The Journal of San Diego History
Summer 1976, Volume 22, Number 3
James E. Moss, Editor


Images from the article

During this Bicentennial year, the trend has been to focus on the events of 1776. Equally interesting are the several anniversaries of this date which have been observed throughout the nation’s two-hundred year history. This is especially true for California and San Diego.

Saluted here are those early citizens of San Diego, who, one hundred years ago, celebrated the “Glorious Fourth” during the Centennial Summer of 1876. San Diego then had a population of less than 2,500, but was proud of its recently acquired status as a city with its own court house and post office. There were 915 occupied houses and 69 business buildings where less than ten years before New San Diego’s founder, Alonzo Horton, had seen only three delapidated houses and the San Diego Barracks.1

Still it was hardly the city we know today. The center of town was at Fifth Street and H (Market) and although Horton had built his magnificent hotel there, Broadway was still “way out.” “The fleas and flies were ever present, a plague to be endured and dust was a terrible problem.” Admiration for both the participants and audience at the 4th of July festivities increases when one realizes that besides flies and fleas, there were no trees at all with only the overhangs on the buildings for protection from the fierce sun. The only sidewalks were wooden planks laid for a few blocks along Fifth Street.2

As the following article from the July 13, 1876 weekly San Diego Union shows, these pioneers were hardy souls. The celebration began at 5:00 a.m. and continued, without interruption, throughout the day with evening festivities as well. Everyone, it seems, had a part-spectators probably being in the minority. The contrast with present day parades is fascinating. School teachers as well as businessmen and the trades were represented. Today, the Centennial Celebration evokes feelings of nostalgia for the wholehearted participation and innocence of such simple patriotism. While the jingoism may be deplored, the unbounded optimism cannot but be envied. It must have been a glorious day.




How San Diego Celebrated the 100th
Anniversary of American Nationality
—A Magnificent Demonstration—
Religious Exercises in the Early Morning
The Parade—Public Exercises at the Pavilion
Planting the “Centennial Tree”—The Grand Ball
Incidents of the Day

The Centennial Anniversary of American nationality was worthily celebrated in San Diego. The Fourth of July, 1876 will be remembered by our people, old and young—especially by the young, who entered into the spirit of the celebration with ardor, and who surely gained from it much that will exercise an important influence upon their lives. Such a celebration as this is an education in citizenship, and we of San Diego may properly feel proud of the manner in which every detail of the exercises of the day was carried out. Speaking personally, we can say that we have participated in many public demonstrations, but never in one which was in all respects a more complete success than this. All passed off, from beginning to end, with perfect smoothness; there was no hitch anywhere in the execution of the programme of the day, not the slightest accident occurred and the most cordial good feeling prevailed.

A very large number of citizens from the interior of the county came in to participate in the celebration, and our hotels were all full on Monday evening. The people thronged the streets, giving an air of life and bustle that was very inspiring.

At five o’clock the Silver Cornet Band announced the dawn of the Centennial Fourth by a medley of National airs from the cupola of the Horton House, while the sharp-voiced little gun which City Father Begole3 has recently had made, boomed away briskly with a National salute. Everybody was soon stirring and for the next two hours there was a carnival of noise—cannon, small arms and every description of fire cracker and Chinese bomb.

The display of bunting was the largest that has ever been seen in San Diego, and would have been much larger had not the supply been exhausted. As it was, however, the city presented a beautiful appearance as the rising sun poured its light over the house tops.



The celebration of the day began by appropriate religious services in accordance with the recommendation in the Proclamation of the President of the United States relative to the observance of the day.

A Citizens’ Union Praise Meeting was held from 7 to 8 O’clock at the Methodist church, this being the most central and commodious building. Promptly at the hour every seat was filled, and the scene was most imposing. The chair was occupied by the President of the Day, who opened the exercises by reading from I. Samuel 7: 11, 12.

The providences of God toward the United States have been as marked as those towards Israel, and it is fitting that we also should bow down and worship.

