on Exposition programs; China, Italy, Pan-American countries join in celebration.

San Diego Sun, October 14, 1935, 5:6-7. San Diego rose growers win national prizes at Exposition.

San Diego Sun, October 14, 1935, 5:8. Future Exposition days listed.

October 15, 1935. Program – Highway Patrolmen’s Day.

San Diego Union, October 15, 1935, 3:2. New 1936 models to be shown in Ford patio Saturday.

San Diego Sun, October 15, 1935, 2:2. Exposition greets state patrol.

San Diego Sun, October 15, 1935, 2:2. Eight rulers to reign San Mateo Day at Exposition.

San Diego Sun, October 15, 1935, 16:5. New Fords on display first time at Exposition.

SAN DIEGO ZOO DAY, Wednesday, October 16, 1935

1:00 p.m. PARADE of Zoo animals and Exposition Band forms in front of Zoo entrance — follows bus route to the organ amphitheatre. The band forms on the stage, the animals will stand by in the organ area.

1:30-2:30 p.m. ORGAN AMPHITHEATRE — Program

Fred Heitfeld, Master of Ceremonies

Overture Exposition Band

1st Act: Sensational Parallel Bar Act by Marcus Berlan

Music during act by Exposition Band

2nd Act: Songs accompanied by accordion by Mae LeFountain and Peggy Taylor

3rd Act: Trained Seals – accompanied by music of Exposition Band

4th Act: “Imitations of Movie Stars” by Gloria Winkle

5th Act: Acrobatic Tumbling Act by Sue Hambrough & Bill England

Music during act by Exposition Band

6th Act: Sensational high trapeze and horizontal bar act by Pauline Loretta

7th Act: Novelty Table Act by Bill England accompanied by Exposition Band

8th Act: The Francis Sisters (Jerry, Max, Jill) accompanied by

Roma Lindsey Frey, in a song and dance act introducing

the song “Meet Me at the Zoo”.

2:30-3:30 p.m. House of Hospitality Auditorium

Moving pictures – 1 reel showing gorillas and 3 reels of general

motion pictures taken in the Zoo.

Everyone is cordially invited to attend.

October 16, 1935. Program – San Diego Zoo Day, Ford V-8 Lucky Day.

San Diego Sun, October 16, 1935, 13:6. Exposition to hold huge Aviation Show Sunday.

October 17, 1935. Program – North Dakota Day.

San Diego Herald, October 17, 1935, 6:1-2. Exposition News – Frank Bennett, keeper of Alpha.

San Diego Union, October 17, 1935, 9:1. Zoo Day brings circus to town in Exposition program; animal parade opened day’s activities.

San Diego Union, October 17, 1935, 9:4. Only woman Zoo curator to mark ten year’s service.

October 18, 1935. Program – San Pedro Day.

Source?, October 18, 1935. Governor Merriam will be guest at 1:00 p.m. luncheon at Casa del Rey Moro Café.


October 19, 1935. Program – Ford Motor Day, Governors’ Day, Nebraska Day, Soroptimists’ Day, Girls’ League Day, Lower California Day, La Verne College Day, Doug Douglas Day, Kids’ Day, Veterans of Foreign Wars’ Day.

FORD DAY, Saturday, October 19, 1935, California-Pacific International Exposition.

12:00 noon PARADE of 16 – 1935 V-8 Ford Cars starts promptly from west gate.

These Ford V-8’s will be driven by uniformed drivers accompanied by a girl in white sitting beside each driver. The parade will come thru the west gate to the arch and will be met by the Amaroc Drum and Bugle Corps, composed of 35 pieces, who will lead the parade of 16 cars to the Midway, following the transportation bus line, and return to the Plaza del Pacifico and thru the arch down to the Ford Building, thence to the patio where they will be lined up for the new car showing, which will take place both Saturday and Sunday, October 19 and 20. This is a preview showing of the new cars.

Immediately upon arrival of the new Ford cars into the patio, Jose Manzanares and his orchestra will start one hour of special concert music, beginning at 12:30 and will last until 1:30. Also, Jose Manzanares will play his regular daily schedule from 4:00 to 5:00 and from 7:00 to 8:00 PM. This additional hour from 12:30 to 1:30 will also take place on Sunday as well as Saturday.

It has been requested by the Ford management that our P.A. System given them announcements as many times as possible calling to the attention of Exposition visitors the new car showing in the Ford patio. Mr. Don Long is sending Gary Breckner, a copy to be used over the P.A. System. Also, the Special Events Dept. will place in all programs the Ford Day program for Saturday and call attention to the new car showing both Saturday and Sunday, and not only in the programs but also on the Special Events boards on the grounds.

(Announcement taken from Box Files of California-Pacific International Exposition kept by San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Sun, October 19, 1935, 1:7 (Saturday). Attendance to date 4,101,494; average daily 28,681; attendance October 18 – 13,421.

San Diego Sun, October 19, 1935, 5:4-6. Unseen heroes of Old Globe Theater Co. sew costumes, set stage and pay bits for cast.

October 20, 1935. Program – Consolidated Aircraft Corporation Day, Veterans of Foreign Wars’ Day, Aviation Day, Gideon Day.

San Diego Union, October 20, 1935, 1:3-6, 2:1. Exhibit of Los Angeles Metropolitan District in the Palace of Transportation; San Diego must have share of Colorado River water, by Major General Joseph E Kuhn, retired.

San Diego Union, October 20, 1935, II, 5:1. Model exhibit in Ford patio.

San Diego Union, October 20, 1935, Aviation Special, 1:2. Dedication, race, events in all-day Exposition program.

San Diego Union, October 20, 1935, Aviation Special, 1:8. New Lindbergh field plant of Consolidated Aircraft will be formally dedicated today.

October 21, 1935. Program – Circulation Managers’ Day.

October 22, 1935. Program – Circulation Managers’ Day.

San Diego Union, October 22, 1935, 5:1. Tempo increases as Exposition nears end.

October 23, 1935. Program – Church of God Day.

San Diego Union, October 23, 1935, 2:4-5. Stadium controversy settled; City Council approved City Manager’s plan to turn the stadium over to the School Board.

October 24, 1935. Program – CPIE Employees’ Day.

San Diego Sun, October 24, 1935, 18:1. Exposition workers have free day; invite friends.

San Diego Union, October 24, 1935, 9:3. City attorney is preparing enabling legislation to permit organizations of cultural, social or educational value to the community to establish headquarters in Balboa Park.

October 25, 1935. Program – Washington State Day, Southern California Public Schools Superintendents’ Day, Brewers’ Day.

San Diego Sun, October 25, 1935, 14:1. Eagles Lodge set for big fete at Exposition Sunday.

October 26, 1935. Program – Our Congressman’s Day, Economic Council Day, American Waterworks’ Association Day, Mickey Rooney Day, Irrigation Districts of California Day, San Mateo County Day, Republican Women’s Day, Pennsylvania Day, Pacific Coast Table Tennis Day, Old Home Town Band Day, Kids’ Day, Vaudeville Week.

San Diego Sun, October 26, 1935, 1:7, 3:2. Twenty-four fetes set at Exposition; Special Days load up weekend calendar.

October 27, 1935. Program – Czechoslovak Day, National Moose Day, Pacific Coast Table Tennis Tournament Day, Navy Day, San Mateo County Day, Aid Association for Lutherans Day, Fraternal Order of Eagles Day, Ba’hai Spiritual Assembly Day, KNX Day, Lutheran Day, Bell-California Day, Vaudeville Week.

San Diego Union, October 27, 1935, II, 1:1. Jubilee week scheduled as extra Exposition feature; will mark last seven days of Exposition, proclamation by Mayor Percy Benbough.

October 28, 1935. Program – SERA (State Emergency Relief Administration), WPA & County Welfare Day, Petaluma-Redwoods Empire Day, Pomona College ROTC Day, Navy Day, Vaudeville Week.

San Diego Union, October 28, 1935, 3:2-3. Throngs hear “Messiah” renditions by Exposition Chorus in Ford Bowl, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, October 28, 1935, 3:5. New star hailed as players present “Hamlet” in Old Globe Theater.

October 29, 1935. Program – Style Show Day, Vaudeville Week.

San Diego Sun, October 29, 1935, 1:4. Exposition to show styles today.

San Diego Union, October 29, 1935, 5:4. Exposition throws its gates open to relief families; 25,000 see Exposition; hold own shows at Organ Amphitheater.

October 30, 1935. Program – John D, Spreckels Day, 1915-16 Board of Directors’ Day, Ford V-8 Lucky Day, Vaudeville Week.

San Diego Union, October 30, 1935, II, 5:1. First complete 1936 models exhibited in Ford patio; 13 body designs in a wide variety of colors.

San Diego Sun, October 30, 1935, 1:5. Carnival air hits “big show”; Halloween touch added to program.

San Diego Sun, October 30, 1935, 1:6. “Taps” at midnight; bugler chosen for Exposition finale.

October 31, 1935. Program – 30th Infantry Day, Halloween Day, Idaho Day, Vaudeville Week

San Diego Sun, October 31, 1935, 1:2. Exposition prepares gay Halloween; dances, costume contests to feature revel.

San Diego Sun, October 31, 1935, 9:2-3. Thousands pay tribute to memory of Spreckels.

San Diego Herald, October 31, 1935, 1:2. Exposition should continue.

San Diego Union, October 31, 1935, II, 1:2. Exposition will honor General Malone, Colonel Simpson, Infantry; drills, parades, talks to mark today’s program.

San Diego Union, October 31, 1935, II, 1:3-4. Spreckels Organ plays big part in memorial service for donor, by Wallace Moody.

San Diego Union, October 31, 1935, II, 1:5. Throng at Exposition honors memory of J. D. Spreckels.

November 1, 1935. Program – National Congressmen’s Day, Artists & Art Scholars’ Day, Art Mart, Vaudeville Week.

San Diego Union, November 1, 1935, 1:5, 2:6. Major General Malone, commander of the 9th Corps area, lauded democracy in talk at an afternoon program in the Organ Amphitheater in honor of the 30th Infantry.

PRESS BULLETIN #19, Saturday, November 2, 1935; SUBJECT: Supplymen

One hundred trucks, gaily decorated in celebration of Jubilee Week at the California Pacific International Exposition, will parade from the west gate around the grounds of the world’s fair Wednesday, November 6, when “Supplymen’s Day” is observed, it was announced today.

The event marks the first commercial parade to be held since the fair opened and honors the merchants who have kept the exposition supplied with the countless necessities of the huge “city within a city.”

Gus Arnheim and his famous orchestra, playing in the organ amphitheatre from 7:30 to 8:30 p.m., will dedicate special numbers to the exposition supplymen and Jose Arias and his Troubadours will play a special number written for the day’s observance by W. W. Wheatly.

The entrance parade will start at 6:30 p.m.

(Press Bulletin #19 taken from Box Files of California Pacific International Exposition kept by San Diego Public Library.)

November 2, 1935. Program – Southern California Horseshoe Pitchers’ Tournament Day, State Farm Insurance Companies’ Day, American Junior Red Cross Day, University of Redlands Day, Will Rogers Memorial Day, American Red Cross Day, Insurance Agents’ Day, Home Economics Day, Art Mart Day, Kids’ Day, Legion of Valor Day, Girl Scouts’ Day, May Robson Day, YMCA Day.

