Panama-California Exposition ~ San Diego ~ 1915-1916

The Indian Village, also known as the Painted Desert, was a 5-acre display of Native American homes, crafts and traditions created by Jesse Nusbaum for the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad. The main buildings in Indian Village looked like the terraced pueblos of Taos and Zuni. The buildings faced one another across a plaza. Two kivas — one for the summer kinship group, the other for the winter — a trading post and small buildings representing a Hopi village and houses of Rio Grande Indians, occupied spaces near the main buildings. One kiva was submerged, the other, partially above ground. Indians entered them through ladders on the roof.