The Reverend Mr. Gates4 now led in a deeply impressive prayer of thanksgiving and of supplication. Then followed the hymn of praise commencing “0 Lord, our fathers oft have told.”

Rev. Mr. Mann5 read from Deuteronomy in chapter 8, verses 6 to 20, and made some excellent remarks thereon, appropriate to the occasion, and applicable to our people. Whittier’s Centennial Hymn, omitting the 2nd and 3rd verses, was then sung. Rev. Mr. Robertson6 followed in some happy remarks upon the benefits which flow from having a separation between Church and State, and repeated the legend of St. Christopher, respresenting the Church trying to serve the Mightiest Master.

Verse 1st of the 127th psalm and the whole of psalm 124 were then read; after which Rev. Mr. Gates spoke for five minutes in words of deep feeling and of elevated thought, addressing himself at one time especially to the young men before him, reminding them of their high duty and responsibility, as well as their privileges and their opportunities in this age and in this nation.

“America” was then sung by the whole audience.

The time had now arrived for closing, and other exercises had to be omitted. So the doxology, “Praise God from whom all blessings flow,” was sung, and the meeting adjourned to the Rink, there to join in the appointed celebration of the day.



The procession was formed on the plaza in front of the Horton House at half past nine o’clock by Colonel R. A. Bernard, U.S.A.,7 Marshal of the Day. The square presented a brilliant appearance as the several organizations marched in and were assigned to their respective positions in the line.

The U. S. Cavalry detachment, commanded by Lieutenant Ward, made a striking appearance in their splendid full dress uniform; the cavalry took position as escort, and the procession moved in the following order: Yacht mounted on wheels, containing thirty-seven young ladies representing the States of the Union, with the Goddess of Liberty (represented by Miss Bertie Bush)8 in their midst, and accompanied by the Harmonie Brass Band.

Next came carriages containing the officers of the day, Orator, Reader, Chaplain, Etc.; Federal, State, County and City officers, officers of public bodies, etc., etc.; and Veterans of the Mexican War. Then the United States Signal Service detachment in a carriage which was very elegantly trimmed for the occasion and constituted one of the most marked features in the procession. The vehicle carried the various instruments, flags, and telegraphic apparatus of the Signal Corps, tastefully arranged and interspersed with beautifully formed wreaths of flowers, floral mottoes, etc.

Then came another feature—the “San Diego Centennial Artillery Company” with field piece; said field piece being the handsome little gun devised by Mr. Begole and cast at the San Diego Foundry, mounted and decorated in very tasteful style. It was drawn by a company of youths who marched like proud young soldiers.

The Odd Fellows came next in line, comprising members of San Diego Lodge No. 153 and members of the Order from the county.

Next came the Knights of Pythias, in their brilliant new uniforms, making handsome appearance. The Knights marched in triangles of three during the greatest part of the time—a formation peculiar to parades of that Order, and one which produces a fine effect.

The Teutonia Verein followed, then delegations from the Granges and other associations. Then came the Butchers, mounted and dressed nicely. A noticeable feature was Mr. Till A. Burnes’ menagerie;9 his wagon was a (sic) uniquely arranged affair, with the numerous singular animals chained on a platform; it attracted much attention. The Brewers made a good appearance, and the other trades and manufactures were represented by vehicles appropriately decorated.

The following named gentlemen acted as aids to Grand Marshall Bernard: Capt. J. A. Gordon,10 E. W. Bushyhead, Esq.,11 H. H. Wildy, Esq.,12 Dr. P. C. Remondino,13 Mr. Chas. Gassen14 and Mr. Harry Willey.15

The route of march was along D street [Broadway] to Ninth, down Ninth to J, along J to Fifth, up Fifth to D, and along D to Second, and thence to the Pavilion, where the procession arrived at half past eleven o’clock.