November 3, 1935. Program – American College of Surgeons’ Day, California State Fraternal Congress Day, International Day, YWCA Day, Mid-Winter Bathing Beauty Contest Day, State Farm Insurance Companies’ Day, Southern California Horseshoe Pitchers’ Contest Day, Moran School Day, Art Mart.

New York Times, November 3, 1935, 8:2. Julius Wangenheim, chairman of the finance committee, announced today that 4,784,811 persons attended the San Diego Exposition which closed last night.

November 4, 1935. Program – Will Rogers Memorial Day, Amateur Motion Pictures Day.

San Diego Union, November 4, 1935, 1:4-5, 4:6. Exposition dedicates final Jubilee Week to people of San Diego.

San Diego Union, November 4, 1935, 10:1. Frank Drugan honored at International Day celebration.

November 5, 1935. Program – Exhibitors & Concessionaires Employees’ Day, Jubilee Week.

San Diego Union, November 5, 1935, 5:1. Taps will close Exposition at midnight on Armistice Day.

November 6, 1935. Program – California Pacific International Exposition Directors’ Day, Supplymen’s Day, Family Jubilee Day, Jubilee Week.

San Diego Union, November 6, 1935, 10:1-2. Ford Building to close officially at ten p.m. Armistice Day.

San Diego Union, November 6, 1935, II, 1:2. State Work Progess Administration authorized construction of buildings and improvements to be made at Balboa Park and the Zoological Hospital yesterday.

November 7, 1935. Program – International Lumbermen’s Day, Lila Lee Day, Amateur Photographers’ Day, Family Jubilee Day, Jubilee Week.

San Diego Herald, November 7, 1935, 1:1-4. Exposition to reopen January 1; situation in Balboa Park begins to small bad as gang formerly thrown out are back with love and kisses; New board of managers of Exposition are Frank G. Belcher, Hal Hotchkiss, John Fox, O. W. Cotton, Sam Mason, Councilman W. C. Wurfel and Emil Klicka. A majority of these men belong to the Belcher clique or faction and are dominated by Baron Long, King of Tijuana Gamblers. . . . Just who is H.O. Davis? . . . He advised the Board to do away with the “Midway” and the Café of the World and to spend $60,000 or more on a new dine and dance spot in the Spanish Village; caused the Triumphal Arch and Fish Pond to be built on the Plaza at a cost of $40,000.

San Diego Herald, November 7, 1935, 2:1-2. Exposition News – total attendance to date 4,500,000; cash awards at California State Building by judges of contest determining the fine points of the numerous floral, cacti and succulents displayed; Mexican fashion show in the auditorium of theHouse of Hospitality yesterday and today; Barbara Watson, 15-year old Hoover high school girl will be crowned “Miss Exposition – 1935” Saturday afternoon; Amateur photography contest today in Palace of Photography. Series of illustrated lectures by Frederick Vining Fisher in the auditorium of the House of Hospitality; Surprise birthday party for Miss Constance King in the Model Nursery School in the basement of thePalace of Education; Gus Arnheim and his orchestra will give three concerts daily at the Exposition as a special attraction of the Jubilee Week closing festivities.

San Diego Herald, November 7, 1935, 6:2. Café of the World . . . the most talked about, heard about dining and wining place in existence.

San Diego Herald, November 7, 1935. 6:4. Big program planned for Armistice Day, by Wilfrid M. Clare; reenaction of the signing of the Armistice in the evening by the Barn Players.

San Diego Union, November 7, 1935, II, 1:2. Belcher receives watch; Exposition directors honored.

November 8, 1935. Program – Ford V-8 Lucky Day, Hotel Day, Alaska Day, Jubilee Week.

San Diego Union, November 8, 1935, 7:2-3. Roster of famous visitors reads like Who’s Who of World.

San Diego Union, November 9, 1935, 1:1-2. Program – Fresno State College Day, Latter-Day Saints Day, Voice Culture Day, Kids’ Day, Art Mart, Pacific Coast Newspapermen’s Day, San Diego State College Day, Jubilee Week.

San Diego Union, November 9, 1935, 1:3, 2:7. Exposition to reopen January 15; to continue until September 9.

San Diego Union, November 9, 1935, 1:7, 2:2. Barbara Watson will be crowned Exposition queen at a Children’s Day program at the Organ Amphitheater at two p.m. today.

San Diego Union, November 9, 1935, II, 10:1. Sourdoughs of Alaska’s gold rush hold Exposition reunion.

San Diego Union, November 9, 1935, II, 10:4-5. Exposition to combine Armistice Day and 1935 closing observance.

November 10, 1935. Program – Senator McAdoo Day, Camp Baldy Day, Loyola University Day, Whittier Day, California State Chamber of Commerce Day, Fresno State College Day, Art Mart, Parents & Kiddies’ Day, Jubilee Week.

November 11, 1935. Program – Armistice Day, Subscribers’ Day, President Frank G. Belcher Day, Parents & Kiddies’ Day, Art Mart, Jubilee Week.

San Diego Union, November 11, 1935, 1:8, 2:1. Strato balloon hop today in a rock-walled natural bowl, eleven miles southwest of Rapid City, South Dakota.

San Diego Union, November 11, 1935, 1:5, 2:4. Senator William Gibbs McAdoo spoke at the Organ Amphitheater yesterday afternoon; visions a permanent Exposition as an institution of international relations for the nations of the Pacific.

San Diego Union, November 11, 1935, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Tonight and After – Early next year, the same Exposition will open again, and San Diego will make its bid for the title of the nation’s Exposition city.

San Diego Union, November 11, 1935, II, 1:2. 1935 Exposition officially ends at midnight; military pageant will be feature of last program.

San Diego Union, November 11, 1935, II, 1:5. Music prevails in Festivities as Exposition nears end, by Wallace Moody.

November 11, 1935. THE RISING TIDE by Richard Pourade (San Diego, 1967)

The 1935 Fair closed on November 11. The exposition corporation had spent $1,250,000 of its own money, of which $650,000 had come from paid-in subscriptions, $300,000 from advance ticket sales, and $300,000 from the sale of exhibit space. The books were closed with $315,833 in the bank, enough to return half of what had been advanced and $70,000 in reserve to restore park areas to their former condition.

Total attendance was 4,784, 811.

The reopening was scheduled for February 12. . . . The Fair never reached the attendance of 1935.

Too many of the exhibits were no longer new and there was competition from fairs in other sections

of the country. The Ford Company, along with the other major exhibitors, reduced or changed their

exhibits. The magic had faded. The fair would stagger on until midnight on September 9, 1936,

but the number of visitors to both fairs would reach 7,220,000.

November 12, 1935. Minutes of the regular meeting of the Park Commission held in the Administration Building, Balboa Park, November 12th, 1935, at 4:00 o’clock. Members present: Commissioners Otto, Naylor and Yale.

The Meeting was called to order by the President, Commissioner Otto.

Minutes of the meeting of October 8th were approved and read.

A letter was received from the San Diego Floral Association with the request that their building be returned to them at the close of the Exposition. The Secretary was instructed to notify them that their request will be given consideration by the Commission at the proper time.

Communications were received from Ashton Dearholt and the local Chamber of Commerce relative to the Burroughs-TARZAN-Enterprises securing movie rights within Balboa Park and the use of a park building for a sound stage. The Secretary was instructed to notify the company that action on the part of the Commission is impossible at this time, but they would be glad to cooperate when the park is again available for such use. Upon the suggestion of Mr. Naylor, Mr. Otto agreed to discuss the matter with the officials of the Exposition to see if they would be in a position to act upon the proposition.

Mr. Yale presented a petition requesting the City to enter into a lease for a period of five years with one Dan Nothrup for Pueblo Lot 1340 at a rental of $150.00. It was duly moved, seconded and carried that the petition be approved and referred to the City Attorney for the drawing of the lease.

Discussion of the proposal to remove the clipped acacias along the Prado. Mr. Morley reported that the Exposition desired to remove these and replace them with Cocos plumosa in order to develop certain lighting effects. A letter was received requesting that as few changes as possible be made along the main avenues through the park. It was the opinion of the Commission that the matter should be given considerable discussion before any action was taken.

It was suggested by Mr. Yale that a letter expressing the sympathy and best wishes of the Park Commissioners be addressed to Sydney Hill. So ordered.

Upon motion, seconded and carried, the meeting adjourned.

Signed W. Allen Perry, Secretary.

Source?, November 12, 1935. Record set by crowd at Exposition with 83,238; a grand total of 4,784,411 persons have passed through the gates since May 29.

Source?, November 12, 1935. Ford exhibit leads at Exposition with 2,722,765; Midget Village was tops among concessions with 375,000.

Source?, November 12, 1935. Notables of world were Fair visitors.

Source?, November 12, 1935. Expo finale ends without arrests.

Source?, November 12, 1935. Workmen busy preparing Expo for 1936 opening.

San Diego Union, November 12, 1935, 1:8, 2:5-6. 76,000 jam Exposition for closing; lights out as bugler blows taps; attendance sets record; ceremonies held at Organ Amphitheater and Plaza del Pacifico at midnight.

San Diego Union, November 12, 1935, 2:1. 30th Infantry to be back next year.

San Diego Union, November 12, 1935, 3:7. Federal Housing Administration Model Town to remain for Exposition next year.

San Diego Union, November 12, 1935, 4:1. EDITORIAL: “Agency of Peace” – Claim for Exposition as a peace factor is negligible; it is a first-rate Exposition and that’s enough reason to renew it for next year.

San Diego Union, November 13, 1935, 1:7-8, 2:2. Belcher plunges into work for better Exposition next year.

San Diego Herald, November 14, 1935, 1:1-4. Exposition closes; Mexican gambling may return; fight against dominion of San Diego’s Fair by alien slickers is fight in which all citizens must take part.

San Diego Union, November 14, 1935, 1:7, 2:7. Plans for Exposition next year begin to take shape.

San Diego Union, November 15, 1935, 3:2-3. Military funeral of Major General J. E. Kuhn held at Organ Amphitheater yesterday afternoon.

San Diego Union, November 15, 1935, 5:6-7. Changes ordered for Gold GulchMidway.

Letter, November 16, 1935, Austin L. Black, Deputy Regional Director, Modeltown, America’s Exposition, San Diego, Calif. to Philip Gildred, Managing Director, California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego, Calif.

Dear Mr. Gildred:

This is to advise you that the Federal Housing Administration will provide during the period of the 1936 Exposition supervising personnel for the Federal Housing Administration exhibit and office, as well as furnishing to visitors to the Exposition printed information on general National Housing Act matters in addition to the special illustrated Modeltown Home Selectors, the same as we have furnished during the past period of the Exposition.

With this information, and with the cooperation of Mr. Stuart Ripley, you will be enabled to draft WPA Project which will take care of maintenance and other activities pertinent to this Better Housing Project upon the Exposition grounds.

It is our understanding that the Exposition management will be responsible for the preservation of the Modeltown Houses and Modernization Magic Exhibit during the interim period, and also that the Exposition management will supply the landscaping materials for rehabilitation of Modeltown for the reopening, and any other necessary expenses for material to equip the exhibit up to the standard at least of what it had been during the past Exposition period, and that the Federal Housing Administration is in no way liable either for materials or labor incidental thereto.