The spacious building was thronged with people, there were not far from two thousand present. The arrangement of the interior not only as to decoration, but for ventilation and comfort, was admirable. The great stage was prepared with gradually rising seats in a semi-circle. On the right the Philharmonic Society was seated, and on the left the children of the public and private schools; in the center the girls representing the States had their place. The rear of the stage was profusely decorated with national emblems etc., (by Mr. Richardson), at the summit appearing a triumphal throne on which the Goddess of Liberty was seated.

At about twelve o’clock, Dr. Lewis C. Gunn,16 the President of the Day, stepped to the front of the stage and announced the commencement of the literary exercises. He said that in calling to order so vast an assemblage, on the far-off shore of the Pacific, to commence the exercises appointed for the occasion, the thoughts that thronged before his mind almost overwhelmed him. Permitted to live to an age when he could look back over considerably more than half a century, and had a distinct recollection of all the leading events of the last fifty years, the stirring scenes of all that period now rushed suddenly before him. There was the Black Hawk war, the Seminole war, the Texan war, the Mexican war, the Dorr Rebellion and the Great Rebellion. Thirteen new States had been admitted to the Union within this period, namely, Arkansas, Michigan, Iowa, Texas, Florida, Wisconsin, California, Minnesota, Oregon, Kansas, Nebraska and Nevada, all from new territory, and West Virginia by the division of the original State. Among the great questions discussed and disposed of within the same period, were the United States Bank, the distribution of the proceeds from the sale of the public lands, the removal of the Cherokees, nullification and State rights, Territorial sovereignty, a protective tariff, free trade, the right of petition, the sacredness of the mail, the slavery question, in all its aspects, and secession. Among the great measures adopted have been the pre-emption and homestead laws, a cheap and uniform postage, the sub-treasury and since the war the several amendments to the national constitution.

The first Fourth of July which the speaker remembered was in 1822, in New York city. There were no such literary exercises as we have here today. There were many soldiers in the procession, which marched through various streets till noon and then entered the City Park for review, after which they fired a salute, and were disbanded. In 1824, when La Fayette was the guest of the country and met the Society of Cincinnati in New York, at the Hotel on the corner of Chamber street and Broadway, where Steward afterwards built his first great store, the speaker remembered seeing him there, and how he felt when this celebrated foreigner,—the Friend of our country in her struggle to be free—took hold of his little hand.

The Fourth of July celebration in 1826 was also distinctly remembered. Half a century had elapsed since the signing of the Declaration of Independence and there was great enthusiasm. Veterans of the Revolution were seated on the stage, and among them were Williams and Van Wart, two of the captors of Major Andre. When they were pointed out he remembered how he and other boys gazed at them; and scanned every feature, and thought how they themselves would act should they grow to be men and ever catch a spy attempting to betray their country. The whole scene made a deep and lasting impression, which was deepened and intensified when the news came shortly afterwards that both Jefferson and Adams had expired on that day. Their great patriotism caused them to feel too much emotion during the celebration, as they thought of the parts they had severally acted, and they died of that emotion.
[Editor’s note—Adams and Jefferson did die on July 4, 1826—Jefferson was 83 years old and Adams, whose dying words were “Thomas Jefferson survives”, was 91—it is doubtful they attended any celebration.]

The speaker then referred to the wonderful changes which had taken place since that day. There were then no sewing-machines, every stitch being taken by hand. So with knitting. There were also no machines for planting, mowing, reaping, raking, or threshing. And there was no railroad in all the land. It took a week to go from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, as long as it now takes to go from New York to San Francisco. It was then only by stage, while now it is in magnificent Pullman cars. At that time also printing was done by the hand press alone. Friction matches, illumination by gas, the electric telegraph, using light to give us pictures, electro-typing, as well as grinding, sawing, planing, and manufacturing by steam, were all unknown. But, he said, he must now stop, and introduce Rev. Mr. Robertson, the Chaplain of the Day.

After an impressive and very appropriate prayer by the Chaplain, the Philharmonic Society, under the leadership of Professor E. T. Blackmer,17 the Musical Director of the Day, sang with splendid effect the chorus “Hail to Thee, Liberty!”