You may be assured that the Federal Housing Administration will continue to provide full cooperation with the Exposition management to make this project a successful feature in the new period of the Exposition operations, and will also extend whatever cooperation is possible in the matter of publicity and other activities to stimulate interest in this Better Housing Project.

We are engaging a capable assistant to Mr. Ripley, who will report for duty here on December 1st, approximately, and who will remain here throughout the interim period, and also throughout the operation period. This man will be on the Federal Housing Administration payroll.

There are other matters of the Federal Housing Administration cooperation with the Exposition which I am today bringing to the attention of yourself and Mr. Hotchkiss and Mr. Clark in the hope that we may further cooperate in other ways through a new program of activities which can be carried out by our organization during the coming year.

An acknowledgment of this letter is respectfully requested.

Very truly yours,

Austin L. Black,

Deputy Regional Director.

Copy to H. H. Barter

Copy to Harry Foster

(Transcription of letter in Box Files of California-Pacific International Exposition kept by San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Union, November 16, 1935, 1:2, 2:5. Exotic lights to enhance Exposition again; exhibitors already busy.

San Diego Union, November 16, 1935, 5:5. Winner of Exposition Model Home due here tomorrow.

San Diego Union, November 16, 1935, 5:6. Belle Benchley urges Exposition to provide entrance to Zoo.

San Diego Union, November 17, 1935, 1:8, 6:1. Federal aid is sought for permanent Exposition center.

San Diego Union, November 17, 1935, 1:7, 6:2. 30th Infantry breaks camp; heads for north today.

Letter, November 18, 1935, Assistant Executive Manager, California-Pacific International Exposition, to Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 153 West Adams St., Los Angeles, Calif.; Att’n: Mr. Nicolas G. Smith.


This will serve as a release of all obligations arising out of, or in any wise connected, with your application, dated January 3rd, 1935, covering a space in the Palace of Better Housing in the California-Pacific International Exposition for the period from May 29th, 1935 to November 11th, 1935.

This will also confirm your oral arrangement with us, relative to the construction of a building on the Exposition grounds directly north of theStandard Oil Building, which building was constructed prior to May 29th, 1935, and was occupied by you from the period from said date to November 11th, 1935. The entire amount of ground rental for the space occupied by this building was $1,344.00, of which you have paid the sum of $672.00, leaving an unpaid balance of like amount.

It is understood that this building, so constructed by you is your property, and can be removed by you at any time prior to January 1st, 1936. In the event of a continued participation by you, in the California-Pacific International Exposition, for the proposed period from January 15th, 1936 to September 9th, 1936, you will be permitted to leave this building intact at it’s present site until the date last mentioned, and to occupy the same from the period of January 15th, 1936 to September 9th, 1936, without the payment of a further ground rental, after which time you will be permitted to remove same.

Very truly yours,


Assistant Executive Manager

(Copy of letter taken from Box File 25 Folder 10, California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Union, November 18, 1935, 1:7, 3:2. WPA promises Nursery School at 1936 Exposition.

San Diego Union, November 18, 1935, 3:4. Roberto M. Muller arrives, takes keys to Casa de Tempo.

San Diego Union, November 18, 1935, 5:1. Albert S. Hill, assistant park chief, succumbs; secretary of city Park Board; kept books for Balboa Park for more than 15 years.

San Diego Union, November 18, 1935, II, 8:1. “Falstaff” plans to be at Tavern as Exposition reopens.

Minutes, November 19, 1935, Special Meeting of Executive Committee, California-Pacific International Exposition Company, California Corporation.

A special meeting of the Executive Committee of California Pacific International Exposition Company, a non-profit California corporation, was held in the Board of Directors Room of the House of Hospitality at Balboa Park in the City of San Diego, California, on 19th day of November, 1935, at 11:00 o’clock A.M., after notice given by telephone to each member of the Committee, except Mr. Frank G. Belcher who was absent from the City. There were present and acting at said meeting the following, constituting a quorum:

Hal G. Hotchkiss John Lawrence Fox

Emil Klicka Oscar W. Cotton

There were absent:

Frank G. Belcher Walter C. Wurfel

S E Mason

There were also present Mr. Julius Wangenheim, Mr. Walter Ames, Mr. H. O. Davis, Mr. Philip L. Gildred, Mr. Wayne W. Dailard, Mr. Frank Drugan, Mr. A. C. Bartlett, and Mr. A. K. Whyte.

The Chairman, Mr. Hotchkiss, called the meeting to order.

The minutes of the previous meeting had been sent to the individual members of the Executive Committee.

The Chairman, Mr. Hotchkiss, announced that the meeting had been called in connection with an article in the San Diego Sun on the previous day, concerning the Mayor’s intended appointment of a committee on buildings and grounds, objection to the removal of acacia trees and other items.

Mr. Davis emphasized that only 60 days remained to build the new show, asked that he and his workers not by hampered by committees, stated that the landscaping and amusement zone and lighting operations were behind time, explained that most of the acacia trees that had to be removed were dead, reminded the Committee that his job could not be completed by January 15th unless he was let to go ahead without hindrance.

Mr. Wangenheim expressed the opinion that the trees in the Plaza might be taken out and that this matter be referred to the Park people to decide. Mr. Cotton expressed the hope that the Park Board would approve taking out the trees.

Mr. Davis reported that Mr. Foster had advised him that he could not reconstruct the Spanish Village. Mr. Davis was of the opinion that because it had been a S. E. R. A. project and belonged to the City, he could proceed with its reconstruction and intended to do so.

Mr. Klicka asked for specific plans of procedure from Mr. Davis.

Mr. Wangenheim suggested going ahead and recommended that the sum of $160,000 indicated by Mr. Davis for the Spanish Village, new lighting, landscaping and balance of amusement construction, but not maintenance, be added to the salary schedule that had been submitted as a form of budget.

Mr. Davis indicated that his approximations of expenditures would show perhaps $40,000 for grounds, $35,000 for lighting, $10,000 for the Children’s zone, and $75,000 for the Mexican street.

Mr. Klicka again requested itemized program to avoid repeating the experience at the commencement of the Exposition. Mr. Davis replied that he could itemize his operations only to the extent of what he might say in a letter, and that he might switch some funds from landscaping to lighting and to other operations.

Following further discussion, it was decided to ask Mr. Davis to submit, for the action of the Executive Committee at its next meeting, such a form of letter as would cover his projected operations and their cost.

The Chairman, Mr. Hotchkiss, explained to Messrs. Arthur K. Whyte and A. C. Bartlett of the San Diego Union and the San Diego Sun, respectively, the tentative plans to take out some of the acacia trees. Mr. Bartlett counseled the Committee not to antagonize public opinion at the commencement of the new Exposition. He stated that Mr. Otto of the Park Board was against moving the trees, but that Mr. Naylor of the Park Board was favorable.

The Chairman, Mr. Hotchkiss, requested Messrs. Oscar W. Cotton, Walter Ames, H. O. Davis and the Secretary to meet with the Park Board concerning the removal of the acacia trees.

The Executive Manager, Mr. Gildred, reported having just heard from Mr. Davidson at Washington to the effect that the Federal Building would remain with the Exposition until September 9th.

The Secretary was instructed to see to it that the Fire station gate was opened as an entrance to the Zoo, and that a statement to that effect should appear in the Press.

It was the sentiment of the Committee that the Public Relations Committee, comprising Messrs. David N. Millan, Walter Ames, Sam S. Porter, Jerry Sullivan, Jr., Joseph E. Dryer, Donald C. Burnham, and Harry Callaway, should be requested to function again.

There being no further business, the meeting adjourned.


Executive Secretary

(Transcription of Minutes taken from Box 5, Folder 13 of California-Pacific International Exposition kept by the San Diego Public Library.)

November 19, 1935. Letter, Julius Wangenheim to Subscribers, California Room, San Diego Public Library.

Subscriptions $650,000

Advance tickets 300,000

Exhibit space 300,000

SERA funds 800,000

Expenditures by Ford,

Standard Oil, etc.

Expenditures $1,250,000

Cash on hand 270,164.90

Amounts due from

Government and others $75,000 reserve to put Balboa Park

Less adequate reserves 82,528.64 back in shape

Total 352,693.54

Indebtedness 36,859.63

Balance $ 315,833.91

(Box 27 Folder 33, California Pacific International Exposition, San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Union, November 19, 1935, 1:2, 2:8. Council, Exposition heads to revise agreement for 1936 control.

San Diego Union, November 19, 1935, 1:5, 2:6. Citrus industry, Housing Bureau plans major new exhibits at Exposition.

San Diego Union, November 19, 1935, 9:4. Nine Pershing Drive lights included in new contract.

Special Meeting of Executive Committee, California-Pacific International Exposition, November 20, 1935.

The mayor requested that the sum of $75,000 that had been deposited by Mr. Julius Wangenheim in local banks at 1%, 1-1/2%, and 2% interest, set aside for Post-Exposition rehabilitation of the Park, be placed in a trust fund. Exposition leaders were of the expressed opinion that the cost would not run as high as $75,000. Councilmen agreed that if the cost was less, the difference would go back to the Exposition treasury. Following discussion, it was left to the Acting City Attorney, Mr. H. B. Daniels, and the Exposition’s attorney, Mr. Walter Ames, to work out together a satisfactory plan for this fund.

City Manager Flack announced appointment of an advisory committee, consisting of George W. Marston, Julius Wangenheim and John G. Morley to aid him in passing on changes requested. Any major changes in the Park’s landscaping or topography are to be approved by the Council. Manager Flack said he proposed not to bother the council with minor matters that could by handled by him and the advisory body, but would insist that larger matters go before the council for approval. No changes in Park landscaping without City approval would be undertaken, the Management agreed.

Digest of Minutes of Executive Committee, November 20, 1935 et al (as reported to Directors at meeting of December 3, 1935).

November 20, 1935 – (Meeting with Mayor, City Manager, Acting City Attorney and City Council) – The Mayor requested that the “Post Exposition Reserve” Fund of $75,000 be placed in a trust fund. Exposition officials expressed the opinion that the cost would not run as high as $75,000. The Councilmen agreed that if the cost was less, the difference would go back to the Exposition treasury. It was left to the Acting City Attorney and the Exposition’s Attorney to work out together a satisfactory plan for this fund. The Mayor requested that the parking privileges for the parking areas be given to the Exposition — the Exposition to receive and have the full benefit of all profits therefrom and to pay the City each month the difference between the normal expense, under ordinary City conditions and the actual expense during the Exposition period for the payroll and other expenses of the Police and Fire Departments. This cost to be billed to the Exposition each month. A maximum of $5,000 a month was set. This item is to be made a first charge of revenues received from the operation of the parking area by the Exposition. This proposal was agreed to go with the understanding that the Exposition would be allowed to transfer its monthly surplus. The Mayor stated that “border games”, etc. would be prohibited. The Mayor requested more restrooms, especially for ladies, and that three-fourths of the restrooms be free. Mr. Hotchkiss advised the Mayor that his wishes concerning toilets would be carried out with the best proportion of free toilets possible. City Manager Flack announced the appointment of an advisory committee, comprising George W. Marston, Julius Wangenheim and John G. Morley to aid him in passing on minor park changes requested. Major changes in park’s landscaping or topography to be approved by the City Council. The Mayor requested and the Management agreed to provide entrances to Exposition grounds so full access would be made possible to Park institutions such as the San Diego Museum, Fine Arts Gallery, Zoo, and Natural History Museum during the reconstruction period. Reasonable access to location of reconstruction work to be provided and auto traffic prohibited because of the danger and confusion it might cause. All buildings, except those housing City institutions, to be closed to the public. Complete closing of the grounds to the public for 14 days before reopening of the Exposition was agreed to. It was agreed that San Diegans of one year residence or longer will be employed by the Exposition except where local help cannot be obtained. In case of exceptions, the Exposition Executive Committee will adopt a special resolution authorizing such employment so there will be a complete record of the labor situation. In addition to fire and other insurance requirements, the Exposition is to carry liability insurance to relieve the City of the cost of any claims for damages arising out of use of the Park for Exposition purposes. The Mayor, Councilmen and Exposition officials expressed satisfaction on the settlement of control ordinance provisions during the meeting.

November 22, 1935 – A new contract between the Exposition corporation and John Sirigo was presented and approved with changes suggested. The contract for vending machines was ratified by the Executive Committee. Mr. Weston Settlemeier and the Carl Graf Company of Los Angeles were engaged to serve in the Sales Department. Tentative forms of agreement with Eckert’s Bavarian Beer Garden, the Drugstore, the Café of the World, the Café Casa del Rey Moro, the Nudist Colony, the Midgets, Television, and the Robot were presented to Mr. Dailard, and no objections were offered by the Executive Committee members. A letter to Dr. Lyell C. Kinney from Mr. Hotchkiss, requesting Dr. Kinney to serve as chairman of a committee representing the Executive Committee for the purpose of securing, if possible, the National Medical Exhibit for the Exposition, and also requesting him to appoint Dr. Alex M. Lesem to serve with him on this committee, together with a third member, was presented and approved. The third member appointed later is Dr. M. D. Harding. A letter from Mr. H. O. Davis, covering the cost of his operations, was submitted. It was reported that insurance binders, expiring November 22nd, had been extended for an additional ten days. The proposal to send one of Mr. Mason’s busses cross-country for advertising purposes was discouraged by the Exposition publicity department. It was decided that Management would submit a formal budget to Mr. Wangenheim.

November 25, 1935 – It was reported that the Federal Building was to function for 30 days after reopening, and thereafter to be closed if no appropriation for maintenance is passed by Congress. It was reported that a proposal to use a blimp to advertise the Exposition at the Pasadena Tournament of Roses had been declined. It was decided that Mr. Hotchkiss should confer with the District Attorney and thereafter to negotiate tentatively with the owners of the Casa de Tempo for its purchase by the Exposition.

November 27, 1935 – It was decided that at such time as the U. S. Grant Hotel would provide a subscription of $8,333.33 or more, the subscription of the Balboa Brewing Company for that amount would be eliminated from the records. The budget as submitted by the Management was referred to the Finance Committee.

November 29, 1935 – There was general discussion concerning continuation and reopening items, with no action being taken in respect thereto.

December 2, 1935 – A letter from Messrs. Emil Klicka, W. W. Dailard, Raymond M. Wansley and Julius Wangenheim, covering auditing and accounting functions was read. The recommendations set forth in said letter were approved. It was the sentiment of the Committee that insurance coverage be referred back to the Committee comprising Messrs. Wayne W. Dailard and L. R. Folda, with the addition of Mr. Walter Ames and Mr. S. E. Mason as chairman, with authority to arrange immediately for all fire insurance coverage as outlined in the letter of November 11th addressed to Mr. Drugan from Mr. Folda, and to decide about remaining coverage’s after procuring advice of counsel and after studying wishes of City Purchasing Department. A committee from the San Diego Building Trades Council conferred with the Committee and presented a form of agreement with the request that the Exposition corporation sign it jointly with the San Diego Building Trades Council. The proposed agreement was entrusted to a committee comprising G. Aubrey Davidson, Chairman, and S. E. Mason, Walter Ames, and Wayne M. Dailard. Mr. Cotton requested a 30-minute period at the next Executive Committee meeting for reports concerning the publicity and special events departments. The meeting adjourned to reconvene following the Board of Directors meeting on Tuesday, December 3rd, in the Board of Directors room in the House of Hospitality.

(Box 27, Folder 33, California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Union, November 20, 1935, 1:7, 2:3. Council agrees on conditions of Exposition ordinance.

San Diego Union, November 20, 1935, 4:1. EDITORIAL: Today’s Agreements.

Source?, November 21, 1935. Expo gaming to be banned during 1936; City officials vote end to “Borderline” playing.; other conditions and restrictions.

San Diego Herald, November 21, 1935, 6:2-3. Prospects for 1936 Exposition brighter than ever; Fair managers see mistakes.

San Diego Union, November 21, 1935, 1:7-8, 2:2. More beauty, finer exhibits being provided for 1936.

San Diego Union, November 21, 1935, 3:5-6. Directors approve City’s Exposition control ordinance.

San Diego Union, November 22, 1935, 1:5, 2:4. State to increase exhibits; cities, counties to return with wider programs.

San Diego Union, November 23, 1935, 2:8. Exposition gate open for visits to city institutions in Balboa Park.

San Diego Union, November 23, 1935, 7:1. Financing told; new exhibits sought in East.

San Diego Union, November 23, 1935, 7:3. Big snake house planned at Zoo; rare species sought.

San Diego Union, November 24, 1935, 11:2. Buildings, grounds to have change of dress.

San Diego Union, November 24, 1935, Building, 2:5. Rock Garden in patio of House of Pacific Relations wins $300 award; designed by Fred H. Wylie.

San Diego Union, November 24, 1935, Classified, 10:1. Press Building to reopen.

San Diego Union, November 25, 1935, 1:7-8. Dr. Harry M. Wegeforth and C. B. Perkins sail in search of rare animals for San Diego Zoo.

San Diego Union, November 26, 1935, 1:4, 2:2. More than 400 cadets of the San Diego High Schools ROTC joined with Army Reserve officers in field maneuvers in Balboa Park yesterday afternoon.

San Diego Union, November 27, 1935, II, 1:5. After a unanimous report from his advisory committee, the City Manager yesterday afternoon approved the removal of some acacia trees along Laurel Street in the Exposition grounds.

San Diego Union, November 28, 1935, 1:1-2, 2:8. Aircraft companies discuss giant exhibits for Exposition.

San Diego Union, November 30, 1935, 1:3, 2:2. Zoo begins new amphitheater for 1936 Exposition; new light scheme for night display; trained animals.

“Thus Endeth the First Chapter of America’s Exposition – 1935,” by Esther Mugan Bush, Santa Fe Magazine, December 1935, illus., pp. 15-17.

Faithful unto the last, our weather man turned on his very finest brand of California sunshine for Armistice Day, November 11 — the day on which America’s Exposition of 1935 came to a close. Spirits ran high. All day long the grounds were crowed with merry-makers, eager to see and to hear. Souvenirs were being grabbed at slightly reduced prices; eating places were mobbed — sold out long before closing time.

The most colorful feature of the afternoon’s program was the Spanish fiesta presented by the combined troupes of Jose Arias and Carlos Arandas, who, with their troubadours, have been among the most popular features of the Exposition, bring as they did a touch of old world joyousness.

Jose Arias, as master of ceremonies on this occasion, charmed not only with the numbers presented but with his fascinating blending of Spanish and English. When he expressed the desire to be with us again in 1936 — as he was in 1915 and in 1935 — everyone in the audience seconded the wish. The troubadours were everywhere during the Exposition, but particularly in the House of Hospitality, where, with their bright

colored blouses and picturesque hats, they heightened the color of an already brilliantly colored patio.

Always in great undertakings, there is one who is the guiding spirit, yet who remains very much in the background. And so it was with America’s Exposition. Not until very close to the end was the public told much about Frank Drugan, founder of the California-Pacific International Exposition, founder of the House of Pacific Relations, executive secretary of the California-Pacific International Exposition.

We had a Frank Drugan Day, when a beautiful pageant was presented from the organ platform by the representatives of the various nations, which had dwelt side by side, in the House of Pacific Relations — each having a separate bungalow — during the Exposition. Tea was served in the patio by attendants in the colorful costume of the various nations. And on that day Mr. Drugan came into his own — or, should I say that the public came into its own in being given an opportunity to meet this splendid executive who guided the Exposition through speedy promotion into successful fruition. Frank G. Belcher, president of the Exposition, referred feelingly to Mr. Drugan’s great work in his speech on closing night.


Calling all lexicographers! Calling all lexicographers! The SANTA FE MAGAZINE representative floundering in a sea of loveliness. Adjectives exhausted. Send emergency order of superlatives at once.

My friends, I was eager to tell you from first-hand experience the minutest details of the last inspiring moments of America’s Exposition, and so I sat for two straight hours on a hard, backless cement bench, close to the edge of the pool in Plaza del Pacifico, on the opposite side of which retreat exercises were to be conducted by the Thirty-ninth Infantry just ten minutes before the bugler sounded taps and the lights went out.

And now I find myself without words to picture for you this glorious scene.

A big, white, smiling full moon had taken the place of the gorgeous sunshine. A slight breeze rippled the flags gaily festooned from tower to tower. The aurora borealis atop the organ pavilion played its multicolored lights over the thickly populated grounds. Gaiety reigned.

Anticipating something like what had happened in Chicago at close of A Century of Progress, the park was well policed. But there was no boisterousness, no drunkenness, no disorder.

At 11:30 the lights in Plaza del Pacifico were turned off and the closing program began at the organ pavilion, reaching all parts of the grounds by the loud-speaker system. Royal Brown, official organist, presented an Aztec Indian pageant for which he had arranged the music.

Then Frank G. Belcher, the young president of the Exposition, delivered his farewell address, speaking with all the enthusiasm, the confidence, the promise that is youths to command. Gratefully, to those who had cooperated in making the Exposition a success; happily, of the benefits that have accrued to San Diego; hopefully, of benefits yet to come. He was splendid. Speaking of the moral uplift, he stated that only sixty-six arrests had been made in all San Diego during the entire Exposition period.

The 300-voice Exposition chorus, under Dr. Earl Rosenberg, sang, “Auld Lang Syne,” at the end of Mr. Belcher’s talk; and, then, in the distance we heard the rat-at-tat-tat of the approaching infantry. In the light of the moon only they took their places in front of the Palace of Fine Arts, under command of Captain Thomas M. Starke, where they were joined by President Belcher.

Suddenly a flood of lights disclosed the massed flags on the stops of the building and spotlights called attention to various items of interest — the stars and stripes, waving gloriously from its high flagpole and reflected in the placid pool; pigeons, a tradition in Balboa Park since the 1915 Exposition, taking in the scene from their vantage perches on the three statues above the door of the Fine Arts Palace.

I watched for the gold fish to come to the surface of the pond and parade, as I have seen them do when the band played military numbers, but they evidently were fast asleep, for only a few tiny minnows rippled the water.