The Rev. Jonathan L. Mann was introduced and read the Declaration of Independence in a manner that we have never heard excelled.

After music by the Band, Professor Blackmer waved his baton, and two or three hundred school girls rose up and sang the beautiful chorus, “Hail our Country’s Natal Morn.” At the last verse the children suddenly waved the little flags they held in their hands, and the effect was quite electrifying and brought down a storm of applause.

The Poet of the Day, Philip Morse,18 was then introduced and read the following fine verse:



Sown in a rugged soil a century
Ago, and nourished by the patriot’s blood,
The seed has sprung, the flower of Liberty
Blooms out today in beauty from the bud.

[Editor’s note: the Poem—recited in its entirety—continued in this vein for 23 more verses!]

The “Star Spangled Banner” was then sung by the Philharmonic Society,19 Captain A. S. Grant20 taking the solo part. This was magnificently rendered and enthusiastically cheered.

The next thing on the programme was a sketch of our Local History by Douglas Gunn. But as the exercises were of considerable length, and no condensation of the matter could well be made, the Historian declined to occupy the time of the audience with dates and details of history that should rather be given to the public in print, orally.

A quartette of soldiers from Col. Bernard’s command were then introduced amid enthusiastic applause, and gave “The Red White and Blue” in capital style, the audience joining in the final chorus.



The President then introduced the Orator of the Day, E. W. Hendrick, Esq.,21 who spoke as follows:

Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen:
   Let us rejoice that we have lived to see this great day. Let us rejoice that we are permitted to meet here, under such favorable auspices, and celebrate the Centennial Anniversary of American Independence; that we are able to cast our eyes backward over the vista of a hundred years, and see the new-born nation springing into existence, like Minerva from the brain of Jupiter, full-armed, and in the full vigor of eternal youth; to see her decking herself in the strong panoply of a sacred cause and an immortal principle, and taking her stand, like an athlete, among the nations of the earth, and saying to the terrified monarchies of the Old Worlds —

Here I stand, I am the Beginning of your End: . . .
[the oration continued for another twenty to thirty minutes in similar paeans of praise]

The orator was frequently interrupted by applause, which was very enthusiastic at the close.

The President announced that in response to a very generally expressed request, Capt. A. S. Grant had consented to sing the “Sword of Bunker Hill,” which he did, in a style that brought forth a long storm of applause.



The audience then rose and joined in singing the grand old hymn “America,” when the gathering adjourned to the Court House grounds to participate in the planting of a “Centennial Tree.”It was a beautiful and symmetrical live oak, selected and taken up with great care by Captain George A. Johnson.22 All being ready, Dr. Gunn removed his hat and stepping forward to the excavation, said:

We plant this memorial tree and now dedicate it to Liberty. May all who pass by it, in the days that follow, be led to remember our country’s history, and to revere and imitate the virtues of those whose patriotism and heroic deeds we have this day celebrated. May it stand a hundred years. Before that time, our places as citizens, one after another, will be occupied by others. But a nation is a corporation, and corporations do not die when individual members simply give place to successors. Let us hope that each citizen of today will have a successor loyal and true, and that the nation will live and prosper through another century. Fully believing this will be so, I now declare this meeting adjourned till the Fourth of July, 1976, to assemble then for the celebration of the second centennial anniversary of American Independence.

The audience then dispersed and the exercises of the Day were at an end.



Of the grand ball in the evening we have brief space to speak. The great Pavilion Hall was brilliantly illuminated and the stage was a blaze of splendor. The music by Kerens and Burnes was exquisite. There was an immense throng of ladies and gentlemen and the scene was one of the most brilliant ever witnessed in our city. The dance went merrily on through the night until near daybreak.