Black Dan and another black beauty mounted by two policemen, who always head the parade of the men in uniform, pranced proudly, as if aware of the solemnity of the occasion.

As the flag was lowered, its reflection seemed to come up to meet it, and you could have heard a pin drop so reverent was the attention given to this ceremony. The flag was folded and placed in the hands of Captain Starke, who with words that brought a lump to more than one throat, presented it to Mr. Belcher, who responded in equally touching words.

Then — a hush! All eyes followed the spotlight focused on the Hall of Photography, and there, standing right on the edge of the building, silhouetted against a starlit sky, stood Joe Galli, bugler, who sounded taps. Lights out! San Diego’s Exposition of 1935 was officially closed.

. . .

The 1925 Exposition was essentially a cultural exposition. And it was largely a youths’ exposition. Youth bore many of the burdens. Frank G. Belcher wasn’t much more than an infant when this writer came west in 1915 to write up the Expositions being held that year in both San Diego and San Francisco; Harriet Mortell, manger of the department of music, is only — but why tell a lady’s age? She might not like so well to see it in print twenty years from now. Another young executive whom I met is Mr. Masters, chief of publicity, who made it possible for me to supply this magazine with such splendid illustrations.

I have told you much about our cultural aspects. Nowhere was this better exemplified than in the very fine exhibit of the Standard Food brands, where one could purchase a cup of “dated coffee” for a dime and enjoy a dollar’s worth of entertainment. Colonel Snap, who arranged and managed this exhibit,, with the very able assistance of his charming wife, deserves much credit for having assembled as much pulchritude, brains and talent in the group of waitresses, who not only served with a graciousness which made their duties an art but who could sing, dance and entertain in various ways.

But now we’re not talking so much about the Exposition that was, but the Exposition that is to be. We’re opening again on January 15, bigger and better than ever. Much will have been weeded out in the way of exhibitions; bigger, better displays will take their place. In this matter of exhibits, the 1935 Exposition was but a dress rehearsal for the one to follow. But nowhere in the world can there be found a more perfect setting; nowhere a climate which makes it possible to enjoy the Exposition every day in the year; nowhere could greater attention have been paid to comfort. As William B. Courtney said in Colliers last spring, before the Exposition opened, it was possible “to sit your way all around the grounds.” Benches everywhere, and cool, shady lanes and canyons.

Hope to see you all next year. Merry Christmas!

(Box 33, California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Union, December 1, 1935, 1:2, 14:1. Exposition anticipates record-breaking 1936 attendance; schedule special events.

San Diego Union, December 3, 1935, 1;7-8, 2:5. Balboa Park organ to be designed in flowers for Rose Bowl float.

San Diego Union, December 3, 1935, 9:1. San Diego Zoo has only captive Alaskan seals.

San Diego Union, December 4, 1935, 1:6, 2;2. Exposition to release Pepper Grove to free public use; Indian Village turned back; Councilmen, Exposition leaders map plans.

San Diego Union, December 4, 1935, 12:2. Exposition to unveil bust of Will Rogers.

San Diego Union, December 4, 1935, 12:5. $35,000 in improvements to Café of the WorldPalisades Café, and International Drug Co.

San Diego Herald, December 5, 1935, 2:2. Exposition looks good, but action lacking; Councilmen violate charter in Siebert appointment; Tijuana open.

San Diego Union, December 5, 1935, 1:7, 2:5. Family fun zone planned; beauty stressed; Enchanted Island, lagoon, elaborate night lighting; new concessions; hurdy-gurdy Midway of last season has been demolished.

San Diego Union, December 5, 1935, 8:1. Council to act Tuesday on Exposition control measure.

San Diego Union, December 6, 1935, 4:1. EDITORIAL: The Exposition and the Park.

San Diego Union, December 6, 1935, 5:5-6. Elwood F. Bailey says Exposition policy is “accent on youth”; fun being planned for young people of all ages.

San Diego Union, December 6, 1935, 7:1. On the night of December 23, a Yuletide chorus of 4,000 will sing at a Christmas tree at 6th Avenue and Laurel Street in Balboa Park.

San Diego Union, December 7, 1935, 9:1. Hollywood Secrets, Playback, and Revue of the Nations planned at Exposition’s Fun zone.

San Diego Union, December 8, 1935, 1:1, 14:1. Businessmen form group in four sections to boost Exposition; volunteer committee plans canvass of leading United States concerns.

San Diego Union, December 8, 1935, Sports, 3:3-5. 1915 Exposition’s $10,000 road race a headliner.

San Diego Union, December 9, 1935, 1:3, 2:5. Work rushed as Exposition opening plans are made.

December 10, 1935. Minutes of the regular meeting of the Park Commission held in the Administration Building, Balboa Park, December 10th, 1935 at 4:00 o’clock. Members present: Otto, Yale and Naylor.

The meeting was called to order at 4:00 p.m. by the president, Commissioner Otto.

A letter was received from J.H. McKinney, Deputy City Attorney, advising the Commission that a lease for residential purposes of Pueblo Lot 1340 would be illegal. Mr. McKinney had previously recommended the lease. Due to this reversal of opinion, it was moved by Mr. Naylor, 2nd by Mr. Yale, that the Commission withdraw its recommendation in favor of the lease. Motion carried.

A letter was received from Mrs. Muriel Simpson requesting suspension of that portion of the terms of the merry-go-round agreement requiring the payment of a $500.00 minimum fee. Upon the recommendation of the Park Director, it was moved by Mr. Naylor, seconded by Mr. Yale, that the Commission recommend the suspension of the $500.00 minimum for the year 1936. Motion carried.

A request was received from Thor Eriksen, Activity Director of the Army & Navy YMCA, for special rates at the Municipal Golf course for service personnel. Since similar requests had been denied to the Fire and Police Departments and other organizations, it was moved by Mr. Yale, 2nd by Mr. Naylor, that the request be denied, and the Secretary instructed to inform Mr. Eriksen that facilities of the club house would gladly be made available to a service golf club if such is organized. Motion carried.

Mr. Morley presented plans for a fishing pier at Sunset Cliffs, submitted to him by the City Manager. After an inspection of the plans, it was moved by Mr. Yale, 2nd by Mr. Naylor, that they be approved. Motion carried.

Discussion of grading, surfacing and making proper improvements in the parking area of the golf course before the rainy season. It was moved by Mr. Naylor, 2nd by Mr. Yale, that the Commission concur with the recommendations of the Park Director in completing this parking area by grading, providing drainage, resurfacing or oiling this parking area. Motion carried.

The Secretary was instructed to arrange a conference with the City Manager, at which time the Commission might discuss problems arising from the Exposition.

After discussion it was moved by Mr. Naylor, 2nd by Mr. Yale, that the Park Commission gratefully accept the palms offered by Mr. Otto for improvement of the area along Sixth Avenue. Motion carried.

Upon motion, seconded and carried, the meeting adjourned.

Signed W. Allen Perry, Secretary.

San Diego Union, December 10, 1935, 1:6, 2:5. Exposition promised Ford exhibit; displays from Pan-American Highways and General Motors expected soon; music plans told.

San Diego Union, December 11, 1935, 1:2, 2:6. $600,000 Mission Bay Park job to start; President Roosevelt has approved expenditure.

San Diego Union, December 11, 1935, 3:2-3. Gildred praises Exposition backers; outlines 1936 objectives.

San Diego Union, December 11, 1935, 3:2-3. Council asked to face high cost of Exposition nose-powdering.

San Diego Herald, December 12, 1935, 2:2-3. Barter, Davis and Van Dusen must quit Exposition or community faith in integrity of directors will cease.

San Diego Herald, December 12, 1935, 2:1. Exposition.

San Diego Union, December 12, 1935, 1:4, 2:5. O. S. Harper named new works head as Exposition plans expansion.

San Diego Union, December 13, 1935, 1:4, 2:5. Standard Oil announces new exhibit in 1936.

San Diego Union, December 13, 1935, 9:1. Manager of the Ripley Odditorium fined $150 for exhibiting deformed persons in California for pay.

San Diego Union, December 14, 1935, 5:6-7. Joseph W. Kendall named music director for 1936.

San Diego Union, December 15, 1935, 14:1-3. Work will begin tomorrow on fun zone of modernistic design, “different from anything ever seen before”.

San Diego Union, December 19, 1935, 5:5-7. Representatives of Steel Buildings, Inc. and Santa Fe Railway spent hours at Exposition yesterday, determining the nature and location of new exhibits.

San Diego Union, December 22, 1935, 1:1-2, 4:7. Belcher returns from East; reports new exhibits, great interest.

San Diego Union, December 22, 1935, II, 1:7, 2:2. Enchanted Isle to be children’s paradise.

Letter, December 24, 1935, Lyell c. Kinney, Chairman of the Committee on Medical Exhibits, to New York Representative, California-Pacific Exposition.

Dear Sir:

The Committee on Medical Science Exhibit of the California Medical Association has approved granting space to the following firms in the Eastern district for commercial exhibits.

Burroughs Welcome Company, New York

  1. R. Smith & Sons, New York

Johnson & Johnson, New Brunswick, New Jersey

McKesson & Robbins, New York

Mulford Biological Laboratories, Philadelphia

The Committee will contact these firms by airmail immediately, outlining to them the progress of

the Medical Science Exhibit and requesting them to furnish an exhibit.

The Committee will also ask the following firms to place exhibits in the Hall of Science:

Parke Davis & Co., Detroit

Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago

Ely Lilly & Co., Indianapolis

Mead Johnson & Co., Evansville, Indiana

S M A Corp., Cleveland

Petrolager Corp., Chicago

General Electric X-Ray Corp., Chicago

Eastman Kodak Co. (Medical Division), Rochester

Cutter Laboratories, Berkeley, Calif.

Wallace & Tiernan (Water Purification)

California Dairy Council

The Committee has adopted the following rules for Commercial Exhibitors:

  1. The Exhibit must emphasize educational, research or Public Health features rather than strictly commercial products.
  2. Only such drugs may be exhibited as have been approved by the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry of the American Medical Ass’n.
  3. No literature, products or samples may be distributed without the signed approval of the Committee of the California Medical Ass’n.
  4. No firms will be permitted in the Hall of Science except those invited to exhibit by the Committee of the California Medical Ass’n.

Many of the above firms have motion pictures of an educational nature to demonstrate to the public. Each firm entering the exhibit will be given opportunity to show such films as are approved by the Committee in the Motion Picture Theater in the Hall of Science. This will provide a double contact with the public, that is both their exhibit and their educational films.

The Medical Science Exhibit is sponsored by the California Medical Ass’n. and the San Diego Medical Society. Thus, exhibits in the Hall of Science will carry to the public the approval of Organized Medicine in California.

The Committee has contacted and is making arrangements with several National Organizations for exhibits, such as the American Medical Ass’n., the Mayo Foundation, the American Society for the Control of Cancer, the Pacific Roentgen Club. Several large exhibits from commercial firms but most of them are under negotiation. The exhibits from commercial firms will be given favorable space equal to that of any of the educational exhibits. The Committee will as far as possible try to place the commercial exhibits adjacent to such educational exhibits as they may desire.

The Committee will inform you immediately concerning both educational and commercial exhibits actually contracted as soon as these agreements are made.

Very truly yours,


(Copy of letter taken from Box File 10 Folder 48, California-Pacific International Exposition, kept by San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Union, December 24, 1935, 2:4. Federal funds will be sought for exhibit.

San Diego Union, December 25, 1935, 10:8. Dr. E. L. Hardy appointed director of San Diego Museum of Science.

Letter, December 26, 1935, Lyell C. Kinney, 1831 Fourth St., San Diego, Calif., to Philip Gildred, Managing Director, California-Pacific International Exposition, San Diego, Calif.

Dear Mr. Gildred:

The San Diego County Medical Society has appointed a Committee to represent them in the Exposition. This committee includes the three that you have chosen and in addition, Drs. Churchill, Burger and Crawford, with Dr. Eager and Dr. Winston Crabtree as ex-officio members. The Society has appointed me as the Chairman of that Committee. Would it not be well for the Exposition to officially designate these men as the committee for the Exposition as well as for the County Medical Society.

The Committee for the California Medical Ass’n. consists of Drs. Toland, Pallette, Robles, Ruddock and Tanner, with Drs. Peers and Wernshuis as ex-officio members. You requested to have the letter from Dr. Warnshuis, naming this committee and that letter is enclosed.

The Committee for the County Society met last Friday night and has gone into action very enthusiastically. Because of the immense amount of work in correspondence and the necessity of constant supervision during the Exposition, the Committee has designated Dr. William H. Geistweit, Jr., the President of the County Medical Society, as Director of the Medical Science Exhibit. The Committee feels that because of the large amount of time that this may entail that Dr. Geistweit should be granted a small honorarium in recognition of his work in addition to his actual clerical expense. The Committee has no desire to sidestep any of its responsibility in relation to this exhibit, and will take its full share of the work in promoting and conducting the exhibit. Will you kindly confirm the action of the Committee in appointing Dr. Geistweit, if you approve. Dr. Geistweit is asking to whom he is responsible as his details as they arise. In answer to the first question, I would suggest that because of the appointment of the Committee, his responsibility should be to the Committee.

It is understood that in the case of commercial exhibits the Committee thru Dr. Geistweit will make contact with the proposed exhibitors and invite them to send exhibits in the name of the California Medical Ass’n. and the San Diego County Medical Society. Therefore, the names of these exhibitors will be turned over to your sales Department for final arrangements and all financial transaction.

Your representative, Mr. Bryant, called on us the day that he left for New York. I am enclosing a copy of the memorandum handed him at that time.

I would appreciate your writing a letter to Dr. Geistweit approving his appointment. The Committee from the C. W. A. approved this on the day of their visit to San Diego.

Very truly yours,


(Copy of letter in Box File 10 Folder 48, California-Pacific International Exposition, kept by San Diego Public Library.)

San Diego Union, December 27, 1935, 1:8. Kidnappers slug, rob man; left bound in Powder House Canyon, just north of Pershing Drive.

San Diego Union, December 27, 1935, II, 1:2. Ancient Indian display in Palace of Science for 1936 Exposition to show southland before white man; old dwellings contrast with model homes of FHA exhibit; Maya replicas featured; Malcolm Rogers, director.

San Diego Union, December 28, 1935, 5:1-3. Zoo president, herpetologist to start voyage for far places for rare animals.

San Diego Union, December 29, 1935, 9:5-6. Fun zone space sold out; exhibit places filling fast.

San Diego Union, December 29, 1935, II, 1:1, 2:1. Exposition will add $6 million permanent value in Balboa Park.

San Diego Union, December 31, 1935, II, 1:2. Exposition announces February 26 as date of 1936 opening.




submitted by Richard Requa, Consulting Architect for the Exposition

During the period of the 1935 Exposition I was almost daily in attendance and devoted a great deal of my time and attention to the study of the general plan and arrangement of the buildings and landscaping, studying in detail the elements and features, observing the movements and attitude of the throngs of visitors and noting their comments and criticisms. The purpose of these studies and observations was to formulate ideas and suggestions for additions and changes that I could recommend for the general improvement of the buildings and grounds, in the event it was decided to continue the Exposition during the following year, 1936.

At the request of the management have, from my notes made during the past six months, compiled a list of definite recommendations which I am herewith submitting for consideration. These I have classified under sub-headings more or less in the order of desirability or importance as follows:

  1. Main East Entrance
  2. West Entrance
  3. Plaza del Futuro
  4. California or West Plaza
  5. Street to the Midwayand Amusement Area
  6. Botanical Building
  7. Court of Honor
  8. Main avenue between Organ and Water and Transportation Building
  9. Palisadesarea
  10. General Improvements, Painting and Repairs
  11. General Landscaping Suggestions
  12. Lighting

Main East Entrance

This entrance at the east end of the Avenida de los Palacios proved to be the important entrance to the Exposition during 1935. It is far from being well planned or as impressive as such an important entrance to an Exposition should be. My original plan for a large and impressive Plaza at the east entrance was abandoned on account of expense. Of course, it would be out of the question to attempt to develop it now, due to expense and lack of time. However, very material improvements can be made here with very little expense and without removing or materially changing any of the work now in place.

The group of three banner poles immediately in front of the Arcade leading to the street cars can be improved in appearance, first by a more interesting and profuse planting arrangement at the base, adding an additional line of planting boxes below and extending beyond the present boxes. The mirror reflector suspended from the top of the poles was never properly worked out to produce the effect intended. This could easily be made an interesting feature and throw reflections over the area of the Plaza from the spotlight located in the base.

Formal trees in boxes, with flowers at the base, could be provided at all arch supports on the street car arcade on the side facing the Plaza.

It is extremely important that the plain wire fence on the west side of the thoroughfare north and south through this Plaza should be made more interesting, and a part of the entrance architectural scheme. In fact, it would be a good plan also to give an architectural treatment to the wire fence on the opposite side of the thoroughfare.

I would suggest removing the high banner poles which are now installed on either side of the Avenida de los Palacios between this east entrance and the street leading to the Midway and re-erect these poles along the iron fence on either side of the thoroughfare. I would suggest that on top of the wire fence there should be a shelter or roof and at the base there should be benches separated with planting boxes between, the boxes to contain quick-growing flowering vines to train up over the wire fence with a line of bright flowers of uniform color in front of the boxes. The banners on the triple banner poles and the poles along the fence should be made much longer and more impressive and properly lighted at night.

I recommend that the north set of turnstiles on the line north of the entrance gates be removed and the opening closed with a lattice similar to that used along the entrance treatment. I also recommend that the north set of turnstiles be remove on the line south of the entrance gates and that the set of exit turnstiles at the south end of this line near the pass booth be moved to this location. The reason for this, first — that there are more turnstiles at this entrance than are required. Second — that the exit turnstiles moved up near the center will be much more convenient and used to a greater extent than as at present arranged. The south exit turnstiles were very seldom used during the last Exposition. Another important reason for this change is that it provides a space at the north and south end of the entrance for a fine massing of trees, shrubs and flower. This is particularly necessary on the north side so there will be a tall and interesting mass to break the view of the east wing of the Natural History Museum which is painfully obtrusive.

The floodlights for the entrance Plaza should, if possible, be treated more decoratively or made less obtrusive.. This particularly applies to the group of floodlights erected on the corner of the Natural History Museum, which are particularly crude and distracting.

The space immediately inside the entrance gate is entirely too constricted and lacking in character. This was a subject of considerable criticism during the 1935 Fair. I recommend that the iron fence inside the grounds, directly in front of the turnstiles, be removed; also, the grass plots and group of six trees on either side of the Avenida de los Palacios directly in front of the gates and the main entrance to the Natural History Museumon the north side and the roadway which formerly led to the Gold Gulch, and this whole space be incorporated in a open plaza treatment. In the center of these two plots, now occupied by trees, there could be interesting, bubbling fountains or, if this is not feasible on account of expense, two very fine beds of palms, ferns and tropical plants. It is highly important that some extremely interesting feature be provided in these locations.

It might be advisable to redecorate and change the color scheme of the entire entrance, including the canvas roof over the turnstiles. The present canvas could be painted if it is in good condition. I feel it is of utmost importance that changes be made in this entrance as a first impression made upon visitors has a great influence on their attitude and reception of an Exposition. I also believe that changes here, as suggested, would do more than any other feature to give a new and improved character to the Fair.

West Entrance

Very little change or improvement can be suggested for this entrance. It is highly important, because of the fine and unusual vista of the bridge, California tower and surrounding landscape that this entrance be kept simple and unostentatious, with must enough color and landscape treatment to give it the proper effect of a main entrance to an Exposition. A group of tall palms with a base planting of flowering plants on either side of this entrance at the corners where the road turns into the entrance would add much to the beauty and effectiveness. Two tall banner poles might rise from the center of this group, all adequately floodlighted at night. Additional and better planting in boxes might also be provided on both sides of the line of turnstiles, also plants on the roof, showing above the parapets of the two buildings flanking the central gates.

The CPIE letters on these gates will necessarily have to be changed, if the name of the Exposition is changed.

Plaza del Futuro

When first proposed, I was not very enthusiastic about erecting an arch and providing pools for this Plaza. I was later convinced that they are a desirable feature. However, while at night the illumination of the Tower and the reflection of surrounding buildings in the pools were wonderfully effective, the general aspect of the group was disappointing in the daytime, and lacking in interest. The lines of the Tower are straight and hard, made purposely so in order not to conflict with the beauty of surrounding buildings. It is very necessary to provide in the pools plant life and features to attract attention during the daylight hours.

In order to give the Tower more pleasing proportions and a more friendly tie with the adjoining pools, I suggest that on the north and south sides of the Tower a curb wall be installed to a height a little above the water line and extending in graceful lines and curbs out into the pools to a distance in the center of at least twenty or twenty-five feet. The space enclosed to be made watertight, filled with earth which would slope up to a height approximately five feet against the Towers. This area to be planted with palms and other semitropical plants and bright colored flowers. Within the planting area and near the curb wall between the plants and the water to provide a small fountain, with its own basin. The water from the fountains to be conducted into and to supply the large pools with the fresh water required. These fine planting areas extending out into the pools would give much the effect of floating gardens as have been so much admired at Xochimilco near the City of Mexico.

The planting might also be brought around onto the sides and flank the great arch on either side with high palms or formal trees that would reach well upward toward the opening provided for the loudspeakers.

I would recommend that the two loudspeaker openings at the ends of each side of the arch be closed. That is, the ornamental border removed and the opening stuccoed over to match the wall. I suggest that planting boxes with flowers be provided in the large openings in the top of the Tower.

There is a very great need for some interesting treatment at the two end corners of both pools. I suggest that first, a proper raised base be provided in the corners and a tall slender vase be placed on these pedestals. These vases to be approximately eight feet high and to be filled with flowering plants and trailing vines. In the pools in front of these vases, curb walls to be installed projecting into the pool to provide planting spaces and the floating garden effect similar to the treatment against the arch tower. These additions would not seriously interfere with the reflection surfaces which it is so very important to retain for night effects. If possible, swans or other interesting water fowl should be provided for additional life and interest in the pools during the daytime. I suggest that the planting against the present curb walls of the pools be made much heavier and that additional planting spaces be provided for in front for low-growing flowering plants. This space to be broken occasionally along the sides for the introduction of benches.