We cannot give, as we should like to do, a detailed account of the various decorations of buildings and residences, some of which were remarkably tasteful: but, it is simple justice to speak of the efforts of the Signal Service Corps to contribute to the success of the celebration. The gentlemen connected with the Military Telegraph department of the Signal Service, the Observer, Mr. Wells and Mr. Thompson, Manager for the Western Union Telegraph Company, joined in decorating the Telegraph building, and the carriage and horses which took part in the procession. In the first, which consisted of Signal Service flags intermingled with U. S. flags and national colors in great profusion, these gentlemen alone are entitled to the credit: but for the beautiful wreaths of flowers and vines so tastefully disposed amid the flags and instruments of the Signal Corps, we were indebted to the industry and grace of the ladies, Mrs. Dusouchet and Mrs. Patton, assisted by the Misses Bradt.

The steamer Orizaba which arrived early in the morning, was decked in holiday attire, and Captain Johnston23 fired salutes during the day with the steamer’s heavy gun, waking up the echoes in the hills.

In the afternoon a large party of ladies and gentlemen assembled at the residence of Mr. Fairchild, Cashier of the Commercial Bank, where they were elegantly entertained by Mr. and Mrs. Fairchild.

We cannot close this account of the day’s doings without giving praise to the Executive Committee under whose management this glorious celebration was carried out so successfully. They deserve the hearty thanks of the community for their indefatigable labors.

To Colonel Bernard, who aided so largely in the success of the occasion, the cordial acknowledgements of the community are rendered.

And to all the citizens who aided in the arrangements, and contributed to the carrying out of the programme we offer hearty congratulations upon the happy result.


The San Diego Union of July 6, 1876 in a similar article on the July 4th celebration, also reported on the celebration in Old Town as follows: “Old Town folks celebrated by a picnic to Rose’s Canyon. In the evening there was a dance at the house of Mrs. Thomas Whaley.”




1. Elizabeth C. MacPhail, The Story of New San Diego and of its Founder Alonzo E. Horton (San Diego: Pioneer Printers, 1969), pp. 19, 35, 37.

2. Ibid., pp. 50-51.

3. William Augustus Begole (1827-1901) was born in New York state. He took the overland route to California in 1849, but not much is known of him until 1862 when he is found at Red Dog, Nevada County, California. At that place he became one of the charter members and first S. W. of Mt. Carmel Lodge No. 155, F. & A. M., and later served two terms as Master of the lodge. He was a tinsmith (later referred to as hardware and plumbing) by profession, both in northern California and later in San Diego, where he arrived sometime in early 1870. Begole was very active in masonic affairs in San Diego as well. Leon O. Whitsell et al., One Hundred Years of Freemasonry in California, 4 vols. (San Francisco: Grand Lodge, F. & A. M., of California, 1950), 2:868. Orion M. Zink, “William Augustus Begole,” The Master Mason 48 (December, 1970): 2.

4. Oliver W. Gates was the second pastor of the Baptist church in San Diego, arriving in 1873 and remaining until 1881. It is noted that he was from New England, and was quite deaf. Rev. Gates and his wife bought a parcel of land upon which they erected a seminary for girls, which was operated by Mrs. Gates. William E. Smythe, History of San Diego—1542-1908, 2 vols. (San Diego: The History Co., 1908), 2:551. Waldo F. Chase, “Memoirs of Waldo F. Chase” (Oral History Program, Claremont Graduate School, 1962), p. 33.

5. Jonathon L. Mann served as pastor of the Methodist church in San Diego during 1875-76, and is remembered particularly for having performed on April 24 of this auspicious year a wedding ceremony by telegraph, between San Diego and Camp Grant, Arizona. It was said to be only the second such ceremony to have occurred. Violet Emslie Knudtson, Landmark of a Century, A Centennial History 1869-1969 (San Diego: Arts &Crafts Press, 1969), p. 13.

6. James Robertson was serving at the time as pastor of the Presbyterian church of San Diego. He was one of four ministers supplying this church from 1875 to 1880, and about whom nothing of distinction is written. Smythe, San Diego, 2:554.

7. Col. R. A. Bernard, commanding Co. G, 1st U.S. Cavalry, was responsible for the reactivation of the then vacated New San Diego Post. They remained here until June 27, 1877, when Co. G was transferred to Idaho because of Indian troubles. George Ruhlen, “San Diego Barracks,” The Journal of San Diego History 13 (April, 1967), 13-14.