I wish to suggest that planting boxes or some interesting display of flower and vines be tried in the two towers that face on this Plaza.

I recommend that all concessions and refreshment booths be eliminated from the Plaza and also the small booths leading down toward the organ and, perhaps, even the group of booths on the curving road facing the organ. This, of course, also includes the checking stand. The spaces between the palm trees might be filled with bright beds of flowers or flowering shrubs.

For consideration I would like to suggest eliminating the planting in the long central area between the balustrade behind the horse and the organ for the following reasons:

The flag pole where the flag-lowering ceremonies took place every evening was not well located in front of the Fine Arts Building as there was not sufficient room around the pool for onlookers to congregate. I suggest moving this pole to the south end of the area formerly occupied by the petunias. I believe it would be much more effective in that location, with the organ as a background, and the people could congregate in the large area to the north. This free space would also provide room for spectators when important entertainments or functions are being held on the organ platform. It would further supply an open Plaza, which is frequently needed in the center of an Exposition group, and which was formerly supplied in the 1915 Exposition by the Plaza de Panama.

I believe that on this cross-axis from the Fine Arts Building on the north to the organ on the south should be provided the great spectacular lighting feature of the Exposition. It is needless to suggest that the old-style lighting should be changed in the building housing the organ. I believe that a moving and changing lighting effect would be wonderfully impressive in the area, starting, perhaps, with the broad facade of the Fine Arts Gallery, traveling along the walls of the flanking buildings, then the towers and trees, the arch and the planting in the pools, and on down to the organ, perhaps culminating in a high shaft projecting from the center of the turntable on which the arc lights are placed. For a startling theatrical effect this shaft could be covered with small sections of mirrors, spotlighted in such a way as to reflect interesting and kaleidoscopic color effects. Another idea would be to have light-colored smoke issue from an outlet in the center of the turntable, on which colored lights could play.

California or West Plaza

Undoubtedly some serious attention should be given to this Plaza for the coming Exposition as it was more than uninviting, it was positively dreary. As this Plaza will have very little use, I suggest that colorful flower beds be provided in the area south of the main avenue, passing through. Additional planting could also be done on the north side on either side of the steps leading from the former California Building. The border around the tree boxes should be repainted, panels re-varnished, and better appearing formal trees planted in the boxes to replace the poor specimens of orange trees. Some effort should be made to attract visitors down to this end of the grounds. I hope that something more in the nature of Exposition exhibits can be installed in these buildings surrounding the California Plaza.

Street to the Midway and Amusement Area

The present banner poles along this street, I believe, should be maintained, with, perhaps, a change in banners which could be made longer. The lighting arms should be changed so as to throw the light on the banners and shield it from the eyes of people passing along the street.

I feel it is very important than some great arch or similar feature be provided at the north end of the street near the entrance to the Spanish Village. The view up this street toward the Midway was never interesting or inviting. It might even be well to consider pennants or something of similar nature hung across the street and attached to the banner poles along the entire avenue from the Avenida de los Palacios to the Amusement Zone.

Regarding the creation of a typical Mexican village as the main feature of the Midway, I am greatly interested in the idea. I feel it can be made a feature attraction of our Fair next year. However, I trust it can be worked out as a truly typical village such as can be found in Mexico and southern Spain, instead of the fantastic creation which was built last year and called the Spanish Village. I have traveled through hundreds of villages in Spain, Mexico, Cuba and Panama and other sections of Spanish America and I realize that if this feature is to be a real attraction, it must be honest and typical in all its details. The exhibitors and artisans must be real Mexicans, making and selling real Mexican wares. I would suggest some radical changes in the present Spanish Village so it can tie in and harmonize with the Mexican Village which, I understand, it is proposed to build adjoining.

Botanical Building and Surrounding Area

Undoubtedly the finest single feature on the Exposition grounds was the Botanical Building and the Lily Ponds. These should be preserved substantially the same as during the past year with possible improvements in the planting against the Botanical Building and facing the upper Lily Pond. Planting for more tropical effect and of a richer green, I believe, would be an improvement.

For proper architectural effect and to add still more interest, planting boxes should be provided on the ledge over the stucco walls on the south side of the two wings of the Horticultural Building. The space between the top of the arches and the present parapet wall is not sufficient for a good architectural effect and the addition of colored flowers and vines would be an improvement.

I feel that the great expanse of dark brown wood in the lattice work of the superstructure of this building is rather monotonous and heavy for the light stucco base. I would suggest the introduction of a foliage-green stain on certain parts of this work. This would be particularly effective on a portion of the vertical lattice face of the central portion of the building, facing the pool, and also on the raised bands spaced along the arched dome over the east and west wings.

The terrace and loggia opening from the Food and Beverage Building onto the garden of the Horticultural group should be treated in some interesting manner. It was painfully bare and uninteresting during the Exposition just passed. I suggest that the flower beds and, perhaps, hanging fern baskets in the arches as proposed before the opening of the Exposition just passed, be reconsidered for the treatment of this area.

Court of Honor

I was not satisfied with the location of the Court of Honor. Its use for special functions where the general public was not admitted was subject to considerable criticism. Its location, tucked in behind the Café of the World, did not give enough distinction to this very important Court, where the distinguished visitors of the Fair were honored and entertained. The visitors to the Fair, particularly if they had only a short time to visit the grounds, resented the closing off of the area for the use of these special functions. It was also necessary at each reception to erect an awning between the two lily ponds, and also the pavilions in the Court.

I would like to suggest for consideration the moving of the Court of Honor to the large grassed area surrounded by tall trees and on the point where splendid vistas could be had over interesting sections of the Park and the Fair grounds. This area is directly south of the Alcazar Gardens and was seldom visited and little used during the Exposition. The entrance to this Court would be through the beautiful Alcazar Gardens. The ground slopes naturally away toward the south where the present pergola could be readily converted into a place for the reception line. Directly in front of the pergola, I would suggest a large pool which would be fed by the overflow from the fountains in the Alcazar Gardens; this water is now wasted down the hillside. Instead of temporary canvas pavilions, several suitable pavilions should be erected of more permanent material, which could be left in place during the Exposition. This area is so cut away from the rest of the Exposition that in would in no way interfere with the general sightseeing of the grounds.

Main Avenue Between Organ and Water and Transportation Building

The areas bordering this roadway should be given a great deal of careful consideration as it is the connecting link between the old Exposition buildings and the new, and was, perhaps, the busiest thoroughfare on the grounds. The California Gardens on one side were far from being interesting and were inspected by very few people. The treatment on the other side was hardly even noticed. I wish to suggest that in the center of the former California Gardens one of the floral features of the new Exposition be developed. I first had in mind a huge basket of gigantic proportions, such as I saw in the public park in Valencia, Spain. The basket was entirely covered with roses in bloom and created a never-to-be forgotten impression. However, after investigation I feel it would take entirely too long to develop the plants in such a creation and suggest in its place a huge wide-spreading vase at least twelve-feet high. It could be built of frame work and stuccoed with a shallow receptacle on the top made of wood and covered with composition roofing to hold the necessary soil for the plants. This soil would be raised in the center for effect and provided with automatic sprinklers. This vase is to be kept full of plants with large flowers in scale with the size of the vase, such as hydrangeas when in season, with long-trailing vines hanging over the edges of the vase. Other garden accessories should be provided if possible, including some choice pieces of statuary, if they can be secured. The rest of the area divided into spaces for masses of flowering plants.

I suggest that between the banner poles along this avenue, Italian Cypresses be planted approximately five or six feet apart. Such cypress-bordered avenues are frequently seen in Spain and Italy and are an important feature of their landscaped gardens.

On the west side of the avenue could be other tropical gardens in which a background of fruiting bananas could be featured. In that location, protected from the wind by the tall trees in the background they could be made to grow and develop as luxuriantly as in the tropics and would be a most interesting feature for our visitors from other sections of the country. I trust that fortune-telling concessions will be prohibited the use of this street and I also recommend that at least one group of refreshment stands be removed. The banners for the triple flag poles at both entrances should be redesigned and made larger and mirror pendants should also be redesigned to give the effect originally intended.

Palisades Area

I have no changes of importance to suggest for the treatment of this area. I sincerely trust that the building occupied by the Hollywood Hall of Fame can be put to more strictly Exposition uses and that the offending signs can be removed. Minor improvements should be made in the architectural effect of the Palisades restaurant and the Neon sign removed from the entrance. The decorations at the entrances to the exhibit buildings may have to be modified and changed if the buildings are used for other purposes than originally planned for. It would be possible to make the ornamentation on such buildings as the Water and Transportation BuildingState Building, and Palace of Electricity and Varied Industries a little more pronounced and attractive by darkening and adding a slight polychrome effect.

The boxes on the parapets of the Palace of Electricity and Varied Industries and State Building should be replanted immediately to flowering plants and vines better suited to the purpose than were used this past year. My original plans were to produce definite color effect in the planting of these buildings which because of lack of time and scarcity of plants were not carried out. The boxes on one building should be filled with flowering plants of one definite and pronounced color which would contrast with another color scheme at the base of the building. The building on the opposite side of the Plaza would have its color scheme carried out in the same way but using other colors. The Plaza immediately south of the Standard Oil Building could well be retained as a flower garden. The plants should be better massed and cared for than during the past year and the plot given more of the real character of landscape architecture. The suggestion is made that there could be a massing of suitable trees and shrubs at the corners and particularly around the date palm which now forms the center feature.

Improvement should be made in the mass planting at the bases of the buildings in this area, particularly the Federal Building. The planting of the side hills and around the pool in the canyon across the roadway east of the Standard Oil Building should be augmented and improved. Some architectural garden features could well be added in this area and this could be supplied with large vases of modern character filled with flowering plants and vines. These could be located on the corners of each plot occupied by buildings, on the sides facing the Plaza.

General Improvements – Painting and Repairs

All banners, window awnings, etc. should be redesigned and changed in character. All superfluous booths and concessions should be removed. This particularly applies to the roadways leading down to the organ and the Palisades and the group between the State Building and the Ford Building. I sincerely hope that the Nudist Colony can be done away with and the beautiful canyon opened up to the public. It will be a marvelous feature right at our main entrance and worth much more to the Exposition as a general Exposition feature than as a concession for any purpose.

There should be a great deal of general painting throughout the grounds. Much of the ornamental work on the old Exposition buildings and particularly the run moldings require repainting. The window sash forming a part of the ornamental treatment in the upper part of these buildings, and the main entrance doors should be painted in a more agreeable color than the present brown. The tops of all parapets and cornice projections should be carefully inspected to see that they are waterproof so as not to permit water to enter the stucco and ornamental work.

The imitation tile on all the towers will have to repainted and varnished. When this is done, I would like to give some consideration to changing some of the color effects.

Painted pots and vases throughout the grounds should be repainted. Consideration should be given to changing the colors of some of these pots.

General Landscaping Suggestions

While the landscaping features of our 1935 Exposition attracted much favorable attention, the real success of the landscaping was due to the splendid mass planting which had developed from the 1915 Exposition. While it might be stated that the floral display was good, it did not begin to demonstrate the floral possibilities in Southern California nor produce the effects that can be easily obtained.