8. Bertha “Bertie” Bush was born in San Francisco County in 1863, the daughter of Judge Thomas Henry Bush and his wife, Ellen Augusta Porter. She was very active in the Philharmonic Society of San Diego, performing in many of their public theatrical productions during the 1870s and ’80s. She was married to E.J. Kendall in San Diego, April 1, 1887. An Illustrated History of Southern California (Chicago: The Lewis Publishing Co., 1890), pp. 319-20. Philharmonic Society of San Diego, Records & Minutes, 1872-85, p. 13, San Diego History Center, Library and Manuscripts Collection. Bertie Bush, Biography File, Bush, San Diego History Center Library and Manuscripts Collection.

9. Tillman Augustus Burnes was born in Arkansas in 1847, coming overland to Oregon in 1853, thence to California in 1854. He arrived in San Diego in 1869 for his health, after having worked as an engraver in San Francisco. His health recovered, Burnes returned to San Francisco and was again stricken. He returned finally to San Diego in 1872, where he engaged in a variety of businesses such as a sale stable, running a Lower California stage line, and most notably running a saloon. An Illustrated History of Southern California (Chicago: The Lewis Publishing Co., 1890), pp. 261-62. For reference to Burnes’ interesting character and his menagerie of exotic animals see Herbert Lockwood, Fallout from the Skeleton’s Closet. A Light Look at San Diego History (San Diego: The San Diego Independent, 1967), p. 59.

10. John Anthony Gordon was born in New York State, ca. 1835, and came to San Diego about 1873 where he worked as a clerk. Great Register, San Diego County, California (August, 1877), p. 9.

11. Edward Wilkinson Bushyhead was born in Tennessee in 1832, of Cherokee background, and was among those who were moved into the Indian Territory in what is now Oklahoma. There he started learning the printing business at age twelve, and six years later journeyed to California, remaining in the northern part of the state. In 1868 he was induced to come to San Diego where he was one of the first co-publishers of the San Diego Union. He died in Alpine in 1907. An Illustrated History of Southern California (Chicago: The Lewis Publishing Co., 1890), pp. 273-74.

12. Harry Hill Wildy was born in Mississippi ca. 1846, arriving in San Diego in about 1873, where he was a practicing attorney. Great Register, San Diego County, California (August, 1877), p. 23.

13. Peter Charles Remondino, born in Turin, Italy about 1846, came to the United States while still young. He graduated from Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia in 1865, and came to San Diego in 1873. Remondino served as City Physician in 1875-76, as well as County Physician for several terms. He was also surgeon for the California Southern Railroad Co., for the Marine Hospital, and for the Pacific Coast Steamship Co. He retired in 1887 and built the St. James Hotel, but later resumed his practice. Smythe, San Diego, 2:603. Great Register, San Diego County, California (August, 1877), p. 19.

14. Charles Gassen was born in Germany around 1837 and came to San Diego about 1875, where he worked as a butcher. Great Register, San Diego County, California (August, 1877), p. 9.

15. Henry Ide Willey was born in California about 1850 and was a surveyor by trade. He was a son-in-law of Augustus Felix Hinchman of San Diego, having married Hinchman’s daughter, Rosa. Great Register, San Diego County, California (Autust, 1877), p. 24. Wayne M. Fabert, Miscellaneous Genealogy Notes on the California Cota Family, Personal Collections.

16. Lewis Carstairs Gunn was born in 1813 in New York State and traced his lineage back to the Highlands of Scotland and the Clan Gunn. The family was very distinguished in New England. Dr. Gunn was married to Elizabeth Le Breton Stickney, also of a noted early New England family. The fascinating story of the Gunns and their journey across the plains and subsequent life in California is told in Anna Lee Marston Ed., Records of a California Family, The Journals and Letters of Lewis C. Gunn and Elizabeth LeBreton Gunn (San Diego: Johnck and Seeger, 1928), pp. 3-15.

17. Eli T. Blackmer was born in Massachusetts in 1831. He first arrived in National City in 1873, where he lived for several years before moving to San Diego. His profession was that of a music teacher, but he also served as County Superintendent of Schools, 1878-79. Blackmer later went into business with Arnold Schneider publishing music in San Diego. An Illustrated History of Southern California (Chicago: The Lewis Publishing Co., 1890), p. 271. Smythe, San Diego, 2:727.

18. Philip Morse was born in Maine in 1845, and came to San Diego as one of the early arrivals in Horton’s Addition in 1869. He was a merchant as well as a lumberman. He held office as City Treasurer, 1875-76, and was a member of the City Board of Education for quite some time, having been president once. Smythe, San Diego, 2:721. [Theodore S. Van Dyke], City and County of San Diego, Illustrated (San Diego: Leberthon & Taylor, 1888), pp. 133-36.

19. The Philharmonic Society of San Diego was organized August 22, 1872 for the purpose of allowing people who enjoyed singing to get together and learn music, as well as to hold performances and concerts. This was one of the earliest cultural efforts in the city. Philharmonic Society of San Diego, Records & Minutes, 1872-85, pp. 1-8, San Diego History Center Library and Manuscripts Collections.

20. Capt. Alfred S. Grant, born about 1827 in Rhode Island, was stationed at San Diego in the Army, after having enlisted in 1861 at Auburn, California. He was mustered out in 1864, but was remustered at New San Diego in 1865. He was finally discharged in 1866 at Ft. Yuma. Grant returned to San Diego where he worked as a clerk. From 1872 to 1877 Grant served both as County Clerk and County Recorder. Great Register, San Diego County, California (August 1877), p. 8. Smythe, San Diego, 2:725. Brig.-Gen. Richard H. Orton, Comp., Records of California Men in the War of the Rebellion, 1861 to 1867 (Sacramento: State Printing Office, 1890), p. 644.

21. Elijah W. Hendrick was born in 1847 in Missouri, and arrived in San Diego about 1874. Although he was a lawyer, he was prominently involved with the San Diego Iron & Nail Manufactory, and was also president of the Loma Manufacturing Co. at Roseville. Hendrick was also a founder of the public library. Great Register, San Diego County, California (August, 1877), p. 11. An Illustrated History of Southern California (Chicago: The Lewis Publishing Co., 1890), p. 127.

22. George Alonzo Johnson was born in New York in 1824. He came to the Colorado River in 1852 in command of the schooner Sierra Nevada. Later, and until the early 1870s, Johnson was involved with the Colorado River Steam Navigation Company. He was married in 1859 to Maria Estefana Alvarado of San Diego. His brother, Charles Robinson Johnson, was married to Maria de los Dolores Celedonia Bandini, a daughter of Juan Lorenzo Bruno Bandini, George A. Johnson, Biography File, Johnson, San Diego History Center Library and Manuscripts Collections.

23. Capt. Henry James Johnston, as master of the steamer Orizaba first brought her into San Diego in 1868. He later retired and built a home high on the hills above Old Town, in which he used parts of the old steamer after she had been dismantled. However, the Orizaba and Capt. Johnson made many more trips to San Diego in intervening years and were well-known to the citizens of San Diego. Jerry MacMullen, “The Orizaba—And Johnston Heights,” San Diego History Center Quarterly 5 (July, 1959), 46-52.

Wayne M. Fabert, a native of San Diego, received his B.A. degree in history from California Lutheran College in 1969. Since 1970 he has served as Photo Archivist for the San Diego History Center in addition to becoming Editor of the Society’s monthly Newsletter in 1974.

Ann Halpenny Kantor, Deputy Administrator for the San Diego Historical Society at the Villa Montezuma, received her B.A. degree in government from the University of Connecticut with a second major in history. A seventeen year resident of San Diego, she serves as a member of the Board of Directors for the San Diego Y.W.C.A. and the Travelers Aid Society.