The public demands theatrical effects in an Exposition, spectacular effects in landscaping as well as in buildings. Flower gardens of specimen plants and flowers interest only the professional and expert in floriculture. Much more attention should be given to massed floral effects in the coming Exposition.

The bed of flowers along each side of the Avenida de los Palacios should be widened and, perhaps, planted with a double row of flowering plants in contrasting colors. The flowers next to the curb to be lower with higher flowers to form the background. Massed effects of flowering plants or flowering shrubs could be introduced between the palm trees bordering the roads between the main Plaza and the organ. Where possible, the low wire fences which now serve as guards for grass plots should be replaced with low hedges or shrubs as the wire fences are unsightly and visitors are rather resentful of the use of such guards.

The barren hillsides which are too much in evidence from the Palisades section looking toward the east should receive considerable attention. A sprinkling system should be installed so that these hills and canyons between the Palisades and the east Exposition fence could be kept green throughout the period of the Fair. On these hills magnificent flower displays would be easy to produce and would be tremendously effective during the blooming season of the Spring. I would particularly suggest that the point between the C.C.C. Camp and running far to the south or the point behind the Federal Building be planted to California poppies. Perhaps nothing so impresses our eastern visitors than the great fields of California poppies to be seen in certain sections of Southern California.

More prominence should be given to paths leading to the bridges across Palm Canyon. I suggest that a rustic fence be erected along the off-hill side on the paths on both sides of the bridge and that some sort of suitable rustic entrance be provided at the entrance to these paths from each end. There is a gap in the planting on the east side of the Palm Canyon which should be filled in if possible, so as to cut off the view of the organ and thoroughfare that borders the canyon on the east side.

The landscaping in the area between the present headquarters and the House of Hospitality with its path leading down to what is known as the Persian rug fountain can be greatly improved and made more colorful. The ornamental jars which border this path should be filled with plants and flowers that will contrast with the general landscaping effect.


No other single feature attracted so many people or called forth so much favorable comment as the night illumination. I have no criticisms or changes to suggest in the general lighting idea. However, I feel that some of the features might be improved, and that it is highly important that changes be made so as to produce something different for our new Exposition. In addition to general increased illumination or extended illumination, I feel that the matter of more concentrated illumination on the general entrances to the Exposition palaces should be considered, particularly along the Avenida de los Palacios. I suggest that a method of illumination be used on the main entrances that will give more character and relief to the ornament. This might be accomplished by a double lighting scheme, using the color from the lower end of the spectrum on the other side of each entrance, so as to produce the lights and shadows in harmonious colors.

Mobile lighting should be used somewhere on the grounds and preferably near the center of the Exposition. This idea I have previously noted in the suggestions for treatment of the Plaza del Futuro.

If possible, the street lighting should be subdued or provided with reflectors inside the Globes that will throw the strong concentrated light down on the pavement and not interfere with the color treatment on the buildings and trees.

I feel that it is quite important that the main entrances to the Exposition palaces, under the arcades, should be locally lighted so as to attract the eye to them. This could be accomplished by concealed lighting behind the arcades forming the building entrances, and between these arches and the entrance doors, directing the light down and into the entrance, thereby not interfering with the soft subdued lighting of the arcades.

I feel that more illumination should be provided for the Casa del Rey Moro Garden, particularly into the background of trees and I recommend a concealed underwater illumination for the lily pond. Wiring was provided for this purpose when the pool was built. I also suggest that the lighting of the Alcazar Garden should receive more consideration, particularly the surrounding trees. I trust some other means of lighting the gardens can be developed to take the place of the Mission Bells which are very objectionable in the daytime.

The Mission Bell illumination might be considered for more attractively lighting the paths leading to the Palm Canyon bridge.

Other lighting suggestions have been given in preceding sections.




This report covers assignment to Messrs. Frank Drugan and Wayne W. Dailard for Survey of Possibility of Continuance of Exposition and submission of Plans for Continuance of Discontinuance. This report is divided into five sections as follows:

  1. Examination of Reasons for Continuance
  2. Examination of Reasons for Discontinuance
  3. List of Recommended Immediate Agenda
  4. List of Recommended Later Agenda
  5. Summary and Recommendations

It is respectfully suggested that this report be judged in its entirety, rather than discounted in terms of any one of a few of its items The report aims to be a comprehensive examination of all phases of the problem.

Gail Carr Feldman

2920 Vista Grande NW

Albuquerque, N. M. 87120



Following is a list of Midway Concessions which, according to our Survey, would remain during winter. Our monthly average percentage from these concessions is indicated.

Crime 395.81

Monsters 228.51

Two-headed Baby 85.83

Life 319.71

Zoro Gardens 3,643.20

Miss America 581.63

Glass Blowers 94.99

Loop-O-Plane 199.19

Sensations 89.90

Lion Farm 233.78

Boulder Dam 431.78

Swooper 285.01

Stella* _____


Log Rollers 373.35

Arco Plane 102.72

Streets of Paris 1,537.72

Pony Track and Rides 366.05

Singapore 123.37

Auto Scooter 444.98

McClay’s Dancing 92.21

Auto Speedway 108.70

Merry Mixup 81.76

Miniature Palace 111.28

Bail Out _____


Madill Stands (Will Stay on a New Deal) 1,535.78

Ice Cream Stands ditto 1,137.46

Check Stands ditto 243.51

B Utter ditto 6,178.01

W Breazeale (Doughnuts) 139.66


Cane Wheels (Dufour and Rogers) 108.79

Acme Concessions 534.45

Bamboo Inn 435.53

Nate Barnett 201.43

Mrs. Herman Rudick 81.78

Sam Kress 1,372.56



*Percentage on this concession starts

when receipts pass $6,250 gross.

Following is a list of Midway Concessions which, according to our Survey, will not remain during winter. Our monthly average percentage from these concessions is indicated.

Midget Farm 1,917.87

Ripley’s Believe It Or Not 581.49

Globe of Death 86.34

Days of Saladin 285.37

End of the Trail 217.11

Globe Theater 891.10

Eckert’s Bavaria 1,387.76

Reg Stalmer (Golf) 20.50

Our Survey indicates that if we close until May 29th, 50 percent of present concessionaires can be resold and balance of space can be sold to other concessionaires.

The Spanish Village has many undesirables, but this space can readily be filled on a new deal. This will give us an opportunity to get rid of the undesirables and keep those that have caused us no trouble.



Christmas season notoriously bad for all shows. Many close down.

Competition with football and races formidable.

Rain will ruin bunting and prevent attendance.

Cold evenings will put bowl and organ pavilion out of business.

Early darkness will short day attendance.

Buildings will always be cold. Cellophane and Comp-Board ceilings satisfactory insulators, but heating plant installation would be extremely costly.

Ford, pivotal exhibitor, will no go on. (Going to Dallas.) Kaw model would require new installation.

Other exhibitors following Ford to Dallas.

Mr. Cross, acting in absence of Federal Commissioner Hiscox, unofficially states, first, that Federal Building will be maintained if show goes on, and, second, that financing will be available for the interval between closing and reopening.

To go on would require multiple, simultaneous operations involving countless details. Job too big.

Continuation fund of approximately $250,000 inadequate to provide improvements and absorb gate shrinkage.

Gap to May 29th safe. (Temporary discontinuance.)

Gap to May 29th practical.

Use of our established date, May 29th, recommended.

Exposition to be permanent, annual event, 100 days, May 29th to Labor Day.

Gap to be carefully, deliberately, efficiently used to standardize and build second session — 1936 — of annual event.

Exposition to be an institution, with fixed features, and not a series of variety shows.

Present, 1935, Exposition to be a perfect accomplishment, father than anti-climax.

Announcement of certainty of definite closing on November 11th will be a fair deal for exhibitors, will build up their receipts and establish the Exposition, in their estimation, as a dependable enterprise.

To continue would be a gamble. To shut down and reopen on May 29th involves no gamble.

The 1936 session of the Exposition will be planned and operated from tested blueprints.

Anticipation of the 1936 session will provide effective promotion.

Four million satisfied patrons of the 1935 session will send another four million to the 1936 session.

Oberamergau, model for all community attractions, is an institution, repeats itself periodically, never over extends its season, varies only by improvement, develops specialists, is a pattern of economical operation.

Let the Exposition take Oberamergau as its example.

Since many Exposition contracts closed “at the end of the Exposition,” a suspension will be convenient.

Local donors will be more likely to contribute to a practical pan than to a hysterical over-extension.

Dallas show will send visitors to Texas onward to the coast. The railroads will promote that.

There is no comparison between urgent allowance of free space to present exhibitors to hold them and sales of space during the gap to selected exhibitors.

The Ford Building can be used during 1936 for an automobile show.

The Globe Players are already booked to work in Oakland and San Francisco during November and December.

1936 will be a year of many political programs. Some of these programs are good shows that draw throngs. Our Exposition can capitalize many political programs by not only staging them but by getting publicity out of their broadcasts. Los Angeles or San Francisco could be induced by us to bid for the two conventions on the grounds of being able to offer delegates the nearby San Diego Exposition. Our political staff, during 1936, might be a valuable part of our Special Events Department.

Yearly, our successive sessions of the Exposition can be adjusted to an capitalize current events.

San Diegans can KEEP their Exposition by SAVING it. To drag it out to nothing will WASTE it. Wasting it by dragging it out with dead programs will deprive San Diego of a future continuing asset.


Perpetuate the Exposition as an institution holding annual “100-day” Summer Sessions. Thereby insure San Diego’s future and prestige.

Remembering what Oberamergau, Monte Carlo, Caliente, and the Riviera have accomplished, let us use our Exposition structure to advertise to the world, through our patrons as well as through out publicity, that San Diego is “America’s Playground,” providing incomparable recreational outlets, plus cultural values unequaled elsewhere.

Using the experience that we have acquired, let us close our current session of the Exposition on November 11th, and, between that date and May 29th, carefully plan an efficiently directed, adequately financed, economical, similar but superior session for next year.

Let us honestly call our Exposition what it actually is, namely, “San Diego’s Exposition,” and let us frankly feature its finest asset, which is its beauty.

The undersigned, who were assigned the responsibility of submitting this Survey and plans, appreciate the confidence reposed in them. They can be counted upon loyally to devote themselves to the accomplishment of whatever plans may be selected. But, out of their years of experience, they venture to express the hope that the particular plans which they have emphasized as practical will be the plans to which they may be allowed to apply their experience.




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1915 | 1916 | 1917 | 1918 | 1919
1920 | 1921 | 1922 | 1923 | 1924
1925 | 1926 | 1927 | 1928 | 1929
1930 | 1931 | 1932 | 1933 | 1934
1935 | 1936 | 1937 | 1938 1939
1940 | 1941 1942 1943 1944
1945 1946 1947 1948 1949
1950 1951 1952 1953 1954
1955 1956 1957 1958 1959
1960 1961 1962 1963 1964
1965 1966 1967 1968 1969
1970 1971 1972 1973 1974
1975 1976 1977 1978 1979
1980 1981 1982 | 1983 1984
1985 1986 1987 1988 | 1989
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994
1995 1996 1997 1998 1999